WorldWideScience

Sample records for saving newborn lives

  1. Advancing newborn health: The Saving Newborn Lives initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, A.; Parker, R.; Lord, D.; Grear, K.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, newborn health was virtually absent from the global health agenda. Now, assistance agencies, national governments and non-governmental organisations are increasingly addressing this previously neglected issue of close to four million newborns dying every year. The experience of the Saving Newborn Lives initiative documents some of the progress that has been made and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Since the start of the initiative in 2000, targeted research, focused on overcoming the key barriers to improved newborn survival, has demonstrated low-cost, community-based interventions and strategies that can significantly reduce newborn mortality. Building on what has been learned from this and other efforts to date, the challenge now is to reach the millions of newborns still at risk. PMID:19851911

  2. State of the World's Newborns: A Report from Saving Newborn Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Anthony; Francis, Victoria; Byrne, Ali; Puddephatt, Claire

    There has been little change in newborn mortality in the past 20 years, even through proven, cost-effective solutions exist to save many of these young lives. This report reviews the most recent data on the newborn, revealing the alarming poor health and quality of health care for mothers and newborns in virtually all impoverished countries. The…

  3. Saving the lives of women, newborns, and children: a formative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite economic growth in Nigeria, maternal and infant mortality rates remain among the highest in the world. Civil society organisations (CSOs) play a critical role in ensuring governmental accountability to fulfil commitments that improve health outcomes for women, newborns, and children. This formative study was ...

  4. A method for estimating maternal and newborn lives saved from health-related investments funded by the UK government Department for International Development using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Ingrid K; Baschieri, Angela; Abbotts, Jo

    2017-11-07

    In 2010, the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID) committed through its 'Framework for results for reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH)' to save 50,000 maternal lives and 250,000 newborn lives by 2015. They also committed to monitoring the performance of this portfolio of investments to demonstrate transparency and accountability. Methods currently available to directly measure lives saved are cost-, time-, and labour-intensive. The gold standard for calculating the total number of lives saved would require measuring mortality with large scale population based surveys or annual vital events surveillance. Neither is currently available in all low- and middle-income countries. Estimating the independent effect of DFID support relative to all other effects on health would also be challenging. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is an evidence based software for modelling the effect of changes in health intervention coverage on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child mortality. A multi-country LiST-based analysis protocol was developed to retrospectively assess the total annual number of maternal and newborn lives saved from DFID aid programming in low- and middle-income countries. Annual LiST analyses using the latest program data from DFID country offices were conducted between 2013 and 2016, estimating the annual number of maternal and neonatal lives saved across 2010-2015. For each country, independent project results were aggregated into health intervention coverage estimates, with and in the absence of DFID funding. More than 80% of reported projects were suitable for inclusion in the analysis, with 151 projects analysed in the 2016 analysis. Between 2010 and 2014, it is estimated that DFID contributed to saving the lives of 15,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth with health programming and 88,000 with family planning programming. It is estimated that DFID health programming contributed to saving 187,000 newborn lives. It is

  5. "Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care.

  6. The Dried Bloodspot: Newborn Screening Research Saving the Lives of Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Fisch, Jill; Gartzke, Micki; Leight, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Newborn screening is a test done on every child born in the US shortly after birth to detect diseases where, if not diagnosed and treated in the newborn period, the child will suffer significant trauma, disability or die. A few drops of blood from each baby's heel is put on a card and sent to the state's public health lab for testing. Most states…

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  9. Strategic planning for saving the lives of mothers, newborns and children and preventing stillbirths in KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa: modelling using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Shelley-Ann; Chola, Lumbwe; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mubaiwa, Victoria; Moran, Neil; McKerrow, Neil; Kamugisha, Leonard; Hofman, Karen

    2016-01-19

    KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa has the largest population of children under the age of five and experiences the highest number of child births per annum in the country. Its population has also been ravaged by the dual epidemics of HIV and TB and it has struggled to meet targets for maternal and child mortality. In South Africa's federal system, provinces have decision-making power on the prioritization and allocation of resources within their jurisdiction. As part of strategic planning for 2015-2019, KwaZulu-Natal provincial authorities requested an assessment of current mortality levels in the province and identification and costing of priority interventions for saving additional maternal, newborn and child lives, as well as preventing stillbirths in the province. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to determine the set of interventions, which could save the most additional maternal and child lives and prevent stillbirths from 2015-2019, and the costs of these. The impact of family planning was assessed using two scenarios by increasing baseline coverage of modern contraception by 0.5 percentage points or 1 percentage point per annum. A total of 7,043 additional child and 297 additional maternal lives could be saved, and 2,000 stillbirths could be prevented over five years. Seventeen interventions account for 75% of additional lives saved. Increasing family planning contributes to a further reduction of up to 137 maternal and 3,168 child deaths. The set of priority interventions scaled up to achievable levels, with no increase in contraception would require an additional US$91 million over five years or US$1.72 per capita population per year. By increasing contraceptive prevalence by one percentage point per year, overall costs to scale up to achievable coverage package, decrease by US$24 million over five years. Focused attention on a set of key interventions could have a significant impact on averting stillbirths and maternal and neonatal mortality in

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare ...

  19. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  1. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homicides[3-5] and that it coincided with the introduction of stricter gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  6. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  9. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in ...

  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

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  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  15. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  17. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  18. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Summary for General Public in Puerto Rico (2:22) Zika Virus Prevention for Puerto Rico (:30) Vaccination ... Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request ...

  19. Learning to save lives!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    They're all around you and watch over you, but you won't be aware of them unless you look closely at their office doors. There are 308 of them and they have all been given 12 hours of training with the CERN Fire Brigade. Who are they? Quite simply, those who could one day save your life at work, the CERN first-aiders. First-aiders are recruited on a volunteer basis. "Training is in groups of 10 to 12 people and a lot of emphasis is placed on the practical to ensure that they remember the life-saving techniques we show them", explains Patrick Berlinghi, a CERN first-aid instructor from TIS Division. He is looking forward to the arrival of four new instructors, which will bring the total number to twelve (eleven firemen and one member of the Medical Service). "The new instructors were trained at CERN from 16 to 24 May by Marie-Christine Boucher Da Ros (a member of the Commission Pédagogie de l'Observatoire National Français du Secourisme, the education commission of France's national first-aid body). This in...

  20. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  3. An analysis of three levels of scaled-up coverage for 28 interventions to avert stillbirths and maternal, newborn and child mortality in 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean with the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Lauren; O'Connell, Thomas; Brumana, Luisa; Durán, Pablo

    2016-07-22

    Action to avert maternal and child mortality was propelled by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has shown promise in achieving the MDGs in many countries, but preventable maternal, neonatal and child mortality persist. Furthermore, preventable stillbirths are occurring in large numbers in the region. While an effective set of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions have been identified, they have not been brought to scale across LAC. Baseline data for select MNCH interventions for 27 LAC countries that are included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) were verified and updated with survey data. Three LiST projections were built for each country: baseline, MDG-focused, and All Included, each scaling up a progressively larger set of interventions for 2015 - 2030. Impact was assessed for 2015 - 2035, comparing annual and total lives saved, as projected by LiST. Across the 27 countries 235,532 stillbirths, and 752,588 neonatal, 959,393 under-five, and 60,858 maternal deaths would be averted between 2015 and 2035 by implementing the All-Included intervention package, representing 67 %, 616 %, 807 % and 101 % more lives saved, respectively, than with the MDG-focused interventions. 25 % neonatal deaths averted with the All-Included intervention package would be due to asphyxia, 42 % from prematurity and 24 % from sepsis. Our modelling suggests a 337 % increase in the number of lives saved, which would have enormous impacts on population health. Further research could help clarify the impacts of a comprehensive scale-up of the full range of essential MNCH interventions we have modelled.

  4. School Safety: Saving Lives with AEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) on school and university campuses have saved many lives. Students, teachers and community members have been among the fortunate ones pulled from the brink of death. Medical studies validating the effectiveness of AEDs in schools and other public settings have been published in numerous medical journals.…

  5. Are Doctors Discarding Donor Kidneys That Could Save Lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Doctors Discarding Donor Kidneys That Could Save Lives? Study found suboptimal organs prolonged lives and were ... Formica said. Lower the bar to save more lives? "People don't realize if I turn down ...

  6. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  7. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  8. 'Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it'. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Mutebi, Aloysius; Jane, Pacuto; Tumuhairwe, Juliet; Tetui, Moses; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-08-01

    Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members' access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members' views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically. Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution. Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like 'a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted', as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with non-governmental organizations that can provide support to such groups.

  9. ‘Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it’. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Mutebi, Aloysius; Jane, Pacuto; Tumuhairwe, Juliet; Tetui, Moses; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. Objectives: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. Methods: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members’ access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members’ views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically. Results: Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution. Conclusions: Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like ‘a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted’, as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with

  10. Poison centre network saves lives | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Snakebites, food poisoning, exposure to toxic chemicals: all are potentially fatal if the correct antidote isn't identified and applied — fast. Since 1988, INTOX, a computer-based program involving a global network of poison centres, has been providing those life-saving capabilities in minutes.

  11. Public Policy Toward Life Saving: Maximize Lives Saved vs. Consumer Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    William Gould; Richard Thaler

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical analysis of individual and societal demands for life saving. We begin by demonstrating that the allocation of health expenditures to maximize lives saved may be inconsistent with the willingness-to-pay criterion and consumer sovereignty. We further investigate the effects of information on aggregate willingness to pay. This discussion is related to the concepts of statistical and identified lives. Methods of financing health expenditures are considered. We show tha...

  12. SAVING LIVES: WHO PICKS UP THE TAB?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    public health care system, often costing lives, particularly in peri-urban and rural areas. Just 18% of South Africans are medically insured, leaving the state sector with a huge burden of care – and both sectors urgently need a more efficient single overall operating system. South Africa has 11 dedicated emergency rescue ...

  13. Saving mothers and newborns in communities: strengthening community midwives to provide high quality essential newborn and maternal care in Baluchistan, Pakistan in a financially sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Cutherell, Andrea; Bhatti, Afshan

    2014-04-06

    To address it's persistently high maternal mortality rate of 276/100,000 live births, the government of Pakistan created a new cadre of community based midwives (CMW). One expectation is that CMWs will improve access to maternal health services for underserved women. Recent research shows the CMWs have largely failed to establish midwifery practices, because CMW's lack of skills, both clinical and entrepreneurial and funds necessary to develop their practice infrastructure and logistics. Communities also lack trust in their competence to conduct safe births. To address these issues, the Saving Mothers and Newborn (SMNC) intervention will implement three key elements to support the CMWs to establish their private practices: (1) upgrade CMW clinical skills (2) provide business-skills training and small loans (3) generate demand for CMW services using cellular phone SMS technology and existing women's support groups. This 3-year project aims to investigate whether CMWs enrolled in this initiative are providing the essential maternal and newborn health care to women and children living in districts of Quetta, and Gwadar in a financially self-sustaining manner. Specifically the research will use quasi-experimental impact assessment to document whether the SMNC initiative is having an impact on CMW services uptake, financial analysis to assess if the initiative enabled CMWs to develop financially self-sustainable practices and observation methods to assess the quality of care the CMWs are providing. A key element of the SMNC initiative - the provision of business skills training and loans to establish private practices - is an innovative initiative in Pakistan and little is known about its effectiveness. This research will provide emperic evidence of the effectiveness of the intervention as well as contribute to the body of evidence around potential solutions to improve sustainable coverage of high impact Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health interventions in vulnerable

  14. Modelling stillbirth mortality reduction with the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Chou, Victoria B; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-11-07

    The worldwide burden of stillbirths is large, with an estimated 2.6 million babies stillborn in 2015 including 1.3 million dying during labour. The Every Newborn Action Plan set a stillbirth target of ≤12 per 1000 in all countries by 2030. Planning tools will be essential as countries set policy and plan investment to scale up interventions to meet this target. This paper summarises the approach taken for modelling the impact of scaling-up health interventions on stillbirths in the Lives Saved tool (LiST), and potential future refinements. The specific application to stillbirths of the general method for modelling the impact of interventions in LiST is described. The evidence for the effectiveness of potential interventions to reduce stillbirths are reviewed and the assumptions of the affected fraction of stillbirths who could potentially benefit from these interventions are presented. The current assumptions and their effects on stillbirth reduction are described and potential future improvements discussed. High quality evidence are not available for all parameters in the LiST stillbirth model. Cause-specific mortality data is not available for stillbirths, therefore stillbirths are modelled in LiST using an attributable fraction approach by timing of stillbirths (antepartum/ intrapartum). Of 35 potential interventions to reduce stillbirths identified, eight interventions are currently modelled in LiST. These include childbirth care, induction for prolonged pregnancy, multiple micronutrient and balanced energy supplementation, malaria prevention and detection and management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, diabetes and syphilis. For three of the interventions, childbirth care, detection and management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and diabetes the estimate of effectiveness is based on expert opinion through a Delphi process. Only for malaria is coverage information available, with coverage estimated using expert opinion for all other

  15. Texting to save lives in South Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-30

    May 30, 2012 ... Imagine a world where mobile technology helps to save lives by quickly alerting health authorities of new outbreaks of H1N1, chickenpox, and malaria. Such an early warning system was recently piloted, ... By then, a disease may have caused much harm. In 2003, for example, Sri Lanka's Central Province ...

  16. Save lives, make hospital safe in emergencies: framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Save lives, make hospital safe in emergencies: framework for disaster preparedness in hospitals in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Postgraduate Medicine ... All over the world, it is becoming obvious that there is a need to make hospitals safe at times of disasters and emergencies, when the need for their services become ...

  17. Saving lives in health: global estimates and country measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Low-Beer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Low-Beer and colleagues provide a response from The Global Fund on the PLOS Medicine article by David McCoy and colleagues critiquing their lives saved assessment models. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. CDC Vital Signs-Communication Can Save Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This podcast is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  19. Saving Lives through visual health communication: a multidisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wressell, Adrian; Twaites, Heidi; Taylor, Stephen; Hartland, Dan; Gove-Humphries, Theo

    2014-10-01

    Saving Lives is a public health awareness charity that aims to educate the UK public about HIV and encourage testing for the virus. In May 2011 Saving Lives contacted the Medical Illustration department at Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust to discuss the idea of working together to develop a national HIV awareness campaign. A number of local sporting celebrities were invited to a studio photography session. All the sports stars and celebrities were photographed on a Mamiya 645 AFDII camera, with PhaseOne P30 + digital back, using prime 35 mm, 55 mm and 80 mm lenses. During the photography sessions, the team's film maker captured video footage of the subjects being photographed. Once the final avengers' graphical composition had been created, it was applied to the posters, billboards and public transport signs for the campaign. In the three-month period following the campaign launch, survey research was carried out, the initial data being recorded by a questionnaire which was provided to each of the 1800 patients attending the Heartlands Hospital sexual health clinic for HIV testing. Following the launch of the initial campaign, the Saving Lives team continues to produce material to assist in the promotion of the charity and its message. Its success has led to it becoming an on-going long-term project, and to date the team have photographed and filmed 33 sporting stars and visited numerous sporting institutes.

  20. How to Save Human Lives with Complexity Science

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are not effective and sufficient to contain them. The failure of many conventional approaches results from their neglection of feedback loops, instabilities and/or cascade effects, due to which equilibrium models do often not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior. However, the complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be understood by means of complexity science, which enables one to address the aforementioned problems more successfully. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  1. Saving lives with caring assessments: How Tanzanian nurse-midwives and obstetricians negotiate postpartum practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohi, Thecla W; Aston, Megan; Mselle, Lilian T; Macdonald, Danielle; Mbekenga, Columba; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; White, Maureen; OHearn, Shawna; Price, Sheri; Jefferies, Keisha

    2017-08-09

    To explore the nurse-midwives' and obstetricians' experiences delivering postpartum care assessments and how it was constructed through personal, social and institutional discourses. The Tanzanian Government has prioritised maternal and child health as an urgent healthcare issue. Nurse-midwives and obstetricians are the two main providers of care throughout the prenatal and postpartum periods. A qualitative design guided by a feminist poststructuralist methodology. Ten nurse-midwives and three obstetricians from three Regional Hospitals in Dar es Salaam participated in individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Assessment emerged as a significant theme with three subthemes. Nurse-midwives shared their beliefs and values about assessments that focused on the safety of mothers and babies. They felt proud working with mothers and babies and shared their frustrations having to deal with inadequate working conditions. Guidelines and practices were part of the institutional discourse that impacted the day-to-day experiences of nurse-midwives and obstetricians. The nurse-midwives held the belief that it was vital to complete a comprehensive assessment to identify danger signs, keep mothers and babies safe and look for any abnormalities. They were concerned that mothers were being sent home too early. Nurse-midwives' experiences in the provision of postpartum care portray that these health providers work heartedly to make sure that the mothers and their newborns receive the best care they can provide. The health system is challenged to address the needed supplies and equipment for reproductive health in particular postpartum care services. Institutional health discourses significantly affect the practice of nurse-midwives and obstetricians to deliver timely and effective postpartum assessments. Immediate and ongoing postpartum assessments conducted by nurse-midwives and obstetricians can save lives. This study presents the first theme of the study: Caring assessments

  2. SAVING MOTHERS LIVES-THE GOLDEN FIVE MINUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Maternal and neonatal mortality is a subject of universal concern and saving mother's and foetal life is an obligation to the society. Maternal and neonatal overall health is a prime issue of every nation and hence cannot be jeopardized at any cost. In this context when maternal cardiac arrest occur due to any underlying cause, it endanger both the lives, hence a prompt intervention is needed. For this very reason, Perimortem cesarean section has been reported since ancient times; however, greater awareness regarding this procedure within the medical community has only emerged in the past few decades. Recommendations for maternal resuscitation include performance of the procedure within four minutes. If accomplished in a timely manner, perimortem cesarean section can result in fetal salvage and is also critical for maternal resuscitation. Lack of knowledge and sincere guidelines feasible to the health care available about this procedure is not uncommon. We have reviewed publications on perimortem cesarean section and present the most recent evidences on this topic, as well as recommending our “easy-to-follow protocol” adapted for resuscitation following maternal haemodynamic collapse.

  3. Nutrition Interventions in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was initially developed in 2003 to estimate the impact of increasing coverage of efficacious interventions on under-5 mortality. Over time, the model has been expanded to include more outcomes (neonatal mortality, maternal mortality, stillbirths) and interventions. The model has also added risk factors, such as stunting and wasting, and over time has attempted to capture a full range of nutrition and nutrition-related interventions (e.g., antenatal supplementation, breastfeeding promotion, child supplemental feeding, acute malnutrition treatment), practices (e.g., age-appropriate breastfeeding), and outcomes (e.g., stunting, wasting, birth outcomes, maternal anemia). This article reviews the overall nutrition-related structure, assumptions, and outputs that are currently available in LiST. This review focuses on the new assumptions and structure that have been added to the model as part of the current effort to expand and improve the nutrition modeling capability of LiST. It presents the full set of linkages in the model that relate to nutrition outcomes, as well as the research literature used to support those linkages. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa - Evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of

  5. Saving lives versus life-years in rural Bangladesh: an ethical preferences approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson-Stenman, Olof; Mahmud, Minhaj; Martinsson, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Using a random sample of individuals in rural Bangladesh, this paper investigates people's ethical preferences regarding relative values of lives when it comes to saving lives of individuals of different ages. By assuming that an individual has preferences concerning different states of the world, and that these preferences can be described by an individual social welfare function, the individuals' preferences for life-saving programs are elicited using a pair-wise choice experiment involving different life-saving programs. In the analyses, we calculate the social marginal rates of substitution between saved lives of people of different ages. We also test whether people have preferences for saving more life-years rather than only saving lives. In particular, we test and compare the two hypotheses that only lives matter and that only life-years matter. The results indicate that the value of a saved life decreases rapidly with age and that people have strong preferences for saving life-years rather than lives per se. Overall, the results clearly show the importance of the number of life-years saved in the valuation of life. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Youssouf; Sangho, Hamadoun; Roberton, Timothy; Vignola, Emilia; Traoré, Mariam; Munos, Melinda

    2017-11-07

    Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP) to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N). In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali's MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali's ten-year health strategy (PDDSS) for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets) that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans and strategies.

  7. Impact of savings groups on the lives of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean; Savonitto, Beniamino; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher

    2017-03-21

    Savings-led microfinance programs operate in poor rural communities in developing countries to establish groups that save and then lend out the accumulated savings to each other. Nonprofit organizations train villagers to create and lead these groups. In a clustered randomized evaluation spanning three African countries (Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda), we find that the promotion of these community-based microfinance groups leads to an improvement in household business outcomes and women's empowerment. However, we do not find evidence of impacts on average consumption or other livelihoods.

  8. The use of "lives saved" measures in nurse staffing and patient safety research: statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diya, Luwis; Van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Lives saved predictions are used to quantify the impact of certain remedial measures in nurse staffing and patient safety research, giving an indication of the potential gain in patient safety. Data collected in nurse staffing and patient safety are often multilevel in structure, requiring statistical techniques to account for clustering in the data. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of model specifications on lives saved estimates and inferences in a multilevel context. A simulation study was carried out to assess the impact of model assumptions on lives saved predictions. Scenarios considered were omitting an important covariate, taking different link functions, neglecting the correlations coming from the multilevel data structure, and neglecting a level in a multilevel model. Finally, using a cardiac surgery data set, predicted lives saved from the random intercept logistic model and the clustered discrete time logistic model were compared. Omitting an important covariate, neglecting the association between patients within the same hospital, and the complexity of the model affect the prediction of lives saved estimates and the inferences thereafter. On the other hand, a change in the link function led to the same predicted lives saved estimates and standard deviations. Finally, the lives saved estimates from the two-level random intercept model were similar to those of the clustered discrete time logistic model, but the standard deviations differed greatly. The results stress the importance of verifying model assumptions. It is recommended that researchers use sensitivity analyses to investigate the stability of lives saved results using different statistical models or different data sets.

  9. Disease prevention: saving lives or reducing health care costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Grootjans-van Kampen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases health care costs while preventing non-fatal diseases could lead to health care savings. The objective of this research is to investigate if disease prevention could result in both increased longevity and lower lifetime health care costs. METHODS: Mortality rates for Netherlands in 2009 were used to construct cause-deleted life tables. Data originating from the Dutch Costs of Illness study was incorporated in order to estimate lifetime health care costs in the absence of selected disease categories. We took into account that for most diseases health care expenditures are concentrated in the last year of life. RESULTS: Elimination of diseases that reduce life expectancy considerably increase lifetime health care costs. Exemplary are neoplasms that, when eliminated would increase both life expectancy and lifetime health care spending with roughly 5% for men and women. Costs savings are incurred when prevention has only a small effect on longevity such as in the case of mental and behavioural disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system stand out as their elimination would increase life expectancy while reducing health care spending. CONCLUSION: The stronger the negative impact of a disease on longevity, the higher health care costs would be after elimination. Successful treatment of fatal diseases leaves less room for longevity gains due to effective prevention but more room for health care savings.

  10. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  11. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Keita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N. In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali’s MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. Methods The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali’s ten-year health strategy (PDDSS for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. Results If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. Conclusions This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans

  12. Telling stories, saving lives: creating narrative health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lauren B; Murphy, Sheila T; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, health communication practitioners are exploring the use of narrative storytelling to convey health information. For this study, a narrative film was produced to provide information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer prevention. The storyline centered on Lupita, a young woman recently diagnosed with HPV who informs her family about HPV and the availability of the HPV vaccine for her younger sister. The objective was to examine the roles of identification with characters and narrative involvement (made up of three dimensions: involvement, perceived relevance, and immersion) on perceived response efficacy, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility to HPV and behavior (discussing the HPV vaccine with a health care provider). A random sample of 450 European American, Mexican American, and African American women between the ages of 25 and 45 years, living in the Los Angeles area, was surveyed by phone before, 2 weeks after, and 6 months after viewing the film. The more relevant women found the narrative to their own lives at 2 weeks, the higher they perceived the severity of the virus and the perceived response efficacy of the vaccine to be. Also at 2 weeks, identifying with characters was positively associated with perceived susceptibility to HPV but negatively associated with perceived severity. At 6 months, identification with specific characters was significantly associated with perceived threat and behavior. These findings suggest that different aspects of narrative health messages should be manipulated depending on the specific beliefs and behaviors being targeted. Implications for narrative message design are discussed.

  13. [Preventive maternal care saves lives in Guinea-Bissau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, M

    1984-11-29

    2 health care projects in Guinea-Bissau give evidence of the efforts of that nation to increase its infant survival rate. The experiences of a 4 week visit to Bianga and the accomplishments of a maternal health care project in Bandim are summarized. Infant mortality has remained high in Guinea-Bissau (211/1000) despite the efforts of the government, whose top priority is rural development in a land where most of the 1,000,000 inhabitants are peasant farmers, and 90% are illiterate. In Bianga, where 6 years earlier another midwife had reported a reduction in infant mortality, the health care station was underutilized and staffed by poorly-trained personnel. Distribution of chloroquine (used against malaria) and periodic vaccination campaigns were the primary features of medical activity. In contrast, the Bandim project (named after a suburb or barrio of Bissau) has had some notable achievements since its inception in 1978. The 8000 inhabitants living in 600 houses of the project area were divided into 8 zones, with 2 health workers for each zone. Their task was to check on women in the 8th or 9th month of their pregnancy and pay them home visits after delivery. The visitors also participated in these rounds and observed Swedish and Danish medical students in their work of counselling pregnant women. Vaccination of children occurs in 1 of the zones every month, and children under 5 are weighed every 3 months to assess their development. The results of the project in decreasing infant mortality will be applied in the city of Bissau at a later date.

  14. Implementation of Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative in Ahmed-Gasim’s Cardiac Center

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on the implementation of a Safe Surgery Saves Lives, in Ahmed-Gasim‟s Cardiac Center in 2011 using a change management framework. Background: Medical errors and incidence of traumatic injuries in surgical care services were recognized as a proportion of the total global burden of disease. Surgical care and procedures can potentially affect the lives of millions of people worldwide. Studies done by WHO found that wrong person, wrong procedure, and wrong site surgery ...

  15. How is the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) used in the global health community? Results of a mixed-methods LiST user study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmuller, Angela R; Self, Andrew; Litvin, Kate; Roberton, Timothy

    2017-11-07

    The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a computer-based model that estimates the impact of scaling up key interventions to improve maternal, newborn and child health. Initially developed to inform the Lancet Child Survival Series of 2003, the functionality and scope of LiST have been expanded greatly over the past 10 years. This study sought to "take stock" of how LiST is now being used and for what purposes. We conducted a quantitative survey of LiST users, qualitative interviews with a smaller sample of LiST users and members of the LiST team at Johns Hopkins University, and a literature review of studies involving LiST analyses. LiST is being used by donors, international organizations, governments, NGOs and academic institutions to assist program evaluation, inform strategic planning and evidenced-based decision-making, and advocate for high-impact interventions. Some organizations have integrated LiST into internal workflows and built in-house capacity for using LiST, while other organizations rely on the LiST team for support and to outsource analyses. In addition to being a popular stand-alone software, LiST is used as a calculation engine for other applications. The Lives Saved Tool has been reported to be a useful model in maternal, newborn, and child health. With continued commitment, LiST should remain as a part of the international health toolkit used to assess maternal, newborn and child health programs.

  16. Germans learn how to save lives: a nationwide CPR education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Manuela; Leberle, Richard; Graf, Bernhard

    2018-02-17

    Sudden cardiac death is one of the most frequent causes of death in Germany and the third leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Yet, the percentage of people providing first aid in the case of sudden cardiac arrest in Germany is alarmingly low by international comparison. Training Germans or reminding them of the simple but effective steps of resuscitation, so that everybody can save a live in an emergency. For the campaign 'Resuscitation Week', physicians and paramedics trained passers-by in cardiovascular resuscitation free of charge. Skills were evaluated before and after the instruction by means of a questionnaire. Three hundred three people aged between 9 and 89 years were trained and evaluated. Forty-nine passers-by had never participated in a resuscitation course, and 46.8% had participated in a course more than 20 years ago. Before the instruction, 41.6% of the passers-by were confident to be capable of resuscitating a person; after the instruction, however, this percentage had risen to 100%! Saving a life is simple, but one has to know what to do in the case of sudden cardiac arrest. The German population is being gradually trained in resuscitation using campaigns such as 'Resuscitation Week' and 'Kids Save Lives' to break down barriers in the long term. However, lives are not only saved by training but also by refreshing knowledge and skills; thus, a further effective approach may be training all holders of a driving license in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intervals of 5 years.

  17. The need for ventilators in the developing world: An opportunity to improve care and save lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishnamoorthy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The drive to breathe is a fundamental human and biologic behavior, regulated by a complex system of checks and balances in the body. When respiratory mechanics are deregulated by injury, infection, coma, or a host of other conditions, the biologic equilibrium shifts into a state of respiratory failure. When this occurs, mechanical ventilation can be a life saving therapy. While commonplace in developed countries, critical care is at its infancy in many developing countries, where basic technology is often not available. Thus, while many lives are saved in developed nations through the provision of mechanical ventilation, patients in many developing nations often die from otherwise reversible causes due to lack of resources, education, and training.

  18. Culture change for hand hygiene: clean hands save lives, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kimberley R; Pantle, Annette C; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Hughes, Clifford F

    2009-10-19

    To present the results of surveys of staff, patients and visitors about their perceptions of hand hygiene behaviour before and after implementation of the Clean hands save lives campaign in New South Wales public hospitals. Pre- and post-campaign questionnaires, disseminated through project officers in each health authority, were completed by selected staff and patients/visitors in all 208 public hospitals in NSW. Combined, de-identified results for each health authority were forwarded to the NSW Clinical Excellence Commission for analysis. Awareness of campaign material; staff perceptions about their ability to maintain a high level of hand hygiene compliance before and after contact with patients; compliance self-reported by staff compared with compliance perceived by patients/visitors and compliance assessed by overt observation. Most staff and patients/visitors were aware of campaign materials. Eighty-six per cent of staff respondents (495/578) believed that placement of alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) close to the point of patient care had improved hand hygiene compliance, and 76% (510/671) believed they could sustain their level of compliance. Only 1 in 4 patients or visitors (106/397) were willing to question health care workers who appeared not to be complying with hand hygiene practices. As the first coordinated statewide campaign to modify hand hygiene culture, the Clean hands save lives campaign successfully engendered positive attitudes and dispelled negative perceptions about the onerous nature of before- and after-patient-contact hand hygiene compliance.

  19. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenromp Eline L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST, extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent. Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination. Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy

  20. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline L

    2012-03-28

    Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent.Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination.Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy makers and programme planners

  1. "Save lives" arguments might not be as effective as you think: A randomized field experiment on blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, L S; Naef, D; Tissot, J-D; Desrichard, O

    2016-05-01

    Many communication campaigns to encourage people to give blood rely on "save lives" messages, even though there is no experimental evidence as to the effectiveness of this kind of argument with respect to blood donation. The objective of this study is to test experimentally if it is indeed an effective way to prompt people to give blood, in order for communication campaigns to be evidenced-based. One thousand and twenty-two lapsed blood donors were sent, at random, either a standard letter or the same letter containing an additional "save lives" message. The blood donation center measured intention to donate and actual donor return rate (3%) after 10months. Although fewer people in the "save lives" condition said they had no intention to give blood again, the "save lives" letter did not lead to more donor returns than the standard letter. Our results suggest that contrary to intuition, campaigns to promote blood donation should not rely blindly on "save lives" arguments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaž

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are often not effective and sufficient to contain them. Many common approaches do not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior, because they neglect feedback loops, instabilities and cascade effects. The complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be better understood by means of complexity science. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  3. Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer Walker, Christa L; Friberg, Ingrid K; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E

    2011-03-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015.

  4. Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Fischer Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. CONCLUSION: Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4 by 2015.

  5. Scaling Up Diarrhea Prevention and Treatment Interventions: A Lives Saved Tool Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Friberg, Ingrid K.; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. Methods and Findings We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Conclusion Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21445330

  6. Linking household surveys and health facility assessments to estimate intervention coverage for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B

    2017-11-07

    Calls have been made for improved measurement of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Recently, methods linking household and health facility surveys have been used to improve estimation of intervention coverage. However, linking methods rely the availability of household and health facility surveys which are temporally matched. Because nationally representative health facility assessments are not yet routinely conducted in many low and middle income countries, estimates of intervention coverage based on linking methods can be produced for only a subset of countries. Estimates of intervention coverage are a critical input for modelling the health impact of intervention scale-up in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven approach to estimate coverage for a subset of antenatal care interventions modeled in LiST. Using a five-step process, estimates of population level coverage for syphilis detection and treatment, case management of diabetes, malaria infection, hypertensive disorders, and pre-eclampsia, were computed by linking household and health facility surveys. Based on data characterizing antenatal care and estimates of coverage derived from the linking approach, predictive models for intervention coverage were developed. Updated estimates of coverage based on the predictive models were compared, first with current default proxies, then with estimates based on the linking approach. Model fit and accuracy were assessed using three measures: the coefficient of determination, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the root mean square error (RMSE). The ability to predict intervention coverage was fairly accurate across all interventions considered. Predictive models accounted for 20-63% of the variance in intervention coverages, and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.5 to 0.83. The predictive model used to estimate coverage of management of pre-eclampsia performed relatively better (RMSE

  7. The race to save lives: demonstrating the use of social media for search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Adini, Bruria; El-Hadid, Mohammed; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-11-06

    Utilizing social media in an emergency can enhance abilities to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively, and can contribute towards saving lives following a disaster, through better coordination and collaboration between search and rescue teams. An exercise was conducted in order to test a standard operating procedure (SOP) designed to leverage social media use in response to an earthquake, and study whether social media can improve joint Israeli-Jordanian search and rescue operations following a regional earthquake. First responders from both Jordan and Israel were divided into two mixed groups of eight people each, representing joint (Israeli-Jordanian) EMS teams. Simulated patients were dispersed throughout the Ben-Gurion University Campus. The first search and rescue team used conventional methods, while the second team also used social media channels (Facebook and Twitter) to leverage search and rescue operations. Eighteen EMS and medical professionals from Israel and Jordan, which are members of the Emergency Response Development and Strategy Forum working group, participated in the exercise. The social media team found significantly more mock casualties, 21 out of 22 (95.45%) while the no-media team found only 19 out of 22 (86.36%). Fourteen patients (63.63%) were found by the social media team earlier than the no-media team. The differences between the two groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and evacuation proved to be significantly quicker in the group that had access to social media. The differences between the three injury severities groups' extraction times in each group were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for variance. Injury severity influenced the evacuation times in the social media team but no such difference was noted in the no-media team. Utilizing social media in an emergency situation enables to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively. Social media can contribute towards saving

  8. Methodological and policy limitations of quantifying the saving of lives: a case study of the Global Fund's approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McCoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David McCoy and colleagues critique the dominance of "lives saved" models of assessing the impact of health programs, using The Global Fund as a case study. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Olshansky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern success story of vaccinations involves a historical chain of events that transformed the discovery that vaccines worked, to administering them to the population. We estimate the number of lives saved and morbidity reduction associated with the discovery of the first human cell strain used for the production of licensed human virus vaccines, known as WI-38. The diseases studied include poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox, herpes zoster, adenovirus, rabies and Hepatitis A. The number of preventable cases and deaths in the U.S. and across the globe was assessed by holding prevalence rates and disease-specific death rates constant from 1960–2015. Results indicate that the total number of cases of poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, adenovirus, rabies and hepatitis A averted or treated with WI-38 related vaccines was 198 million in the U.S. and 4.5 billion globally (720 million in Africa; 387 million in Latin America and the Caribbean; 2.7 billion in Asia; and 455 million in Europe. The total number of deaths averted from these same diseases was approximately 450,000 in the U.S., and 10.3 million globally (1.6 million in Africa; 886 thousand in Latin America and the Caribbean; 6.2 million in Asia; and 1.0 million in Europe.

  10. Organ Vouchers and Barter Markets: Saving Lives, Reducing Suffering, and Trading in Human Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J

    2017-10-01

    The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e.g., organ exchanges, organ chains, and organ vouchers), would save more lives and further reduce human suffering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Drones may be used to save lives in out of hospital cardiac arrest due to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, A; Svensson, L; Nordberg, P; Ringh, M; Rosenqvist, M; Djarv, T; Samuelsson, J; Hernborg, O; Dahlbom, P; Jansson, A; Hollenberg, J

    2017-05-01

    Drowning leading to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and death is a major public health concern. Submersion with duration of less than 10min is associated with favorable neurological outcome and nearby bystanders play a considerable role in rescue and resuscitation. Drones can provide a visual overview of an accident scene, their potential as lifesaving tools in drowning has not been evaluated. The aim of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a drone for providing earlier location of a submerged possible drowning victim in comparison with standard procedure. This randomized simulation study used a submerged manikin placed in a shallow (drone transmitting video to a tablet (intervention). Time from start to contact with the manikin was the primary endpoint. Twenty searches were performed in total, 10 for each group. The median time from start to contact with the manikin was 4:34min (IQR 2:56-7:48) for the search party (control) and 0:47min (IQR 0:38-0:58) for the drone-system (intervention) respectively (pdrone was 3:38min (IQR 2:02-6:38). A drone transmitting live video to a tablet is feasible, time saving in comparison to traditional search parties and may be used for providing earlier location of submerged victims at a beach. Drone search can possibly contribute to earlier onset of CPR in drowning victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SALSA: SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (=50;=42 years who participated were overweight (BMI=29.7 kg/m2; bodyfat=38.5% and reported low levels of leisure time PA (=10.7 MET-min/wk and FV consumption (=4.2 servings/day. All were randomized to a four-week (1 semiweekly Latin dance group or (2 internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (=10.7 MET-min/wk to follow up (=34.0 MET-min/wk, <.001, and FV consumption increased over time by group (=.02. Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color.

  13. Lives saved by tuberculosis control and prospects for achieving the 2015 global target for reducing tuberculosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaziou, Philippe; Floyd, Katherine; Korenromp, Eline L; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Bierrenbach, Ana L; Williams, Brian G; Atun, Rifat; Raviglione, Mario

    2011-08-01

    To assess whether the global target of halving tuberculosis (TB) mortality between 1990 and 2015 can be achieved and to conduct the first global assessment of the lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Mortality from TB since 1990 was estimated for 213 countries using established methods endorsed by WHO. Mortality trends were estimated separately for people with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in accordance with the International classification of diseases. Lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy were estimated with respect to the performance of TB control in 1995, the year that DOTS was introduced. TB mortality among HIV-negative (HIV-) people fell from 30 to 20 per 100,000 population (36%) between 1990 and 2009 and could be halved by 2015. The overall decline (when including HIV-positive [HIV+] people, who comprise 12% of all TB cases) was 19%. Between 1995 and 2009, 49 million TB patients were treated under the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy. This saved 4.6-6.3 million lives, including those of 0.23-0.28 million children and 1.4-1.7 million women of childbearing age. A further 1 million lives could be saved annually by 2015. Improvements in TB care and control since 1995 have greatly reduced TB mortality, saved millions of lives and brought within reach the global target of halving TB deaths by 2015 relative to 1990. Intensified efforts to reduce deaths among HIV+ TB cases are needed, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  14. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable.

  15. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    Full Text Available The field of live VM (virtual machine migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization idea with the SA (simulated annealing idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable.

  16. Saving Lives at Birth : The Impact of Home Births on Infant Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Trandafir, M.; van Ewijk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for

  17. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program—Helping to save lives worldwide for more than 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ramsey, David W.

    2017-10-20

    systems worldwide, helping countries to forecast eruptions, save lives, and reduce economic losses while enhancing America’s ability to respond to domestic volcanic events.

  18. Lives Saved Tool (LiST) costing: a module to examine costs and prioritize interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lori A; Sanders, Rachel; Winfrey, William; Adesina, Adebiyi

    2017-11-07

    Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries. A limited LiST costing module was introduced several years ago, but with gaps in cost types. Updates to inputs have now been added to make the module fully functional for a range of uses. This paper builds on previous work that developed an initial version of the LiST costing module to provide costs for MNCH interventions using an ingredients-based costing approach. Here, we update in 2016 the previous econometric estimates from 2013 with newly-available data and also include above-facility level costs such as program management. The updated econometric estimates inform percentages of intervention-level costs for some direct costs and indirect costs. These estimates add to existing values for direct cost requirements for items such as drugs and supplies and required provider time which were already available in LiST Costing. Results generated by the LiST costing module include costs for each intervention, as well as disaggregated costs by intervention including drug and supply costs, labor costs, other recurrent costs, capital costs, and above-service delivery costs. These results can be combined with mortality estimates to support prioritization of interventions by countries. The LiST costing module provides an option for countries to identify resource requirements for scaling up a maternal, neonatal, and child health program, and to examine the financial impact of different resource allocation strategies. It can be a useful tool for

  19. Estimating Lives Saved by Achieving Dietary Micronutrient Adequacy, with a Focus on Vitamin A Intervention Programs in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Perkins, Amanda; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff; Haskell, Marjorie J; Vosti, Stephen A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Background: We previously compared the potential effects of different intervention strategies for achieving dietary vitamin A (VA) adequacy. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) permits estimates of lives saved through VA interventions but currently only considers periodic VA supplements (VASs).Objective: We aimed to adapt the LiST method for estimating the mortality impact of VASs to estimate the impact of other VA interventions (e.g., food fortification) on child mortality and to estimate the number of lives saved by VA interventions in 3 macroregions in Cameroon.Methods: We used national dietary intake data to predict the effects of VA intervention programs on the adequacy of VA intake. LiST parameters of population affected fraction and intervention coverage were replaced with estimates of prevalence of inadequate intake and effective coverage (proportion achieving adequate VA intake). We used a model of liver VA stores to derive an estimate of the mortality reduction from achieving dietary VA adequacy; this estimate and a conservative assumption of equivalent mortality reduction for VAS and VA intake were applied to projections for Cameroon.Results: There were 2217-3048 total estimated VA-preventable deaths in year 1, with 58% occurring in the North macroregion. The relation between effective coverage and lives saved differed by year and macroregion due to differences in total deaths, diarrhea burden, and prevalence of low VA intake. Estimates of lives saved by VASs (the intervention common to both methods) were similar with the use of the adapted method (in 2012: North, 743-1021; South, 280-385; Yaoundé and Douala, 146-202) and the "usual" LiST method (North: 697; South: 381; Yaoundé and Douala: 147).Conclusions: Linking effective coverage estimates with an adapted LiST method permits estimation of the effects of combinations of VA programs (beyond VASs only) on child mortality to aid program planning and management. Rigorous program monitoring and evaluation are

  20. The acceptability among lay persons and health professionals of actively ending the lives of damaged newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseyre, Nathalie; Vanraet, Charles; Sorum, Paul C; Mullet, Etienne

    2010-09-01

    Euthanasia is performed on occasion, even on newborns, but is highly controversial, and it is prohibited by law and condemned by medical ethics in most countries. To characterise and compare the judgments of lay persons, nurses, and physicians of the acceptability of actively ending the life of a damaged newborn. Convenience samples of 237 lay persons, 214 nurses, and 76 physicians in the south of France rated the acceptability on a scale of 0-10 of giving a lethal injection in 54 scenarios composed of all combinations of 4 within-subject factors: gestational age of 6, 7, or 9 months; 3 levels of severity of either perinatal asphyxia or of genetic disease; attitude of the parents about prolonging care unknown, favourable, or unfavourable; and decision made individually by the physician or collectively by the medical team. Overall ratings were subjected to cluster analysis and each cluster to analysis of variance and graphic representation. Lay persons (mean acceptability rating 4.29) were significantly more favourable to euthanasia than nurses (2.84), p rules, i.e., how the information was integrated. More physicians (30 per cent) than nurses (14 per cent), p rule (level of parent's attitude x level of severity of damage x consultation with team or not) rather than a simple additive rule. Unlike law and medical ethics, most of the lay persons, nurses, and physicians judged the acceptability of euthanasia as a function of the circumstances. Most health professionals combined the factors in a conjunctive (multiplicative), rather than additive, fashion in accordance with legislation for adults in The Netherlands and elsewhere that requires a set of criteria to be fulfilled before it is legitimate to end a patient's life.

  1. Expanding the population coverage of evidence-based interventions with community health workers to save the lives of mothers and children: an analysis of potential global impact using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Victoria B; Friberg, Ingrid K; Christian, Mervyn; Walker, Neff; Perry, Henry B

    2017-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries. We set population coverage targets at 50%, 70%, and 90% and summed the country-level results by region and by all 73 high-burden countries combined. We also estimated which specific interventions would save the most lives. LiST estimates that a total of 3.0 (sensitivity bounds 1.8-4.0), 4.9 (3.1-6.3) and 6.9 (3.7-8.7) million deaths would be prevented between 2016 and 2020 if CBPHC is gradually scaled up during this period and if coverage of key interventions reaches 50%, 70%, and 90% respectively. There would be 14%, 23%, and 32% fewer deaths in the final year compared to a scenario assuming no intervention coverage scale up. The Africa Region would receive the most benefit by far: 58% of the lives saved at 90% coverage would be in this region. The interventions contributing the greatest impact are nutritional interventions during pregnancy, treatment of malaria with artemisinin compounds, oral rehydration solution for childhood diarrhea, hand washing with soap, and oral antibiotics for pneumonia. Scaling up CHW programming to increase population-level coverage of life-saving interventions represents a very promising strategy to achieve universal health coverage and end preventable maternal and child deaths by 2030. Numerous practical challenges must be overcome, but there is no better alternative at present. Expanding the coverage of key interventions for maternal nutrition

  2. Vitamin D insufficiency common in newborns, children and pregnant women living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhook, Leigh A; Sloka, Scott; Grant, Marie; Randell, Edward; Kovacs, Christopher S; Twells, Laurie K

    2009-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with poor bone health, colorectal cancer, type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Two national health-related societies in Canada have made recommendations for vitamin D supplementation, yet little research has been reported on the vitamin D status of Canadians. Lifestyle changes, such as sunscreen use, spending less time outdoors and insufficient intake of vitamin D-containing foods as well as northern latitude, may be affecting human vitamin D status. A cross-sectional analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] was conducted in pregnant women, newborns (umbilical cord blood) and children. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Published ranges for 25-(OH)D were used to determine vitamin D status. The prevalence of 25-(OH)D deficiency for the three groups studied revealed most concentrations in the 25-(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency ranges. There were significant differences in all groups studied between seasons, with the exception of maternal blood and female cord blood samples. 25-(OH)D insufficiency was common in all groups for winter and summer, more so in winter. 25-(OH)D insufficiency was common in the three groups studied. The Newfoundland and Labrador population may be at increased risk for vitamin D insufficiency because of factors such as northern latitude and lifestyle issues. Further research on the vitamin D status of this population is important, considering the potential adverse health-related outcomes and the recommendations on supplementation being made.

  3. THE IMPACT OF PENSIONS SAVING AND EDUCATION DEFICIT ON THE LIVING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA, IN THE POST-ACTIVITY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts with the study on the annual pension deficit in the EU member states, elaborated by AVIVA and DELOITTE companies in 2010. The paper analyzes the impact of pensions saving and education deficit on the living standards in Romania, in the post-activity period. It comprises the following sections: an introduction to the analysis, several definitions and the calculation method employed in the above-mentioned study, comparisons between Romania and other EU members states, focusing on the pension deficit, as well as a brief overview on the pension systems in Romania. In the end of the paper, we propose a debate on good financial planning that can make the difference between poverty and a decent standard of living at the time of retirement.

  4. Vital Signs-HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This podcast is based on the December 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  5. Finding workers, offenders, or students most at-risk for violence: actuarial tests save lives and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagar, Robert John; Kovach, Joseph W; Basile, Benjamin; Hughes, John Russell; Grove, William M; Busch, Kenneth G; Zablocki, Michael; Osnowitz, William; Neuhengen, Jonas; Liu, Yutong; Zagar, Agata Karolina

    2013-12-01

    147 adults (107 men, 40 women) and 89 adolescents (61 boys, 28 girls), selected randomly from referrals and volunteers, were given the Ammons Quick Test (QT), the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Second (MMPI-2) or Adolescent Versions (MMPI-A), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and the Standard Predictor (SP) of Violence Potential Adult or Adolescent Versions. The goals were to: (a) demonstrate computer and paper-and-pencil tests correlated; (b) validate tests to identify at-risk for violence; (c) show that identifying at-risk saves lives and resources; and (d) find which industries benefited from testing at-risk. Paper-and-pencil vs. computer test correlations (.83-.99), sensitivity (.97-.98), and specificity (.50-.97) were computed. Testing at-risk saves lives and resources. Critical industries for testing at-risk individuals may include airlines, energy generating industries, insurance, military, nonprofit-religious, prisoners, trucking or port workers, and veterans.

  6. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin; Talley, Cynthia; Yarrison, Rebecca B; Bernard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible.

  7. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible.

  8. Does remediation save lives? - on the cost of cleaning up arsenic-contaminated sites in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Johanna; Samakovlis, Eva; Johansson, Maria Vredin; Barregard, Lars

    2010-07-15

    Sweden has only just begun remediation of its many contaminated sites, a process that will cost an estimated SEK 60,000 million (USD 9100 million). Although the risk assessment method, carried out by the Swedish EPA, is driven by health effects, it does not consider actual exposure. Instead, the sites are assessed based on divergence from guideline values. This paper uses an environmental medicine approach that takes exposure into account to analyse how cancer risks on and near arsenic-contaminated sites are implicitly valued in the remediation process. The results show that the level of ambition is high. At 23 contaminated sites, the cost per life saved varies from SEK 287 million to SEK 1,835,000 million, despite conservative calculations that in fact probably underestimate the costs. It is concluded that if environmental health risks are to be reduced, there are probably other areas where economic resources can be used more cost-effectively.

  9. The Lazarus Effect of AIDS Treatment: Lessons Learned and Lives Saved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    During the treatment decade of rolling out antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in African clinics, new social meanings have been created, and they link local people living with HIV/AIDS to Western communities in new ways. The health of African “others” has taken a central, new, and perhaps quasi-religiou...

  10. 'Saving the lives of our dogs': the development of canine distemper vaccine in interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresalier, Michael; Worboys, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the successful campaign in Britain to develop canine distemper vaccine between 1922 and 1933. The campaign mobilized disparate groups around the common cause of using modern science to save the nation's dogs from a deadly disease. Spearheaded by landed patricians associated with the country journal The Field, and funded by dog owners and associations, it relied on collaborations with veterinary professionals, government scientists, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the commercial pharmaceutical house the Burroughs Wellcome Company (BWC). The social organization of the campaign reveals a number of important, yet previously unexplored, features of interwar science and medicine in Britain. It depended on a patronage system that drew upon a large base of influential benefactors and public subscriptions. Coordinated by the Field Distemper Fund, this system was characterized by close relationships between landed elites and their social networks with senior science administrators and researchers. Relations between experts and non-experts were crucial, with high levels of public engagement in all aspects of research and vaccine development. At the same time, experimental and commercial research supported under the campaign saw dynamic interactions between animal and human medicine, which shaped the organization of the MRC's research programme and demonstrated the value of close collaboration between veterinary and medical science, with the dog as a shared object and resource. Finally, the campaign made possible the translation of 'laboratory' findings into field conditions and commercial products. Rather than a unidirectional process, translation involved negotiations over the very boundaries of the 'laboratory' and the 'field', and what constituted a viable vaccine. This paper suggests that historians reconsider standard historical accounts of the nature of patronage, the role of animals, and the interests of landed elites in interwar British

  11. Using the missed opportunity tool as an application of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) for intervention prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yvonne; Pearson, Luwei

    2017-11-07

    The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage. Coverage of each individual intervention in LiST was automated to be scaled up from current coverage to 90% in the next year, to simulate a scenario where almost every mother and child receive proven interventions that they need. The main outcome of the Missed Opportunity analysis is deaths averted due to each intervention. When reducing unmet need for contraception is included in the analysis, it ranks as the top missed opportunity across the four countries. When it is not included in the analysis, top interventions with the most total deaths averted are hospital-based interventions such as labor and delivery management in the CEmOC and BEmOC level, and full treatment and supportive care for premature babies, and for sepsis/pneumonia. The Missed Opportunity tool can be used to provide a quick, first look at missed opportunities in a country or geographic region, and help identify interventions for prioritization. While it is a useful advocate for evidence-based priority setting, decision makers need to consider other factors that influence decision making, and also discuss how to implement, deliver, and sustain programs to achieve high coverage.

  12. Newborn jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... to be able to do this efficiently. Most newborns have some yellowing of the skin, or jaundice. ...

  13. Comparison of seven liver allocation models with respect to lives saved among patients on the liver transplant waiting list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, Laurence S; Regev, Arie; Mindikoglu, Ayse L

    2012-04-01

    The patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) on the liver transplant waiting list are prioritized for transplant based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We developed and used an innovative approach to compare MELD to six proposed alternatives with respect to waiting list mortality. Our analysis was based on United Network for Organ Sharing data of patients with ESLD on the waiting list between January 2006 and June 2009. We compared six allocation models to MELD. Two models were based on reweighting the variables used by MELD: an "updated" MELD, and ReFit MELD. Four models also included serum sodium: MESO, MeldNa, UKELD, and ReFit MELDNa. We estimated that UKELD and the updated MELD would result in significantly fewer lives saved. There were no significant differences between the other models. Our new approach can supplement standard methods to provide insight into the relative performance of liver allocation models in reducing waiting list mortality. Our analysis suggests that UKELD and the updated MELD score would not be optimal for reducing waiting list mortality in the United States. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  2. Gun control saves lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-05-19

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect.

  3. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  11. Towards evidence-based resuscitation of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Hooper, Stuart B; Jacobs, Susan E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G

    2017-04-22

    Effective resuscitation of the newborn infant has the potential to save many lives around the world and reduce disabilities in children who survive peripartum asphyxia. In this Series paper, we highlight some of the important advances in the understanding of how best to resuscitate newborn infants, which includes monitoring techniques to guide resuscitative efforts, increasing awareness of the adverse effects of hyperoxia, delayed umbilical cord clamping, the avoidance of routine endotracheal intubation for extremely preterm infants, and therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Despite the challenges of performing high-quality clinical research in the delivery room, researchers continue to refine and advance our knowledge of effective resuscitation of newborn infants through scientific experiments and clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) as a Model for Prevention of Anemia in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca; Guida, Renee; Phillips, Erica; Clermont, Adrienne

    2017-11-01

    Background: Anemia in women is a major public health burden worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is a complex condition with multiple nutritional and non-nutritional causes, and geographic heterogeneity of burden. The World Health Assembly has set a target of a 50% reduction in anemia among women of reproductive age (WRA) by 2025.Objective: This article seeks to identify the leading causes of anemia among women in LMICs, review the evidence supporting interventions to address anemia in these settings, and ultimately use this information to decide which interventions should be included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model of anemia. It also seeks to examine the link between anemia and cause-specific maternal mortality.Methods: The leading causes of anemia in WRA were inventoried to identify preventive and curative interventions available for implementation at the public health scale. A literature review was then conducted for each identified intervention, as well as for the link between anemia and maternal mortality.Results: The interventions for which data were available fell into the following categories: provision of iron, malaria prevention, and treatment of parasitic infestation. Ultimately, 5 interventions were included in the LiST model for anemia: blanket iron supplementation or fortification, iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy, multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and household ownership of an insecticide-treated bednet. In addition, anemia was linked in the model with risk of maternal mortality due to hemorrhage.Conclusion: The updated LiST model for anemia reflects the state of the current scientific evidence and should be of use to researchers, program managers, and policymakers who seek to model the impact of scaling up nutrition and health interventions on anemia, and ultimately on maternal mortality. © 2017 American Society for

  13. Ending Preventable Child Deaths from Pneumonia and Diarrhoea in Afghanistan: An Analysis of Intervention Coverage Scenarios Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Yousufi, Khaksar; Sultana, Sharmina; Ali, Alawi Sayed; Varkey, Sherin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in child health, Afghanistan still has a heavy burden of deaths due to preventable causes: 17% of under-5 deaths are due to pneumonia and 12% are due to diarrhoea. Objective. This article describes the situation of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Afghanistan, including efforts to prevent, protect, and treat the two diseases. It estimates lives saved by scaling up interventions. Methods. A secondary analysis of data was conducted and future scenarios were modelled to estimate lives saved by scaling up a package of interventions. Results. The analysis reveals that 10,795 additional child deaths could be averted with a moderate scale-up of interventions, decreasing the under-five mortality rate in Afghanistan from 55 per 1,000 live births in 2015 to 40 per 1,000 in 2020. In an ambitious scale-up scenario, an additional 15,096 lives could be saved. There would be a 71% reduction in child deaths due to these two causes between 2016 and 2020 in the ambitious scenario compared to 47% reduction in the moderate scenario. Conclusion. Significant reductions in child mortality can be achieved through scale-up of essential interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea. Strengthened primary health care functions and multisector collaboration on child health are suggested.

  14. Lives saved by Global Fund-supported HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria programs: estimation approach and results between 2003 and end-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyerla Rob

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, the Global Fund has supported the scale-up of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents and discusses a methodology for estimating the lives saved through selected service deliveries reported to the Global Fund. Methods Global Fund-supported programs reported, by end-2007, 1.4 million HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral treatment (ARV, 3.3 million new smear-positive tuberculosis cases detected in DOTS (directly observed TB treatment, short course programs, and 46 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs delivered. We estimated the corresponding lives saved using adaptations of existing epidemiological estimation models. Results By end-2007, an estimated 681,000 lives (95% uncertainty range 619,000-774,000 were saved and 1,097,000 (993,000-1,249,000 life-years gained by ARV. DOTS treatment would have saved 1.63 million lives (1.09 - 2.17 million when compared against no treatment, or 408,000 lives (265,000-551,000 when compared against non-DOTS treatment. ITN distributions in countries with stable endemic falciparum malaria were estimated to have achieved protection from malaria for 26 million of child-years at risk cumulatively, resulting in 130,000 (27,000-232,000 under-5 deaths prevented. Conclusions These results illustrate the scale of mortality effects that supported programs may have achieved in recent years, despite margins of uncertainty and covering only selected intervention components. Evidence-based evaluation of disease impact of the programs supported by the Global Fund with international and in-country partners must be strengthened using population-level data on intervention coverage and demographic outcomes, information on quality of services, and trends in disease burdens recorded in national health information systems.

  15. Living with an inborn error of metabolism detected by newborn screening-parents' perspectives on child development and impact on family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Gwendolyn; Haege, Gisela; Glahn, Esther M; Hoffmann, Georg F; Lindner, Martin; Burgard, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism is regarded as highly successful by health professionals. Little is known about parents' perspectives on child development and social impact on families. Parents of 187 patients with metabolic disorders detected by newborn screening rated child development, perceived burdens on child and family, and future expectations on a questionnaire with standardized answers. Parental ratings were compared with standardized psychometric test results. Regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with extent of perceived burden. In 26.2% of patients, parents perceived delays in global development and/or specific developmental domains (physical, social, intellectual, language). Parents expected normal future development in 95.7%, and an independent adult life for their child in 94.6%. Comparison with psychometric test results showed that parents of children with cognitive impairments tended to overrate their child's abilities. Mild/medium burden posed on the family (child) by the metabolic disorder was stated by 56.1% (48.9%) of parents, severe/very severe burden by 19.3% (8.6%). One third of families reported financial burden due to the metabolic disorder. Dietary treatment and diagnoses with risk for metabolic decompensation despite treatment were associated with higher perceived burden for the family. Disorders rated as potentially very burdensome by experts were not rated accordingly by parents, demonstrating different perspectives of professionals and parents. Although newborn screening leads to favourable physical and cognitive outcome, living with a metabolic disorder may cause considerable stress on patients and families, emphasizing the need for comprehensive multidisciplinary care including psychological and social support.

  16. Might rapid implementation of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients who are failing to recover after a cardiac arrest potentially save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad; Pessotto, Renzo

    2013-10-01

    -of-hospital cardiac arrest, although many case reports and case series have concluded that it is an effective method. We conclude that institution of emergency cardiopulmonary bypass may save the lives of patients in whom routine attempts at resuscitation after a cardiac arrest fail, especially after >10 min. The likelihood of success is much higher for patients who have in-hospital witnessed cardiac arrest.

  17. Measuring coverage in MNCH: indicators for global tracking of newborn care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisyn C Moran

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of under-five mortality. Consequently, improving newborn survival is a global priority. However, although there is increasing consensus on the packages and specific interventions that need to be scaled up to reduce neonatal mortality, there is a lack of clarity on the indicators needed to measure progress. In 2008, in an effort to improve newborn survival, the Newborn Indicators Technical Working Group (TWG was convened by the Saving Newborn Lives program at Save the Children to provide a forum to develop the indicators and standard measurement tools that are needed to measure coverage of key newborn interventions. The TWG, which included evaluation and measurement experts, researchers, individuals from United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, and donors, prioritized improved consistency of measurement of postnatal care for women and newborns and of immediate care behaviors and practices for newborns. In addition, the TWG promoted increased data availability through inclusion of additional questions in nationally representative surveys, such as the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Surveys and the United Nations Children's Fund-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Several studies have been undertaken that have informed revisions of indicators and survey tools, and global postnatal care coverage indicators have been finalized. Consensus has been achieved on three additional indicators for care of the newborn after birth (drying, delayed bathing, and cutting the cord with a clean instrument, and on testing two further indicators (immediate skin-to-skin care and applications to the umbilical cord. Finally, important measurement gaps have been identified regarding coverage data for evidence-based interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care and care seeking for newborn infection.

  18. Newborn screening for MCAD deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Davidson, A G F; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (MCAD) Deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation, with potential fatal outcome. MCAD deficiency is diagnosed by acylcarnitine analysis on newborn screening blood spot cards by tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis...... length acylcarnitines, octanoylcarnitine (C8) and decanoylcarnitine (C10), were measured on newborn screening blood spot cards. Out of 121,000 live births, 17 newborns had C8 values above the screening cut-off of 0.38 umol/L. Ten newborns had elevated C8 on repeat cards and were investigated further...

  19. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    the necessary equipment, supplies, knowledge and skills that are critical to save newborn lives. PMID:28348194

  20. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-03-27

    save newborn lives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. "Lives in the balance": The politics of integration in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini T; Béhague, Dominique P

    2016-10-01

    A decade ago, the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) was established to combat the growing fragmentation of global health action into uncoordinated, issue-specific efforts. Inspired by dominant global public-private partnerships for health, the PMNCH brought together previously competing advocacy coalitions for safe motherhood and child survival and attracted support from major donors, foundations and professional bodies. Today, its founders highlight its achievements in generating priority for 'MNCH', encouraging integrated health systems thinking and demonstrating the value of collaboration in global health endeavours. Against this dominant discourse on the success of the PMNCH, this article shows that rhetoric in support of partnership and integration often masks continued structural drivers and political dynamics that bias the global health field towards vertical goals. Drawing on ethnographic research, this article examines the Safe Motherhood Initiative's evolution into the PMNCH as a response to the competitive forces shaping the current global health field. Despite many successes, the PMNCH has struggled to resolve historically entrenched programmatic and ideological divisions between the maternal and child health advocacy coalitions. For the Safe Motherhood Initiative, the cost of operating within an extremely competitive policy arena has involved a partial renouncement of ambitions to broader social transformations in favour of narrower, but feasible and 'sellable' interventions. A widespread perception that maternal health remains subordinated to child health even within the Partnership has elicited self-protective responses from the safe motherhood contingent. Ironically, however, such responses may accentuate the kind of fragmentation to global health governance, financing and policy solutions that the Partnership was intended to challenge. The article contributes to the emerging critical ethnographic literature on global health

  2. Modelling the cost of community interventions to reduce child mortality in South Africa using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonki, Lungiswa Ll; Chola, Lumbwe L; Tugendhaft, Aviva A; Hofman, Karen K

    2017-08-28

    To estimate the costs and impact on reducing child mortality of scaling up interventions that can be delivered by community health workers at community level from a provider's perspective. In this study, we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a module in the spectrum software. Within the spectrum software, LiST interacts with other modules, the AIDS Impact Module, Family Planning Module and Demography Projections Module (Dem Proj), to model the impact of more than 60 interventions that affect cause-specific mortality. DemProj Based on National South African Data. A total of nine interventions namely, breastfeeding promotion, complementary feeding, vitamin supplementation, hand washing with soap, hygienic disposal of children's stools, oral rehydration solution, oral antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia, therapeutic feeding for wasting and treatment for moderate malnutrition. Reducing child mortality. A total of 9 interventions can prevent 8891 deaths by 2030. Hand washing with soap (21%) accounts for the highest number of deaths prevented, followed by therapeutic feeding (19%) and oral rehydration therapy (16%). The top 5 interventions account for 77% of all deaths prevented. At scale, an estimated cost of US$169.5 million (US$3 per capita) per year will be required in community health worker costs. The use of community health workers offers enormous opportunities for saving lives. These programmes require appropriate financial investments. Findings from this study show what can be achieved if concerted effort is channelled towards the identified set of life-saving interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Communication and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Learning, Play, and Your Newborn Your Newborn's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses Your Newborn's Growth A Guide for First-Time Parents Sleep and Newborns Jaundice in Healthy Newborns Your Child’s Development: 3-5 Days View more Partner Message About ...

  4. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Braces Eating Disorders Mitral Valve Prolapse Arrhythmias Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  5. Growth and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Learning, Play, and Your Newborn A Guide for First-Time Parents Your Child's Growth Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Your Child's Development: Newborn View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  6. Trends in the Prevalence of Live Macrosomic Newborns According to Gestational Age Strata, in Brazil, 2001-2010, and 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Pereira, Daniele Francine; Lopata, Calliana; Oliveira, Carina Ladeia Flores; Moura, Ariane Arruda de; Mattos, Maria Júlia da Silva; Silva, Lucas Saraiva da

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To describe the trends in the prevalence of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4,000 g) according to gestational age in Brazil in the periods of 2001-2010 and 2012-2014. Methods Ecological study with data from the Brazilian Live Birth Information System (SINASC, in the Portuguese acronym) regarding singleton live newborns born from 22 gestational weeks. The trends in Brazil as a whole and in each of its five regions were analyzed according to preterm (22-36 gestational weeks) and term (37-42 gestational weeks) strata. Annual Percent Changes (APCs) based on the Prais-Winsten method and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to verify statistically significant changes in 2001-2010. Results In Brazil, the prevalence of macrosomic births was of 5.3% (2001-2010) and 5.1% (2012-2014). The rates were systematically higher in the North and Northeast Regions both in the preterm and in term strata. In the preterm stratum, the North Region presented the highest variation in the prevalence of macrosomia (+137.5%) when comparing 2001 (0.8%) to 2010 (1.9%). In the term stratum, downward trends were observed in Brazil as a whole and in every region. The trends for 2012-2014 were more heterogeneous, with the prevalence systematically higher than that observed for 2001-2010. The APC in the preterm stratum (2001-2010) showed a statistically significant trend change in the North (APC: 15.4%; 95%CI: 0.6-32.3) and South (APC: 13.5%; 95%CI: 4.8-22.9) regions. In the term stratum, the change occurred only in the North region (APC:-1.5%; 95%CI: -2.5--0.5). Conclusion The prevalence of macrosomic births in Brazil was higher than 5.0%. Macrosomia has potentially negative health implications for both children and adults, and deserves close attention in the public health agenda in Brazil, as well as further support for investigation and intervention. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  7. Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia is clinically superior, saves lives and is cheaper than non guideline adherent therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke MH

    2011-07-01

    complicated pathogen risk score (CPRS compared to those who received adequate therapy. This shows that therapy based on local experiences may be sufficient for patients with low CPRS but inadequate for those with high CPRS. Linear regression models showed that single items of the CPRS like extrapulmonary organ failure or late onset had no significant influence on the results. Conclusion Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy is clinically superior, saves lives and is less expensive than non guideline adherent therapy. Using a CPRS score can be a useful tool to determine the right choice of initial intravenous antibiotic therapy. the net effect on the German healthcare system per year is estimated at up to 2,042 lives and EUR 125,819,000 saved if guideline-adherent initial therapy for HAP/VAP were established in all German ICUs.

  8. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...... of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... be rationalized within a simple life cycle model. We also review a great number of studies of the consumption Euler equations. Based on our analysis of the studies cited we conclude that there is still mixed evidence that consumption is excessively sensitive to income. We also examine in depth the recent...

  9. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  10. A Science that Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda; Jones, Griff

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-seven deaths per week, nine per day, one every two hours: Motor-vehicle crashes are the number one killer of teenagers in the United States, and although fatalities have declined in recent years, almost 3,500 teenagers still die every year in motor vehicle crashes (NHTSA 2011). In fact, 35% of all deaths among 16- to 19-year-olds are…

  11. Newborn head molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn cranial deformation; Molding of the newborn's head; Neonatal care - head molding ... The bones of a newborn baby's skull are soft and flexible, with gaps between the plates of bone. The spaces between the bony plates of ...

  12. Protective efficacy of malaria case management and intermittent preventive treatment for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steketee Richard W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lives Saved Tool (LiST model was developed to estimate the impact of the scale-up of child survival interventions on child mortality. New advances in antimalarials have improved their efficacy of treating uncomplicated and severe malaria. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and parenteral or rectal artemisinin or quinine for severe malaria syndromes have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of malaria in children. These interventions are now being considered for inclusion in the LiST model. However, for obvious ethical reasons, their protective efficacy (PE compared to placebo is unknown and their impact on reducing malaria-attributable mortality has not been quantified. Methods We performed systematic literature reviews of published studies in P. falciparum endemic settings to determine the protective efficacy (PE of ACT treatment against malaria deaths among children with uncomplicated malaria, as well as the PE of effective case management including parenteral quinine against malaria deaths among all hospitalized children. As no randomized placebo-controlled trials of malaria treatment have been conducted, we used multiple data sources to ascertain estimates of PE, including a previously performed Delphi estimate for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Results Based on multiple data sources, we estimate the PE of ACT treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria on reducing malaria mortality in children 1–23 months to be 99% (range: 94-100%, and in children 24-59 months to be 97% (range: 86-99%. We estimate the PE of treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria with effective case management including intravenous quinine on reducing malaria mortality in children 1-59 months to be 82% (range: 63-94% compared to no treatment. Conclusions This systematic review quantifies the PE of ACT used for treating uncomplicated malaria and effective case

  13. The impact of eliminating within-country inequality in health coverage on maternal and child mortality: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Adrienne

    2017-11-07

    Inequality in healthcare across population groups in low-income countries is a growing topic of interest in global health. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST), which uses health intervention coverage to model maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes such as mortality rates, can be used to analyze the impact of within-country inequality. Data from nationally representative household surveys (98 surveys conducted between 1998 and 2014), disaggregated by wealth quintile, were used to create a LiST analysis that models the impact of scaling up health intervention coverage for the entire country from the national average to the rate of the top wealth quintile (richest 20% of the population). Interventions for which household survey data are available were used as proxies for other interventions that are not measured in surveys, based on co-delivery of intervention packages. For the 98 countries included in the analysis, 24-32% of child deaths (including 34-47% of neonatal deaths and 16-19% of post-neonatal deaths) could be prevented by scaling up national coverage of key health interventions to the level of the top wealth quintile. On average, the interventions with most unequal coverage rates across wealth quintiles were those related to childbirth in health facilities and to water and sanitation infrastructure; the most equally distributed were those delivered through community-based mass campaigns, such as vaccines, vitamin A supplementation, and bednet distribution. LiST is a powerful tool for exploring the policy and programmatic implications of within-country inequality in low-income, high-mortality-burden countries. An "Equity Tool" app has been developed within the software to make this type of analysis easily accessible to users.

  14. Metrics for Identifying Food Security Status and the Population with Potential to Benefit from Nutrition Interventions in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Walker, Neff; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet 's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted. Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as the food security proxy indicator in LiST. Methods: We carried out a desk review to identify available indicators of food security. We identified 3 indicators and compared them by using scatterplots, Spearman's correlations, and Bland-Altman plot analysis. We generated LiST projections to compare the modeled impact results with the use of the different indicators. Results: There are many food security indicators available, but only 3 additional indicators were identified with the data availability requirements to be used as the food security indicator in LiST. As expected, analyzed food security indicators were significantly positively correlated ( P food-insecure contexts. Conclusions: There was no single indicator identified that is ideal for measuring the percentage of the population who is food insecure for LiST. Thus, LiST will use the food security indicators that were used in the meta-analyses that produced the effect estimates. These are the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d for CF interventions and the prevalence of a low body mass index in women of reproductive age for balanced energy supplementation interventions. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Mapping knowledge management resources of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) among people living in rural and urban settings of Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Oladimeji Akeem; Ameen, Hafsat Abolore; Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Akande, Tanimola Makanjuola

    2014-01-01

    Lack of access to information and knowledge about mother and child health was identified as a major contributor to poor maternal and child health in Nigeria. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH) has recognized mapping the knowledge management of Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) as one of the major strategies to be deployed in improving the health of these vulnerable groups. The main aim of this study is to map the knowledge management resources of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) in rural and urban settings of Ilorin West LGA of Kwara state Nigeria. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study with a comparative analysis of findings from urban and rural settings. Epi-mapping was used to carve out the LGA and map responses. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant at 95% confidence level. The study showed that traditional leader was responsible for more than half of the traditional way of obtaining information by rural (66.7%) and urban (56.2%) respondents while documentation accounts for the main MNCH knowledge preservation for the rural (40.6%) and the urban (50%) dwellers. Traditional leaders (32.2%) and elders (46.7%) were the main people responsible for dissemination of knowledge in rural areas whereas elders (35.9%) and Parents (19.9%) were the main people responsible in urban areas. It was concluded that traditional and family institutions are important in the knowledge management of MNCH in both rural and urban settings of Nigeria.

  16. Secure savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn, Tom

    1996-09-01

    When it was installed, Dartmoor Prison`s environmental management system promised enough savings in labour and energy to pay for itself in well under five years. The system`s benefits are appreciated by staff and are thoroughly practical. (author)

  17. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  18. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  19. Newborn test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newborn is commonly assessed with the APGAR score, a quick test performed at 1 and 5 minutes after birth to determine the physical condition of the newborn. The five categories assessed are heart rate, respiratory ...

  20. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... Newborns with transient tachypnea have breathing problems soon after birth, most often within 1 to 2 hours. ...

  1. Nail care for newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Nail care for newborns URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001914.htm Nail care for newborns To use ...

  2. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Chatziioannidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

  3. Saving Turtles; rehabilitating practices and enactments: the entangled lives of sea turtles and people in a turtle conservation organisation in Far Northern Queensland, Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Thomas Sebastian Stolp

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores encounters between humans and sea turtles. Based on six months fieldwork in Cairns, Far Northern Queensland, Australia, my ethnography revolves around Saving Turtles1, an environmental organisation that works to rehabilitate sick and injured sea turtles in two turtle rehab-centres; improvised, yet sturdy and well functioning hospitals built for sea turtles. I discuss how sea turtles emerge differentially through the nexus of practices that connects to this organi...

  4. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne C C; Cousens, Simon; Wall, Stephen N; Niermeyer, Susan; Darmstadt, Gary L; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keenan, William J; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Gill, Christopher; Lawn, Joy E

    2011-04-13

    Of 136 million babies born annually, around 10 million require assistance to breathe. Each year 814,000 neonatal deaths result from intrapartum-related events in term babies (previously "birth asphyxia") and 1.03 million from complications of prematurity. No systematic assessment of mortality reduction from tactile stimulation or resuscitation has been published. To estimate the mortality effect of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation, and basic resuscitation on neonatal deaths due to term intrapartum-related events or preterm birth, for facility and home births. We conducted systematic reviews for studies reporting relevant mortality or morbidity outcomes. Evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria adapted to provide a systematic approach to mortality effect estimates for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Meta-analysis was performed if appropriate. For interventions with low quality evidence but strong recommendation for implementation, a Delphi panel was convened to estimate effect size. We identified 24 studies of neonatal resuscitation reporting mortality outcomes (20 observational, 2 quasi-experimental, 2 cluster randomized controlled trials), but none of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation alone. A meta-analysis of three facility-based studies examined the effect of resuscitation training on intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (RR= 0.70, 95%CI 0.59-0.84); this estimate was used for the effect of facility-based basic neonatal resuscitation (additional to stimulation). The evidence for preterm mortality effect was low quality and thus expert opinion was sought. In community-based studies, resuscitation training was part of packages with multiple concurrent interventions, and/or studies did not distinguish term intrapartum-related from preterm deaths, hence no meta-analysis was conducted. Our Delphi panel of 18 experts estimated that immediate newborn assessment and stimulation would reduce both intrapartum-related and preterm deaths by 10%, facility

  5. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Of 136 million babies born annually, around 10 million require assistance to breathe. Each year 814,000 neonatal deaths result from intrapartum-related events in term babies (previously “birth asphyxia”) and 1.03 million from complications of prematurity. No systematic assessment of mortality reduction from tactile stimulation or resuscitation has been published. Objective To estimate the mortality effect of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation, and basic resuscitation on neonatal deaths due to term intrapartum-related events or preterm birth, for facility and home births. Methods We conducted systematic reviews for studies reporting relevant mortality or morbidity outcomes. Evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria adapted to provide a systematic approach to mortality effect estimates for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Meta-analysis was performed if appropriate. For interventions with low quality evidence but strong recommendation for implementation, a Delphi panel was convened to estimate effect size. Results We identified 24 studies of neonatal resuscitation reporting mortality outcomes (20 observational, 2 quasi-experimental, 2 cluster randomized controlled trials), but none of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation alone. A meta-analysis of three facility-based studies examined the effect of resuscitation training on intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (RR= 0.70, 95%CI 0.59-0.84); this estimate was used for the effect of facility-based basic neonatal resuscitation (additional to stimulation). The evidence for preterm mortality effect was low quality and thus expert opinion was sought. In community-based studies, resuscitation training was part of packages with multiple concurrent interventions, and/or studies did not distinguish term intrapartum-related from preterm deaths, hence no meta-analysis was conducted. Our Delphi panel of 18 experts estimated that immediate newborn assessment and stimulation would reduce both intrapartum

  6. The Use of Economic Evaluation to Inform Newborn Screening Policy Decisions: The Washington State Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Thompson, John D; Ding, Yao; Glass, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Newborn screening not only saves lives but can also yield net societal economic benefit, in addition to benefits such as improved quality of life to affected individuals and families. Calculations of net economic benefit from newborn screening include the monetary equivalent of avoided deaths and reductions in costs of care for complications associated with late-diagnosed individuals minus the additional costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment associated with prompt diagnosis. Since 2001 the Washington State Department of Health has successfully implemented an approach to conducting evidence-based economic evaluations of disorders proposed for addition to the state-mandated newborn screening panel. Economic evaluations can inform policy decisions on the expansion of newborn screening panels. This article documents the use of cost-benefit models in Washington State as part of the rule-making process that resulted in the implementation of screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency and 4 other metabolic disorders in 2004, cystic fibrosis (CF) in 2006, 15 other metabolic disorders in 2008, and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) in 2014. We reviewed Washington State Department of Health internal reports and spreadsheet models of expected net societal benefit of adding disorders to the state newborn screening panel. We summarize the assumptions and findings for 2 models (MCAD and CF) and discuss them in relation to findings in the peer-reviewed literature. The MCAD model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 3.4 to 1 based on assumptions of a 20.0 percentage point reduction in infant mortality and a 13.9 percentage point reduction in serious developmental disability. The CF model projected a benefit-cost ratio of 4.0-5.4 to 1 for a discount rate of 3%-4% and a plausible range of 1-2 percentage point reductions in deaths up to age 10 years. The Washington State cost-benefit models of newborn screening were broadly consistent with peer

  7. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that hasn't responded to other treatments, a blood transfusion may be done. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Pregnancy & Newborn Center Looking at Your Newborn: What's ...

  8. Modeling the potential impact of emerging innovations on achievement of Sustainable Development Goals related to maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Tara; Harner-Jay, Claudia; Shaffer, Craig; Zwisler, Greg; Digre, Peder; Batson, Amie

    2017-01-01

    Innovations that improve the affordability, accessibility, or effectiveness of health care played a major role in the Millennium Development Goal achievements and will be critical for reaching the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) health targets. Mechanisms to identify and prioritize innovations are essential to inform future investment decisions. Innovation Countdown 2030 crowdsourced health innovations from around the world and engaged recognized experts to systematically assess their lifesaving potential by 2030. A health impact modeling approach was developed and used to quantify the costs and lives saved for select innovations identified as having great promise for improving maternal, newborn, and child health. Preventive innovations targeting health conditions with a high mortality burden had the greatest impact in regard to the absolute number of estimated lives saved. The largest projected health impact was for a new tool for small-scale water treatment that automatically chlorinates water to a safe concentration without using electricity or moving parts. An estimated 1.5 million deaths from diarrheal disease among children under five could be prevented by 2030 by scaling up use of this technology. Use of chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care was associated with the second highest number of lives saved. The results show why a systematic modeling approach that can compare and contrast investment opportunities is important for prioritizing global health innovations. Rigorous impact estimates are needed to allocate limited resources toward the innovations with great potential to advance the SDGs.

  9. A prospective newborn screening and treatment program for sickle cell anemia in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Patrick T; Ferris, Margaret G; Ramamurthy, Uma; Santos, Brigida; de Oliveira, Vysolela; Bernardino, Luis; Ware, Russell E

    2013-12-01

    Over 300,000 infants are born annually with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in sub-Saharan Africa, and >50% die young from infection or anemia, usually without diagnosis of SCA. Early identification by newborn screening (NBS), followed by simple interventions dramatically reduced the mortality of SCA in the United States, but this strategy is not yet established in Africa. We designed and implemented a proof-of-principle NBS and treatment program for SCA in Angola, with focus on capacity building and local ownership. Dried bloodspots from newborns were collected from five birthing centers. Hemoglobin identification was performed using isoelectric focusing; samples with abnormal hemoglobin patterns were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Infants with abnormal FS or FSC patterns were enrolled in a newborn clinic to initiate penicillin prophylaxis and receive education, pneumococcal immunization, and insecticide-treated bed nets. A total of 36,453 infants were screened with 77.31% FA, 21.03% FAS, 1.51% FS, and 0.019% FSC. A majority (54.3%) of affected infants were successfully contacted and brought to clinical care. Compliance in the newborn clinic was excellent (96.6%). Calculated first-year mortality rate for babies with SCA compares favorably to the national infant mortality rate (6.8 vs. 9.8%). The SCA burden is extremely high in Angola, but NBS is feasible. Capacity building and training provide local healthcare workers with skills needed for a functional screening program and clinic. Contact and retrieval of all affected SCA infants remains a challenge, but families are compliant with clinic appointments and treatment. Early mortality data suggest screening and early preventive care saves lives. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cantwell, Roch

    2011-03-01

    In the triennium 2006-2008, 261 women in the UK died directly or indirectly related to pregnancy. The overall maternal mortality rate was 11.39 per 100,000 maternities. Direct deaths decreased from 6.24 per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 4.67 per 100,000 maternities in 2006–2008 (p = 0.02). This decline is predominantly due to the reduction in deaths from thromboembolism and, to a lesser extent, haemorrhage. For the first time there has been a reduction in the inequalities gap, with a significant decrease in maternal mortality rates among those living in the most deprived areas and those in the lowest socio-economic group. Despite a decline in the overall UK maternal mortality rate, there has been an increase in deaths related to genital tract sepsis, particularly from community acquired Group A streptococcal disease. The mortality rate related to sepsis increased from 0.85 deaths per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 1.13 deaths in 2006-2008, and sepsis is now the most common cause of Direct maternal death. Cardiac disease is the most common cause of Indirect death; the Indirect maternal mortality rate has not changed significantly since 2003-2005. This Confidential Enquiry identified substandard care in 70% of Direct deaths and 55% of Indirect deaths. Many of the identified avoidable factors remain the same as those identified in previous Enquiries. Recommendations for improving care have been developed and are highlighted in this report. Implementing the Top ten recommendations should be prioritised in order to ensure the overall UK maternal mortality rate continues to decline.

  11. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  12. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear normal. Your infant seems to be "losing" developmental milestones. For example, if your 9-month-old was ... time. Images Skull of a newborn Infantile reflexes Developmental milestones Moro reflex References Feigelman S. The first year. In: ...

  13. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than usual. Continue to nurse or feed on demand. Nursing mothers need not worry — breastfeeding stimulates milk production and your supply of breast milk will adjust to your baby's demand for it. Is My Newborn Getting Enough to ...

  14. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Zinc plays an important role in cellular growth, cellular differentiation and metabolism. The results of previous meta-analyses evaluating effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth are inconsistent. We have updated and evaluated the available evidence according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria and tried to explain the difference in results of the previous reviews. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library, IZiNCG database and WHO regional data bases using different terms for zinc and linear growth (height. Data were abstracted in a standardized form. Data were analyzed in two ways i.e. weighted mean difference (effect size and pooled mean difference for absolute increment in length in centimeters. Random effect models were used for these pooled estimates. We have given our recommendations for effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the form of absolute increment in length (cm in zinc supplemented group compared to control for input to Live Saves Tool (LiST. Results There were thirty six studies assessing the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in children Conclusions Zinc supplementation has a significant positive effect on linear growth, especially when administered alone, and should be included in national strategies to reduce stunting in children

  15. Protocolized versus non-protocolized weaning for reducing the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, Joke M.; van den Hoogen, Agnes; van Zanten, Henriette A.; Helder, Onno; Bol, Bas; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for critically ill newborn infants with respiratory failure admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Ventilating newborn infants can be challenging due to small tidal volumes, high breathing frequencies, and the use of uncuffed

  16. ARC Code TI: Save

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Save is a framework for implementing highly available network-accessible services. Save consists of a command-line utility and a small set of extensions for the...

  17. Fatalism and Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Wu; Joel, Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fatalism, the belief that one has little or no control over future events, on the decision of whether or not to save. We develop a model that predicts that fatalism decreases savings for moderately risk averse individuals, increases savings for highly risk averse individuals, and otherwise has no impact. Furthermore, fatalism decreases effort in learning about savings and investment options. We use data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and find genera...

  18. Environmental economics: Saving lives, money, and ecosystems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2010 ... Environmental economics gives developing countries a unique tool to make development sustainable and to leapfrog over many of the mistakes that industrialized nations have made. IDRC has worked with researchers in developing countries to build this field of applied research, which provides ...

  19. CDC Vital Signs: HIV Care Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in HIV medical care. Health departments and communitybased organizations can Expand HIV testing services to get people ... Diseases (STDs) CDC Global HIV/AIDS CDC Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Preventing Chronic Disease On ...

  20. Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Kathleen; Mathers, Colin; Bonita, Ruth

    2007-02-01

    Stroke caused an estimated 5.7 million deaths in 2005, and 87% of these deaths were in low-income and middle-income countries. Without intervention, the number of global deaths is projected to rise to 6.5 million in 2015 and to 7.8 million in 2030. The rising burden of stroke, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, leads us to propose a worldwide goal for stroke: a 2% reduction each year over and above that which may happen as a result of better case management and treatment. The experience of high-income countries indicates that sustained interventions can achieve at least the required 4% annual average decline in stroke mortality for people age 60-69 years. Achieving this goal for stroke would result in 6.4 million fewer deaths from stroke from 2005 to 2015. More of these deaths will be averted in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  1. WORKING SAVES WOMEN’S LIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Uysal; Hande Paker

    2012-01-01

    Despite sustained efforts in Turkey for many years, violence against women persists. Studies on violence against women reveal that women’s perception about and their attitude towards violence appears to be an important factor regarding the issue. In this research note, the relationship between women’s attitude towards domestic violence and their employment status is analyzed. Even if factors like women’s own education levels, spouse’s education levels, and their regions of residence are taken...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Safer Food Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... states. 46% of multistate foodborne outbreaks result in product recalls. Problem Multistate foodborne outbreaks are serious and hard ... to help investigators identify what made people sick. Recall products linked to an outbreak and notify customers. Choose ...

  3. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  5. Environmental economics: Saving lives, money, and ecosystems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-07

    Oct 7, 2010 ... Environmental economists shed light on underlying causes of environmental degradation and apply economic principles to design solutions that benefit people and the planet. ... Her groundbreaking findings were published in 2009 in the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

  6. Simulations to save time, money, and lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackett, D.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Laboratory`s Conflict Simulation Laboratory (CSL) has been developing computerized programs to simulate combat and other conflicts since 1974. All branches of the military use these systems for training purposes and to prepare for operations as diverse as the 1989 invasion of Panama and peacekeeping in Somalia. The CSL is presently continuing development of the Joint Tactical Simulation (JTS) and recently began work on the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) program for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Army is still using the CSL`s first model, Janus.

  7. Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Purpose of Newborn Hearing Screening Page Content Article Body Before you ... they go home from the hospital. Why do newborns need hearing screening? Babies learn from the time ...

  8. Umbilical cord care in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Umbilical cord care in newborns URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001926.htm Umbilical cord care in newborns To ...

  9. On savings ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochuan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect saving and consumption behaviours, in a context where some believe that the high savings ratio of the East Asia and oil-producing countries is one major cause for the global imbalances and the crisis. The paper elaborates on the factors behind the high savings ratios in East Asia and oil producing countries and low savings ratios in the United States. It argues that the high savings in East Asia can mainly be explained by cultural and structural fac...

  10. GALACTOSEMIA IN NEWBORN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is a hereditary disease, the pathogenetic treatment of which is based on dietotherapy. Early diagnosing and the adequate choice of the diet improve the development forecasts for the ill child. The article describes a classical galactosemia case in a newborn. It is shown that despite diagnosing the disease on the second month of life, the adequate selection of etiopathogenetic dietotherapy and etiotropic therapy of the concurrent diseases helped compensate the inborn galactose metabolism defect and optimize the long-term forecast for the child.Key words: inborn metabolism dysfunctions, alactosemia, dietotherapy, newborn children.

  11. Congenital malformations in newborns of alcoholic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria dos Anjos Mesquita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the presence of fetal alcohol syndrome, other alcohol-related congenital defects, and/or neurodevelopment disorders in newborns of mothers who consumed alcohol during gestation. Methods: In a public maternity in the city of São Paulo, 1,964 puerperal women were interviewed and 654 had consumed alcohol at some point during gestation. The newborns were clinically and laboratorially examined in order to identify the occurrence of fetal alcohol syndrome, congenital defects or neurodevelopment disorders related to alcohol. Results: Three children were found with fetal alcohol syndrome (1.5/1,000 live births, 6 with congenital defects related to alcohol (3.0/1,000 live births, and 67 with developmental disorders related to alcohol (34.1/1,000 live births. The congenital malformations found in these children were thin or absent corpus callosum, brain cyst, asymmetry of the cerebral ventricles, meningomyelocele, cleft lip, anteverted nose, low-set ears, megaureter, hydronephrosis, polydactyly, congenital clubfoot, aphalangia of the toes, cryptorchidism, and hypospadia. Conclusion: Newborns of mothers who consumed alcohol may have congenital malformations of various organs and systems, and early diagnosis is fundamental for a probable and occasional more effective resolution and progress.

  12. Retirement plans, personal saving, and saving adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoboski, P

    2000-03-01

    This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily

  13. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    framework and guidelines for the following EEO period, i.e. 2013-2020. This paper focuses on the net savings impact and describes the evaluation method used to determine this. Three complementary analyses are described: 1) An analysis of the additionality of the reported saving, 2) an analysis...... the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... are inappropriately high. The net impact in the residential sector, on the other hand, was found to be very low. The evaluation recommended that the new EEO design addresses the additionality issues in order to ensure that savings realised in the residential sector are more cost-effective from a socioeconomic...

  14. Medical Care and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Drinks for Kids Medical Care and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your Newborn Print A A A What's in this article? ... as when he or she will see your newborn for the first time, office hours and on- ...

  15. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bladder, and a urethra. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below ... the kidney swells. The ureter remains a normal size. UPJ obstruction usually occurs ... (PUV), the most common form of BOO seen in newborns and during prenatal ...

  16. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  17. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0

  18. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  19. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  20. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  1. Polish households’ saving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Anioła

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of households’ saving strategies types classification. A cluster analysis method, based on households’ saving portfolio, was used for classification. Six types of strategies were distinguished: low risk, conservative, very passive, very conservative, diversification and aggressive.

  2. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  3. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  4. Transport of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikasibhandha, S; Cats, B P

    1977-12-01

    Analysis of facilities used in the transfer of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) to the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (N.I.C.U.) of the Free University Amsterdam during the period 1969-1976 revealed many deficiencies. Most of the sick newborn infants were accompanied by inadequately trained personnel. In a number of cases they were in incubators which could hardly guarantee the neutral thermal temperature for the infant concerned. In the most cases there were no facilities either for resuscitation or for ventilatory assistance during transport. It was found that infants born in the referring hospitals more often required artificial ventilation than infants born in the University Hospital. Since the former were--on an average--more severely ill than the latter, the duration of ventilatory assistance was usually longer and their survival rate was lower. Retrospectively, in many instances referred infants were on admission already in such a condition that artificial ventilation should have been started long before. General aspects of newborn transport, viz. way of transport, incubator with facilities for emergency care i.e. artificial ventilation and intravascular therapy, accompanying personnel, stabilization of the infant, role of education and evaluation of the transport are discussed.

  5. New Option in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Allows for the Conversion of Prevalence of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births to Prevalence of Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software model that estimates the health impact of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health. One of the outputs of the model is an estimation of births by fetal size [appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA)] and by length of gestation (term or preterm), both of which influence birth weight. LiST uses prevalence estimates of births in these categories rather than of birth weight categories, because the causes and health consequences differ between SGA and preterm birth. The World Health Assembly nutrition plan, however, has set the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) as a key indicator, with a specific goal of a 30% reduction in LBW prevalence by 2025. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop an algorithm that will allow LiST users to estimate changes in prevalence of LBW on the basis of changes in coverage of interventions and the resulting impact on prevalence estimates of SGA and preterm births. Methods: The study used 13 prospective cohort data sets from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 5 from Asia, and 4 from Latin America), with reliable measures of gestational age and birth weight. By calculating the proportion of LBW births among SGA and preterm births in each data set and meta-analyzing those estimates, we calculated region-specific pooled rates of LBW among SGA and preterm births. Results: In Africa, 0.4% of term-AGA, 36.7% of term-SGA, 49.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Asia, 1.0% of term-SGA, 47.0% of term-SGA, 36.7% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Latin America, 0.4% of term-AGA, 34.4% of term-SGA, 32.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. Conclusions: The simple conversion factor proposed here allows for the estimation of LBW within LiST for most LMICs. This will allow LiST users to approximate the impact of their health programs on

  6. Energy saving report; Energispareredegoerelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Making the energy consumption more efficient in Denmark by means of energy saving are connected to the Danish government's overall National Growth Strategy. A reduced consumption of energy as a result of economic attractive energy saving initiatives leads to reduced energy costs and consequently an improvement of Denmark's competitive power. Furthermore, reducing the energy consumption decreases the vulnerability towards rising energy prices, and the security of supplies is increased. Finally energy conservation serves as a means of reducing environmental impact from the energy sector. Energy consumption is not damaging to the environment in itself, however, to the extent that energy consumption causes negative impact on the environment, e.g. through discharge of environmentally damaging substances generated during energy production, a reduction of the energy consumption will benefit the environment. Energy saving in itself does not lead to a decrease in CO{sub 2} emission in Denmark unless it is accompanied by an adjustment of CO{sub 2} quotas on production of electricity. The Danish Government emphasizes that the energy saving efforts are cost-effective both for the society and for the consumers. The energy saving report contains an updated projection of the Danish energy consumption and an evaluation of the impacts of the energy saving efforts. The impacts of more effective end use of energy are described, and an account of the barriers preventing the realization of a number of potential economic attractive energy saving initiatives is made. Finally the energy saving report presents a number of proposals for new energy saving initiatives. (BA)

  7. Living with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life TIPS To Its Fullest LIVING WITH LOW VISION Savings Medical Bills A VARIETY OF EYE CONDITIONS, ... which occupational therapy practitioners help people with low vision to function at the highest possible level. • Prevent ...

  8. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epidemic Larger than Estimated, American Lung Association Continues Tradition of Funding Research to Investigate TB, Save Lives ... Member Center | RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy Our Family Of Sites nonprofit software Join the fight for ...

  9. Simplification and Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2012-01-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  10. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... This breath sounds like a gasp, as the newborn's central nervous system reacts to the sudden change ... fluid, and the uterine wall. After delivery, the newborn begins to lose heat. Receptors on the baby's ...

  11. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby > Newborn screening tests for your baby Newborn screening tests for your baby E-mail to ... can be treated if found early. What is newborn screening? Before your baby leaves the hospital, he ...

  12. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice ... What causes jaundice in a newborn child? How common is newborn jaundice? Will the jaundice harm my child? What are the treatments for jaundice? How long does ...

  13. Data integration and warehousing: coordination between newborn screening and related public health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrell, Bradford L

    2003-01-01

    At birth, patient demographic and health information begin to accumulate in varied databases. There are often multiple sources of the same or similar data. New public health programs are often created without considering data linkages. Recently, newborn hearing screening (NHS) programs and immunization programs have virtually ignored the existence of newborn dried blood spot (DBS) newborn screening databases containing similar demographic data, creating data duplication in their 'new' systems. Some progressive public health departments are developing data warehouses of basic, recurrent patient information, and linking these databases to other health program databases where programs and services can benefit from such linkages. Demographic data warehousing saves time (and money) by eliminating duplicative data entry and reducing the chances of data errors. While newborn screening data are usually the first data available, they should not be the only data source considered for early data linkage or for populating a data warehouse. Birth certificate information should also be considered along with other data sources for infants that may not have received newborn screening or who may have been born outside of the jurisdiction and not have birth certificate information locally available. This newborn screening serial number provides a convenient identification number for use in the DBS program and for linking with other systems. As a minimum, data linkages should exist between newborn dried blood spot screening, newborn hearing screening, immunizations, birth certificates and birth defect registries.

  14. Moving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Evidence into Policy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Evidence into Policy in West Africa. This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in West Africa. A part of the ... Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class ...

  15. Design for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Bringing a newborn home from the hospital can come with stress for any parent. Coming home with twins can be double the stress. This article shares the story of a couple faced with this situation 12 years ago with the birth of twins, one was born with complications. They lived in a Colonial until the twins were almost five years old, at which time…

  16. congenital epulis in a newborn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Congenital epulis is a rare lesion of the newborn, presenting as mass in the oral cavity which can interfere with respiration and feeding. It should be distinguished from other lesions which can occur in newborns, both clinically and histopathologically. CASE DETAILS: Here, we report a case of congenital ...

  17. Setting the global health agenda: The influence of advocates and ideas on political priority for maternal and newborn survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie L; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates a puzzle concerning global health priorities-why do comparable issues receive differential levels of attention and resources? It considers maternal and neonatal mortality, two high-burden issues that pertain to groups at risk at birth and whose lives could be saved with effective intrapartum care. Why did maternal survival gain status as a global health priority earlier and to a greater degree than newborn survival? Higher mortality and morbidity burdens among newborns and the cost-effectiveness of interventions would seem to predict that issue's earlier and higher prioritization. Yet maternal survival emerged as a priority two decades earlier and had attracted considerably more attention and resources by the close of the Millennium Development Goals era. This study uses replicative process-tracing case studies to examine the emergence and growth of political priority for these two issues, probing reasons for unexpected variance. The study finds that maternal survival's grounding as a social justice issue spurred growth of a strong and diverse advocacy network and aligned the issue with powerful international norms (e.g. expectations to advance women's rights and the Millennium Development Goals), drawing attention and resources to the issue over three decades. Newborn survival's disadvantage stems from its long status as an issue falling under the umbrellas of maternal and child survival but not fully adopted by these networks, and with limited appeal as a public health issue advanced by a small and technically focused network; network expansion and alignment with child survival norms have improved the issue's status in the past few years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Saving Behaviour of a Two Person Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The facts that wives are typically younger than their husbands and that women typically live longer than men imply that wives may have more incentive to save for old age than do husbands. A theoretical model of the determination of household saving and portfolio choice is introduced which takes...... into account differences in preferences for saving. The most important result is that the level and the composition (portfolio) of saving and the time path of consumption are dependent on the distribution of income within the household...

  19. Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This booklet offers guidance to parents in caring for their newborn babies. Advice is given on the following topics: (1) newborn health screening; (2) what a healthy newborn looks like; (3) newborn reflexes; (4) baby checkups; (5) fathers' role; (6) the baby blues; (7) sleeping position; (8) breast milk; (9) breast feeding; (10) bottle feeding;…

  20. IRA's for College Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michael S.; Byce, Charles R.

    This paper analyzes the merits of proposals to encourage saving for college by permitting families to use funds accumulated in Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA's) to pay postsecondary education expenses. The paper argues that tax treatment of such expenditures might parallel that for expenditures of IRA's for retirement purposes--deferring tax…

  1. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  2. New Savings through Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battise, Laura

    2011-01-01

    After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…

  3. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  4. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Communication Disorders Click to enlarge image Newborn Hearing Infographic Illustration: NIH, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders In 1993, children born in the U.S. were screened for hearing ...

  5. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and weeks of life, newborns can recognize their mother's voice. Your infant will respond to your voice ( ... particularly during fussy times. Smile, stick out your tongue, and make other expressions for your infant to ...

  6. [The functional characteristics of hemostasis of full-term and premature newborn according results of thromboflexography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, G N; Nazarov, S B; Popova, I G; Klytcheva, M M; Kharlamova, N M

    2013-05-01

    The study was carried out using the sample of 40 full-term and 138 premature newborns at 1 - 15th day of live and 20 adult donors. The thromboflexograph TEG 5000 was applied. The study used citrate stabilized venous blood. In full-term newborns the activation of thrombin and fibrin formation (decreasing of constant of coagulation, increasing of velocity of fibrin formation) was detected as compared with adults. In premature newborns shortage of time period of development of reactions of enzyme cascade, shortage of time period of achievement of ultimate amplitude of forming clot and increasing of fibrinolysis were detected as compared with adult donors. The differences in hemostatic system of full-term and premature newborns are characterized by lower functional activity of thrombocytes, decreased strength of forming clots and lower blood coagulation index of premature newborns.

  7. Pain Management in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard W.; Anand, Kanwaljeet J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Effective pain management is a desirable standard of care for preterm and term newborns and may potentially improve their clinical and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Neonatal pain should be assessed routinely using context-specific, validated and objective pain methods, despite the limitations of currently available tools. Reducing invasive procedures, and using pharmacological, behavioral or environmental measures can be used to manage neonatal pain. Non-pharmacologic approaches include kangaroo care, facilitated tucking, non-nutritive sucking, sucrose and other sweeteners, massage and acupuncture therapy. They are used for procedures causing acute, transient, or mild pain, or as adjunctive therapy for moderate or severe pain. Local and topical anesthetics can reduce the acute pain caused by skin-breaking or mucosa-injuring procedures. Opioids form the mainstay for treatment of severe pain; morphine and fentanyl are the most commonly used drugs, although other opioids are also available. Non-opioid drugs include various sedatives and anesthetic agents, mostly used as adjunctive therapy in ventilated neonates. Acetaminophen, ibuprofen and other drugs are used for neonates, although their efficacy and safety remains unproven. Approaches for implementing an effective pain management program in the Neonatal ICU are summarized, together with practical protocols for procedural, postoperative, and mechanical ventilation-associated neonatal pain and stress. PMID:25459780

  8. Genuine savings and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Nicholas David; Dupuy, Louis Paul; MCLAUGHLIN, Eoin

    2015-01-01

    Genuine Savings has emerged as the leading economic indicator of sustainable economic development at the country level. It derives from the literatures on weak sustainability, wealth accounting and national income accounting. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of GS, focusing on the relationship between changes in a nation's extended capital stock and the future path of consumption. The indicator has entered widespread use propelled by the World Bank's publications, despite its varying ...

  9. Save More Tomorrow: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Richard H.; Benartzi, Shlomo

    2004-01-01

    As firms switch from defined-benefit plans to defined-contribution plans, employees bear more responsibility for making decisions about how much to save. The employees who fail to join the plan or who participate at a very low level appear to be saving at less than the predicted life cycle savings rates. Behavioral explanations for this behavior…

  10. Gestational health and predictors of newborn weight amongst pregnant women in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, T; Vaahtera, M; Ndekha, M; Koivisto, A M; Cullinan, T; Salin, M L; Ashorn, P

    2001-12-01

    This study was conducted to provide community-based data on maternal health and predictors of newborn weight in rural Malawi. Data were obtained prospectively from a community-based cohort of 581 pregnant women who attended an antenatal clinic and delivered a term, live-born, singleton infant in Lungwena, rural Malawi. Morbidity from infectious diseases and anaemia was common. Maternal weight gain in rural Malawi was slower but fundal height gain was comparable to that of an affluent western population. The mean +/- SD weight of term newborns was 3.2 +/- 0.5 kilograms. A regression model including data from all routine investigations explained only 24% of the variance in newborn weights, suggesting that routine antenatal measurements had a limited power to predict the size of term live-born babies. Maternal parity, initial weight, the duration of pregnancy and gestational weight gain were associated with newborn weights and should, therefore, be systematically recorded in rural Malawian antenatal clinics.

  11. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  12. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  13. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  14. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  15. Screening of the hearing of newborns - Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Voß, Hubertus

    2006-11-01

    our former health technology assessment report was updated. Results: Universal newborn hearing screening programs are able to substantially reduce the age at identification and the age at intervention of children with CHL to six months of age in the German health care setting. High coverage rates, low fail rates and - if tracking systems are implemented – high follow-up-rates to diagnostic evaluation for test positives were achieved. New publications on potential benefits of early intervention could not be retrieved. For a final assessment of cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening evidence based long-term data are lacking. Decision analytic models with lifelong time horizon assuming that early detection results in improved language abilities and lower educational costs and higher life time productivity showed a potential of UNHS for long term cost savings compared to selective screening and no screening. For the short-term cost-effectiveness with a time horizon up to diagnostic evaluation more evidence based data are available. The average costs per case diagnosed range from 16,000 EURO to 33,600 EURO in Germany and hence are comparable to the cost of other implemented newborn screening programs. Empirical data for cost of selective screening in the German health care setting are lacking. Our decision analytic model shows that selective screening is more cost-effective but detects only 50% of all cases of congenital hearing loss. Discussion: There is good evidence that UNHS-Programs with appropriate quality management can reduce the age at start of intervention below six months. Up to now there is no indication of considerable negative consequences of screening for children with false positive test results and their parents. However, it is more difficult to prove the efficacy of early intervention to improve long-term outcomes. Randomized clinical trials of the efficacy of early intervention for children with CHL hearing losses are inappropriate because of

  16. The Saving Behaviour of a Two Person Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    and portfolio choice taking into account differences in preferences for saving. The model is a non-cooperative game in which each person can use their own current income to contribute to current (household) consumption or to a range of assets. The results derived are in marked contrast to 'unitary' models......Wives are typically younger than their husbands and women typically live longer than men. These two facts mean that for a typical married couple, wives have more incentive to save for old age than do husbands. This paper presents a theoretical model of the determination of household saving...... of intertemporal allocation that assume a single household utility function and conclude that saving is unaffected by the distribution of income within the household. The most important result is that the level and the composition (portfolio) of savings and the time path of consumption is highly dependent...

  17. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  18. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Altunhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  19. Efficacy and acceptability of an "App on sick newborn care" in physicians from newborn units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prakash, V; Thukral, Anu; Sankar, M Jeeva; Agarwal, Ramesh K; Paul, Vinod K; Deorari, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    ... in this direction has been the emphasis on institutional deliveries and strengthening of "Facility based newborn care" in the public health system, which envisages a nationwide creation of special newborn care units (SNCUs) at district hospitals in addition to newborn Care Corners (NBCC) at every point of child birth, and newborn stabil...

  20. Impact of umbilical cord cleansing with 4% chlorhexidine on rate of omphalitis and separation time among newborns in Khartoum state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoneim E.M. Kheir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the umbilical cord remains high in developing countries with subsequent increase in neonatal mortality rates. This may be due to the practice of applying potentially harmful substances to the freshly cut cord. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of umbilical cord care with 4% chlorhexidine on the rate of omphalitis and separation time among newborns in Khartoum State. This was a quasi-experimental research design that was carried out in the main maternity hospitals of Khartoum state between February and August 2012. One hundred mothers and their respective babies were selected by convenience sampling and were divided equally into intervention and control groups. The tools used for data collection were a questionnaire and an observational checklist. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17 for descriptive and inferential statistics. Umbilical cord training was effective in enhancing mothers’ knowledge and skills in the intervention group. The result showed that the omphalitis rate was reduced significantly in the intervention group; also the intervention group had a shorter separation time (mean=5.02 compared to the control group (mean=7.24. In conclusion, the application of 4% chlorhexidine on the freshly cut umbilical cord stump, significantly reduces omphalitis rate. This inexpensive and simple intervention can save a significant number of newborn lives in developing countries.

  1. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  2. Unlocking community capabilities for improving maternal and newborn health: participatory action research to improve birth preparedness, health facility access, and newborn care in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community capacities and resources must be harnessed to complement supply side initiatives addressing high maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Uganda. This paper reflects on gains, challenges and lessons learnt from working with communities to improve maternal and newborn health in rural Uganda. Methods A participatory action research project was supported from 2012 to 2015 in three eastern districts. This project involved working with households, saving groups, sub county and district leaders, transporters and village health teams in diagnosing causes of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, developing action plans to address these issues, taking action and learning from action in a cyclical manner. This paper draws from project experience and documentation, as well as thematic analysis of 20 interviews with community and district stakeholders and 12 focus group discussions with women who had recently delivered and men whose wives had recently delivered. Results Women and men reported increased awareness about birth preparedness, improved newborn care practices and more male involvement in maternal and newborn health. However, additional direct communication strategies were required to reach more men beyond the minority who attended community dialogues and home visits. Saving groups and other saving modalities were strengthened, with money saved used to meet transport costs, purchase other items needed for birth and other routine household needs. However saving groups required significant support to improve income generation, management and trust among members. Linkages between savings groups and transport providers improved women’s access to health facilities at reduced cost. Although village health teams were a key resource for providing information, their efforts were constrained by low levels of education, inadequate financial compensation and transportation challenges. Ensuring that the village health

  3. [Clinical features of early newborn infants with congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoping; Mao, Liangyuan; Chen, Shaozhi

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the clinical feature of early newborn infants with congenital heart disease. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of 477 newborn infants with congenital heart disease born within seven days out of 28 050 live births in Shaoxing women and children hospital from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2012. Infants with congenital heart disease were divided into single malformation group (240 cases), composite deformity group (199 cases) and multiple malformations group (38 cases). Differences of clinical feature were compared between the three groups. Atrial septal defect was the most malformation 91.6% (437/477) .Incidence of preterm birth was higher in newborn inants with congenital heart disease [512.23/10 000(134/2 616)] than infants without without congenital heart disease [134.86/10 000 (343/25 434) , P congenital heart disease groups was similar (P > 0.05) . The incidence of small for gestational age in congenital heart disease group (10.90%, 52/477) was also significantly higher than those without congenital heart disease group (5.91%, 1 630/27 573, P congenital heart disease of complex malformations, multiple malformations groups was higher than that in the single malformation group (P congenital heart disease. The incidence of preterm is higher in newborn infants with congenital heart disease. Complex and multiple malformations are linked with small for gestational age birth weight.

  4. A Roadmap to Newborn Screening for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiah A. Al-Zaidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy, with an estimated frequency of 1:5000 live births. The impact of the disease presents as early as infancy with significant developmental delays, and ultimately loss of ambulation and respiratory insufficiency. Glucocorticoids are the only pharmacological agents known to alter the natural progression of the disease by prolonging ambulation, reducing scoliosis, and assisted ventilation. Introduction of therapy at an early age may halt the muscle pathology in DMD. In anticipation of the potentially disease-modifying products that are reaching regulatory review, Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy (PPMD formally initiated a national Duchenne Newborn Screening (DNBS effort in December 2014 to build public health infrastructure for newborn screening (NBS for Duchenne in the United States. The effort includes a formalized national Duchenne Newborn Screening Steering Committee, six related Working Groups, a Duchenne Screening Test Development Project led by PerkinElmer, a program with the American College of Medical Genetic and Genomics’ Newborn Screening Translation Research Network (NBSTRN, and collaborations with other Duchenne partners and federal agencies involved in NBS. We herein review the organization and effort of the U.S. DNBS program to develop the evidence supporting the implementation of NBS for DMD.

  5. International Comparison of Household Savings Behaviour: The German Savings Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Börsch-Supan

    2002-01-01

    This mea discussion paper presents excerpts of the International Savings Comparison Project covering household savings behaviour in seven countries. The whole series of comparative country studies can be found in a special issue of the journal “Research in Economics†, Volume 55, Number 2, June 2001. The introduction gives an outline of the research program of the project. A project as complex as the International Savings Comparison Project has sparked discussions and controversy. Tullio J...

  6. Saving environment for human survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N C

    The environmental crisis is complex, requiring many solutions. However, it is the responsibility of the State Government to protect and improve the environment. This can not be accomplished by merely writing legislation but by enforcing measures to save the natural world. The world environmental crisis has resulted in the ubiquitous poverty of developing nations (called the "pollution of poverty"). The growing control of resources has allowed a small consortium of powerful countries the ability to enjoy Earth's resources while other developing countries suffer in the abyss of the crisis. A redistribution of power and resources shared by the entire global community is needed. Although measures such as the Environmental Protection Act of 1986 have begun to set standards for a higher quality of living, not all industries have been regulated by the act, and no effective method of monitoring industrial pollution has been established in India. Factors such as depleting jungles, the squandering of natural resources such as soil, water and air and rapid urbanization have accelerated the need for stronger environmental laws and greater awareness and actions. A philosophy that emphasizes the inter-dependence of man and nature most be adopted globally if the augmenting crisis is to be abated.

  7. 2011 John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Awards. The Henry Ford Health System No Harm Campaign: a comprehensive model to reduce harm and save lives. innovation in patient safety and quality at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, William A; Hawkins, Susan; Jordan, Jack; Voutt-Goos, Mary J

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Henry Ford Health System launched its "No Harm Campaign," designed to integrate harm-reduction interventions into a systemwide initiative and, ultimately, to eliminate harm from the health care experience. The No Harm Campaign aims to decrease harm events through enhancing the system's culture of safety by reporting and studying harm events, researching causality, identifying priorities, and redesigning care to eliminate harm. The campaign uses a comprehensive set of 27 measures for harm reduction, covering infection-, medication-, and procedure-related harm, as well as other types of harm, all of which are combined to comprise a unique global harm score. The campaign's objective is to reduce all-cause harm events systemwide by 50% by 2013. A wide range of communication processes, from systemwide leadership retreats to daily e-mail news sent to all employees and physicians, is used to promote the campaign. In addition, the campaign is on the intranet "Knowledge Wall," where monthly dashboards, meeting minutes, and best practices and the work of our teams and collaboratives are documented and shared. From 2008 through 2011, a 31% reduction in harm events and an 18% reduction in inpatient mortality occurred systemwide. Building infrastructure, creating a culture of safety, providing employee training and education, and improving work process design are critical to systemwide implementation of harm-reduction efforts. Key actions for ongoing success focus on leadership, disseminating performance, putting everyone to work, and stealing ideas through national and local collaborations. A financial model was created to assess cost-savings of reducing harm events; early results total nearly $10 million in four years.

  8. Newborn with severe epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Martin Lehmann; Bygum, Anette; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an inherited skin disease with four main subtypes that cannot be distinguished clinically at birth. All subtypes may present with widespread life-threatening blisters and fragile skin, making treatment and handling of the newborn with EB challenging. The prognosis...

  9. Kluyvera meningitis in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marisa; Rojas, Pilar; Garcia, Elisa; Marquez, Javier; Losada, Antonio; Muñoz, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    Kluyvera is described infrequently in association with clinically significant infections in humans. It can produce a wide range of clinically significant manifestations. We describe a newborn with ventriculoperitoneal shunt, who was successfully treated for Kluyvera meningitis. We believe that this is the first case of Kluyvera central nervous system infection reported in a child.

  10. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  11. Congenital syphilis in the newborn.

    OpenAIRE

    V; Chawla; Pandit, P B; Nkrumah, F K

    1988-01-01

    We studied 53 newborn babies with congenital syphilis. The common clinical features seen were low birth weight, hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia, jaundice, and symmetrical superficial desquamation of the skin affecting palms and soles. The presence of these clinical signs is highly suggestive of early congenital syphilis. Hydrops fetalis without rhesus or ABO isoimmunisation should always arouse the suspicion of congenital syphilis.

  12. Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodamer, Olaf A; Scott, C Ronald; Giugliani, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    Started in 1963 by Robert Guthrie, newborn screening (NBS) is considered to be one of the great public health achievements. Its original goal was to screen newborns for conditions that could benefit from presymptomatic treatment, thereby reducing associated morbidity and mortality. With advances in technology, the number of disorders included in NBS programs increased. Pompe disease is a good candidate for NBS. Because decisions regarding which diseases should be included in NBS panels are made regionally and locally, programs and efforts for NBS for Pompe disease have been inconsistent both in the United States and globally. In this article, published in the "Newborn Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Pompe Disease" guidance supplement, the Pompe Disease Newborn Screening Working Group, an international group of experts in both NBS and Pompe disease, review the methods used for NBS for Pompe disease and summarize results of current and ongoing NBS programs in the United States and other countries. Challenges and potential drawbacks associated with NBS also are discussed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Platelet indices in SGA newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiluk, A; Dabrowska, M; Osada, J; Jasinska, E; Laudanski, T; Redzko, S

    2011-01-01

    The current study objective was to compare blood platelet indices in full-term small-for-gestational-age newborns (SGA) and full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns (AGA). We introduced to our study 61 SGA newborns (31 females and 30 males) and 70 eutrophic infants (32 females and 38 males). The SGA newborns were divided into two groups: those weighing less than the 5th centile: 35 infants (16 females and 19 males) and those between the 5th and 10th centiles: 26 infants (15 females and 11 males). Platelet indices were estimated in blood samples collected from the umbilical artery. SGA demonstrated a decreased count of blood platelets (238×103/μ) as compared with AGA (286×103/μL), p=0.0001. Platelet hematocrit (PTC) also showed differences in both groups (SGA=0.19% vs. AGA=0.22%; p=0.0005). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was higher in SGA (8.25fl) as compared with AGA (7.84fl); p=0.008. Large platelet count (LPLT) was higher in AGA 6.26% vs. SGA=4.75%; p=0.01. Platelet distribution width (PDW) was found to be nearly the same (SGA=47%, AGA=46%). PDW was higher in SGA newborns SGA infants between the 5th and 10th centiles (52%); p=0.008. A decreased blood platelet count, platelet hematocrit and large metabolically active platelet count, which in addition to reduced synthesis and excessive consumption of coagulation factors in states of hiperclotting is characteristic of IUGR, enhances the possibility of bleeding complications and increases the risk of infections. From a clinical point of view, it is important to take into consideration the degree of intrauterine hypotrophy during the evaluation of hemostatic disorders.

  14. Metabolomics in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Antonio; Fanos, Vassilios; Dessì, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of a large number of low molecular weight metabolites that are intermediate or final products of all the metabolic pathways in a living organism. Any metabolic profiles detectable in a human biological fluid are caused by the interaction between gene expression and the environment. The metabolomics approach offers the possibility to identify variations in metabolite profile that can be used to discriminate disease. This is particularly important for neonatal and pediatric studies especially for severe ill patient diagnosis and early identification. This property is of a great clinical importance in view of the newer definitions of health and disease. This review emphasizes the workflow of a typical metabolomics study and summarizes the latest results obtained in neonatal studies with particular interest in prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, inborn errors of metabolism, perinatal asphyxia, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, kidney disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and cardiac malformation and dysfunction. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Saving water through global trade

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; H. H. G. Savenije

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The report analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been r...

  16. Patterns and Determinants of Essential Newborn Care Practices in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was designed to understand the patterns and determinants of three essential newborn care practices: safe cord care, optimal thermal care, and neonatal feeding practices. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 lactating mothers who have delivered a live baby at home within the past one year prior to the study. Results. Overall, the prevalence of essential newborn practices on safe cord care and optimal thermal care was exceptionally low. Of the 404 newborns, only 0.2% (1 had safe cord care, 5.2% (21 optimal thermal care, and 50.2% (203 were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. In logistic regression analysis, the main predictors of good neonatal feeding were maternal age, timing of the first antenatal care (ANC, and maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Women who could mention at least 4 danger signs of the neonate were 4 times more likely to give good neonatal feeding to their babies (AOR = 4.7, Cl: 2.43–9.28, P<0.001. Conclusion. Evidence from this study strongly suggests that the expected essential newborn care practices are not available to a substantial number of the newborns. Efforts should therefore be made by the Ghana Health Service (GHS to expand essential newborn care interventions beyond institutional level into the communities.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of newborn circumcision in reducing lifetime HIV risk among U.S. males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Sansom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV incidence was substantially lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised heterosexual African men in three clinical trials. Based on those findings, we modeled the potential effect of newborn male circumcision on a U.S. male's lifetime risk of HIV, including associated costs and quality-adjusted life-years saved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given published estimates of U.S. males' lifetime HIV risk, we calculated the fraction of lifetime risk attributable to heterosexual behavior from 2005-2006 HIV surveillance data. We assumed 60% efficacy of circumcision in reducing heterosexually-acquired HIV over a lifetime, and varied efficacy in sensitivity analyses. We calculated differences in lifetime HIV risk, expected HIV treatment costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs among circumcised versus uncircumcised males. The main outcome measure was cost per HIV-related QALY saved. Circumcision reduced the lifetime HIV risk among all males by 15.7% in the base case analysis, ranging from 7.9% for white males to 20.9% for black males. Newborn circumcision was a cost-saving HIV prevention intervention for all, black and Hispanic males. The net cost of newborn circumcision per QALY saved was $87,792 for white males. Results were most sensitive to the discount rate, and circumcision efficacy and cost. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Newborn circumcision resulted in lower expected HIV-related treatment costs and a slight increase in QALYs. It reduced the 1.87% lifetime risk of HIV among all males by about 16%. The effect varied substantially by race and ethnicity. Racial and ethnic groups who could benefit the most from circumcision may have least access to it due to insurance coverage and state Medicaid policies, and these financial barriers should be addressed. More data on the long-term protective effect of circumcision on heterosexual males as well as on its efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM would be useful.

  18. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  19. Count every newborn; a measurement improvement roadmap for coverage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP), launched in 2014, aims to end preventable newborn deaths and stillbirths, with national targets of ≤12 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births and ≤12 stillbirths per 1000 total births by 2030. This requires ambitious improvement of the data on care at birth and of small and sick newborns, particularly to track coverage, quality and equity. Methods In a multistage process, a matrix of 70 indicators were assessed by the Every Newborn steering group. Indicators were graded based on their availability and importance to ENAP, resulting in 10 core and 10 additional indicators. A consultation process was undertaken to assess the status of each ENAP core indicator definition, data availability and measurement feasibility. Coverage indicators for the specific ENAP treatment interventions were assigned task teams and given priority as they were identified as requiring the most technical work. Consultations were held throughout. Results ENAP published 10 core indicators plus 10 additional indicators. Three core impact indicators (neonatal mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate) are well defined, with future efforts needed to focus on improving data quantity and quality. Three core indicators on coverage of care for all mothers and newborns (intrapartum/skilled birth attendance, early postnatal care, essential newborn care) have defined contact points, but gaps exist in measuring content and quality of the interventions. Four core (antenatal corticosteroids, neonatal resuscitation, treatment of serious neonatal infections, kangaroo mother care) and one additional coverage indicator for newborns at risk or with complications (chlorhexidine cord cleansing) lack indicator definitions or data, especially for denominators (population in need). To address these gaps, feasible coverage indicator definitions are presented for validity testing. Measurable process indicators to help monitor health service readiness

  20. [Prevalence of ankyloglossia in newborns in Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Jiménez, D; Costa Romero, M; Riaño Galán, I; González Martínez, M T; Rodríguez Pando, M C; Lobete Prieto, C

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of ankyloglossia has been estimated at around 4% of live births. Its prevalence at national level is unknown. Multicenter, prospective observational study. Six hospitals in Asturias took part. All newborns were examined on Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays for 3 months. Coryllos and Hazelbaker criteria were used to diagnose ankyloglossia. The prevalence in the 667 newborns examined was 12.11% (95% CI: 9.58 to 14.64), of whom 62% were male. One in 4 children with ankyloglossia had a family history. According to Coryllos' classification, type II was the most common (54%). The prevalence of ankyloglossia in Asturias was 2 to t3 times higher than expected. The diagnostic criteria for ankyloglossia needs to be unified, and further studies are required to determine the association with breastfeeding difficulties and other health problems. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. A newborn with neck mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rita Calado; Barroso, Laura Martins; Mendes, Maria José; Joaquim, Isabel Fernandes; Ornelas, Helder

    2011-03-01

    Congenital goiter is a rare cause of neonatal neck mass and may result from a fetal defectin synthesis of thyroxine, or administration of antithyroid drugs or iodides during pregnancy. The thyroid dysfunction often accompanies it. This report describes a case of a male term newborn with congenital goiter and primary hypothyroidism. Hormonal replacement treatment was started leading to normal levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine. In face of a maternal negative investigation, dyshormonogenesis was considered to be the most probable cause of hypothyroidism.

  2. [Congenital syphilis: incidence among newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Moura, E F; Ramos, F L; Holanda, V G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of congenital syphilis among newborns at the maternity of a public hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted at the maternity of Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará, from May to September 1996; 361 mothers were interviewed, and physical examination was performed in their newborns. Serum samples from both, mothers and neonates, were tested using three methods: VDRL, FTA - Abs, ELISA IgM. The diagnosis of congenital syphilis was established according to the criteria defined by Ministério da Saúde in 1993. RESULTS: The rate of congenital syphilis was of 9.1% (33); in 14 cases, there were one or more signs of the disease: prematurity, hepatomegaly, stillbirth, splenomegaly, perinatal death, abdominal distention, nasal stuffiness, jaundice, newborn small for gestational age. The majority of the infected mothers belonged to the age group of 20-35 years (81.8%); 60.6% were married; 63.6% received prenatal care; 48.5% reported previous spontaneous abortion, and 12.1% previous stillbirth. The rate of bisexuality among fathers was of 9.1%. CONCLUSION: The syphilis control measures and the prenatal care, have not been sufficient to prevent the high rate of the disease.

  3. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  4. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...... organizations increases the proportion of liquid assets held in the form of deposits that yield a return. Our results imply that targeting information on the benefits of deposit saving through formal networks or groups would be effective in increasing the number of households that save at grassroots level....

  5. Newborn Screening for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann B. Moser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of males with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is essential for preventing loss of life due to adrenal insufficiency and for timely therapy of the childhood cerebral form of X-ALD with hematopoietic cell transplantation. This article describes X-ALD, the current therapies, the history of the development of the newborn screening test, the approval by the Secretary of Health and Human Services for the addition of X-ALD newborn screening to the recommended uniform panel of disorders screened as newborns (RUSP and the successful implementation of X-ALD newborn screening in the state of New York beginning on 30 December 2013. Follow-up guidelines that have been established in New York are outlined. Based on the success of newborn screening in New York, and early results in Connecticut, where X-ALD newborn screening started in December 2015, and in California, where X-ALD newborn screening began in September 2016, we are confident and hopeful that X-ALD newborn screening will expand to include all US states and to countries that have established neonatal screening programs. The Minster of Health in the Netherlands has approved the addition of X-ALD to the newborn screening program with a start date expected in 2017. The states, such as Massachusetts, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, Florida and Washington, that have legislative approval will commence screening as soon as budgetary resources, testing and follow-up procedures are in place.

  6. Essay on Saving and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption and saving decisions are at the heart of both short- and long-term macroeconomic analyses. Since the global crisis outbreak, one of the main issues for indebted countries has been whether to pursue a policy which promotes saving or to try to induce economic growth by increasing consumption. Consensus has not been reached on this issue, which is based on an old debate of whether a country should pursue a policy of Keynesianism or monetarism.

  7. Energy saving statutes and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, L.

    1981-11-01

    The West German Federal government and the state governments are endeavouring to introduce energy saving measures with the aid of statutes, regulations, and ordinances. In his introductory remarks, the author briefly refers to the various activities since 1974 and on the basis of a 1976 report subjects the present status of statutes and ordinances on energy saving measures to a critical analysis. Special emphasis is placed on the interest of the gas supply industry.

  8. Newborn Screening (NBS): Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS: FREE ADDITONAL NEWBORN SCREENING PACKETS What is Newborn Screening (NBS)? NBS is a system that helps ... of the condition. What are the benefits of Newborn Screening? Early detection of disorders and conditions detectable ...

  9. Melatonin and the newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Marina; Biran, Valérie; Baud, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Brain injury related to preterm birth and neonatal asphyxia is a leading cause of childhood neuromotor and cognitive disabilities. Unfortunately, the strategies to prevent perinatal brain damages remain limited. Among the candidate molecules, melatonin appears to be one of the most promising agents for its antioxidant and neuromodulatory action. Robust preclinical evidences and few clinical studies have suggested a neuroprotective benefit conferred by neonatal exposure to melatonin. This review recapitulates current basic research, safety and pharmacokinetic data and ongoing clinical trials on the use of melatonin as a neuroprotective agent in the newborn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unusual osteopathy in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Nogrady, M.B.; Wesenberg, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A newborn baby presented with hyaline membrane disease, interstitial pneumonia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual bone manifestations with lytic and sclerotic bone lesions and virtually absent periosteal reaction. He subsequently developed intracranial calcifications and mental retardation. The pneumonia and hepatosplenomegaly resolved. At the time of the delivery, a sibling was suffering from a severe undetermined viral infection. The clinical evolution of the disease and the radiologic findings led us to believe that this patient has a prenatal viral infection. The laboratory tests and the histologic picture of the bone biopsy supported the diagnosis.

  12. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2007-12-01

    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  13. Iodine Supplementation in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ghirri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency can be defined as the world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain damage. Fetal and neonatal hypothyroidism, caused by iodine deficiency can be prevented prior to conception and then during pregnancy and lactation when an adequate iodine supplementation is ensured. Extremely low birth weight preterm babies risk having a negative iodine balance status in the first weeks of life, exacerbating the hypothyroxinaemia of the prematurity. It is important to ensure that these babies are provided with an adequate iodine intake from the first days of life. Mothers and newborns should avoid environmental iodine excess during pregnancy or lactation.

  14. A newborn with neck mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Calado Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital goiter is a rare cause of neonatal neck mass and may result from a fetal defectin synthesis of thyroxine, or administration of antithyroid drugs or iodides during pregnancy. The thyroid dysfunction often accompanies it. This report describes a case of a male term newborn with congenital goiter and primary hypothyroidism. Hormonal replacement treatment was started leading to normal levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine. In face of a maternal negative investigation, dyshormonogenesis was considered to be the most probable cause of hypothyroidism.

  15. Hearing loss in congenital toxoplasmosis detected by newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz de; Resende, Luciana Macedo de; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade; Siqueira, Arminda Lucia; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida; Januario, José Nelio

    2008-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis may cause sensorineural deficit in up to 20% of the patients and proper treatment in the first year improves prognosis. In Brazil, this infections impact on hearing impairment is unknown. To evaluate hearing of newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by the newborn screening service. This prospective study analyzed children with congenital toxoplasmosis identified by newborn screening (IgM anti-T.gondii) in Belo Horizonte during 2003/2004. The presence of IgM and/or IgA in the first 6 months or IgG at 12 months-of age in serology was used as case definition. Hearing tests were carried out at the time of diagnosis and 12 months later, including behavioral audiometry, evoked otoacoustic emission and brainstem evoked responses audiometry. Among 30.808 screened children (97% of live births), 20 had congenital toxoplasmosis, 15 (75%) were asymptomatic at birth. Nineteen children were evaluated by hearing tests. Four had sensorineural impairment (21.1%). One child had other risk factors for hearing impairment; the other three had no other risk factors but toxoplasmosis. Two properly children treated still had hearing loss, in disagreement with current literature. Results suggest that congenital toxoplasmosis, common in Brazil, is a risk factor for hearing impairment and its impact on hearing loss deserves further studies.

  16. [The newborn infant of a mother with tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicino, R; Bressan, K; Bedetta, M

    2010-06-01

    TBC is a major infectious emergency in the world. OMS suggest that there are 8 millions of affected every year and 2 millions of deaths. Italy is considered a country with low prevalence, but the increase of the immigration from Africa Asia and Est Europa (country with high risk) imposes attention to the problem. The delivery is a critical moment to investigate people at risk of disease. The infection of the newborn can happen intrauterine or in the expulsive period, but is possible also at home, from somebody affected by an active pulmonary disease. Diagnosis in the newborn is not easy for the aspecificity of clinical signs and for the frequent initial negativeness of Mantoux test. Culture of placenta, gastric aspirate, tracheal secretions, urine would be requested, cerebrospinal fluid if necessary. Neonatal disease needs therapy with isoniazide, rifampicine, pirazinamide and, or ethambutol, or streptomycin. Profilaxis of a newborn from a woman affected by an active form of tuberculosis or living with people affected by an active pulmonary form consists in giving isoniazide until diagnostic tests are negative and in removing the sicks (only with pulmonary disease). New dangerous kinds of pharmacological multiresistent tuberculosis are appeared in the last years in the world and, with the coinfection HIV-TBC and the reorganization of the surveillance system, represents the major obligation for the next years.

  17. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  18. The effect of net foreign assets on saving rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben David Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing empirical data we find that many countries try to delay the decision of increasing saving rate in order to avoid a decrease of the living standards. However the delay leads a deterioration of countries financial stability. We present a simple theoretical model that connects between countries' saving rate and their net foreign assets. Using cross section data set of 135 countries in 2010 we estimated the econometric relation between saving rate in 2010 as dependent variable and two explanatory variables: the current account in 2010 and the aggregated current account during 1980-2010. Our findings show that industrial countries in a bad financial state tend to decrease their saving rate as external debt is larger causing to deterioration in external debt while countries with good financial state tend to increase their saving rate and the tendency increase as financial state becomes better. Only in countries with a very large external debt saving rate tends to grow. The results point that gross foreign debt will keep increasing and will worsen world financial state causing increased risk of getting into a world crisis.

  19. PREVALENCE OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATION IN NEWBORNS OF THE PUBLIC HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritana Pereira Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the factgathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn and bad-congenital formation. The results show predominance of 3.1% of born infants been with evil congenital formation. Among these, it prevailed the of the male sex (64,0%, premature (56,7% of normal birth (56,7%, with adequate weight (70,0%, classified in the majority of isolated form (76,7%, of smaller clinical importance (63,0% and evolving for high hospital with 60.0% of the cases; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system, however this pathology next to of the osteomuscular system. The majority of the mothers had between 17 and 24 years (46,7%, carried out more of seven consults prenatal (30,0% and live in the urban zone of the town (60,0%; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system. Those finds are compatible with others finds described in the Brazilian scientific literature, what is going to reflect about the implementation of public politics with infrastructure qualified service implementation in the perspective of prevention, detection and cares of those individuals in all of the levels of the net of health.

  20. Prevalence of congenital malformation in newborns of the public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritana Pereira Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimmed to estimate the predominance of congenital malformations in newborns of the Public Hospital in the Jequié city, Brazil. It was utilized spring of secondary facts, from the fact-gathering of available manuals in the Service of Medical Files of the hospital, in the period of January of 2005 to December of 2006. It was utilized instrument of collection standardized where information about characteristics they were collected of the mother, general characteristics of the newborn and bad-congenital formation. The results show predominance of 3.1% of born infants been with evil-congenital formation. Among these, it prevailed the of the male sex (64,0%, premature (56,7% of normal birth (56,7%, with adequate weight (70,0%, classified in the majority of isolated form (76,7%, of smaller clinical importance (63,0% and evolving for high hospital with 60.0% of the cases; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system, however this pathology next to of the osteomuscular system. The majority of the mothers had between 17 and 24 years (46,7%, carried out more of seven consults prenatal (30,0% and live in the urban zone of the town (60,0%; 71.0% of the deaths occurred between the newborns were due to specific malformations of the nervous system. Those finds are compatible with others finds described in the Brazilian scientific literature, what is going to reflect about the implementation of public politics with infrastructure qualified service implementation in the perspective of prevention, detection and cares of those individuals in all of the levels of the net of health.

  1. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  2. Newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies at Muhimbili National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Newborn screening (NBS) for hemoglobinopathies is important for the early detection and effective management of affected children. Objectives: To determine the frequency of occurrence, types of, and factors associated with abnormal haemoglobins in newborns at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es ...

  3. Distinct mechanisms of the newborn innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Kingsley Manoj; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2016-05-01

    The ontogeny of immunity during early life is of high importance as it shapes the immune system for the entire course of life. The microbiome and the environment contribute to the development of immunity in newborns. As immune responses in newborns are predominantly less experienced they are increasingly susceptible to infections. Though the immune cells in newborns are in 'naïve' state, they have been shown to mount adult-like responses in several circumstances. The innate immunity plays a vital role in providing protection during the neonatal period. Various stimulants have been shown to enhance the potential and functioning of the innate immune cells in newborns. They are biased against the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and this makes them susceptible to wide variety of intracellular pathogens. The adaptive immunity requires prior antigenic experience which is very limited in newborns. This review discusses in detail the characteristics of innate immunity in newborns and the underlying developmental and functional mechanisms involved in the immune response. A better understanding of the immunological milieu in newborns could help the medical fraternity to find novel methods for prevention and treatment of infection in newborns. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Infant and Newborn Nutrition - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Infant and Newborn Nutrition URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Infant and Newborn Nutrition - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  6. The hospital as business. How saving money can help save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, J; Garvin, M

    1997-11-01

    As hospitals and clinics merge into integrated delivery networks dependent for patients on health maintenance organizations, it is sometimes hard to remember who's on first. Instead of doctors, nurses, patients and hospitals, the world of health care now contains an alphabet soup of IDNs, HMOs, providers, consumers and payers. The changes extend deeply into the materials management department, where simply bargaining for the best price has been complicated by standardization, capitation, and a host of expense management strategies. Perhaps as a result of this ever-changing identity, most hospitals have yet to fully adopt the style and culture of the businesses they really are. Even purchasing managers, who are closer to the business end of the operation, are caught up in the traditional image. In the following comments, two experts in materials management explore the impact that this ambivalence has on a hospital's relationship with the outside world--including suppliers. Joseph Colonna is corporate vice president of the purchasing program at Shared Services Healthcare, Atlanta. Michael Garvin is an adjunct professor at the University of Iowa, and a researcher in medical supply purchasing practices.

  7. Saving the Plants That Save Lives. SPACHEE/Fiji Department of Forestry Women and Forests Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathy, Kerrie

    1995-01-01

    The South Pacific Action Committee for Human Ecology and Environment (SPACHEE) involved women in experiential workshops to explore forest ecosystems. The first phase focused on the forest environment, the second on documenting and promoting traditional medicine and medicinal plants, valuable local knowledge that can persuade people to protect the…

  8. Saving Lives and Money Two Wheels at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the showroom floor of any dealership. Both services recognize the high risk associated with riding a sport bike, and seek to curtail the accidents...manufacturers are in the business to maximize their profits through the sale of motorcycles. The sport bikes we see today on the showroom floor of any...years. Adding to the aforementioned characteristics, the newest motorcycles on the showroom floor all have the latest technology trickled down from

  9. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for increasing both fuel economy and safety without compromising functionality.

  10. Saving Lives on the Battlefield (Part 2) - One Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-30

    officers which includes emphasis upon pre-hospital care delivery. Conclusion History teaches that the lessons we have learned regarding combat...Services’ medical departments, and deployed medical personnel minimize use of platelet-inhibiting drugs (e.g. aspirin , Motrin, other COX-1 NSAIDs, SSRIs

  11. Saving children's lives: a communication campaign in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, N

    1985-01-01

    There are 2 features of Egypt's National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project (NCDDP) that are central to its effective management: the NCDDP enjoys a certain degree of autonomy to the extent that it can reach beyond the Ministry of Health to bring in specialists through grants and contracts, and it has the power to manage its own budget and personnel; and the NCDDP is not a group of separate program elements but an integration of elements -- training of health workers; production, distribution, and marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS); monitoring and evaluation of the project; and education and promotion via television, radio, and other public media. These aspects are all concurrently active, and all are maintained and coordinated through the Secretariat, the technical arm of NCDDP. The goal of the communications element, the focus of this discussion, is to teach, persuade, and change the behaviors of all Egyptian mothers of children under 3 years and other specific target groups, especially health personnel, pharmacists, mass media reporters, and decisionmakers involved with the management of diarrhea and dehydration programs. Data acquired through target audience research provides program planners with the most useful and valid information upon which to build a communication campaign. This holds true whether the activity is to select an appropriate logo to call attention to the campaign or to determine the most effective channels through which to communicate social messages. Regarding the logo, 4 designs were selected from among 10 submitted by independent artists and advertising agencies. Focus groups and brief interviews in public places on these 4 logos were carried out to determine audience response. Questioning the mothers who participated in focus groups helped project staff determine what amount of fluid a mother would find believable to give to a child with diarrhea. In addition, surveys showed that a 200cc packet of salts would be the most practical size for home use. A plastic cup and spoon also were developed for distribution with the packet. Field research showed that mothers favored simples names for the solution that either convey a warm feeling or that describe the purpose of the solution. Television history was made with NCDDP ads. It was the 1st time a famous person was used to deliver a socially-oriented message and only the 2nd time the testimonial format was used on television. Messages were designed as much for medical professionals as for mothers. The success of the NCDDP project in Egypt demonstrates that the mass media can help change behavior but that all other elements of a mass campaign must be equally well planned and coordinated to achieve this success.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Colorectal Cancer Tests Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is right for them. Know their own family history and any personal risks they may have for CRC. Encourage friends and ... Vital Signs Issue details: Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Use — United States, 2012, Morbidity and ...

  13. Disease prevention: Saving lives or reducing health care costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G.-V. Kampen (Inge Grootjans-Van); P.M. Engelfriet (Peter); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity

  14. Disease Prevention : Saving Lives or Reducing Health Care Costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans-van Kampen, I.; Engelfriet, P.M.; Van Baal, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases

  15. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  16. First-Aid Kits: Stock Supplies That Can Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disposable nonlatex examination gloves, several pairs Duct tape Petroleum jelly or other lubricant Plastic bags, assorted sizes ... Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and aspirin (never give aspirin to children) Hydrocortisone cream Cough ...

  17. Emergency Systems Save Tens of Thousands of Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To improve distress signal communications, NASA pioneered the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system. Since its inception, the international system known as Cospas-Sarsat has resulted in the rescue of more than 30,000 people. Techno-Sciences Inc., of Beltsville, Maryland, has been involved with the ground station component of the system from its earliest days.

  18. The World Health Organization's Clean Hands Save Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwilghen, D.

    2017-01-01

    Even before the discovery of germs, the practice of hand hygiene had revealed itself as a crucial element in the fight against infectious diseases. In fact, supported by the historical discoveries and more recent evidence based data, the World Health Organization considers hand hygiene...... health and integrity as the first principle of good hand hygiene, using decontamination methods and products that are the least harmful to the skin is mandatory. This is why the currently accepted presurgical hand preparation methods do not involve aggressive brushing and disinfecting soaps anymore....... Rather, hands should be washed with a neutral pH friendly soap first before a hydroalcoholic solution is applied. Although the principles and benefits of proper hand hygiene have been recognised in the healthcare world, one of the major drawbacks remains the lack of compliance with established protocols...

  19. Combat Trauma -- Placing Surgeons to Save the Most Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    develop a very close relationship 8 with “their” surgeon. This relationship adds to the separation anxiety of moving the surgeon away from the local...wounding is well established.” 15 University Hospital, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, “The Golden Hour,” http...University Hospital University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. “The Golden Hour.” http://www.theuniversityhospital.com/trauma/gold.htm

  20. Destination: Saving Lives and Providing Hope in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    mission. “My song ‘New Beginning’ is a tribute to those affected by the earthquakes in Haiti and Chile and to those who work every day to try and...bridge. Disaster relief efforts were replicated in Octo- ber 1963 following Hurricane Flora and in August 1964 following Hur- ricane Cleo. From October

  1. Tuberculosis innovations mean little if they cannot save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Furin, Jennifer

    2017-05-02

    The past decade has seen the emergence of new diagnostics and drugs for tuberculosis, a disease that kills over 1.8 million people each year. However, these new tools are yet to reach scale, and access remains a major challenge for patients in low and middle income countries. Urgent action is needed if we are committed to ending the TB epidemic. This means raising the level of ambition, embracing innovation, increasing financial investments, addressing implementation gaps, and ensuring that new technologies reach those who need them to survive. Otherwise, the promise of innovative technologies will never be realized.

  2. Canada Selects African Health Organizations to Help Save the Lives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC-CRDI

    working with policymakers and decision-makers to help make the best health policy decisions, and,. • identifying how nurses, doctors, and other health professionals can better deliver the care that is needed. Global Health Research Initiative. International Development Research Centre. PO Box 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada ...

  3. Domestic embedded reporter program: saving lives and securing tactical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination. or kidnapping ; and occur primarily within the...affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination. or kidnapping ; and occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S

  4. CDC Vital Signs-Safer Food Saves Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This podcast is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  5. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  6. Building the Social Work Workforce: Saving Lives and Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Briar-Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article depicts a journey over the decades to address some of the needs of children and families in the child welfare system. Recounting a few key milestones and challenges in the past 40 years, it is argued that workforce development is one key to improved outcomes for abused and neglected children and their families. Major events and several turning points are chronicled. Emerging workforce needs in aging are also cited as lessons learned from child welfare have implications for building a gero savvy social work workforce. Funding streams involving IV-E and Medicaid are discussed. It is argued that workforce development can be a life and death issue for some of these most vulnerable populations. Thus, the workforce development agenda must be at the forefront of the social work profession for the 21st century. Key funding streams are needed to foster investments in building and sustaining the social work workforce.

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video (Short Version)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 4/26/2010.

  8. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives, Protecting People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-04

    24/7, CDC provides health information, responds to public health emergencies and natural disasters, and monitors disease.  Created: 6/4/2012 by Office of the Associate Director of Communciation (OADC).   Date Released: 6/4/2012.

  9. Suicide in the Fire Service: Saving the Lives of Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Firefighters,” Work & Stress 20, no. 1 (March 2006): 37–48. xvi rise, but PTSD by itself does...Although stress from these issues is not directly related to their work as a firefighter, there may be bleed over, which can add to their stress at work ...off from PTSD and or suicide can reach $2,571 per day. Note that there is not a large difference in wages for the regular -duty firefighter and the

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  11. World Health Organization "SAVE LIVES : Clean Your Hands" global campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, Boudjema; Philippe, Brouqui

    2017-11-03

    Literature is rich on health care contaminated fomites , some with link to multi-drug resistant microorganism hospital acquired outbreaks. While hand hygiene campaign should be part of the multi-drug resistant battle beside antibiotic use, the authors questioned on the role of contaminated fomites. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Studying deaths can save lives | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-19

    Dec 19, 2017 ... But governments and health systems need to improve their understanding of the causes if they are to avoid them. Each death has .... “Our approach is both to address research questions, but also to develop engineering approaches that make it much easier to scale up and sustain the studies.” The results ...

  13. Shock Absorbers Save Structures and Lives during Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With NASA funding, North Tonawanda, New York-based Taylor Devices Inc. developed fluidic shock absorbers to safely remove the fuel and electrical connectors from the space shuttles during launch. The company is now employing the technology as seismic dampers to protect structures from earthquakes. To date, 550 buildings and bridges have the dampers, and not a single one has suffered damage in the wake of an earthquake.

  14. [Newborn at the limit of viability. Part 1: Ethical dilemmas, international recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Immense scientific and technological progress in perinatal medicine during the 1990s enabled to save extremely immature newborns. The fact faced doctors with new challenges and ethical problems regarding especially infants born at the limit of viability (22-26 weeks of gestation). The aim of this study is an attempt to answer the question concerning the mode of operation in the delivery room and/or NICU towards this group of infants. Decisions may concern undertaking resuscitation, limiting medical procedures and the use of palliative care. Materials for preparation of this paper included international recommendations developed by teams of specialists (part 1), as well as Polish recommendations (part 2). The first part presents world epidemiological data regarding survival rate and long-term developmental assessment of extremely low gestational age infants, indicating difficulties in interpretation of some of the research. We also emphasized the discrepancies in precise evaluation of gestational age, which is of great significance for qualifying the newborn into the group unable to survive or at the limit of viability. For better assessment of the research, recommendations developed by FIGO Committee in 1994 are presented: "Ethical aspects in management of newborn infants at the threshold of viability." In the discussion part we presented differences between world recommendations regarding newborns at the limit of viability, emphasizing the need to define the "grey zone" (gestational age at which there is doubt about the newborns' viability and development and, as a result, the possibility of making "good" therapeutic decisions is limited). In summary it has been emphasized that at the current state of knowledge decisions cannot be based solely on gestational age and estimated body weight, but other factors improving or worsening the prognosis should be taken into consideration as well. Finally the situation in Poland is discussed, indicating problems regarding

  15. Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody-Ann; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinnall-Johnson, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2015-02-21

    While a growing body of research has addressed pregnancy and postpartum impacts on female sexuality, relatively little work has been focused upon men. A few studies suggest that a fraction of men report decreases in libido during a partner's pregnancy and/or postpartum, with alterations in men's sexual behavior also commonly aligning with those of a partner. Here, we investigate sexuality among fathers of newborn children in Jamaica. In Jamaica, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, relationship dynamics can be fluid, contributing to variable paternal roles and care, as well as a high fraction of children born into visiting relationships in which parents live apart from each other. During July-September, 2011, 3410 fathers of newborns with an average age of 31 (SD = 8) years participated in the fatherhood arm of a national birth cohort study (JAKids). These fathers answered questions about sociodemographic background, relationship quality and sexuality (e.g., various components of sexual function such as sex drive and sexual satisfaction as well as number of sexual partners the previous 12 months and sexual intercourse the previous week) during a visit to a hospital or birth center within a day or two of their child being born. Showed that sex drive was more variable than other components (erections, ejaculation, problem assessment) of sexual function, though sexual satisfaction was generally high. Thirty percent of men reported two or more sexual partners the previous 12 months. Nearly half of men indicated not engaging in sexual intercourse the past week. Multivariate analyses showed that relationship status was related to various aspects of men's sexuality, such as men in visiting relationships reporting more sexual partners and more openness to casual sex. Relationship quality was the most consistent predictor of men's sexuality, with men in higher quality relationships reporting higher sexual satisfaction, fewer sexual partners, and higher frequency of sex

  16. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    -tainable water management. The paper focuses on the experiences from different water saving initiatives carried out since the mid 80s relating them to some central aspects of Ecological Modernisation theories: · Demands for tools and targets · New tasks and roles for suppliers, consumers and stakeholders...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main......Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...

  17. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  18. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a note...

  19. Are Women Empowered to Save?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Woolley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female economic empowerment – rising earnings, increased opportunities, greater labour force participation – has given many women the means to save. The shifting of responsibility for retirement security from employers and governments onto individuals has given women a reason to save. But are women actually saving? In this paper, we explore the relationship between the gender dynamics within a family and the accumulation of wealth. We find that little evidence in support of the conventional wisdom that families with a female financial manager save more and repay their debts more often. We find some evidence that male financial management leads to greater savings, and other evidence suggesting that savings patterns have a complex relationship with intra-family gender dynamics. El empoderamiento económico de la mujer – el aumento de los ingresos, mayores oportunidades, mayor participación laboral – ha dado a muchas mujeres los medios para ahorrar. Al pasar la responsabilidad de los ingresos de la jubilación de los empleadores y el gobierno a los individuos ha dado a las mujeres un motivo para ahorrar. ¿Pero realmente ahorran las mujeres? En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre las dinámicas de género en una familia, y la acumulación de riqueza. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que hay poca evidencia que apoye la creencia convencional de que las familias en las que una mujer gestiona las financias ahorran más y devuelven sus créditos más frecuentemente. Se ha encontrado alguna evidencia de que la gestión financiera por varones acarrea mayores ahorros, y otras evidencias que sugieren que los patrones de ahorro tienen una relación compleja con las dinámicas de género dentro de la familia.

  20. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...... their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm....

  1. Save journalism - to what end?

    OpenAIRE

    Tobie Wiese

    2011-01-01

    I was given a rather sexy heading – 'Forget the rhino, save journalism' – under which to say a few words. I would agree with the assumption that both are under threat, but while most people will have a natural inclination to save an endangered animal I’m not so sure about how many will stand up for the survival of journalism. After all, why do we need journalism? And secondly, it seems to me that much of the woes that journalism is going through at present are self-inflicted.
    It is...

  2. Results from Therapeutic Touch Interventions in the Newborn: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic Touch (TT is a contemporary approach to several ancestral healing practices. As one of the oldest vibrational therapies still in use, it is expected to act on the balancing of the human being’s energy field, by the laying hands on. The hands are, therefore, vehicles of comfort, affection, support and healing. This article illustrates a systematic review of the literature (RSL, on the effects of TT in the newborn. Objective: To know the effect of TT in the newborn. Methods: We carried the research on the Online Knowledge Library platform (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online/B-On by researching on the available electronic databases. The articles which addressed the TT as an intervention in the newborn were included. From the 237 articles found, eight ones were selected according to the inclusion criteria previously established. Results: All studies demonstrated benefits of applying TT, such as calming effect after nursing procedures, because it reduces pain, reduces the motor activity, decreases the level of cortisol, facilitates feeding, suction/ swallowing and thus increases weight, stabilizes vital signs, promotes rest, improves interaction with the environment and saves energy for growth and healing. Conclusions: The practice of TT in the newborn can contribute to his well-being, bringing him physical, psychological and spiritual benefits.

  3. Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

  4. Newborn cord care practices in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Susan; Norr, Kathleen; Sankar, Girija; Sipsma, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Newborn cord infections commonly lead to neonatal sepsis and death, particularly in low-resource countries where newborns may receive unhygienic cord care. Topical application of chlorhexidine to the newborn's cord has been shown to prevent infection. Such benefits may be particularly important in Haiti. We explored current cord care practices by conducting a qualitative study using five focus groups among key community stakeholders (mothers of newborns/children under age two years, pregnant women, traditional birth attendants, community health workers, traditional healers) in Petit-Goâve, Haiti. Data collection was guided by the Health Belief Model. Results suggest community stakeholders recognise that infants are susceptible to cord infection and that cord infection is a serious threat to newborns. Long-held traditional cord care practices are potential barriers to adopting a new cord care intervention. However, all groups acknowledged that traditional practices could be harmful to the newborn while expressing a willingness to adopt practices that would protect the newborn. Results demonstrate potential acceptability for altering traditional cord care practices among neonatal caretakers in Haiti. An informational campaign designed to educate local health workers and new mothers to eliminate unhygienic cord applications while promoting chlorhexidine application may be a strong approach for preventing neonatal cord infections.

  5. Immobility reaction at birth in newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Pierre Victor; Francotte, Jacques; Fabbricatore, Maria; Frischen, Caroline; Duchateau, Delphine; Perin, Marie; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Lahaye, Willy

    2014-08-01

    To describe an immobility reaction (IR) that was not previously reported at or immediately after birth in human newborns. We analyzed 31 videos of normal term vaginal deliveries recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant. We searched for perinatal factors associated with newborn's IR. IR at birth was observed in 8 of the 31 newborns. The main features of their behavior were immobilization, frozen face, shallow breathing and bradycardia. One of the 8 newborns had sudden collapse 2h after birth. We found significant relationships between maternal prenatal stress (PS) and IR (p=.037), and a close to significant one between infants' lividness at Time 0 and IR (p=.053). The first breath of the 31 newborns occurred before and was not associated with the first cry (pnewborns needs further research to determine if they are at risk for sudden infant death syndrome. This first report of an IR reaction at birth in human infants could open up new paths for improving early neonatal care. Further research is needed for maternal PS, stress hormones, umbilical cord blood pH measurements in IR newborns. The challenge of education and support for parents of IR newborns is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is the 'Anti-Statin' Trend Threatening Lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167369.html Is the 'Anti-Statin' Trend Threatening Lives? Internet-fueled movement has heart experts concerned about ... drugs that are responsible for saving millions of lives are somehow bad for you." Most side effects ...

  7. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...... and discussed. This finally leads to the difficulties in combining a more free market for energy in EU with a strong efforts to save energy. Ideas for electricity and heat saving policies are suggested....

  8. Weaning newborn infants from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Biban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure which is largely used in neonatal intensive care units, particularly in very premature newborn infants. However, this essential treatment may increase mortality and cause substantial morbidity, including lung or airway injuries, unplanned extubations, adverse hemodynamic effects, analgosedative dependency and severe infectious complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, limiting the duration of airway intubation and mechanical ventilator support is crucial for the neonatologist, who should aim to a shorter process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation as well as an earlier appreciation of readiness for spontaneous breathing trials. Unfortunately, there is scarce information about the best ways to perform an effective weaning process in infants undergoing mechanical ventilation, thus in most cases the weaning course is still based upon the individual judgment of the attending clinician. Nonetheless, some evidence indicate that volume targeted ventilation modes are more effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation than traditional pressure limited ventilation modes, particularly in very preterm babies. Weaning and extubation directly from high frequency ventilation could be another option, even though its effectiveness, when compared to switching and subsequent weaning and extubating from conventional ventilation, is yet to be adequately investigated. Some data suggest the use of weaning protocols could reduce the weaning time and duration of mechanical ventilation, but better designed prospective studies are still needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Finally, the implementation of short spontaneous breathing tests in preterm infants has been shown to be beneficial in some centres, favoring an earlier extubation at higher ventilatory settings compared with historical controls, without worsening the extubation failure rate. Further

  9. PRINCIPLES OF DRUG THERAPY IN NEWBORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the neonats adequate pharmacotherapy, including use of medications off-label. The authors emphasize the characteristics of a newborn child organism (as a full-term and preterm that define the distinct processes of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the older children. This paper discusses the problem of the optimal route of administration choice, provides basic information about medications used in the most common pathological conditions in newborns. Key words: drug therapy, drugs, newborns, premature infants. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 50–56.

  10. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2014-12-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Newborn care seeking practices in Central and Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In Ethiopia, close to 120,000 newborns die annually and newborn mortality now constitutes 42% of under-five deaths. The use of health care for newborn illnesses is very limited. Objective: To investigate local perspectives and practices related to newborn care-seeking and the factors affecting them. Methods: ...

  12. Harmful traditional practices in a newborn: A case report | Peterside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninetynine percent of the nearly four million newborn deaths occur in developing countries with newborn deaths remaining relatively invisible and neglected1. In these countries, traditional attitudes and practices dominate newborn care and are often harzadous2. As most births and newborn deaths in developing countries ...

  13. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  14. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  15. Do the Rich Save More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynan, Karen E.; Skinner, Jonathan; Zeldes, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The question of whether higher-lifetime income households save a larger fraction of their income was the subject of much debate in the 1950s and 1960s, and while not resolved, it remains central to the evaluation of tax and macroeconomic policies. We resolve this longstanding question using new empirical methods applied to the Panel Study of…

  16. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  17. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  18. Evaluating Educational Needs of Parents at Newborn Discharge: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiman, Alanna; Crawford, Brendan D; McLain, Kyle K; Gattari, Theresa B; Mychaliska, Kerry P

    2016-05-01

    The delivery of anticipatory guidance regarding newborn care is a standard practice for pediatricians. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the preexisting knowledge of routine newborn care in postpartum mothers. Inclusion criteria included all postpartum mothers of live-born infants at least two hours following delivery that had not yet received formal instruction in newborn care. Each eligible mother that agreed to the voluntary survey was asked four multiple-choice questions which evaluated her knowledge of newborn care. The four questions addressed knowledge of safe sleep, car seat position, feeding behavior, and neonatal fever. A standardized template was used to ensure validity. Results were recorded in Microsoft Excel. Of the study population, 42% (55/131) of surveyed mothers were first-time mothers. Overall, results of the survey demonstrated that postpartum mothers answered the surveyed questions correctly 88% of the time previous to receiving anticipatory guidance. Postpartum mothers appear to have a high preexisting knowledge of routine newborn care in this study. Further studies are needed to determine if postpartum mothers' knowledge base increases with inpatient education. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics

  19. Improving outcomes of transported newborns in Panama: impact of a nationwide neonatal provider education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J M; Villanueva, H Solano; Brito, M E; Sosa, P Gallardo

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether national distribution of a neonatal provider education program (the S.T.A.B.L.E. Program) positively impacts the health of ill newborns that require transport in Panama. The investigation used a prospective, pre- and postintervention study design with a double pretest. The 10 birthing centers in Panama that routinely transport the greatest number of newborns received the education program intervention. Primary outcomes were body temperature and serum glucose level on arrival at the referral facility. Length of stay and mortality were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Variation in outcome indicators was compared for 7 months before and after the intervention. Data from all live newborns transported from outlying birthing center study sites during the study dates were included in the investigation. A total of 136 and 146 newborns were transported during the observation and postintervention periods, respectively. Significantly more patients in the postintervention group had temperatures within the normal range (56% in postintervention group vs 34% in observation group; P<0.01). No statistical difference was observed in serum glucose levels, length of stay or mortality. Distribution of a neonatal provider educational program was associated with improved thermal management of transported newborns in Panama. Further study will help to confirm this association and determine the extent to which these findings are generalizable to other resource-constrained settings.

  20. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Promotion of early pediatric hearing detection through patient navigation: ... screening tests (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Newborn Screening updates by ...

  1. Looking at Your Newborn: What's Normal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... newborns to breathe somewhat irregularly. When infants are awake, their breathing rate may vary widely, sometimes exceeding ... a rash present at birth, is characterized by dark brown bumps or blisters scattered over the neck, ...

  2. Complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn, from Chieti (Abruzzo, central Italy in September 2004. This is the first complete albinism case in a Podarcis spp. In the world.

  3. Group B Strep Infection in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis Group B Strep Infection in Newborns Language: English Español ( ... Explains the difference between early- and late-onset group B strep diseases in newborns… How it Spreads ...

  4. Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

  5. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing and Newborn Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jeffrey R; Rothwell, Erin

    2016-03-01

    Clinical applications of next generation sequencing are growing at a tremendous pace. Currently the largest application of genetic testing in medicine occurs with newborn screening through state-mandated public health programs, and there are suggestions that sequencing could become a standard component of newborn care within the next decade. As such, newborn screening may appear to be a logical starting point to explore whole genome and whole exome sequencing on a population level. Yet, there are a number of ethical, social and legal implications about the use of a mandatory public health screening program that create challenges for the use of sequencing technologies in this context. Additionally, at this time we still have limited understanding and strategies for managing genomic data, supporting our conclusion that genome sequencing is not justified within population based public health programs for newborn screening.

  7. Panniculitis in the newborn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of panniculitis in a newborn, a rare disease in the neonatal period discussing its causes and differential diagnosis, emphasizing a possible diagnosis of erythema nodosum.

  8. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Jeng Teng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN is a severe pulmonary disorder which occurs at a rate of one in every 500 live births. About 10–50% of the victims will die of the problem and 7–20% of the survivors develop long-term impairments such as hearing deficit, chronic lung disease, and intracranial bleed. Most adult survivors show evidence of augmented pulmonary vasoreactivity, suggesting a phenotypical change. Several animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology and help to develop new therapeutic modality for PPHN. The etiology of PPHN can be classified into three groups: (1 abnormally constricted pulmonary vasculature as a result of parenchymal diseases; (2 hypoplastic pulmonary vasculature; and (3 normal parenchyma with remodeled pulmonary vasculature. Impaired vasorelaxation of pulmonary artery and reduced blood vessel density in lungs are two characteristic findings in PPHN. Medical treatment includes sedation, oxygen, mechanical ventilation, vasorelaxants (inhaled nitric oxide, inhaled or intravenous prostacyclin, intravenous prostaglandin E1, magnesium sulfate, and inotropic agents. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors have recently been studied as another therapeutic agent for PPHN. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 inhibitors have been studied in animals and a case of premature infant with PPHN successfully treated with an ET-I inhibitor has been reported in the literature. Surfactants have been reported as an adjunct treatment for PPHN as a complication of meconium aspiration syndrome. Even with the introduction of several new therapeutic modalities there has been no significant change in survival rate. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator is used when medical treatment fails and the patient is considered to have a recoverable cause of PPHN.

  9. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Meenakshi; D'souza, Pamela; Jain, Rajesh; Dutta, Renu; Saili, Arvind; Singh, Abha

    2011-01-01

    Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Single center, prospective, observational study. A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A) and 100 (Group B) delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (Pconjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60%) developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  10. [Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordević, Momcilo; Sazdanović, Predrag; Dordević, Gordana; Jovanović, Bozidar

    2010-01-01

    Insecticides are toxins by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast-milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  11. Hypothyroidism in the Newborn Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassner, Ari J.; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of Review This review summarizes significant advances in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), with a focus on thyroid dysfunction in preterm infants. Recent Findings CH appears to be increasing in incidence, primarily due to increased stringency of screening strategies, with smaller contributions from changing demographics and improved survival of increasingly premature infants. The greatest increase has been in mildly affected infants. Although many such cases are transient, some eventually prove to be severe and/or permanent. In preterm infants, transient hypothyroidism is common and may be delayed in onset. The etiology is probably multifactorial, and inadequate iodine intake may contribute to some cases. Transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity (THOP), also common in premature infants, is correlated with markers of inflammation. Despite concern about the potential morbidity of THOP, the benefits and safety of treatment have not been established. Novel genetic causes of CH continue to be identified, and accumulating data support the sensitivity of infants with severe CH to small changes in levothyroxine formulation. Summary Changes in newborn screening strategies have increasingly identified thyroid function abnormalities of unclear clinical significance. Novel causes of CH continue to be identified, and new data continue to emerge regarding optimal therapy. PMID:23974774

  12. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  13. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  14. Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk Hamilton; Michael Clemens

    1999-01-01

    .... After developing the theory of genuine savings-traditional net savings less the value of resource depletion and environmental degradation plus the value of investment in human capital-this article...

  15. The payout behaviour of German savings banks

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Our analysis finds that despite the growing number, the majority of savings banks currently do not make any payouts. Furthermore, savings banks distribute only a small part of their net profit to the shareholders. This means that they can still build up capital even if they make payouts. Savings banks also hold significantly more capital than is called for by the regulatory framework. Finally, the regression analysis shows that savings banks that have less capital distribute profits to their ...

  16. Household savings behaviour in crisis times

    OpenAIRE

    Carin van der Cruijsen; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen; Robert Mosch

    2011-01-01

    We analyze whether households' savings behaviour was affected by adverse experiences during the crisis and knowledge about banking supervision. Using a survey among Dutch households, we find that both factors have affected the allocation of savings. Individuals whose bank went bankrupt or received government support during the crisis gather more information about banks and saving instruments and are more likely to have savings at several banks. Respondents with better knowledge about banking ...

  17. Newborn care practices at home and in health facilities in 4 regions of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the ten countries with the highest number of neonatal deaths globally, and only 1 in 10 women deliver with a skilled attendant. Promotion of essential newborn care practices is one strategy for improving newborn health outcomes that can be delivered in communities as well as facilities. This article describes newborn care practices reported by recently-delivered women (RDWs) in four regions of Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a household survey with two-stage cluster sampling to assess newborn care practices among women who delivered a live baby in the period 1 to 7 months prior to data collection. Results The majority of women made one antenatal care (ANC) visit to a health facility, although less than half made four or more visits and women were most likely to deliver their babies at home. About one-fifth of RDWs in this survey had contact with Health Extension Workers (HEWS) during ANC, but nurse/midwives were the most common providers, and few women had postnatal contact with any health provider. Common beneficial newborn care practices included exclusive breastfeeding (87.6%), wrapping the baby before delivery of the placenta (82.3%), and dry cord care (65.2%). Practices contrary to WHO recommendations that were reported in this population of recent mothers include bathing during the first 24 hours of life (74.7%), application of butter and other substances to the cord (19.9%), and discarding of colostrum milk (44.5%). The results suggest that there are not large differences for most essential newborn care indicators between facility and home deliveries, with the exception of delayed bathing and skin-to-skin care. Conclusions Improving newborn care and newborn health outcomes in Ethiopia will likely require a multifaceted approach. Given low facility delivery rates, community-based promotion of preventive newborn care practices, which has been effective in other settings, is an important strategy. For this strategy to be

  18. 75 FR 9126 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... CFR Part 230 Truth in Savings AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION... amending Regulation DD, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the..., which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The...

  19. 75 FR 31673 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... CFR Part 230 Truth in Savings AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The final rule... adopted a final rule amending Regulation DD, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official...

  20. 75 FR 47173 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA... rule amending part 707, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff... . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Interim Final Rule (Truth in Savings)'' in the e-mail subject line. Fax...

  1. Beyond Critical Congenital Heart Disease: Newborn Screening Using Pulse Oximetry for Neonatal Sepsis and Respiratory Diseases in a Middle-Income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawin, Vida; Ang, Hak-Lee; Omar, Asma; Thong, Meow-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Studies on pulse oximetry screening for neonatal sepsis and respiratory disease in a middle-income country are lacking. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry is an effective and life-saving strategy in developed countries. While most studies have reported false-positive results during CCHD screening, they have not elaborated on the detected disease types. We studied the effectiveness and outcomes of pulse oximetry newborn screening for non-cardiac hypoxemic diseases such as neonatal sepsis, respiratory diseases, and CCHD in a middle-income country. In a pilot study performed at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia, all apparently healthy term newborns, delivered at UMMC were screened pre-discharge using pulse oximetry. Echocardiography was performed for newborns that had positive screening results on two separate occasions, 1-h apart. Newborns with normal echocardiograms were evaluated and treated for other non-cardiac diseases. Fifteen of 5247 term newborns had positive screening results. The median age at screening was 20 h. Thirteen newborns (0.24%) had significant non-cardiac diseases: sepsis (n = 2) and respiratory diseases (n = 11) that required hospitalization and treatment. The remaining two newborns with normal antenatal ultrasonograms had positive screening test and confirmed to have CCHD. Another 18 newborns with negative screening test were later admitted for treatment of sepsis (n = 16) and penumonia (n = 2). All newborns were treated and alive at the end of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of pulse oximetry screening for non-cardiac diseases were 42% and 99.9% respectively, and 100% and 99.7% for CCHD, respectively. Routine pulse oximetry screening test was effective in identifying newborns with CCHD and other hypoxemia illnesses, which may led to potential life-threatening condition. This study showed that the expanded use of pulse oximetry has immediate implications for low

  2. Beyond Critical Congenital Heart Disease: Newborn Screening Using Pulse Oximetry for Neonatal Sepsis and Respiratory Diseases in a Middle-Income Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Jawin

    Full Text Available Studies on pulse oximetry screening for neonatal sepsis and respiratory disease in a middle-income country are lacking. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD using pulse oximetry is an effective and life-saving strategy in developed countries. While most studies have reported false-positive results during CCHD screening, they have not elaborated on the detected disease types. We studied the effectiveness and outcomes of pulse oximetry newborn screening for non-cardiac hypoxemic diseases such as neonatal sepsis, respiratory diseases, and CCHD in a middle-income country.In a pilot study performed at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC, Malaysia, all apparently healthy term newborns, delivered at UMMC were screened pre-discharge using pulse oximetry. Echocardiography was performed for newborns that had positive screening results on two separate occasions, 1-h apart. Newborns with normal echocardiograms were evaluated and treated for other non-cardiac diseases. Fifteen of 5247 term newborns had positive screening results. The median age at screening was 20 h. Thirteen newborns (0.24% had significant non-cardiac diseases: sepsis (n = 2 and respiratory diseases (n = 11 that required hospitalization and treatment. The remaining two newborns with normal antenatal ultrasonograms had positive screening test and confirmed to have CCHD. Another 18 newborns with negative screening test were later admitted for treatment of sepsis (n = 16 and penumonia (n = 2. All newborns were treated and alive at the end of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of pulse oximetry screening for non-cardiac diseases were 42% and 99.9% respectively, and 100% and 99.7% for CCHD, respectively.Routine pulse oximetry screening test was effective in identifying newborns with CCHD and other hypoxemia illnesses, which may led to potential life-threatening condition. This study showed that the expanded use of pulse oximetry has immediate implications

  3. Stunting at 5 Years Among SGA Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbo; Epstein, Leonard H; Eiden, Rina D; Shenassa, Edmond D; Li, Xiuhong; Liao, Yan; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-02-01

    To compare risk of stunting at 5 years across etiological subgroups of small for gestational age (SGA) newborns. We analyzed data of a subsample (N = 1100) of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. We defined SGA as birth weight SGA subgroups, adjusting for confounders. SGA subgroup with maternal short stature (odds ratio [OR] = 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16-6.96) or inadequate GWG (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.23-3.84) had higher risk of stunting at 5 years, compared with the SGA subgroup without the corresponding risk factor. SGA newborns with both maternal smoking and inadequate GWG during pregnancy had much higher risk of stunting at 5 years (OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.21-7.91), compared with SGA newborns without any of these 2 SGA risk factors. Etiological subgroups of SGA differed in risk of stunting at 5 years. SGA newborns of inadequate GWG mothers who smoke and SGA newborns of short mothers were at particularly high risk of stunting. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Newborn analgesia mediated by oxytocin during delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eMazzuca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling pain in newborns during delivery are poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that oxytocin, an essential hormone for labor and a powerful neuromodulator, exerts analgesic actions on newborns during delivery. Using a thermal tail-flick assay, we report that pain sensitivity is two fold lower in rat pups immediately after birth than two days later. Oxytocin receptor antagonists strongly enhanced pain sensitivity in newborn, but not in two days-old rats, whereas oxytocin reduced pain at both ages suggesting an endogenous analgesia by oxytocin during delivery. Similar analgesic effects of oxytocin, measured as attenuation of pain-vocalization induced by electrical whisker pad stimulation, were also observed in decerebrated newborns. Oxytocin reduced GABA-evoked calcium responses and depolarizing GABA driving force in isolated neonatal trigeminal neurons suggesting that oxytocin effects are mediated by alterations of intracellular chloride. Unlike GABA signaling, oxytocin did not affect responses mediated by P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors. In keeping with a GABAergic mechanism, reduction of intracellular chloride by the diuretic NKCC1 choride co-transporter antagonist bumetanide mimicked the analgesic actions of oxytocin and its effects on GABA responses in nociceptive neurons. Therefore, endogenous oxytocin exerts an analgesic action in newborn pups that involves a reduction of the depolarizing action of GABA on nociceptive neurons. Therefore, the same hormone that triggers delivery also acts as a natural pain killer revealing a novel facet of the protective actions of oxytocin in the fetus at birth.

  5. Severe hypernatremia in newborns due to salting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Erdal; Kirimi, Ercan; Tuncer, Oguz; Ceylan, Abdullah

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology, clinical, and laboratory findings and prognostic features of life-threatening hypernatremic newborns secondary to salting. Ten severely hypernatremic newborns (four females) with a mean age of 6.5 +/- 2.6 days were followed up. Nine of them were full term, and one was preterm. It was noticeable that 60% of them were small for gestational age. In the laboratory investigation, five uremias were detected. It was interesting to find in the etiologic history that 40% of the patients had been salted just after birth. Twenty percent of them had also hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus, 20% had neonatal convulsion, and 50% had dehydration. Two of the hypernatremic newborns died during the study; the others were followed up. One case had spasticity and developmental disability at the 3rd month, and another one had developmental disability at the 6th month of ages. As a conclusion, although salting of newborns is not so frequent, it could be seen in rural places of our country, and this may be one of the reasons for serious hypernatremia in newborns whose skin integrity have not been formed completely. These cases should be treated carefully.

  6. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns?Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns.Study Design: Prospective study.Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital.Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them.Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered.Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization.Statistical Analysis: By tests of significanceResults: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life.Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  7. Common respiratory conditions of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, David J.; Hart, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Key points Respiratory distress is a common presenting feature among newborn infants. Prompt investigation to ascertain the underlying diagnosis and appropriate subsequent management is important to improve outcomes. Many of the underlying causes of respiratory distress in a newborn are unique to this age group. A chest radiograph is crucial to assist in diagnosis of an underlying cause. Educational aims To inform readers of the common respiratory problems encountered in neonatology and the evidence-based management of these conditions. To enable readers to develop a framework for diagnosis of an infant with respiratory distress. The first hours and days of life are of crucial importance for the newborn infant as the infant adapts to the extra-uterine environment. The newborn infant is vulnerable to a range of respiratory diseases, many unique to this period of early life as the developing fluid-filled fetal lungs adapt to the extrauterine environment. The clinical signs of respiratory distress are important to recognise and further investigate, to identify the underlying cause. The epidemiology, diagnostic features and management of common neonatal respiratory conditions are covered in this review article aimed at all healthcare professionals who come into contact with newborn infants. PMID:27064402

  8. 77 FR 20123 - Fee Change for Paying Agents Redeeming Definitive Savings Bonds and Savings Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Fiscal Service Fee Change for Paying Agents Redeeming Definitive Savings Bonds and Savings Notes AGENCY..., the Department of the Treasury will no longer pay fees to paying agents for redeeming definitive savings bonds and savings notes. The purpose of this change is to reduce Treasury's program costs. DATES...

  9. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies. 562.4 Section 562.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATORY REPORTING STANDARDS § 562.4 Audit of savings associations and savings...

  10. 76 FR 31680 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and.... Title of Proposal: General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan..., federal stock associations), 12 CFR 545.96(c) (agency business records, Federal stock associations), 12...

  11. Connecting possibilistic prudence and optimal saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia Casademunt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the optimal saving problem in the framework of possibility theory. The notion of possibilistic precautionary saving is introduced as a measure of the way the presence of possibilistic risk (represented by a fuzzy number influences a consumer in establishing the level of optimal saving. The notion of prudence of an agent in the face of possibilistic risk is defined and the equivalence between the prudence condition and a positive possibilistic precautionary saving is proved. Some relations between possibilistic risk aversion, prudence and possibilistic precautionary saving were established.

  12. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  13. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  14. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide room, board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by the sponsoring family or other paid caregivers, who usually live on ...

  15. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  16. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  17. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, C.J. [IBP, Inc., Pasco, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region.

  18. Acute renal failure in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Sharon Phillips

    2004-04-01

    Acute renal failure in the newborn is a common problem and is typically classified as prerenal, intrinsic renal disease including vascular insults, and obstructive uropathy. In the newborn, renal failure may have a prenatal onset in congenital diseases such as renal dysplasia with or without obstructive uropathy and in genetic diseases such as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Acute renal failure in the newborn is also commonly acquired in the postnatal period because of hypoxic ischemic injury and toxic insults. Nephrotoxic acute renal failure in newborns is usually associated with aminoglycoside antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications used to close a patent ductus arteriosis. Alterations in renal function occur in approximately 40% of premature newborns who have received indomethacin and such alterations are usually reversible. Renal artery thrombosis and renal vein thrombosis will result in renal failure if bilateral or if either occurs in a solitary kidney. Cortical necrosis is associated with hypoxic/ischemic insults due to perinatal anoxia, placenta abruption and twin-twin or twin-maternal transfusions with resultant activation of the coagulation cascade. As in older children, hospital acquired acute renal failure is newborns is frequently multifactorial in origin. Although the precise incidence and prevalence of acute renal failure in the newborn is unknown, several studies have shown that acute renal failure is common in the neonatal intensive care unit. Recent interesting studies have demonstrated that some newborns may have genetic risks factors for acute renal failure. Once intrinsic renal failure has become established, management of the metabolic complications of acute renal failure continues to involve appropriate management of fluid balance, electrolyte status, acid-base balance, nutrition and the initiation of renal replacement therapy when appropriate. Renal replacement therapy may be provided by peritoneal dialysis

  19. Newborn genetic screening: blessing or curse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, C; Amlung, S

    1999-10-01

    Newly discovered genes and advances in genetic screening programs prompt many questions reflecting the kinds of ethical dilemmas that go hand in hand with life-changing discoveries. Neonatal genetic screening has been a standard of care for some time, but as our knowledge in the field of genetics expands, should we continue with the same approach? What newborn genetic screening tests should be mandatory, and what are the long-range consequences associated with testing? This article reviews genetic modes of inheritance, outlines and explains the most common newborn screening tests, and enumerates the ethical issues associated with these screening procedures. The role of the neonatal nurse in the newborn genetic screening process is discussed.

  20. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases.

  1. Analysis of the Precautionary Saving Motive Based on a Subjective Measure : (SAVE 2005-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelmeyer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the precautionary saving motive for households’ saving behaviour is unquestioned in the literature of the last two decades. However, the magnitude of precautionary savings and its influencing factors could not be satisfactorily determined. A subjective measure of the desired amount of precautionary savings in the German SAVE study 2005-2007 allows for the evaluation of these questions on a new basis without relying on a specific definition of wealth. This study supports the ...

  2. Immune thrombocytopenia in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of moderate or severe thrombocytopenia in otherwise healthy appearing neonates is immune thrombocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenia in the fetus or newborn may result from platelet alloantibodies against paternal antigens inherited by the fetus (alloimmune thrombocytopenia or platelet autoantibodies in the mother with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP. Only 10% of human platelet antigen (HPA-1a negative mothers who are exposed to HPA-1a positive fetal platelets during pregnancy develop HPA-1a alloantibodies, and 30% of fetuses/neonates will develop thrombocytopenia and 20% of these cases being severe. The most serious complication of severe fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, which is detected in 10-20% of affected fetuses/neonates, with most cases occurring antenatally. ICH leads to neurological sequelae in 20%, and deaths in 5-10% cases. There is no evidence-based optimal treatment strategy. Platelet antibody titration in maternal plasma is not helpful for decision-making. The best indicator for current pregnancy is the outcome of the previous pregnancy. The risk of recurrence among subsequent HPA-positive sibling is close to 100% where the previous sibling was affected with antenatal intracranial ICH. The risk of ICH becomes higher with more severe and earlier onset in each subsequent pregnancy. Serial platelet counts should be obtained for the first 5-7 days of delivery to keep the platelet counts higher than 30,000/µL without active bleeding and higher that 50,000-100,000/µL with active bleeding. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is not alternative to platelet transfusions, since platelet counts don’t rise before 24-48 h. In platelet- transfused patients, IVIG can be given to potentially prolong the survival of the incompatible platelets. ITP during pregnancy is not considered a serious risk of perinatal bleeding, but may cause a moderate thrombocytopenia in neonate

  3. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations among newborns in Monchegorsk (north-west Russia: a register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Postoev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods. A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results. The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 newborns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions. The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM.

  4. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  5. Obstetric Facility Quality and Newborn Mortality in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Hannah H; Fink, Günther; Nsona, Humphreys; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-10-01

    Ending preventable newborn deaths is a global health priority, but efforts to improve coverage of maternal and newborn care have not yielded expected gains in infant survival in many settings. One possible explanation is poor quality of clinical care. We assess facility quality and estimate the association of facility quality with neonatal mortality in Malawi. Data on facility infrastructure as well as processes of routine and basic emergency obstetric care for all facilities in the country were obtained from 2013 Malawi Service Provision Assessment. Birth location and mortality for children born in the preceding two years were obtained from the 2013-2014 Millennium Development Goals Endline Survey. Facilities were classified as higher quality if they ranked in the top 25% of delivery facilities based on an index of 25 predefined quality indicators. To address risk selection (sicker mothers choosing or being referred to higher-quality facilities), we employed instrumental variable (IV) analysis to estimate the association of facility quality of care with neonatal mortality. We used the difference between distance to the nearest facility and distance to a higher-quality delivery facility as the instrument. Four hundred sixty-seven of the 540 delivery facilities in Malawi, including 134 rated as higher quality, were linked to births in the population survey. The difference between higher- and lower-quality facilities was most pronounced in indicators of basic emergency obstetric care procedures. Higher-quality facilities were located a median distance of 3.3 km further from women than the nearest delivery facility and were more likely to be in urban areas. Among the 6,686 neonates analyzed, the overall neonatal mortality rate was 17 per 1,000 live births. Delivery in a higher-quality facility (top 25%) was associated with a 2.3 percentage point lower newborn mortality (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.046, 0.000, p-value 0.047). These results imply a newborn mortality

  6. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  7. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or…

  8. CARE SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF MOTHERS DURING ILLNESS OF NEWBORN IN URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gupta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge of mothers about recognition of danger signs and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn child in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP. Methods : A cross- sectional study in Urban slums of Lucknow city, UP included 524 women who had a live birth during last one year preceding data collection. The data was tabulated on Microsoft Excel sheet and analyzed using the software SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results : Study findings showed that Majority (76.9% of the mothers said that if the baby was very cold to touch or running temperature is a danger sign during newborn period followed by absence of sucking (68.9% in previously sucking newborn as danger sign. Majority (71.9% of the mothers consulted local doctor for any problem during neonatal period. Only 12 percent of the mothers approached Govt. doctor for the treatment . It was observed that Hing was given by 86.2 percent mothers in case of stomachache. 82.8 percent mothers had given salt and sugar solutions in the case of diarrhoea\t. Conclusion: In majority of cases correct knowledge and care seeking behaviour during illness of newborn were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.

  9. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...... only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  10. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  11. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tel: +1 915 545 6855; fax: +1 915 545 6864; e-mail: donald.meier@ttuhsc.edu. Received 10 September 2012 accepted 23 February 2013. Introduction. Peritoneal drainage (PD) was first described as a temporizing measure for the treatment of extremely ill newborns with intestinal perforation (IP) [1]. Subse- quent reports ...

  12. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the clinical feature had good sensitivity, specificity or predictive value for congenital malaria, and only 1.6% death was recorded in a baby with high parasite density. Conclusion: Congenital malaria is common in newborns with suspected neonatal sepsis. History of peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine ...

  13. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.

    2012-01-01

    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian D...

  14. Rapid Targeted Genomics in Critically Ill Newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diemen, Cleo C; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Bergman, Klasien A; de Koning, Tom J; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; van der Velde, Joeri K; Abbott, Kristin M; Herkert, Johanna C; Löhner, Katharina; Rump, Patrick; Meems-Veldhuis, Martine T; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Jongbloed, Jan D H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; Swertz, Morris A; Sinke, Richard J; van Langen, Irene M; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/ or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in

  15. Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you see any. Call 911 if your baby: has trouble breathing breathes rapidly has skin that looks blue has skin in between the ribs or under the ribcage that pulls in during breathing Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: October ... THIS TOPIC Common Diagnoses in the NICU When Your Baby's in the NICU Looking at Your Newborn: What's ...

  16. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  17. Congenital malformations among newborns in Kenya | Muga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available literature suggests that congenital malformations are a major cause of prenatal infant deaths and postnatal physical defects [1, 2]. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the patterns and incidence of congenital malformations at birth in newborns in Kenya and thereby analyze associated predisposing ...

  18. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  19. Macromastia in a newborn with Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, H.L.; Haller, J.O. [Department of Radiology, SUNY-Health Science Center at Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kedia, S. [Department of Radiology, St. Vincent`s Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We present a case of macromastia in a newborn with Alagille syndrome. A review of the literature failed to find any prior reports of this finding in Alagille syndrome patients. We propose that this patient`s macromastia may be related to her liver failure and abnormal estrogen metabolism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases

  1. Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, M.; Thurik, F. F.; Koelewijn, J. M.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    Haemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN) is caused by maternal alloimmunization against red blood cell antigens. In severe cases, HDFN may lead to fetal anaemia with a risk for fetal death and to severe forms of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia with a risk for kernicterus. Most severe cases

  2. Resuscitation of the Newborn: AN IMPROVED NEONATAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insufflatory resuscitation of a newborn baby that has not breathed presents many problems. These are dependent not only on the size and prematurity of the neonate, but on the amount of fluid which is present in the alveoli of the lungs, and the absence of the functional residual capacity (FRC). Before adequate gaseous ...

  3. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Peritoneal drainage (PD) was introduced 30 years ago as a temporizing treatment for extremely ill newborns with intestinal perforation (IP). Subsequent reports have shown it to be helpful as a definitive treatment, whereas others have labeled it as an unnecessary delay before laparotomy. Methods This is a ...

  4. Congenital granular cell lesion in newborn mandible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Congenital granular cell lesion (CGCL) is a rare non-neoplastic lesion found in newborns also known as Neumann's tumor. This benign lesion occurs predominantly in females mostly as a single mass. The histogenesis and natural history of the lesion remains obscure. It arises from the mucosa of the ...

  5. Multiple congenital defects in a newborn foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple congenital defects in a newborn foal is reported. The animal showed hypoplasia of the left pelvic limb bones, uterus unicornis, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and unilateral renal and ureteral agenesis. This report includes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed in the case.

  6. Reproductive, maternal, newborn, child & adolescent health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...

  7. "Saving Lives; Living the Dream": Gender and Emotional Labor Among Ambulance-Based 911 Paramedics

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Megan Bethany

    2016-01-01

    This project examines intersections of work, gender, and emotional labor among paramedics in Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Ethnographic research on gender and work analyzes labor through pre-gendered lenses: occupations are either masculinized or feminized, and the people who work those jobs are either in gender-matched occupations, or they are crossing over into occupations that have not traditionally been associated with their gender. EMS is a unique case in which workers are required t...

  8. Diuretics for transient tachypnoea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Khriesat, Wadah M; Anabrees, Jasim

    2015-11-21

    Transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) results from delayed clearance of lung liquid and is a common cause of admission of full-term infants to neonatal intensive care units. The condition is particularly common after elective caesarean section. Conventional treatment involves appropriate oxygen administration and continuous positive airway pressure in some cases. Most infants receive antibiotic therapy. Hastening the clearance of lung liquid may shorten the duration of the symptoms and reduce complications. To determine whether diuretic administration reduces the duration of oxygen therapy and respiratory symptoms and shortens hospital stay in term infants presenting with transient tachypnoea of the newborn. An updated search was carried out in September 2015 of the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL via OVID. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of diuretics administration versus placebo or no treatment in infants of less than seven days of age, born at 37 or more weeks of gestation with the clinical picture of transient tachypnoea of the newborn. We extracted and analysed data according to the methods outlined in the latest Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two review authors assessed trial quality in each potentially eligible manuscript and two review authors extracted data. Our previous systematic review included two trials enrolling a total of 100 infants with transient tachypnoea of the newborn (Wiswell 1985; Karabayir 2006). The updated search revealed no new trials. Wiswell 1985 randomised 50 infants to receive either oral furosemide (2 mg/kg body weight at time of diagnosis followed by a 1 mg/kg dose 12 hours later if the tachypnoea persisted) or placebo. Karabayir 2006 randomised 50 infants to receive either intravenous furosemide (2 mg/kg body

  9. Two-Way Radio Modem Data Transfer for Newborn Hearing Screening Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulat, Peter; Lepper, Ingo; Böttcher, Peter; Parfitt, Ross; Oswald, Hans; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Deuster, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The success of a newborn hearing screening program depends on successful tracking and follow-up to ensure that children who have had positive screening results in the first few days of life receive appropriate and timely diagnostic and intervention services. The easy availability, through a suitable infrastructure, of the data necessary for the tracking, diagnosis, and care of children concerned is a major key to enhancing the quality and efficiency of newborn hearing screening programs. Two systems for the automated two-way transmission of newborn hearing screening and configuration data, based on mobile communication technology, for the screening devices MADSEN AccuScreen(®) and Natus Echo-Screen(®) were developed and tested in a field study. Radio modem connections were compared with conventional analogue modem transmissions from Natus Echo-Screen devices for duration, transmission rate, number of lost connections, and frequency of use. The average session duration was significantly lower with the MADSEN AccuScreen (12 s) and Natus Echo-Screen both with radio modem (15 s) than the Natus Echo-Screen with analogue modem (108 s). The transmission rate was significantly higher (898 and 1,758 vs. 181 bytes/s) for the devices with radio modems. Both radio modem devices had significantly lower rates of broken connections after initial connection (2.1 and 0.9 vs. 5.5%). An increase in the frequency of data transmission from the clinics with mobile radio devices was found. The use of mobile communication technology in newborn hearing screening devices offers improvements in the average session duration, transmission rate, and reliability of the connection over analogue solutions. We observed a behavioral change in clinical staff using the new technology: the data exchange with the tracking center is more often used. The requirements for on-site support were reduced. These savings outweigh the small increase in costs for the Internet service provider.

  10. Psychological determinants of household saving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nyhus, Ellen Katrine

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a study that examined the impact of psychological variables on household saving and borrowing behaviour. Understanding saving behaviour is important for policy makers and financial institutions, but a comprehensive explanatory model that can explain individual differences in saving does not yet exist. The aim of this research has been to contribute towards the construction of such a model. The study was designed to answer four research q...

  11. ASCENDING WAY INFECTION NEWBORNS AND THE FORMATION OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOCENOSIS OF THE NEWBORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunovskaya L. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role and value of the bacterial factor in development pre-natal infection of newborns is studied. It is considered microflora of patrimonial ways of pregnant women, as basic pathogenesis factor of an ascending way infection of newborns. On an example of the spent bacteriological researches correlation communication between microflora of patrimonial ways, placenta and an ascending way infection of newborns is shown. At crops gastric swallowing at newborn children with pre-natal infection of newborns it is ascertained growth aerobic and аanaerobic microflora in the majority (87,7 % supervision in the form of microbes associations gramme-positive coccus Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and Candida. The inclusion in the treatment of Saccharomyces boulardіi contributes to the restoration of intesti­nal microflora in 90 % of newborns. Found significant growth of the colonies of Bifidobacterium spp. (3.7-4,9 lg CFU/ml and Lactobacillus spp. (7.2 lg CFU/ml.

  12. Aging, Saving, and Public Pensions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horioka, Charles Yuji; Suzuki, Wataru; Hatta, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of population aging on Japan's household saving rate and on its public pension system and the impact of that system on Japan's household saving rate and obtain the following results: first, the age structure of Japan's population can explain the level of, and past and future trends in, its household saving rate; second, the rapid aging of Japan's population is causing Japan's household saving rate to decline and this decline can be expected to continue; third, the pay-as...

  13. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving...

  14. FY 1995 cost savings report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  15. Salbutamol for transient tachypnea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Luca; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cohen, Amnon; Gaiero, Alberto; Calevo, Maria Grazia

    2016-05-23

    Transient tachypnea of the newborn is characterized by tachypnea and signs of respiratory distress. Transient tachypnea typically appears within the first two hours of life in term and late preterm newborns. Although transient tachypnea of the newborn is usually a self limited condition, it is associated with wheezing syndromes in late childhood. The rationale for the use of salbutamol (albuterol) for transient tachypnea of the newborn is based on studies showing that β-agonists can accelerate the rate of alveolar fluid clearance. To assess whether salbutamol compared to placebo, no treatment or any other drugs administered to treat transient tachypnea of the newborn, is effective and safe in the treatment of transient tachypnea of the newborn in infants born at 34 weeks' gestational age or more. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1996 to March 2016), EMBASE (1980 to March 2016) and CINAHL (1982 to March 2016). We applied no language restrictions. We searched the abstracts of the major congresses in the field (Perinatal Society of Australia New Zealand and Pediatric Academic Societies) from 2000 to 2015 and clinical trial registries. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials and cluster trials comparing salbutamol versus placebo or no treatment or any other drugs administered to infants born at 34 weeks' gestational age or more and less than three days of age with transient tachypnea of the newborn. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, duration of oxygen therapy, need for continuous positive airway pressure and need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, etc.) and assessed the risk of bias (e.g. adequacy of randomization, blinding, completeness of follow-up). The primary outcomes considered in this review were duration of oxygen therapy, need for

  16. Characterization and six-month follow-up on a cohort of newborns with congenital syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Cristian; Cifuentes, Yolanda

    2016-03-03

    Congenital syphilis is a preventable disease. However, the incidence in Colombia has increased and reached the figure of 3.28 cases per 1,000 live births in 2011.  To characterize newborns with congenital syphilis and describe follow-up over 6 months following their diagnosis and treatment.  Between August, 2011, and February, 2012, in Hospital La Victoria, sede Instituto Materno Infantil, newborns with congenital syphilis were identified and treated. Clinical and laboratory follow-up was carried out for six months until it was determined that the disease was cured. The analyzed variables included patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics.  In this period, we identified 29 cases that met the criteria of congenital syphilis, with a frequency in the institution of one case per 69 births. There was one stillbirth and one neonatal death, four were premature, and five had growth restriction. Of the 28 live births, 15 were asymptomatic. There were two cases with neurosyphilis, representing 15% of symptomatic newborns. Follow-up was done on 18 out of 27 children (66.6%), including most symptomatic cases and the two cases of neurosyphilis. All cases showed the expected decrease in VDRL titers without clinical sequelae, meeting the criteria of being cured.  A high incidence of the disease, failure to prevent it, varied expression in its presentation, and the effectiveness of treatment in the neonatal period were evidenced in this study.

  17. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  18. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  19. [Palliative care for newborn infants with congenital malformations or genetic abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallard, M-L; Moriette, G

    2017-02-01

    The choice of palliative care can be made today in the perinatal period, as it can be made in children and adults. Palliative care, rather than curative treatment, may be considered in three clinical situations: babies born at the limits of viability, withholding/withdrawing treatments in the NICU, and babies with severe malformations of genetic abnormalities identified during pregnancy. Only the last situation is addressed hereafter. In newborn infants as in older patients, palliative care aims at taking care of the baby and at providing comfort and well-being. The presence of human beings by the newborn infant, most importantly the parents and family, is of utmost importance. The available time should not be used only for care and medical treatments. Sufficient time should be kept for the parents to interact with the baby and for human presence and warmth. The best interests of the newborn infant are the main element for guiding appropriate care. Before birth, the choice of palliative care for newborn infants requires successive steps: (1) establishing a diagnosis of malformation(s) or genetic abnormalities; (2) making a prognosis and ruling out intensive treatments at birth and thereafter; (3) giving the parents appropriate information; (4) assisting the pregnant woman in deciding to continue pregnancy while excluding intensive treatment of the newborn baby; (5) dialoguing with parents about the expected duration of the baby's life and the related uncertainty; (6) planning of palliative care to be implemented at birth; (7) preparing a plan with the parents for discharging the infant from the hospital and for taking care of him over a long time, when it is deemed possible that the baby may live for more than a few days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with pulmonary hemorrhage in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena Ferreira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:to determine the prevalence of pulmonary hemorrhage in newborns and evaluate the associated risk factors and outcomes.METHODS:this was a retrospective case-control study involving 67 newborns who met the criteria for pulmonary hemorrhage. A control was selected for each case: the next-born child of the same gender, similar weight (± 200 g and gestational age (± 1 week, with no previous pulmona ry hemorrhage and no malformation diagnosis. Factors previous to pulmonary hemorrhage onset, as well as aspects associated to the condition, were assessed.RESULTS:the prevalence was 6.7 for 1,000 live births, and the rates observed were: 8% among newborns < 1,500 g, and 11% among newborns < 1,000 g. Intubation in the delivery room (OR = 7.16, SNAPPE II (OR = 2.97, surfactant use (OR = 3.7, and blood components used previously to pulmonary hemorrhage onset (OR = 5.91 were associated with pulmonary hemorrhage. In the multivariate logistic regression model, only intubation in delivery room and previous use of blood components maintained the association. Children with pulmonary hemorrhage had higher mortality (OR = 7.24. Among the survivors, the length of stay (p < 0.01 and mechanical ventilation time were longer (OR = 25.6, and oxygen use at 36 weeks of corrected age was higher (OR = 7.67.CONCLUSIONS:pulmonary hemorrhage is more prevalent in premature newborns, and is associated with intubation in the delivery room and previous use of blood components, leading to high mortality and worse clinical evolution.

  1. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2 had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  2. Savings Behavior and Satisfaction with Savings: A Comparison of Low- and High-Income Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth P.; Schumm, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Data on 1,739 married couples from 13 states were analyzed. Associations between satisfaction with savings and level of savings with measures of motivation to save, motivations to spend, and family resources were found to differ substantially between low- and high-income couples. (Author/CH)

  3. Genuine Saving as a Sustainability Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Growth theory provides the intellectual underpinning for expanded national accounting and, through the measure of genuine saving, an indicator of when economies are on an unsustainable development path. This theory points in useful directions for countries concerned with sustainable development. The genuine savings analysis raises an important set of policy questions that goes beyond the t...

  4. Analysis of savings mobilization determinants among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successive governments and development partners in the country have always initiated programmes that stress availability of credit to rural farmers for agricultural development, while neglecting savings mobilization. Therefore, this study examined some important determinants of savings mobilization in Ijumu Local ...

  5. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on

  6. Saving Behavior and Portfolio Choice After Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; Alessie, Rob; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on saving behavior and portfolio choice after retirement and provides a descriptive analysis of this behavior by Dutch elderly households. Studying saving behavior in the Netherlands is informative because of the very different institutional background compared to

  7. Building Savings and Investments Culture among Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    food, the more developed the society becomes because the money not spent on consumption is saved to provide the resources that are needed to fund investment. (Olusoji, 2003). Smiths (1776) recognized the importance of savings when he observed that capital is increased by parismony and diminished by prodigality ...

  8. 76 FR 3487 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: On July 22, 2009, NCUA published a final rule amending NCUA's Truth in... through automated systems. This final rule amends NCUA's Truth in Savings rule and official staff...

  9. [A delicate and life saving appendectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiot, Claude

    2014-01-01

    An appendectomy which was practiced in the camp of Dachau to save the life of one of the torturers looks like a dangerous wager and the writer shows how a good surgeon could win the bet through his skillfulness and save life of his comrades and his own.

  10. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Internationalization offers enhanced opportunities for individuals to place savingsabroad and evade domestic saving taxation. This paper asks whether the concomi-tant loss of saving taxation necessarily is harmful. To this end we construct a modelof many symmetric countries in which public goods ...

  11. Prognosis of the Newborns with Congenital Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Molaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD is defined as problems affecting the heart of the fetus. According to previous studies, the incidence rate varies from 4-12 in 1000 live births. This study aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, and findings that have impact on the prognosis of newborns hospitalized in Tabriz children Hospital, northwest of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 82 neonates with CHD admitted in Tabriz children Hospital, northwest of Iran from December 2011 to December 2012. Demographic characteristics, main complaints, symptoms, clinical presentations, associated anomalies, diagnoses, and also the correlation between the treatment process and mortality were evaluated. All data were analyzed using SPSS™ version 16 statistical software. Results: A total of 82 neonates with CHD were enrolled. The mean age and birth weight were 8.54 days and 2828.17 grams, respectively. The most common chief complaint was respiratory distress (58 cases, 70.73%. The most common diagnosis was d-transposition of great arteries and the most frequent therapeutic procedure was medical therapy in combination with mechanical ventilation (31 cases, 37.8%. 10 neonates (12.1% had complications while seizure was the most common complication of the study (4 case, 4.87%. Of 82 newborns in this study, 30 patients (36.6% died of which 13 cases (43.33% had DTGA; the most common therapeutic procedure was mechanical ventilation plus medical therapy which was performed in 22 patients (73.33%. In our study, no significant correlation could be observed between age, sex or weight of neonates and final outcome. Conclusion: Mortality of neonates with critical CHD is high. Also, the neonates treated with more invasive methods have higher mortality rates. It is obvious that both early detection and timely management affect ultimate prognosis of these patients. Hence, prenatal (fetal echocardiography and

  12. What is an Adequate Standard of Living During Retirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Schunk, D.

    2008-01-01

    Many economists and policy-makers argue that households do not save enough to maintain an adequate standard of living during retirement. However, there is no consensus on the answer to the underlying question what this standard should be, despite the fact that it is crucial for the design of saving

  13. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...... of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well...

  14. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  15. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    A new instrument for measuring housing-related lifestyle (HRL) is introduced and employed for identifying national and cross-national HRL segments in 10 European countries (N = 3190). The identified HRL segments are profiled and the practical importance of HRL for everyday energy-saving efforts...... in the home and for the energy-consumer’s openness to new energy saving opportunities (i.e., energy saving innovativeness) is investigated. The HRL instrument’s 71 items load on 16 dimensions within five lifestyle elements. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the instrument possesses metric...... of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  16. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  17. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  18. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in 11 screening programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E; Bonilla, Francisco A; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A; Cowan, Morton J; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W; Hale, Jaime E; Hanson, I Celine; Hay, Beverly N; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M; Kohn, Donald B; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B; Naides, Stanley J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Orange, Jordan S; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K; Stiehm, E Richard; Sugerman, Robert W; Sullivan, John L; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E; Wasserman, Richard L; Watson, Michael S; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Weiner, Leonard B; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B; Puck, Jennifer M; Bonagura, Vincent R

    2014-08-20

    Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100,000 births. To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3,030,083 newborns screened with a TREC test. Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58,000 infants (95% CI, 1/46,000-1/80,000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87% (45/52), 92% (45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in definitions and follow-up practices influenced the rates of detection

  19. Newborn care practices among slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a quantitative and qualitative exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Karar Zunaid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urbanization is occurring at a rapid pace, especially in low-income countries. Dhaka, Bangladesh, is estimated to grow to 50 million by 2015, with 21 million living in urban slums. Although health services are available, neonatal mortality is higher in slum areas than in urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in urban slums in Bangladesh. This paper describes newborn care practices in urban slums in Dhaka and provides program recommendations. Methods A quantitative baseline survey was conducted in six urban slum areas to measure newborn care practices among recently delivered women (n = 1,256. Thirty-six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore newborn care practices among currently pregnant women (n = 18 and women who had at least one delivery (n = 18. Results In the baseline survey, the majority of women gave birth at home (84%. Most women reported having knowledge about drying the baby (64%, wrapping the baby after birth (59%, and cord care (46%. In the in-depth interviews, almost all women reported using sterilized instruments to cut the cord. Babies are typically bathed soon after birth to purify them from the birth process. There was extensive care given to the umbilical cord including massage and/or applying substances, as well as a variety of practices to keep the baby warm. Exclusive breastfeeding was rare; most women reported first giving their babies sweet water, honey and/or other foods. Conclusion These reported newborn care practices are similar to those in rural areas of Bangladesh and to urban and rural areas in the South Asia region. There are several program implications. Educational messages to promote providing newborn care immediately after birth, using sterile thread, delaying bathing, and ensuring dry cord care and exclusive breastfeeding are needed. Programs in urban slum areas should also consider interventions to improve

  20. Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency in 11 Screening Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Antonia; Abraham, Roshini S.; Currier, Robert; Brower, Amy; Andruszewski, Karen; Abbott, Jordan K.; Baker, Mei; Ballow, Mark; Bartoshesky, Louis E.; Bonagura, Vincent R.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Brokopp, Charles; Brooks, Edward; Caggana, Michele; Celestin, Jocelyn; Church, Joseph A.; Comeau, Anne Marie; Connelly, James A.; Cowan, Morton J.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dasu, Trivikram; Dave, Nina; De La Morena, Maria T.; Duffner, Ulrich; Fong, Chin-To; Forbes, Lisa; Freedenberg, Debra; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Hale, Jaime E.; Celine Hanson, I.; Hay, Beverly N.; Hu, Diana; Infante, Anthony; Johnson, Daisy; Kapoor, Neena; Kay, Denise M.; Kohn, Donald B.; Lee, Rachel; Lehman, Heather; Lin, Zhili; Lorey, Fred; Abdel-Mageed, Aly; Manning, Adrienne; McGhee, Sean; Moore, Theodore B.; Naides, Stanley J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Orange, Jordan S.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Porteus, Matthew; Rodriguez, Ray; Romberg, Neil; Routes, John; Ruehle, Mary; Rubenstein, Arye; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Scott, Ginger; Scott, Patricia M.; Secord, Elizabeth; Seroogy, Christine; Shearer, William T.; Siegel, Subhadra; Silvers, Stacy K.; Stiehm, E. Richard; Sugerman, Robert W.; Sullivan, John L.; Tanksley, Susan; Tierce, Millard L.; Verbsky, James; Vogel, Beth; Walker, Rosalyn; Walkovich, Kelly; Walter, Jolan E.; Wasserman, Richard L.; Watson, Michael S.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Weiner, Leonard B.; Wood, Heather; Yates, Anne B.; Puck, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100 000 births. OBJECTIVES To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. DESIGN Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. SETTING Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3 030 083 newborns screened with a TREC test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. RESULTS Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58 000 infants (95%CI, 1/46 000-1/80 000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87%(45/52), 92%(45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in

  1. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...

  2. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  3. Impaired innate immunity in the newborn: newborn neutrophils are deficient in bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, O; Martin, S; Eichenwald, E; Ganz, T; Valore, E; Carroll, S F; Lee, K; Goldmann, D; Thorne, G M

    1999-12-01

    The mechanisms by which newborns are at increased risk for invasive bacterial infections have been incompletely defined. A central element of innate immunity to bacterial infection is the neutrophil-a cell that contains cytoplasmic granules replete with antibiotic proteins and peptides. The activity of adult neutrophils against gram-negative bacteria is believed to depend to a significant degree on the presence in neutrophil primary (azurophilic) granules of the 55-kDa bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which binds with high affinity to bacterial lipopolysaccharides and kills gram-negative bacteria. In light of the importance of BPI to antibacterial host defense and to investigate possible factors underlying the risk of neonatal bacterial infections, we determined the relative content of BPI in the neutrophils of adults and newborns. The cellular content of BPI was determined by Western blotting of neutrophils derived from full-term newborn cord blood (n = 21; mean gestational age: 38.6 weeks) and from adult peripheral blood (n = 22; mean age: 29 years). Extracellular levels of BPI in adult and newborn plasma were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutrophil content of other azurophil granule markers also was assessed: myeloperoxidase by Western blotting and defensin peptides by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Coomassie staining. Acid extracts of newborn and adult neutrophils were analyzed for antibacterial activity against serum-resistant encapsulated isolate Escherichia coli K1/r. The neutrophils of newborns contain at least threefold to fourfold less BPI per cell than adult neutrophils (67 +/- 13 ng per 10(6) cells vs 234 +/- 27 ng per 10(6) cells). The relative BPI-deficiency of newborn neutrophils apparently was not attributable to perinatal stress-related degranulation of intracellular BPI stores because: 1) newborn and adult neutrophils contained nearly identical amounts of 2 microbicidal constituents derived

  4. Risk of large-for-gestational-age newborns in women with gestational diabetes by race and ethnicity and body mass index categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sneha B; Ferrara, Assiamira; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Brown, Susan D; Hedderson, Monique M

    2013-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns across categories of body mass index (BMI) in five racial and ethnic groups. This cohort study examined 7,468 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered a live newborn between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The racial and ethnic groups were non-Hispanic white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and Filipina. The BMI was classified using the World Health Organization International guidelines (normal, 18.50-24.99; overweight, 25.00-29.99; obese, 30.00-34.99; obese class II, 35.00 or higher). Having an LGA newborn was defined as birth weight more than 90th percentile for the study population's race or ethnicity and gestational age--specific birth weight distribution. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of having an LGA newborn by BMI and race and ethnicity. Overall prevalence of LGA newborns was highest in African American women (25.1%), lowest in Asians (13.9%), and intermediate among Hispanic (17.3%), white (16.4%), and Filipina women (15.3%). The highest increased risk of LGA newborns was observed among women with class II obesity in most racial and ethnic groups, and African American and Asian women with class II obesity had a four-fold increased risk of LGA newborns compared with women of normal weight in the same racial and ethnic group. African American women with GDM have a greater risk of LGA newborns at a lower BMI than other racial and ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware that among women with GDM, there may be significant racial and ethnic differences in the risk of LGA newborns by BMI threshold.

  5. Scalability of telecom cloud architectures for live-TV distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Asensio Carmona, Adrian; Contreras, Luis Miguel; Ruiz Ramírez, Marc; López Álvarez, Victor; Velasco Esteban, Luis Domingo

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical distributed telecom cloud architecture for live-TV distribution exploiting flexgrid networking and SBVTs is proposed. Its scalability is compared to that of a centralized architecture. Cost savings as high as 32 % are shown. Peer Reviewed

  6. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Nickavar; Farahnak Assadi

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP) in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbi...

  7. Submandibular neck mass in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Hunter; Clark, David W

    2017-10-01

    A deep neck abscess is uncommon in the newborn period. In this case, we noted a clindamycin-sensitive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection characterized as a deep neck abscess in an 8-day-old boy. He was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a progressively enlarging indurated mass below the mandible. Imaging confirmed the mass as a submandibular abscess. The patient received antibiotics in addition to incision and drainage, with resolution of the abscess.

  8. Hair dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA concentrations in newborn dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bolis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last intrauterine fetal stage of development and the neonatal period the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA is a key system. Apart of cortisol, the adrenals produce dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, the major steroid produced by the fetus itself, so that it could be considered as a marker of offspring HPA activity. Non invasive, long time-frame retrospective hormonal levels analysis were performed in the hair of humans and animals, but not in newborn puppies, and DHEA never investigated in puppies. This study was aimed to assess DHEA concentrations in the hair of newborn puppies, and to evaluate the influence of newborn age, gender, and breed size on DHEA concentrations. The study enrolled 116 spontaneously dead puppies, grouped on the base of mother bodyweight to small or medium-large breeds, and on the base of age at death. Hair samples were collected by shaving, and stored at room temperature until RIA analysis. The overall hair DHEA concentrations were 46.8±14.8 pg/mg. DHEA levels were 48.6±15.66 pg/mg in females vs 45.1±13.73 pg/mg in males, without significant differences. DHEA levels were 45.5±13.61 pg/mg in small size puppies and 47.8±15.61 pg/mg in medium-large size puppies, with no significant differences. DHEA concentrations in premature puppies (52.5±15.12 pg/mg were significant higher (p<0.05 than in puppies dead between 1 and 30 days after birth (44.5±17.78 pg/mg, but similar to fresh term born-dead puppies (46.2±16.5 pg/mg.  This study demonstrated that DHEA is quantifiable in the hair of newborn dogs, and that DHEA levels are significantly influenced by the puppies age.

  9. Reye's syndrome in a newborn infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Apostolos; Wiglesworth, F. W.; Schiff, David; Stern, Leo

    1973-01-01

    A case of Reye's syndrome in a newborn infant, believed to be the first recorded in the perinatal period, is reported. The clinical, biochemical and histological findings are those previously recognized in older infants. The intractable acidosis, hypoglycemia and extreme degree of lactic acidosis reflect an advanced degree of hepatic involvement, probably initiated in utero, with resultant impairment of glycogenolysis and intermediary metabolism. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4746131

  10. Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody-Ann; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinnall-Johnson, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background While a growing body of research has addressed pregnancy and postpartum impacts on female sexuality, relatively little work has been focused upon men. A few studies suggest that a fraction of men report decreases in libido during a partner?s pregnancy and/or postpartum, with alterations in men?s sexual behavior also commonly aligning with those of a partner. Here, we investigate sexuality among fathers of newborn children in Jamaica. In Jamaica, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, relat...

  11. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  12. Prenatal and newborn screening for hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C C

    2013-06-01

    The hemoglobinopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with mutations in both the alpha-globin and beta-globin genes. Increased immigration of high-risk populations has prompted the implementation of prenatal and newborn screening programs for hemoglobinopathies across Europe and North America. In Canada, the UK, and other European countries, prenatal screening to identify hemoglobinopathy carriers and offer prenatal diagnostic testing to couples at risk is linked to newborn screening, while in the United States, it is still not universally performed. The structure of screening programs, whether prenatal or postnatal, universal or selective, varies greatly among these countries and within the United States. The laboratory methods used to identify hemoglobinopathies are based on the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies within the population and the type of screening performed. Advances in molecular testing have facilitated the diagnosis of complex thalassemias and sickling disorders observed in ethnically diverse populations. This review summarizes the current approaches and methods used for carrier detection, prenatal diagnosis, and newborn screening. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. URETERO PELVIC JUNCTION OBSTRUCTION IN THE NEWBORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kouranloo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Uretero pelvic junction (UPJ obstruction is a common cause of hydronephrosis in infants. The frequent use of fetal ultrasound is allowing early (prenatal diagnosis of numerous uropathies previously delayed until the child either became symptomatic or had a palpable mass. Newborn with severe obstruction often has marked improvement following correction, therefore, early diagnosis and operation are important. From 1993 to 2002, 21 patients were operated on for severe UPJ obstruction who were diagnosed before 6 weeks of age. Only 10 patients (63% had antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, the remaining were diagnosed by postnatal ultrasound and IVP or radionuclide scan for palpable renal enlargement or for associated anomalies. Eighteen of them had unilateral and three had bilateral obstruction. Twenty-four pyeloplasties were done; all pyeloplasties were dismembered with tailoring of the dilatated renal pelvis. Postoperative renal function was followed with laboratory blood test, urine test or radionuclide scan or IVP. Postoperative complications included urinary tract infection in three patients and postoperative stenosis in one patient were seen. No mortality occurred on infants in unilateral but one occurred in bilateral obstruction. Also, there was one unrelated late death. We report documented functional improvement with minimal complications in unilateral or bilateral pyeloplasty in newborns with UPJ obstruction. We recommend that if the initial scan shows substantially reduced function in the obstructed kidney, a pyeloplasty (rather than nephrectomy generally should be performed, because the newborn kidney has tremendous capacity for improvement in renal function following decompression.

  14. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hand allograft in agenesic newborn: feasibility study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarian, A; Abrahamyan, D O

    2007-10-01

    Would a newborn with a single hand benefit from hand allograft? Transantebrachial aplasia is the chosen clinical form of agenesia in our interrogation. The feasibility study presents several aspects: 1) ethical and psychological aspects. Is this a desired surgery for agenesic population? Which are the functional, psychological and social situations of agenesic patient? Is the hand transplantation in newborn ethically acceptable? What is the parents' attitude toward agenesia? Can we envisage organ donation in neonatal period? 2) immunological aspects. The non-vital character of this condition and its' good functional tolerance cannot make accepting the risk of adverse effects of hand allotransplantation. Hence, one may consider this surgery only without immunosuppression. Can the peculiarities of the neonate "immature" immune system represent an opportunity of easier tolerance obtaining, avoiding immunosuppression? 3) anatomical and technical aspects. The proximal tissues at the level of amputation are all hypoplastic in agenesic patients. Can we efficaciously suture those structures with donor eutrophic tissues? 4) cognitive aspects. Is a neonate born with only one hand is able to use two? A feasibility study on such a subject needs to take into account all these aspects. This research is useful because, even if hand allograft in agenesic newborn will never be done, the provided information will allow to progress in the vaster domain of composite tissue allotransplantation in perinatology.

  16. Dialyzer reuse: justified cost saving for south Asian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrolia, Murtaza F; Nasir, Kiran; Imtiaz, Salman; Ahmad, Aasim

    2014-08-01

    In spite of controversies, dialyzer reuse has remained an integral part of hemodialysis because of lower cost, good overall safety record, and improved membrane biocompatibility. Reuse declined in developed countries from the beginning of this century because of mass production of hemodialyzers at favourable price with better biocompatible membrane. Abandoning dialyzer reuse became challenging in South Asian region, where more than 40% of the population live below the International Poverty Line of $1.25 per day, less than 10% of end stage renal disease patients receive renal replacement therapy, and upto 70% of those starting dialysis stop treatment due to cost within the first 3 months. Dialyzer reuse is an efficient cost-saving method that allows the use of more efficient and expensive biocompatible synthetic membranes, thereby providing high-quality dialysis to individuals living in countries with limited medical resources without compromising the safety or effectiveness of the treatment.

  17. Life-saving treatments and disabilities. Are all QALYs created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubel, P A; Richardson, J; Prades, J L

    1999-01-01

    Decision-makers and the general public are often reluctant to adopt policy recommendations based exclusively upon cost-utility analyses. One possible reason explored here is that patients' previous health state before experiencing the onset of an acute life-threatening illness may influence the value of saving those patients' lives. We surveyed members of the general public to see the relative importance of saving patients' lives when some patients could be returned to perfect health and others would live the remainder of their years with paraplegia. Among this latter group, some were described as having pre-existing paraplegia. Others were described as having as having the onset of paraplegia. The relative importance of saving each of these lives was measured using the person trade-off method. Six hundred five subjects completed questionnaires, and 250 met pre-established consistency criteria and were included in the final analysis. Overall, subjects placed equal importance on saving the lives of people with pre-existing paraplegia versus those who could be returned to perfect health because they did not have pre-existing paraplegia. In contrast, respondents gave lower priority to patients who would experience the onset of paraplegia after having their lives saved, especially if their paraplegia was avoidable with an alternative treatment. People do not think that all quality-adjusted life-years are created equal. Instead, the value that people place on treatment programs depends on patients' state of health before developing life-threatening illnesses, and on whether alternative treatments are available that provide better health outcomes for the patients. These results may explain, in part, public discomfort over basing health care priorities on cost-utility analysis.

  18. Saving Can Save from Death Anxiety: Mortality Salience and Financial Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending. PMID:24244497

  19. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    Full Text Available Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American, that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  20. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.