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Sample records for saving lives increasing

  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and public health professionals. More > Hand Hygiene Saves Lives (5:10) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Hand Hygiene Saves Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22. ...

  3. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities

  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  11. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role in reminding healthcare ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than a million infections in the hospital while being treated for something else. The best way to help prevent infection is to practice proper hand hygiene. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives shows how patients can play an active role ...

  15. Gun control saves lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homicides[3-5] and that it coincided with the introduction of stricter gun control legislation. One study estimated that more than 4 500 lives were saved across five SA cities from 2001 to 2005.[5] Pro-gun interest groups seeking to promote gun ownership and diffusion have attacked these findings, suggesting that stricter gun ...

  16. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  1. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  2. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  4. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  8. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  9. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  10. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Summary for General Public in Puerto Rico (2:22) Zika Virus Prevention for Puerto Rico (:30) Vaccination ... Lives Transcript [28 KB, 2 pages] High resolution [22.9 MB] Open Captioned [14.5 MB] Request ...

  11. Learning to save lives!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    They're all around you and watch over you, but you won't be aware of them unless you look closely at their office doors. There are 308 of them and they have all been given 12 hours of training with the CERN Fire Brigade. Who are they? Quite simply, those who could one day save your life at work, the CERN first-aiders. First-aiders are recruited on a volunteer basis. "Training is in groups of 10 to 12 people and a lot of emphasis is placed on the practical to ensure that they remember the life-saving techniques we show them", explains Patrick Berlinghi, a CERN first-aid instructor from TIS Division. He is looking forward to the arrival of four new instructors, which will bring the total number to twelve (eleven firemen and one member of the Medical Service). "The new instructors were trained at CERN from 16 to 24 May by Marie-Christine Boucher Da Ros (a member of the Commission Pédagogie de l'Observatoire National Français du Secourisme, the education commission of France's national first-aid body). This in...

  12. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... De Las Manos Salva Vidas Mi Salud, Mi Decisión, Mi Futuro Salud Pregestacional ¿Yo? ¿Tener un Bebé? ¿ ... Living Featured Videos Fight Germs. Wash Your Hands! Making Health Easier: Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA Making ...

  13. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Activity Knees Lifted High Making Health Easier: Active Living in Philadelphia, PA Preconception Me? Have a baby? Preconception Health Me? Have another baby? Preconception Health My health, my choice, my future Preconception Health (Full) Injury, Violence & Safety A Time ...

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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    Full Text Available ... Please Parents Want To Do What′s Best The Obesity Epidemic Outbreaks CDC: Protecting Americans through Global Health ... Multiunit Housing The Quiet Killer Healthy Living Healthy Eating A Grocery Store’s Healthy Options A Plate Full ...

  15. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in ...

  16. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  17. School Safety: Saving Lives with AEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) on school and university campuses have saved many lives. Students, teachers and community members have been among the fortunate ones pulled from the brink of death. Medical studies validating the effectiveness of AEDs in schools and other public settings have been published in numerous medical journals.…

  18. Are Doctors Discarding Donor Kidneys That Could Save Lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Doctors Discarding Donor Kidneys That Could Save Lives? Study found suboptimal organs prolonged lives and were ... Formica said. Lower the bar to save more lives? "People don't realize if I turn down ...

  19. Communication Can Save Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  20. Save More Tomorrow: Using Behavioral Economics to Increase Employee Saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Richard H.; Benartzi, Shlomo

    2004-01-01

    As firms switch from defined-benefit plans to defined-contribution plans, employees bear more responsibility for making decisions about how much to save. The employees who fail to join the plan or who participate at a very low level appear to be saving at less than the predicted life cycle savings rates. Behavioral explanations for this behavior…

  1. Humanitarian response: improving logistics to save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.

  2. Poison centre network saves lives | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Snakebites, food poisoning, exposure to toxic chemicals: all are potentially fatal if the correct antidote isn't identified and applied — fast. Since 1988, INTOX, a computer-based program involving a global network of poison centres, has been providing those life-saving capabilities in minutes.

  3. Public Policy Toward Life Saving: Maximize Lives Saved vs. Consumer Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    William Gould; Richard Thaler

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical analysis of individual and societal demands for life saving. We begin by demonstrating that the allocation of health expenditures to maximize lives saved may be inconsistent with the willingness-to-pay criterion and consumer sovereignty. We further investigate the effects of information on aggregate willingness to pay. This discussion is related to the concepts of statistical and identified lives. Methods of financing health expenditures are considered. We show tha...

  4. SAVING LIVES: WHO PICKS UP THE TAB?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    public health care system, often costing lives, particularly in peri-urban and rural areas. Just 18% of South Africans are medically insured, leaving the state sector with a huge burden of care – and both sectors urgently need a more efficient single overall operating system. South Africa has 11 dedicated emergency rescue ...

  5. Advancing newborn health: The Saving Newborn Lives initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, A.; Parker, R.; Lord, D.; Grear, K.

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, newborn health was virtually absent from the global health agenda. Now, assistance agencies, national governments and non-governmental organisations are increasingly addressing this previously neglected issue of close to four million newborns dying every year. The experience of the Saving Newborn Lives initiative documents some of the progress that has been made and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Since the start of the initiative in 2000, targeted research, focused on overcoming the key barriers to improved newborn survival, has demonstrated low-cost, community-based interventions and strategies that can significantly reduce newborn mortality. Building on what has been learned from this and other efforts to date, the challenge now is to reach the millions of newborns still at risk. PMID:19851911

  6. Texting to save lives in South Asia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-30

    May 30, 2012 ... Imagine a world where mobile technology helps to save lives by quickly alerting health authorities of new outbreaks of H1N1, chickenpox, and malaria. Such an early warning system was recently piloted, ... By then, a disease may have caused much harm. In 2003, for example, Sri Lanka's Central Province ...

  7. Save lives, make hospital safe in emergencies: framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Save lives, make hospital safe in emergencies: framework for disaster preparedness in hospitals in Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Postgraduate Medicine ... All over the world, it is becoming obvious that there is a need to make hospitals safe at times of disasters and emergencies, when the need for their services become ...

  8. Saving lives in health: global estimates and country measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Low-Beer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Low-Beer and colleagues provide a response from The Global Fund on the PLOS Medicine article by David McCoy and colleagues critiquing their lives saved assessment models. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. CDC Vital Signs-Communication Can Save Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-04

    This podcast is based on the August 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Antibiotic-resistant germs cause at least 23,000 deaths each year. Learn how public health authorities and health care facilities can work together to save lives.  Created: 8/4/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2015.

  10. Saving Lives through visual health communication: a multidisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wressell, Adrian; Twaites, Heidi; Taylor, Stephen; Hartland, Dan; Gove-Humphries, Theo

    2014-10-01

    Saving Lives is a public health awareness charity that aims to educate the UK public about HIV and encourage testing for the virus. In May 2011 Saving Lives contacted the Medical Illustration department at Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust to discuss the idea of working together to develop a national HIV awareness campaign. A number of local sporting celebrities were invited to a studio photography session. All the sports stars and celebrities were photographed on a Mamiya 645 AFDII camera, with PhaseOne P30 + digital back, using prime 35 mm, 55 mm and 80 mm lenses. During the photography sessions, the team's film maker captured video footage of the subjects being photographed. Once the final avengers' graphical composition had been created, it was applied to the posters, billboards and public transport signs for the campaign. In the three-month period following the campaign launch, survey research was carried out, the initial data being recorded by a questionnaire which was provided to each of the 1800 patients attending the Heartlands Hospital sexual health clinic for HIV testing. Following the launch of the initial campaign, the Saving Lives team continues to produce material to assist in the promotion of the charity and its message. Its success has led to it becoming an on-going long-term project, and to date the team have photographed and filmed 33 sporting stars and visited numerous sporting institutes.

  11. Nutrition Interventions in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was initially developed in 2003 to estimate the impact of increasing coverage of efficacious interventions on under-5 mortality. Over time, the model has been expanded to include more outcomes (neonatal mortality, maternal mortality, stillbirths) and interventions. The model has also added risk factors, such as stunting and wasting, and over time has attempted to capture a full range of nutrition and nutrition-related interventions (e.g., antenatal supplementation, breastfeeding promotion, child supplemental feeding, acute malnutrition treatment), practices (e.g., age-appropriate breastfeeding), and outcomes (e.g., stunting, wasting, birth outcomes, maternal anemia). This article reviews the overall nutrition-related structure, assumptions, and outputs that are currently available in LiST. This review focuses on the new assumptions and structure that have been added to the model as part of the current effort to expand and improve the nutrition modeling capability of LiST. It presents the full set of linkages in the model that relate to nutrition outcomes, as well as the research literature used to support those linkages. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Modelling stillbirth mortality reduction with the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Chou, Victoria B; Lawn, Joy E; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-11-07

    The worldwide burden of stillbirths is large, with an estimated 2.6 million babies stillborn in 2015 including 1.3 million dying during labour. The Every Newborn Action Plan set a stillbirth target of ≤12 per 1000 in all countries by 2030. Planning tools will be essential as countries set policy and plan investment to scale up interventions to meet this target. This paper summarises the approach taken for modelling the impact of scaling-up health interventions on stillbirths in the Lives Saved tool (LiST), and potential future refinements. The specific application to stillbirths of the general method for modelling the impact of interventions in LiST is described. The evidence for the effectiveness of potential interventions to reduce stillbirths are reviewed and the assumptions of the affected fraction of stillbirths who could potentially benefit from these interventions are presented. The current assumptions and their effects on stillbirth reduction are described and potential future improvements discussed. High quality evidence are not available for all parameters in the LiST stillbirth model. Cause-specific mortality data is not available for stillbirths, therefore stillbirths are modelled in LiST using an attributable fraction approach by timing of stillbirths (antepartum/ intrapartum). Of 35 potential interventions to reduce stillbirths identified, eight interventions are currently modelled in LiST. These include childbirth care, induction for prolonged pregnancy, multiple micronutrient and balanced energy supplementation, malaria prevention and detection and management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, diabetes and syphilis. For three of the interventions, childbirth care, detection and management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and diabetes the estimate of effectiveness is based on expert opinion through a Delphi process. Only for malaria is coverage information available, with coverage estimated using expert opinion for all other

  13. Disease prevention: saving lives or reducing health care costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Grootjans-van Kampen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases health care costs while preventing non-fatal diseases could lead to health care savings. The objective of this research is to investigate if disease prevention could result in both increased longevity and lower lifetime health care costs. METHODS: Mortality rates for Netherlands in 2009 were used to construct cause-deleted life tables. Data originating from the Dutch Costs of Illness study was incorporated in order to estimate lifetime health care costs in the absence of selected disease categories. We took into account that for most diseases health care expenditures are concentrated in the last year of life. RESULTS: Elimination of diseases that reduce life expectancy considerably increase lifetime health care costs. Exemplary are neoplasms that, when eliminated would increase both life expectancy and lifetime health care spending with roughly 5% for men and women. Costs savings are incurred when prevention has only a small effect on longevity such as in the case of mental and behavioural disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system stand out as their elimination would increase life expectancy while reducing health care spending. CONCLUSION: The stronger the negative impact of a disease on longevity, the higher health care costs would be after elimination. Successful treatment of fatal diseases leaves less room for longevity gains due to effective prevention but more room for health care savings.

  14. How to Save Human Lives with Complexity Science

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are not effective and sufficient to contain them. The failure of many conventional approaches results from their neglection of feedback loops, instabilities and/or cascade effects, due to which equilibrium models do often not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior. However, the complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be understood by means of complexity science, which enables one to address the aforementioned problems more successfully. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  15. SAVING MOTHERS LIVES-THE GOLDEN FIVE MINUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Maternal and neonatal mortality is a subject of universal concern and saving mother's and foetal life is an obligation to the society. Maternal and neonatal overall health is a prime issue of every nation and hence cannot be jeopardized at any cost. In this context when maternal cardiac arrest occur due to any underlying cause, it endanger both the lives, hence a prompt intervention is needed. For this very reason, Perimortem cesarean section has been reported since ancient times; however, greater awareness regarding this procedure within the medical community has only emerged in the past few decades. Recommendations for maternal resuscitation include performance of the procedure within four minutes. If accomplished in a timely manner, perimortem cesarean section can result in fetal salvage and is also critical for maternal resuscitation. Lack of knowledge and sincere guidelines feasible to the health care available about this procedure is not uncommon. We have reviewed publications on perimortem cesarean section and present the most recent evidences on this topic, as well as recommending our “easy-to-follow protocol” adapted for resuscitation following maternal haemodynamic collapse.

  16. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa - Evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Korenromp (Eline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of

  17. Saving lives versus life-years in rural Bangladesh: an ethical preferences approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson-Stenman, Olof; Mahmud, Minhaj; Martinsson, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Using a random sample of individuals in rural Bangladesh, this paper investigates people's ethical preferences regarding relative values of lives when it comes to saving lives of individuals of different ages. By assuming that an individual has preferences concerning different states of the world, and that these preferences can be described by an individual social welfare function, the individuals' preferences for life-saving programs are elicited using a pair-wise choice experiment involving different life-saving programs. In the analyses, we calculate the social marginal rates of substitution between saved lives of people of different ages. We also test whether people have preferences for saving more life-years rather than only saving lives. In particular, we test and compare the two hypotheses that only lives matter and that only life-years matter. The results indicate that the value of a saved life decreases rapidly with age and that people have strong preferences for saving life-years rather than lives per se. Overall, the results clearly show the importance of the number of life-years saved in the valuation of life. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Impact of savings groups on the lives of the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean; Savonitto, Beniamino; Thuysbaert, Bram; Udry, Christopher

    2017-03-21

    Savings-led microfinance programs operate in poor rural communities in developing countries to establish groups that save and then lend out the accumulated savings to each other. Nonprofit organizations train villagers to create and lead these groups. In a clustered randomized evaluation spanning three African countries (Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda), we find that the promotion of these community-based microfinance groups leads to an improvement in household business outcomes and women's empowerment. However, we do not find evidence of impacts on average consumption or other livelihoods.

  19. A method for estimating maternal and newborn lives saved from health-related investments funded by the UK government Department for International Development using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Ingrid K; Baschieri, Angela; Abbotts, Jo

    2017-11-07

    In 2010, the UK Government Department for International Development (DFID) committed through its 'Framework for results for reproductive, maternal and newborn health (RMNH)' to save 50,000 maternal lives and 250,000 newborn lives by 2015. They also committed to monitoring the performance of this portfolio of investments to demonstrate transparency and accountability. Methods currently available to directly measure lives saved are cost-, time-, and labour-intensive. The gold standard for calculating the total number of lives saved would require measuring mortality with large scale population based surveys or annual vital events surveillance. Neither is currently available in all low- and middle-income countries. Estimating the independent effect of DFID support relative to all other effects on health would also be challenging. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is an evidence based software for modelling the effect of changes in health intervention coverage on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child mortality. A multi-country LiST-based analysis protocol was developed to retrospectively assess the total annual number of maternal and newborn lives saved from DFID aid programming in low- and middle-income countries. Annual LiST analyses using the latest program data from DFID country offices were conducted between 2013 and 2016, estimating the annual number of maternal and neonatal lives saved across 2010-2015. For each country, independent project results were aggregated into health intervention coverage estimates, with and in the absence of DFID funding. More than 80% of reported projects were suitable for inclusion in the analysis, with 151 projects analysed in the 2016 analysis. Between 2010 and 2014, it is estimated that DFID contributed to saving the lives of 15,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth with health programming and 88,000 with family planning programming. It is estimated that DFID health programming contributed to saving 187,000 newborn lives. It is

  20. Telling stories, saving lives: creating narrative health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lauren B; Murphy, Sheila T; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Moran, Meghan B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, health communication practitioners are exploring the use of narrative storytelling to convey health information. For this study, a narrative film was produced to provide information about the human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer prevention. The storyline centered on Lupita, a young woman recently diagnosed with HPV who informs her family about HPV and the availability of the HPV vaccine for her younger sister. The objective was to examine the roles of identification with characters and narrative involvement (made up of three dimensions: involvement, perceived relevance, and immersion) on perceived response efficacy, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility to HPV and behavior (discussing the HPV vaccine with a health care provider). A random sample of 450 European American, Mexican American, and African American women between the ages of 25 and 45 years, living in the Los Angeles area, was surveyed by phone before, 2 weeks after, and 6 months after viewing the film. The more relevant women found the narrative to their own lives at 2 weeks, the higher they perceived the severity of the virus and the perceived response efficacy of the vaccine to be. Also at 2 weeks, identifying with characters was positively associated with perceived susceptibility to HPV but negatively associated with perceived severity. At 6 months, identification with specific characters was significantly associated with perceived threat and behavior. These findings suggest that different aspects of narrative health messages should be manipulated depending on the specific beliefs and behaviors being targeted. Implications for narrative message design are discussed.

  1. The use of "lives saved" measures in nurse staffing and patient safety research: statistical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diya, Luwis; Van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Lives saved predictions are used to quantify the impact of certain remedial measures in nurse staffing and patient safety research, giving an indication of the potential gain in patient safety. Data collected in nurse staffing and patient safety are often multilevel in structure, requiring statistical techniques to account for clustering in the data. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of model specifications on lives saved estimates and inferences in a multilevel context. A simulation study was carried out to assess the impact of model assumptions on lives saved predictions. Scenarios considered were omitting an important covariate, taking different link functions, neglecting the correlations coming from the multilevel data structure, and neglecting a level in a multilevel model. Finally, using a cardiac surgery data set, predicted lives saved from the random intercept logistic model and the clustered discrete time logistic model were compared. Omitting an important covariate, neglecting the association between patients within the same hospital, and the complexity of the model affect the prediction of lives saved estimates and the inferences thereafter. On the other hand, a change in the link function led to the same predicted lives saved estimates and standard deviations. Finally, the lives saved estimates from the two-level random intercept model were similar to those of the clustered discrete time logistic model, but the standard deviations differed greatly. The results stress the importance of verifying model assumptions. It is recommended that researchers use sensitivity analyses to investigate the stability of lives saved results using different statistical models or different data sets.

  2. HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the December 2014 Vital Signs. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  3. [Preventive maternal care saves lives in Guinea-Bissau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, M

    1984-11-29

    2 health care projects in Guinea-Bissau give evidence of the efforts of that nation to increase its infant survival rate. The experiences of a 4 week visit to Bianga and the accomplishments of a maternal health care project in Bandim are summarized. Infant mortality has remained high in Guinea-Bissau (211/1000) despite the efforts of the government, whose top priority is rural development in a land where most of the 1,000,000 inhabitants are peasant farmers, and 90% are illiterate. In Bianga, where 6 years earlier another midwife had reported a reduction in infant mortality, the health care station was underutilized and staffed by poorly-trained personnel. Distribution of chloroquine (used against malaria) and periodic vaccination campaigns were the primary features of medical activity. In contrast, the Bandim project (named after a suburb or barrio of Bissau) has had some notable achievements since its inception in 1978. The 8000 inhabitants living in 600 houses of the project area were divided into 8 zones, with 2 health workers for each zone. Their task was to check on women in the 8th or 9th month of their pregnancy and pay them home visits after delivery. The visitors also participated in these rounds and observed Swedish and Danish medical students in their work of counselling pregnant women. Vaccination of children occurs in 1 of the zones every month, and children under 5 are weighed every 3 months to assess their development. The results of the project in decreasing infant mortality will be applied in the city of Bissau at a later date.

  4. Disease Prevention : Saving Lives or Reducing Health Care Costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans-van Kampen, I.; Engelfriet, P.M.; Van Baal, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases

  5. Strategic planning for saving the lives of mothers, newborns and children and preventing stillbirths in KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa: modelling using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Shelley-Ann; Chola, Lumbwe; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Mubaiwa, Victoria; Moran, Neil; McKerrow, Neil; Kamugisha, Leonard; Hofman, Karen

    2016-01-19

    KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa has the largest population of children under the age of five and experiences the highest number of child births per annum in the country. Its population has also been ravaged by the dual epidemics of HIV and TB and it has struggled to meet targets for maternal and child mortality. In South Africa's federal system, provinces have decision-making power on the prioritization and allocation of resources within their jurisdiction. As part of strategic planning for 2015-2019, KwaZulu-Natal provincial authorities requested an assessment of current mortality levels in the province and identification and costing of priority interventions for saving additional maternal, newborn and child lives, as well as preventing stillbirths in the province. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to determine the set of interventions, which could save the most additional maternal and child lives and prevent stillbirths from 2015-2019, and the costs of these. The impact of family planning was assessed using two scenarios by increasing baseline coverage of modern contraception by 0.5 percentage points or 1 percentage point per annum. A total of 7,043 additional child and 297 additional maternal lives could be saved, and 2,000 stillbirths could be prevented over five years. Seventeen interventions account for 75% of additional lives saved. Increasing family planning contributes to a further reduction of up to 137 maternal and 3,168 child deaths. The set of priority interventions scaled up to achievable levels, with no increase in contraception would require an additional US$91 million over five years or US$1.72 per capita population per year. By increasing contraceptive prevalence by one percentage point per year, overall costs to scale up to achievable coverage package, decrease by US$24 million over five years. Focused attention on a set of key interventions could have a significant impact on averting stillbirths and maternal and neonatal mortality in

  6. Disease prevention: Saving lives or reducing health care costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.G.-V. Kampen (Inge Grootjans-Van); P.M. Engelfriet (Peter); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity

  7. Intelligent Patient Education: Saving Time and Increasing Nurses Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Rezapour-Nasrabad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient education completes value chain process in presenting therapy and care services to patients. Thus, it is necessary to use the latest technologies in patients’ education. The present study aims to design an educational software to provide the verified scientific, educational and care data of the patients.Methods: The software is performed in three stages:1-      Formation of databases including the nursing care based on the latest educational and care standards2-      Design an intelligent software to present care education based on nursing process3-      For pilot study, the relevant software is installed on some systems and it is used in at least three hospitals.Results: The mentioned software presents valuable data in accordance to the needs of patients. Some of the advantages of this software include:-          Customization of education as their reading is easier.-          Simplicity of use with software can increase the availability of data for the patients.-          This software helps the nurses to guide the patients to receive the trainings in each stage of care process.Conclusion: Implementation of intelligent education system of patient reduces the frequency of visit to health centers and unnecessary admissions and this effectiveness cost of this system can save time and energy of disabled patients and increase the efficiency of nurses.

  8. Tuberculosis innovations mean little if they cannot save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Furin, Jennifer

    2017-05-02

    The past decade has seen the emergence of new diagnostics and drugs for tuberculosis, a disease that kills over 1.8 million people each year. However, these new tools are yet to reach scale, and access remains a major challenge for patients in low and middle income countries. Urgent action is needed if we are committed to ending the TB epidemic. This means raising the level of ambition, embracing innovation, increasing financial investments, addressing implementation gaps, and ensuring that new technologies reach those who need them to survive. Otherwise, the promise of innovative technologies will never be realized.

  9. Implementation of Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative in Ahmed-Gasim’s Cardiac Center

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on the implementation of a Safe Surgery Saves Lives, in Ahmed-Gasim‟s Cardiac Center in 2011 using a change management framework. Background: Medical errors and incidence of traumatic injuries in surgical care services were recognized as a proportion of the total global burden of disease. Surgical care and procedures can potentially affect the lives of millions of people worldwide. Studies done by WHO found that wrong person, wrong procedure, and wrong site surgery ...

  10. State of the World's Newborns: A Report from Saving Newborn Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Anthony; Francis, Victoria; Byrne, Ali; Puddephatt, Claire

    There has been little change in newborn mortality in the past 20 years, even through proven, cost-effective solutions exist to save many of these young lives. This report reviews the most recent data on the newborn, revealing the alarming poor health and quality of health care for mothers and newborns in virtually all impoverished countries. The…

  11. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  12. SALSA: SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (FV consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (=50;=42 years who participated were overweight (BMI=29.7 kg/m2; bodyfat=38.5% and reported low levels of leisure time PA (=10.7 MET-min/wk and FV consumption (=4.2 servings/day. All were randomized to a four-week (1 semiweekly Latin dance group or (2 internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (=10.7 MET-min/wk to follow up (=34.0 MET-min/wk, <.001, and FV consumption increased over time by group (=.02. Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color.

  13. Germans learn how to save lives: a nationwide CPR education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Manuela; Leberle, Richard; Graf, Bernhard

    2018-02-17

    Sudden cardiac death is one of the most frequent causes of death in Germany and the third leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Yet, the percentage of people providing first aid in the case of sudden cardiac arrest in Germany is alarmingly low by international comparison. Training Germans or reminding them of the simple but effective steps of resuscitation, so that everybody can save a live in an emergency. For the campaign 'Resuscitation Week', physicians and paramedics trained passers-by in cardiovascular resuscitation free of charge. Skills were evaluated before and after the instruction by means of a questionnaire. Three hundred three people aged between 9 and 89 years were trained and evaluated. Forty-nine passers-by had never participated in a resuscitation course, and 46.8% had participated in a course more than 20 years ago. Before the instruction, 41.6% of the passers-by were confident to be capable of resuscitating a person; after the instruction, however, this percentage had risen to 100%! Saving a life is simple, but one has to know what to do in the case of sudden cardiac arrest. The German population is being gradually trained in resuscitation using campaigns such as 'Resuscitation Week' and 'Kids Save Lives' to break down barriers in the long term. However, lives are not only saved by training but also by refreshing knowledge and skills; thus, a further effective approach may be training all holders of a driving license in cardiopulmonary resuscitation in intervals of 5 years.

  14. The need for ventilators in the developing world: An opportunity to improve care and save lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishnamoorthy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The drive to breathe is a fundamental human and biologic behavior, regulated by a complex system of checks and balances in the body. When respiratory mechanics are deregulated by injury, infection, coma, or a host of other conditions, the biologic equilibrium shifts into a state of respiratory failure. When this occurs, mechanical ventilation can be a life saving therapy. While commonplace in developed countries, critical care is at its infancy in many developing countries, where basic technology is often not available. Thus, while many lives are saved in developed nations through the provision of mechanical ventilation, patients in many developing nations often die from otherwise reversible causes due to lack of resources, education, and training.

  15. Expanding the population coverage of evidence-based interventions with community health workers to save the lives of mothers and children: an analysis of potential global impact using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Victoria B; Friberg, Ingrid K; Christian, Mervyn; Walker, Neff; Perry, Henry B

    2017-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries. We set population coverage targets at 50%, 70%, and 90% and summed the country-level results by region and by all 73 high-burden countries combined. We also estimated which specific interventions would save the most lives. LiST estimates that a total of 3.0 (sensitivity bounds 1.8-4.0), 4.9 (3.1-6.3) and 6.9 (3.7-8.7) million deaths would be prevented between 2016 and 2020 if CBPHC is gradually scaled up during this period and if coverage of key interventions reaches 50%, 70%, and 90% respectively. There would be 14%, 23%, and 32% fewer deaths in the final year compared to a scenario assuming no intervention coverage scale up. The Africa Region would receive the most benefit by far: 58% of the lives saved at 90% coverage would be in this region. The interventions contributing the greatest impact are nutritional interventions during pregnancy, treatment of malaria with artemisinin compounds, oral rehydration solution for childhood diarrhea, hand washing with soap, and oral antibiotics for pneumonia. Scaling up CHW programming to increase population-level coverage of life-saving interventions represents a very promising strategy to achieve universal health coverage and end preventable maternal and child deaths by 2030. Numerous practical challenges must be overcome, but there is no better alternative at present. Expanding the coverage of key interventions for maternal nutrition

  16. Culture change for hand hygiene: clean hands save lives, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kimberley R; Pantle, Annette C; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Hughes, Clifford F

    2009-10-19

    To present the results of surveys of staff, patients and visitors about their perceptions of hand hygiene behaviour before and after implementation of the Clean hands save lives campaign in New South Wales public hospitals. Pre- and post-campaign questionnaires, disseminated through project officers in each health authority, were completed by selected staff and patients/visitors in all 208 public hospitals in NSW. Combined, de-identified results for each health authority were forwarded to the NSW Clinical Excellence Commission for analysis. Awareness of campaign material; staff perceptions about their ability to maintain a high level of hand hygiene compliance before and after contact with patients; compliance self-reported by staff compared with compliance perceived by patients/visitors and compliance assessed by overt observation. Most staff and patients/visitors were aware of campaign materials. Eighty-six per cent of staff respondents (495/578) believed that placement of alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) close to the point of patient care had improved hand hygiene compliance, and 76% (510/671) believed they could sustain their level of compliance. Only 1 in 4 patients or visitors (106/397) were willing to question health care workers who appeared not to be complying with hand hygiene practices. As the first coordinated statewide campaign to modify hand hygiene culture, the Clean hands save lives campaign successfully engendered positive attitudes and dispelled negative perceptions about the onerous nature of before- and after-patient-contact hand hygiene compliance.

  17. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenromp Eline L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST, extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent. Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination. Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy

  18. Lives saved from malaria prevention in Africa--evidence to sustain cost-effective gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline L

    2012-03-28

    Lives saved have become a standard metric to express health benefits across interventions and diseases. Recent estimates of malaria-attributable under-five deaths prevented using the Lives Saved tool (LiST), extrapolating effectiveness estimates from community-randomized trials of scale-up of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the 1990s, confirm the substantial impact and good cost-effectiveness that ITNs have achieved in high-endemic sub-Saharan Africa. An even higher cost-effectiveness would likely have been found if the modelling had included the additional indirect mortality impact of ITNs on preventing deaths from other common child illnesses, to which malaria contributes as a risk factor. As conventional ITNs are being replaced by long-lasting insecticidal nets and scale-up is expanded to target universal coverage for full, all-age populations at risk, enhanced transmission reduction may--above certain thresholds--enhance the mortality impact beyond that observed in the trials of the 1990s. On the other hand, lives saved by ITNs might fall if improved malaria case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy averts the deaths that ITNs would otherwise prevent.Validation and updating of LiST's simple assumption of a universal, fixed coverage-to-mortality-reduction ratio will require enhanced national programme and impact monitoring and evaluation. Key indicators for time trend analysis include malaria-related mortality from population-based surveys and vital registration, vector control and treatment coverage from surveys, and parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in health facilities. Indispensable is triangulation with dynamic transmission models, fitted to long-term trend data on vector, parasite and human populations over successive phases of malaria control and elimination.Sound, locally optimized budget allocation including on monitoring and evaluation priorities will benefit much if policy makers and programme planners

  19. Lives Saved Tool (LiST) costing: a module to examine costs and prioritize interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lori A; Sanders, Rachel; Winfrey, William; Adesina, Adebiyi

    2017-11-07

    Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require careful allocation of resources in order to achieve the highest impact. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) has been used widely to calculate the impact of maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) interventions for program planning and multi-country estimation in several Lancet Series commissions. As use of the LiST model increases, many have expressed a desire to cost interventions within the model, in order to support budgeting and prioritization of interventions by countries. A limited LiST costing module was introduced several years ago, but with gaps in cost types. Updates to inputs have now been added to make the module fully functional for a range of uses. This paper builds on previous work that developed an initial version of the LiST costing module to provide costs for MNCH interventions using an ingredients-based costing approach. Here, we update in 2016 the previous econometric estimates from 2013 with newly-available data and also include above-facility level costs such as program management. The updated econometric estimates inform percentages of intervention-level costs for some direct costs and indirect costs. These estimates add to existing values for direct cost requirements for items such as drugs and supplies and required provider time which were already available in LiST Costing. Results generated by the LiST costing module include costs for each intervention, as well as disaggregated costs by intervention including drug and supply costs, labor costs, other recurrent costs, capital costs, and above-service delivery costs. These results can be combined with mortality estimates to support prioritization of interventions by countries. The LiST costing module provides an option for countries to identify resource requirements for scaling up a maternal, neonatal, and child health program, and to examine the financial impact of different resource allocation strategies. It can be a useful tool for

  20. "Save lives" arguments might not be as effective as you think: A randomized field experiment on blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaoui, L S; Naef, D; Tissot, J-D; Desrichard, O

    2016-05-01

    Many communication campaigns to encourage people to give blood rely on "save lives" messages, even though there is no experimental evidence as to the effectiveness of this kind of argument with respect to blood donation. The objective of this study is to test experimentally if it is indeed an effective way to prompt people to give blood, in order for communication campaigns to be evidenced-based. One thousand and twenty-two lapsed blood donors were sent, at random, either a standard letter or the same letter containing an additional "save lives" message. The blood donation center measured intention to donate and actual donor return rate (3%) after 10months. Although fewer people in the "save lives" condition said they had no intention to give blood again, the "save lives" letter did not lead to more donor returns than the standard letter. Our results suggest that contrary to intuition, campaigns to promote blood donation should not rely blindly on "save lives" arguments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Saving Human Lives: What Complexity Science and Information Systems can Contribute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Dirk; Brockmann, Dirk; Chadefaux, Thomas; Donnay, Karsten; Blanke, Ulf; Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Moussaid, Mehdi; Johansson, Anders; Krause, Jens; Schutte, Sebastian; Perc, Matjaž

    We discuss models and data of crowd disasters, crime, terrorism, war and disease spreading to show that conventional recipes, such as deterrence strategies, are often not effective and sufficient to contain them. Many common approaches do not provide a good picture of the actual system behavior, because they neglect feedback loops, instabilities and cascade effects. The complex and often counter-intuitive behavior of social systems and their macro-level collective dynamics can be better understood by means of complexity science. We highlight that a suitable system design and management can help to stop undesirable cascade effects and to enable favorable kinds of self-organization in the system. In such a way, complexity science can help to save human lives.

  2. Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer Walker, Christa L; Friberg, Ingrid K; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E

    2011-03-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015.

  3. Scaling up diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Fischer Walker

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. CONCLUSION: Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4 by 2015.

  4. Scaling Up Diarrhea Prevention and Treatment Interventions: A Lives Saved Tool Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Friberg, Ingrid K.; Binkin, Nancy; Young, Mark; Walker, Neff; Fontaine, Olivier; Weissman, Eva; Gupta, Akanksha; Black, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains a leading cause of mortality among young children in low- and middle-income countries. Although the evidence for individual diarrhea prevention and treatment interventions is solid, the effect a comprehensive scale-up effort would have on diarrhea mortality has not been estimated. Methods and Findings We use the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the potential lives saved if two scale-up scenarios for key diarrhea interventions (oral rehydration salts [ORS], zinc, antibiotics for dysentery, rotavirus vaccine, vitamin A supplementation, basic water, sanitation, hygiene, and breastfeeding) were implemented in the 68 high child mortality countries. We also conduct a simple costing exercise to estimate cost per capita and total costs for each scale-up scenario. Under the ambitious (feasible improvement in coverage of all interventions) and universal (assumes near 100% coverage of all interventions) scale-up scenarios, we demonstrate that diarrhea mortality can be reduced by 78% and 92%, respectively. With universal coverage nearly 5 million diarrheal deaths could be averted during the 5-year scale-up period for an additional cost of US$12.5 billion invested across 68 priority countries for individual-level prevention and treatment interventions, and an additional US$84.8 billion would be required for the addition of all water and sanitation interventions. Conclusion Using currently available interventions, we demonstrate that with improved coverage, diarrheal deaths can be drastically reduced. If delivery strategy bottlenecks can be overcome and the international community can collectively deliver on the key strategies outlined in these scenarios, we will be one step closer to achieving success for the United Nations' Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) by 2015. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21445330

  5. Saving lives with caring assessments: How Tanzanian nurse-midwives and obstetricians negotiate postpartum practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohi, Thecla W; Aston, Megan; Mselle, Lilian T; Macdonald, Danielle; Mbekenga, Columba; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; White, Maureen; OHearn, Shawna; Price, Sheri; Jefferies, Keisha

    2017-08-09

    To explore the nurse-midwives' and obstetricians' experiences delivering postpartum care assessments and how it was constructed through personal, social and institutional discourses. The Tanzanian Government has prioritised maternal and child health as an urgent healthcare issue. Nurse-midwives and obstetricians are the two main providers of care throughout the prenatal and postpartum periods. A qualitative design guided by a feminist poststructuralist methodology. Ten nurse-midwives and three obstetricians from three Regional Hospitals in Dar es Salaam participated in individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Assessment emerged as a significant theme with three subthemes. Nurse-midwives shared their beliefs and values about assessments that focused on the safety of mothers and babies. They felt proud working with mothers and babies and shared their frustrations having to deal with inadequate working conditions. Guidelines and practices were part of the institutional discourse that impacted the day-to-day experiences of nurse-midwives and obstetricians. The nurse-midwives held the belief that it was vital to complete a comprehensive assessment to identify danger signs, keep mothers and babies safe and look for any abnormalities. They were concerned that mothers were being sent home too early. Nurse-midwives' experiences in the provision of postpartum care portray that these health providers work heartedly to make sure that the mothers and their newborns receive the best care they can provide. The health system is challenged to address the needed supplies and equipment for reproductive health in particular postpartum care services. Institutional health discourses significantly affect the practice of nurse-midwives and obstetricians to deliver timely and effective postpartum assessments. Immediate and ongoing postpartum assessments conducted by nurse-midwives and obstetricians can save lives. This study presents the first theme of the study: Caring assessments

  6. The race to save lives: demonstrating the use of social media for search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tomer; Adini, Bruria; El-Hadid, Mohammed; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-11-06

    Utilizing social media in an emergency can enhance abilities to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively, and can contribute towards saving lives following a disaster, through better coordination and collaboration between search and rescue teams. An exercise was conducted in order to test a standard operating procedure (SOP) designed to leverage social media use in response to an earthquake, and study whether social media can improve joint Israeli-Jordanian search and rescue operations following a regional earthquake. First responders from both Jordan and Israel were divided into two mixed groups of eight people each, representing joint (Israeli-Jordanian) EMS teams. Simulated patients were dispersed throughout the Ben-Gurion University Campus. The first search and rescue team used conventional methods, while the second team also used social media channels (Facebook and Twitter) to leverage search and rescue operations. Eighteen EMS and medical professionals from Israel and Jordan, which are members of the Emergency Response Development and Strategy Forum working group, participated in the exercise. The social media team found significantly more mock casualties, 21 out of 22 (95.45%) while the no-media team found only 19 out of 22 (86.36%). Fourteen patients (63.63%) were found by the social media team earlier than the no-media team. The differences between the two groups were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and evacuation proved to be significantly quicker in the group that had access to social media. The differences between the three injury severities groups' extraction times in each group were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for variance. Injury severity influenced the evacuation times in the social media team but no such difference was noted in the no-media team. Utilizing social media in an emergency situation enables to locate and evacuate casualties more rapidly and effectively. Social media can contribute towards saving

  7. Methodological and policy limitations of quantifying the saving of lives: a case study of the Global Fund's approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McCoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available David McCoy and colleagues critique the dominance of "lives saved" models of assessing the impact of health programs, using The Global Fund as a case study. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  8. The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Olshansky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern success story of vaccinations involves a historical chain of events that transformed the discovery that vaccines worked, to administering them to the population. We estimate the number of lives saved and morbidity reduction associated with the discovery of the first human cell strain used for the production of licensed human virus vaccines, known as WI-38. The diseases studied include poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (chicken pox, herpes zoster, adenovirus, rabies and Hepatitis A. The number of preventable cases and deaths in the U.S. and across the globe was assessed by holding prevalence rates and disease-specific death rates constant from 1960–2015. Results indicate that the total number of cases of poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, adenovirus, rabies and hepatitis A averted or treated with WI-38 related vaccines was 198 million in the U.S. and 4.5 billion globally (720 million in Africa; 387 million in Latin America and the Caribbean; 2.7 billion in Asia; and 455 million in Europe. The total number of deaths averted from these same diseases was approximately 450,000 in the U.S., and 10.3 million globally (1.6 million in Africa; 886 thousand in Latin America and the Caribbean; 6.2 million in Asia; and 1.0 million in Europe.

  9. Organ Vouchers and Barter Markets: Saving Lives, Reducing Suffering, and Trading in Human Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Mark J

    2017-10-01

    The essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy explore an innovative voucher program for encouraging kidney donation. Discussions cluster around a number of central moral and political/theoretical themes: (1) What are the direct and indirect health care costs and benefits of such a voucher system in human organs? (2) Do vouchers lead to more effective and efficient organ procurement and allocation or contribute to greater inequalities and inefficiencies in the transplantation system? (3) Do vouchers contribute to the inappropriate commodification of human body parts? (4) Is there a significant moral difference between such a voucher system and a market in human organs for transplantation? This paper argues that while kidney vouchers constitute a step in the right direction, fuller utilization of market-based incentives, including, but not limited to, barter exchanges (e.g., organ exchanges, organ chains, and organ vouchers), would save more lives and further reduce human suffering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Drones may be used to save lives in out of hospital cardiac arrest due to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, A; Svensson, L; Nordberg, P; Ringh, M; Rosenqvist, M; Djarv, T; Samuelsson, J; Hernborg, O; Dahlbom, P; Jansson, A; Hollenberg, J

    2017-05-01

    Drowning leading to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and death is a major public health concern. Submersion with duration of less than 10min is associated with favorable neurological outcome and nearby bystanders play a considerable role in rescue and resuscitation. Drones can provide a visual overview of an accident scene, their potential as lifesaving tools in drowning has not been evaluated. The aim of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a drone for providing earlier location of a submerged possible drowning victim in comparison with standard procedure. This randomized simulation study used a submerged manikin placed in a shallow (drone transmitting video to a tablet (intervention). Time from start to contact with the manikin was the primary endpoint. Twenty searches were performed in total, 10 for each group. The median time from start to contact with the manikin was 4:34min (IQR 2:56-7:48) for the search party (control) and 0:47min (IQR 0:38-0:58) for the drone-system (intervention) respectively (pdrone was 3:38min (IQR 2:02-6:38). A drone transmitting live video to a tablet is feasible, time saving in comparison to traditional search parties and may be used for providing earlier location of submerged victims at a beach. Drone search can possibly contribute to earlier onset of CPR in drowning victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. "Social marketing" for early neonatal care: saving newborn lives in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Iram; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, developing countries carry a large share of neonatal mortality in the world. According to UNICEF, almost 450 newborn children die every hour, mostly from preventable causes. Restricted access to quality and hygienic delivery services and limited knowledge about handling the newborn aggravate the situation. South Asia, and Pakistan in particular, have reduced their child and infant mortality during the last decade; however, neonatal mortality still remains unacceptably high. There are multiple reasons, mainly related to practices and behaviours of communities and traditional birth attendants. Rural and poor populations suffer most in Pakistan, where three out of five deliveries still occur at home. Traditional community practices and conservative norms drastically affect neonatal health outcomes. Preventing sepsis at the umbilical cord, keeping the baby at the correct temperature after birth and early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding are three simple strategies or messages that need to be disseminated widely to prevent many neonatal mortalities and morbidities. Since inappropriate practices in handling newborns are directly linked with persistent and unremitting behaviours among health providers and the community at large, we suggest doing robust "social marketing" for saving newborn lives. The objective of the paper is to present a social-marketing strategy and a marketing mix that will help address and surmount actual barriers and promote alternative behaviours in early neonatal care.

  12. Lives saved by tuberculosis control and prospects for achieving the 2015 global target for reducing tuberculosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaziou, Philippe; Floyd, Katherine; Korenromp, Eline L; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Bierrenbach, Ana L; Williams, Brian G; Atun, Rifat; Raviglione, Mario

    2011-08-01

    To assess whether the global target of halving tuberculosis (TB) mortality between 1990 and 2015 can be achieved and to conduct the first global assessment of the lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Mortality from TB since 1990 was estimated for 213 countries using established methods endorsed by WHO. Mortality trends were estimated separately for people with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in accordance with the International classification of diseases. Lives saved by the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy were estimated with respect to the performance of TB control in 1995, the year that DOTS was introduced. TB mortality among HIV-negative (HIV-) people fell from 30 to 20 per 100,000 population (36%) between 1990 and 2009 and could be halved by 2015. The overall decline (when including HIV-positive [HIV+] people, who comprise 12% of all TB cases) was 19%. Between 1995 and 2009, 49 million TB patients were treated under the DOTS/Stop TB Strategy. This saved 4.6-6.3 million lives, including those of 0.23-0.28 million children and 1.4-1.7 million women of childbearing age. A further 1 million lives could be saved annually by 2015. Improvements in TB care and control since 1995 have greatly reduced TB mortality, saved millions of lives and brought within reach the global target of halving TB deaths by 2015 relative to 1990. Intensified efforts to reduce deaths among HIV+ TB cases are needed, especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin; Talley, Cynthia; Yarrison, Rebecca B; Bernard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible.

  14. When Operating on Dead People Saves Lives: Benefits of Surgical Organ Donor Intensivists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation has emerged as a life-saving treatment for many patients suffering from end-stage organ failure. Organs have been successfully recovered after a variety of aggressive interventions. We propose that decompressive laparotomy, when clinically indicated, should be considered in the aggressive resuscitation of potential organ donors. A thorough literature review examining aggressive interventions on potential organ donors was conducted after experience with a unique case at this institution. Articles were reviewed for the types of interventions performed as well as the time frame in relation to organ donation. In our case, several ethical issues were raised when considering decompressive laparotomy in a patient pronounced dead by neurologic criteria. We propose that having a surgical intensivist involved in the management of potential donors will further increase the salvage rate, as more invasive resuscitation options are possible.

  15. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Hu, Liang; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The field of live VM (virtual machine) migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization) idea with the SA (simulated annealing) idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable.

  16. A heuristic placement selection of live virtual machine migration for energy-saving in cloud computing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    Full Text Available The field of live VM (virtual machine migration has been a hotspot problem in green cloud computing. Live VM migration problem is divided into two research aspects: live VM migration mechanism and live VM migration policy. In the meanwhile, with the development of energy-aware computing, we have focused on the VM placement selection of live migration, namely live VM migration policy for energy saving. In this paper, a novel heuristic approach PS-ES is presented. Its main idea includes two parts. One is that it combines the PSO (particle swarm optimization idea with the SA (simulated annealing idea to achieve an improved PSO-based approach with the better global search's ability. The other one is that it uses the Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics and once again utilizes the SA idea to deal with the data obtained from the improved PSO-based process to get the final solution. And thus the whole approach achieves a long-term optimization for energy saving as it has considered not only the optimization of the current problem scenario but also that of the future problem. The experimental results demonstrate that PS-ES evidently reduces the total incremental energy consumption and better protects the performance of VM running and migrating compared with randomly migrating and optimally migrating. As a result, the proposed PS-ES approach has capabilities to make the result of live VM migration events more high-effective and valuable.

  17. Saving lives or saving dollars: The Trump administration rescinds plans to require sleep apnea testing in commercial transportation operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In another move favoring business interests and against the common good, the Trump administration’s Department of Transportation announced recently that they are rescinding plans to require testing for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in train and commercial motor vehicle operators (1. As exemplified by its withdrawal from the Paris climate accords, this decision is another example of how the current administration disregards scientific findings and present-day events in establishing policy that will be detrimental to Americans. Let us step back for a moment and briefly review the evidence that the Trump administration has ignored. •\tIt is well established that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA can result in daytime sleepiness (2 and that sleepiness is detrimental to safe operation of a train or motor vehicle. •\tMany studies have established that persons with OSA have an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes (3. •\tStudies in commercial truck drivers have observed that this population has …

  18. The Volcano Disaster Assistance Program—Helping to save lives worldwide for more than 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ramsey, David W.

    2017-10-20

    systems worldwide, helping countries to forecast eruptions, save lives, and reduce economic losses while enhancing America’s ability to respond to domestic volcanic events.

  19. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component.Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households.This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  20. Estimating Lives Saved by Achieving Dietary Micronutrient Adequacy, with a Focus on Vitamin A Intervention Programs in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Perkins, Amanda; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff; Haskell, Marjorie J; Vosti, Stephen A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Background: We previously compared the potential effects of different intervention strategies for achieving dietary vitamin A (VA) adequacy. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) permits estimates of lives saved through VA interventions but currently only considers periodic VA supplements (VASs).Objective: We aimed to adapt the LiST method for estimating the mortality impact of VASs to estimate the impact of other VA interventions (e.g., food fortification) on child mortality and to estimate the number of lives saved by VA interventions in 3 macroregions in Cameroon.Methods: We used national dietary intake data to predict the effects of VA intervention programs on the adequacy of VA intake. LiST parameters of population affected fraction and intervention coverage were replaced with estimates of prevalence of inadequate intake and effective coverage (proportion achieving adequate VA intake). We used a model of liver VA stores to derive an estimate of the mortality reduction from achieving dietary VA adequacy; this estimate and a conservative assumption of equivalent mortality reduction for VAS and VA intake were applied to projections for Cameroon.Results: There were 2217-3048 total estimated VA-preventable deaths in year 1, with 58% occurring in the North macroregion. The relation between effective coverage and lives saved differed by year and macroregion due to differences in total deaths, diarrhea burden, and prevalence of low VA intake. Estimates of lives saved by VASs (the intervention common to both methods) were similar with the use of the adapted method (in 2012: North, 743-1021; South, 280-385; Yaoundé and Douala, 146-202) and the "usual" LiST method (North: 697; South: 381; Yaoundé and Douala: 147).Conclusions: Linking effective coverage estimates with an adapted LiST method permits estimation of the effects of combinations of VA programs (beyond VASs only) on child mortality to aid program planning and management. Rigorous program monitoring and evaluation are

  1. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  2. Art-of-Living Training: Developing an Intervention for Students to Increase Art-of-Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jessica; Schmitz, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    Art-of-living describes a mindful and self-determined way of dealing with one's self and way of life. It is related to measures of well-being. Art-of-living is based on strategies and attitudes which can be learned and therefore can be changed. Two types of training for students to increase art-of-living were developed and tested in two studies to determine the effects on art-of-living measures. Study 1 dealt with the initial examination of whether it is possible to enhance the art-of-living by training selected art-of-living strategies. Therefore, training with three conditions was developed and conducted with secondary school students (ages 16-19). In Study 2, a second art-of-living training was developed and conducted with children from primary school (ages 8-11). In Study 1, the art-of-living measures increased significantly for the training conditions compared to a control group. In addition, Study 2 showed that higher levels of the art-of-living lead to a better quality of life. In summary, the training successfully enhanced art-of-living. Limitations on and benefits of utilising the art-of-living training are discussed. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. THE IMPACT OF PENSIONS SAVING AND EDUCATION DEFICIT ON THE LIVING STANDARDS IN ROMANIA, IN THE POST-ACTIVITY PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper starts with the study on the annual pension deficit in the EU member states, elaborated by AVIVA and DELOITTE companies in 2010. The paper analyzes the impact of pensions saving and education deficit on the living standards in Romania, in the post-activity period. It comprises the following sections: an introduction to the analysis, several definitions and the calculation method employed in the above-mentioned study, comparisons between Romania and other EU members states, focusing on the pension deficit, as well as a brief overview on the pension systems in Romania. In the end of the paper, we propose a debate on good financial planning that can make the difference between poverty and a decent standard of living at the time of retirement.

  4. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Youssouf; Sangho, Hamadoun; Roberton, Timothy; Vignola, Emilia; Traoré, Mariam; Munos, Melinda

    2017-11-07

    Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP) to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N). In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali's MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali's ten-year health strategy (PDDSS) for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets) that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans and strategies.

  5. Vital Signs-HIV Care Saves Lives: Viral Suppression is Key

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-25

    This podcast is based on the December 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. For people living with HIV, Viral suppression is critical. By getting tested and taking HIV medicines, individuals living with HIV can achieve very low levels of HIV in the body.  Created: 11/25/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/25/2014.

  6. Finding workers, offenders, or students most at-risk for violence: actuarial tests save lives and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagar, Robert John; Kovach, Joseph W; Basile, Benjamin; Hughes, John Russell; Grove, William M; Busch, Kenneth G; Zablocki, Michael; Osnowitz, William; Neuhengen, Jonas; Liu, Yutong; Zagar, Agata Karolina

    2013-12-01

    147 adults (107 men, 40 women) and 89 adolescents (61 boys, 28 girls), selected randomly from referrals and volunteers, were given the Ammons Quick Test (QT), the Beck Suicide Scale (BSS), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Second (MMPI-2) or Adolescent Versions (MMPI-A), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, and the Standard Predictor (SP) of Violence Potential Adult or Adolescent Versions. The goals were to: (a) demonstrate computer and paper-and-pencil tests correlated; (b) validate tests to identify at-risk for violence; (c) show that identifying at-risk saves lives and resources; and (d) find which industries benefited from testing at-risk. Paper-and-pencil vs. computer test correlations (.83-.99), sensitivity (.97-.98), and specificity (.50-.97) were computed. Testing at-risk saves lives and resources. Critical industries for testing at-risk individuals may include airlines, energy generating industries, insurance, military, nonprofit-religious, prisoners, trucking or port workers, and veterans.

  7. Does remediation save lives? - on the cost of cleaning up arsenic-contaminated sites in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Johanna; Samakovlis, Eva; Johansson, Maria Vredin; Barregard, Lars

    2010-07-15

    Sweden has only just begun remediation of its many contaminated sites, a process that will cost an estimated SEK 60,000 million (USD 9100 million). Although the risk assessment method, carried out by the Swedish EPA, is driven by health effects, it does not consider actual exposure. Instead, the sites are assessed based on divergence from guideline values. This paper uses an environmental medicine approach that takes exposure into account to analyse how cancer risks on and near arsenic-contaminated sites are implicitly valued in the remediation process. The results show that the level of ambition is high. At 23 contaminated sites, the cost per life saved varies from SEK 287 million to SEK 1,835,000 million, despite conservative calculations that in fact probably underestimate the costs. It is concluded that if environmental health risks are to be reduced, there are probably other areas where economic resources can be used more cost-effectively.

  8. The Lazarus Effect of AIDS Treatment: Lessons Learned and Lives Saved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    During the treatment decade of rolling out antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in African clinics, new social meanings have been created, and they link local people living with HIV/AIDS to Western communities in new ways. The health of African “others” has taken a central, new, and perhaps quasi-religiou...

  9. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal E; Goldstein, Daniel G; Sharpe, William F; Fox, Jesse; Yeykelis, Leo; Carstensen, Laura L; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2011-11-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

  10. Water Table Control for Increasing Yield and Saving Water in Cranberry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pelletier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Water table control has been successfully tested to improve the sustainability of water management in cranberry production. In the province of Québec (Canada, three sites were investigated to determine the optimum water table depth below soil surface (WTD using three criteria: (1 increasing yield without decreasing fruit quality; (2 minimizing the amount of water needed by the sprinkler system; and (3 avoiding hypoxic stresses in the rhizosphere. Our results show that the final yield, the berry sugar content, the total number of berries, the number of berries per upright, and the fruit set were maximized when the WTD was 60 cm. Sprinkler water savings of 77% were obtained where the WTD was shallower than 66 cm. In order to avoid hypoxic conditions due to poor drainage, the water level in the canals surrounding the beds should be lowered to 80 cm when a rainfall or a frost protection irrigation is anticipated. All sides of a block of beds must be surrounded by canals to ensure a uniform WTD and to avoid lateral hydraulic gradients that could cause peripheral seepage losses.

  11. 'Saving the lives of our dogs': the development of canine distemper vaccine in interwar Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresalier, Michael; Worboys, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This paper examines the successful campaign in Britain to develop canine distemper vaccine between 1922 and 1933. The campaign mobilized disparate groups around the common cause of using modern science to save the nation's dogs from a deadly disease. Spearheaded by landed patricians associated with the country journal The Field, and funded by dog owners and associations, it relied on collaborations with veterinary professionals, government scientists, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the commercial pharmaceutical house the Burroughs Wellcome Company (BWC). The social organization of the campaign reveals a number of important, yet previously unexplored, features of interwar science and medicine in Britain. It depended on a patronage system that drew upon a large base of influential benefactors and public subscriptions. Coordinated by the Field Distemper Fund, this system was characterized by close relationships between landed elites and their social networks with senior science administrators and researchers. Relations between experts and non-experts were crucial, with high levels of public engagement in all aspects of research and vaccine development. At the same time, experimental and commercial research supported under the campaign saw dynamic interactions between animal and human medicine, which shaped the organization of the MRC's research programme and demonstrated the value of close collaboration between veterinary and medical science, with the dog as a shared object and resource. Finally, the campaign made possible the translation of 'laboratory' findings into field conditions and commercial products. Rather than a unidirectional process, translation involved negotiations over the very boundaries of the 'laboratory' and the 'field', and what constituted a viable vaccine. This paper suggests that historians reconsider standard historical accounts of the nature of patronage, the role of animals, and the interests of landed elites in interwar British

  12. Using the missed opportunity tool as an application of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) for intervention prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yvonne; Pearson, Luwei

    2017-11-07

    The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage. Coverage of each individual intervention in LiST was automated to be scaled up from current coverage to 90% in the next year, to simulate a scenario where almost every mother and child receive proven interventions that they need. The main outcome of the Missed Opportunity analysis is deaths averted due to each intervention. When reducing unmet need for contraception is included in the analysis, it ranks as the top missed opportunity across the four countries. When it is not included in the analysis, top interventions with the most total deaths averted are hospital-based interventions such as labor and delivery management in the CEmOC and BEmOC level, and full treatment and supportive care for premature babies, and for sepsis/pneumonia. The Missed Opportunity tool can be used to provide a quick, first look at missed opportunities in a country or geographic region, and help identify interventions for prioritization. While it is a useful advocate for evidence-based priority setting, decision makers need to consider other factors that influence decision making, and also discuss how to implement, deliver, and sustain programs to achieve high coverage.

  13. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Keita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N. In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali’s MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. Methods The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali’s ten-year health strategy (PDDSS for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. Results If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. Conclusions This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans

  14. Developing Training Programs to Save Lives: Serving Students with Complex or Emergency Healthcare Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Annmarie; Rozalski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The number of students with special health care needs (SHCN; McPherson, Arango & Fox, 1998) and the frequency of life-threatening health emergencies in schools (e.g., asthma, diabetes, severe allergic reactions, cardiac arrest, seizure disorders), continues to increase. It has become increasingly important for teachers to be trained in…

  15. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  16. Lowering Blood Alcohol Content Levels to Save Lives: The European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalate, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Road safety is of increasing concern in developed countries because of the significant number of deaths and large economic losses. One tool commonly used by governments to deal with road accidents is the enactment of stricter policies and regulations. Drunk driving is one of the leading concerns in this field and several European countries have…

  17. Saving Lives at Birth : The Impact of Home Births on Infant Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Trandafir, M.; van Ewijk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for

  18. Early diagnosis saves lives: focus on patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ecder, Tevfik

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a global public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased risk of developing end-stage kidney disease and its complications. Early identification and management of patients with chronic kidney disease is important in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality. Early detection of chronic kidney disease is possible with screening programs targeting high-risk patients, such as patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, elderly patient...

  19. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  20. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  1. Injecting rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) into wounds only: A significant saving of lives and costly RIG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Wilde, Henry

    2017-04-03

    An increasing number of dog bite victims were being presented to public hospitals in Himachal Pradesh in 2014 amidst virtual non availability of any rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). Only a small quantity of equine rabies immunoglobulin (eRIG) was available from the government owned Central Research Institute (CRI) Kasauli. This available eRIG was used in 269 patients as an emergency response and only for local infiltration of severe bite wounds by suspected rabid dogs. This was followed by rabies vaccination, using the WHO approved intra-dermal Thai Red Cross Society vaccination schedule. A subgroup of 26 patients were later identified who had been severely bitten by laboratory confirmed rabid dogs. They were followed for more than one year and all were found to be alive.

  2. Taxing sin and saving lives: Can alcohol taxation reduce female homicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrance, Christine Piette; Golden, Shelley; Perreira, Krista; Cook, Philip

    2011-07-01

    With costs exceeding $5.8 billion per year, violence against women has significant ramifications for victims, their families, the health care systems that treat them, and the employers who depend on their labor. Prior research has found that alcohol abuse contributes to violence against both men and women, and that stringent alcohol control policies can reduce alcohol consumption and in turn some forms of violence. In this paper, we estimate the direct relationship between an important alcohol control measure, excise taxes, and the most extreme form of violence, homicide. We use female homicide rates as our measure of severe violence, as this measure is consistently and accurately reported across multiple years. Our results provide evidence that increased alcohol taxes reduce alcohol consumption and that reductions in alcohol consumption can reduce femicide. Unfortunately, a direct test of the relationship does not have the power to determine whether alcohol taxes effectively reduce female homicide rates. We conclude that while alcohol taxes have been shown to effectively reduce other forms of violence against women, policy makers may need alternative policy levers to reduce the most severe form of violence against women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Generating minimal living systems from non-living materials and increasing their evolutionary abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen; Constantinescu, Adi; Svaneborg, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We review lessons learned about evolutionary transitions from a bottom up construction of minimal life. We use a particular systemic protocell design process as a starting point for exploring two fundamental questions: (1) how may minimal living systems emerge from nonliving materials? - and (2) ...... computational and experimental protocellular investigations, and we conjecture how this design principle can be extended for enhancing the evolutionary potential for a wide range of given system.......We review lessons learned about evolutionary transitions from a bottom up construction of minimal life. We use a particular systemic protocell design process as a starting point for exploring two fundamental questions: (1) how may minimal living systems emerge from nonliving materials? - and (2......) how may minimal living systems support increasingly more evolutionary richness? Under (1) we present what has been accomplished so far and discuss the remaining open challenges and their possible solutions. Under (2) we present a design principle we have utilized successfully both for our...

  4. Comparison of seven liver allocation models with respect to lives saved among patients on the liver transplant waiting list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magder, Laurence S; Regev, Arie; Mindikoglu, Ayse L

    2012-04-01

    The patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) on the liver transplant waiting list are prioritized for transplant based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We developed and used an innovative approach to compare MELD to six proposed alternatives with respect to waiting list mortality. Our analysis was based on United Network for Organ Sharing data of patients with ESLD on the waiting list between January 2006 and June 2009. We compared six allocation models to MELD. Two models were based on reweighting the variables used by MELD: an "updated" MELD, and ReFit MELD. Four models also included serum sodium: MESO, MeldNa, UKELD, and ReFit MELDNa. We estimated that UKELD and the updated MELD would result in significantly fewer lives saved. There were no significant differences between the other models. Our new approach can supplement standard methods to provide insight into the relative performance of liver allocation models in reducing waiting list mortality. Our analysis suggests that UKELD and the updated MELD score would not be optimal for reducing waiting list mortality in the United States. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  5. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives

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  13. Gun control saves lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-05-19

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect.

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  2. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Methods Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose–response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. Results The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Conclusions Increasing dietary fiber

  3. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) as a Model for Prevention of Anemia in Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca; Guida, Renee; Phillips, Erica; Clermont, Adrienne

    2017-11-01

    Background: Anemia in women is a major public health burden worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is a complex condition with multiple nutritional and non-nutritional causes, and geographic heterogeneity of burden. The World Health Assembly has set a target of a 50% reduction in anemia among women of reproductive age (WRA) by 2025.Objective: This article seeks to identify the leading causes of anemia among women in LMICs, review the evidence supporting interventions to address anemia in these settings, and ultimately use this information to decide which interventions should be included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model of anemia. It also seeks to examine the link between anemia and cause-specific maternal mortality.Methods: The leading causes of anemia in WRA were inventoried to identify preventive and curative interventions available for implementation at the public health scale. A literature review was then conducted for each identified intervention, as well as for the link between anemia and maternal mortality.Results: The interventions for which data were available fell into the following categories: provision of iron, malaria prevention, and treatment of parasitic infestation. Ultimately, 5 interventions were included in the LiST model for anemia: blanket iron supplementation or fortification, iron and folic acid supplementation in pregnancy, multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and household ownership of an insecticide-treated bednet. In addition, anemia was linked in the model with risk of maternal mortality due to hemorrhage.Conclusion: The updated LiST model for anemia reflects the state of the current scientific evidence and should be of use to researchers, program managers, and policymakers who seek to model the impact of scaling up nutrition and health interventions on anemia, and ultimately on maternal mortality. © 2017 American Society for

  4. An analysis of three levels of scaled-up coverage for 28 interventions to avert stillbirths and maternal, newborn and child mortality in 27 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean with the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Lauren; O'Connell, Thomas; Brumana, Luisa; Durán, Pablo

    2016-07-22

    Action to avert maternal and child mortality was propelled by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000. The Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region has shown promise in achieving the MDGs in many countries, but preventable maternal, neonatal and child mortality persist. Furthermore, preventable stillbirths are occurring in large numbers in the region. While an effective set of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions have been identified, they have not been brought to scale across LAC. Baseline data for select MNCH interventions for 27 LAC countries that are included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) were verified and updated with survey data. Three LiST projections were built for each country: baseline, MDG-focused, and All Included, each scaling up a progressively larger set of interventions for 2015 - 2030. Impact was assessed for 2015 - 2035, comparing annual and total lives saved, as projected by LiST. Across the 27 countries 235,532 stillbirths, and 752,588 neonatal, 959,393 under-five, and 60,858 maternal deaths would be averted between 2015 and 2035 by implementing the All-Included intervention package, representing 67 %, 616 %, 807 % and 101 % more lives saved, respectively, than with the MDG-focused interventions. 25 % neonatal deaths averted with the All-Included intervention package would be due to asphyxia, 42 % from prematurity and 24 % from sepsis. Our modelling suggests a 337 % increase in the number of lives saved, which would have enormous impacts on population health. Further research could help clarify the impacts of a comprehensive scale-up of the full range of essential MNCH interventions we have modelled.

  5. Ending Preventable Child Deaths from Pneumonia and Diarrhoea in Afghanistan: An Analysis of Intervention Coverage Scenarios Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Yousufi, Khaksar; Sultana, Sharmina; Ali, Alawi Sayed; Varkey, Sherin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in child health, Afghanistan still has a heavy burden of deaths due to preventable causes: 17% of under-5 deaths are due to pneumonia and 12% are due to diarrhoea. Objective. This article describes the situation of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Afghanistan, including efforts to prevent, protect, and treat the two diseases. It estimates lives saved by scaling up interventions. Methods. A secondary analysis of data was conducted and future scenarios were modelled to estimate lives saved by scaling up a package of interventions. Results. The analysis reveals that 10,795 additional child deaths could be averted with a moderate scale-up of interventions, decreasing the under-five mortality rate in Afghanistan from 55 per 1,000 live births in 2015 to 40 per 1,000 in 2020. In an ambitious scale-up scenario, an additional 15,096 lives could be saved. There would be a 71% reduction in child deaths due to these two causes between 2016 and 2020 in the ambitious scenario compared to 47% reduction in the moderate scenario. Conclusion. Significant reductions in child mortality can be achieved through scale-up of essential interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea. Strengthened primary health care functions and multisector collaboration on child health are suggested.

  6. Lives saved by Global Fund-supported HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria programs: estimation approach and results between 2003 and end-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyerla Rob

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, the Global Fund has supported the scale-up of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents and discusses a methodology for estimating the lives saved through selected service deliveries reported to the Global Fund. Methods Global Fund-supported programs reported, by end-2007, 1.4 million HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral treatment (ARV, 3.3 million new smear-positive tuberculosis cases detected in DOTS (directly observed TB treatment, short course programs, and 46 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs delivered. We estimated the corresponding lives saved using adaptations of existing epidemiological estimation models. Results By end-2007, an estimated 681,000 lives (95% uncertainty range 619,000-774,000 were saved and 1,097,000 (993,000-1,249,000 life-years gained by ARV. DOTS treatment would have saved 1.63 million lives (1.09 - 2.17 million when compared against no treatment, or 408,000 lives (265,000-551,000 when compared against non-DOTS treatment. ITN distributions in countries with stable endemic falciparum malaria were estimated to have achieved protection from malaria for 26 million of child-years at risk cumulatively, resulting in 130,000 (27,000-232,000 under-5 deaths prevented. Conclusions These results illustrate the scale of mortality effects that supported programs may have achieved in recent years, despite margins of uncertainty and covering only selected intervention components. Evidence-based evaluation of disease impact of the programs supported by the Global Fund with international and in-country partners must be strengthened using population-level data on intervention coverage and demographic outcomes, information on quality of services, and trends in disease burdens recorded in national health information systems.

  7. Might rapid implementation of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients who are failing to recover after a cardiac arrest potentially save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad; Pessotto, Renzo

    2013-10-01

    -of-hospital cardiac arrest, although many case reports and case series have concluded that it is an effective method. We conclude that institution of emergency cardiopulmonary bypass may save the lives of patients in whom routine attempts at resuscitation after a cardiac arrest fail, especially after >10 min. The likelihood of success is much higher for patients who have in-hospital witnessed cardiac arrest.

  8. Linking household surveys and health facility assessments to estimate intervention coverage for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B

    2017-11-07

    Calls have been made for improved measurement of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Recently, methods linking household and health facility surveys have been used to improve estimation of intervention coverage. However, linking methods rely the availability of household and health facility surveys which are temporally matched. Because nationally representative health facility assessments are not yet routinely conducted in many low and middle income countries, estimates of intervention coverage based on linking methods can be produced for only a subset of countries. Estimates of intervention coverage are a critical input for modelling the health impact of intervention scale-up in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven approach to estimate coverage for a subset of antenatal care interventions modeled in LiST. Using a five-step process, estimates of population level coverage for syphilis detection and treatment, case management of diabetes, malaria infection, hypertensive disorders, and pre-eclampsia, were computed by linking household and health facility surveys. Based on data characterizing antenatal care and estimates of coverage derived from the linking approach, predictive models for intervention coverage were developed. Updated estimates of coverage based on the predictive models were compared, first with current default proxies, then with estimates based on the linking approach. Model fit and accuracy were assessed using three measures: the coefficient of determination, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the root mean square error (RMSE). The ability to predict intervention coverage was fairly accurate across all interventions considered. Predictive models accounted for 20-63% of the variance in intervention coverages, and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.5 to 0.83. The predictive model used to estimate coverage of management of pre-eclampsia performed relatively better (RMSE

  9. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  10. Risk Factors Associated with Increased Morbidity in Living Liver Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helry L. Candido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Living donor liver donation (LDLD is an alternative to cadaveric liver donation. We aimed at identifying risk factors and developing a score for prediction of postoperative complications (POCs after LDLD in donors. This is a retrospective cohort study in 688 donors between June 1995 and February 2014 at Hospital Sírio-Libanês and A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, in São Paulo, Brazil. Primary outcome was POC graded ≥III according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Left lateral segment (LLS, left lobe (LL, and right lobe resections (RL were conducted in 492 (71.4%, 109 (15.8%, and 87 (12.6% donors, respectively. In total, 43 (6.2% developed POCs, which were more common after RL than LLS and LL (14/87 (16.1% versus 23/492 (4.5% and 6/109 (5.5%, resp., p<0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that RL resection (OR: 2.81, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.01; p=0.008, smoking status (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.35 to 7.56; p=0.012, and blood transfusion (OR: 3.15, 95% CI: 1.45 to 6.84; p=0.004 were independently associated with POCs. RL resection, intraoperative blood transfusion, and smoking were associated with increased risk for POCs in donors.

  11. Potential CO2 savings by increasing truck size : A Korean case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Wiegmans, B.; Bu, L.

    2016-01-01

    n this paper, we present a method to estimate CO2 reduction potential by increasing the truck size. Trucks are apparently the most preferred freight transport option for most shippers. Therefore, increasing the truck size may be a realizable and practical strategy, except when logistics companies

  12. New Understanding of Hubble Space Telescope Gyro Current Increase Led to a Method to Save a Failing Gyro Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the history of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program, gyro current increases have been observed to occur, often times leading to gyro failure. The explanation was that debris from the surfaces of the gas bearings, with only 1.27 micron clearance, resulted in rotor restriction, which increased friction, torque, and current. However, the rotor restriction theory never could account for the fact that a restart of the gyro would restore the current back to nominal. An effort was made to understand this puzzling gyro behavior after two HST gyros exhibited increased current within the same week in November 2015. A review board was created to resolve these anomalies and generate operational procedures to potentially extend gyro life. A new understanding of gyro current behavior led to implementation of a method that could potentially save a failing gyro.

  13. Household Saving in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Finlay; Fiona Price

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates household saving behaviour in Australia, as well as the drivers behind the recent rise in the aggregate household saving ratio. Our results explaining differences in saving behaviour across households are consistent with theory and previous findings. As might be expected, households' saving ratios tend to increase with income, but decrease with wealth and gearing. Financially constrained and migrant households tend to save more than other households, all else equal. Wh...

  14. A Smartphone App for Increasing Live Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K; King, E A; Muzaale, A D; Konel, J M; Bramstedt, K A; Massie, A B; Segev, D L; Cameron, A M

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of live donor transplantation has declined over the past decade, and waitlisted candidates report substantial barriers to identifying a live donor. Since asking someone to donate feels awkward and unfamiliar, candidates are hesitant to ask directly and may be more comfortable with a passive approach. In collaboration with Facebook leadership (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, CA), we developed a mobile application-an app-that enables waitlisted candidates to create a Facebook post about their experience with organ failure and their need for a live donor. We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study of 54 adult kidney-only and liver-only waitlisted candidates using the Facebook app. Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe donor referral on behalf of candidates using the app compared with matched controls. The majority of candidates who used the app reported it to be "good" or "excellent" with regard to the installation process (82.9%), readability (88.6%), simplicity (70.6%), clarity (87.5%) and the information provided (85.3%). Compared with controls, candidates using the Facebook app were 2.43 6.6117.98 times more likely to have a donor come forward on their behalf (p Facebook app is an easy-to-use instrument that enables waitlisted candidates to passively communicate with their social network about their need for a live donor. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Attributable Risk Analysis Reveals Potential Healthcare Savings from Increased Consumption of Dairy Products123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C.; Segal, Leonie; Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2012-01-01

    With rising burdens of obesity and chronic disease, the role of diet as a modifiable risk factor is of increasing public health interest. There is a growing body of evidence that low consumption of dairy products is associated with elevated risk of chronic metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Surveys also suggest that dairy product consumption falls well below recommended targets for much of the population in many countries, including the USA, UK, and Australia. We reviewed the scientific literature on the health effects of dairy product consumption (both positive and negative) and used the best available evidence to estimate the direct healthcare expenditure and burden of disease [disability-adjusted life years (DALY)] attributable to low consumption of dairy products in Australia. We implemented a novel technique for estimating population attributable risk developed for application in nutrition and other areas in which exposure to risk is a continuous variable. We found that in the 2010–2011 financial year, AUD$2.0 billion (USD$2.1 billion, €1.6 billion, or ∼1.7% of direct healthcare expenditure) and the loss of 75,012 DALY were attributable to low dairy product consumption. In sensitivity analyses, varying core assumptions yielded corresponding estimates of AUD$1.1–3.8 billion (0.9–3.3%) and 38,299–151,061 DALY lost. The estimated healthcare cost attributable to low dairy product consumption is comparable with total spending on public health in Australia (AUD$2.0 billion in 2009–2010). These findings justify the development and evaluation of cost-effective interventions that use dairy products as a vector for reducing the costs of diet-related disease. PMID:22833660

  16. Modelling the cost of community interventions to reduce child mortality in South Africa using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonki, Lungiswa Ll; Chola, Lumbwe L; Tugendhaft, Aviva A; Hofman, Karen K

    2017-08-28

    To estimate the costs and impact on reducing child mortality of scaling up interventions that can be delivered by community health workers at community level from a provider's perspective. In this study, we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a module in the spectrum software. Within the spectrum software, LiST interacts with other modules, the AIDS Impact Module, Family Planning Module and Demography Projections Module (Dem Proj), to model the impact of more than 60 interventions that affect cause-specific mortality. DemProj Based on National South African Data. A total of nine interventions namely, breastfeeding promotion, complementary feeding, vitamin supplementation, hand washing with soap, hygienic disposal of children's stools, oral rehydration solution, oral antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia, therapeutic feeding for wasting and treatment for moderate malnutrition. Reducing child mortality. A total of 9 interventions can prevent 8891 deaths by 2030. Hand washing with soap (21%) accounts for the highest number of deaths prevented, followed by therapeutic feeding (19%) and oral rehydration therapy (16%). The top 5 interventions account for 77% of all deaths prevented. At scale, an estimated cost of US$169.5 million (US$3 per capita) per year will be required in community health worker costs. The use of community health workers offers enormous opportunities for saving lives. These programmes require appropriate financial investments. Findings from this study show what can be achieved if concerted effort is channelled towards the identified set of life-saving interventions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Fatalism and Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, Wu; Joel, Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fatalism, the belief that one has little or no control over future events, on the decision of whether or not to save. We develop a model that predicts that fatalism decreases savings for moderately risk averse individuals, increases savings for highly risk averse individuals, and otherwise has no impact. Furthermore, fatalism decreases effort in learning about savings and investment options. We use data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) and find genera...

  18. Burden of unintended pregnancy in the United States: potential savings with increased use of long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James; Henry, Nathaniel; Hassan, Fareen; Prezioso, Alexander; Law, Amy; Filonenko, Anna

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the total costs of unintended pregnancy (UP) in the United States (US) from a third-party health care payer perspective and explored the potential role for long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in reducing UP and resulting health care expenditure. An economic model was constructed to estimate direct costs of UP as well as the proportion of UP costs that could be attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. The model considered all women requiring reversible contraception in the US: the pattern of contraceptive use and the rates of UP were derived from published sources. The costs of UP in the United States and the proportion of total cost that might be avoided by improved adherence through increased use of LARC were estimated. Annual medical costs of UP in the United States were estimated to be $4.6 billion, and 53% of these were attributed to imperfect contraceptive adherence. If 10% of women aged 20-29 years switched from oral contraception to LARC, total costs would be reduced by $288 million per year. Imperfect contraceptive adherence leads to substantial UP and high, avoidable costs. Improved uptake of LARC may generate health care cost savings by reducing contraceptive non-adherence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How is the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) used in the global health community? Results of a mixed-methods LiST user study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmuller, Angela R; Self, Andrew; Litvin, Kate; Roberton, Timothy

    2017-11-07

    The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a computer-based model that estimates the impact of scaling up key interventions to improve maternal, newborn and child health. Initially developed to inform the Lancet Child Survival Series of 2003, the functionality and scope of LiST have been expanded greatly over the past 10 years. This study sought to "take stock" of how LiST is now being used and for what purposes. We conducted a quantitative survey of LiST users, qualitative interviews with a smaller sample of LiST users and members of the LiST team at Johns Hopkins University, and a literature review of studies involving LiST analyses. LiST is being used by donors, international organizations, governments, NGOs and academic institutions to assist program evaluation, inform strategic planning and evidenced-based decision-making, and advocate for high-impact interventions. Some organizations have integrated LiST into internal workflows and built in-house capacity for using LiST, while other organizations rely on the LiST team for support and to outsource analyses. In addition to being a popular stand-alone software, LiST is used as a calculation engine for other applications. The Lives Saved Tool has been reported to be a useful model in maternal, newborn, and child health. With continued commitment, LiST should remain as a part of the international health toolkit used to assess maternal, newborn and child health programs.

  20. Savings and mortgage system with state participation as a form of increasing the affordability of real estate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Anatolevich Sirotkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous increase in the cost of real estate caused by its shortage, of great importance become solution schemes aimed to provide housing for the broad strata of population. Basing on the analyzed foreign and domestic experience in providing real estate for the citizens, two main ways to acquire it were identified. For the assessment of the preference of each of these methods for the citizens, calculations showing the profitability of the accumulation of funds were performed. Basing on thethesis above, a model with statefunding was proposed, allowing thefuture owner to live in an apartment from the date of the contract with the state finance and investment corporation and to reduce the overpayment for the acquired real estate compared to a mortgage, almost at 100% of the purchase price. The paper concludes that to address housing problems, the management of public authorities need to use different models and mechanisms to ensure quality of living conditions for the maximum number of citizens.

  1. 20 CFR 226.13 - Cost-of-living increase in employee vested dual benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Computing an Employee... increase is based on the cost-of-living increases in social security benefits during the period from...

  2. "Live High-Train High" increases hemoglobin mass in Olympic swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian; Lundby, Carsten; Jørgensen, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether 3-4 weeks of classical "Live High-Train High" (LHTH) altitude training increases swim-specific VO2max through increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass).......This study tested whether 3-4 weeks of classical "Live High-Train High" (LHTH) altitude training increases swim-specific VO2max through increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass)....

  3. Can we increase the chance of sphincter saving surgery in rectal cancer with neoadjuvant treatments: lessons from a systematic review of recent randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Rostom, Yousri; Gal, Jocelyn; Benchimol, Daniel; Ortholan, Cécile; Aschele, Carlo; Levi, Jean-Michel Hannoun

    2012-01-01

    A common hypothesis is that neo-adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer, is able to increase sphincter saving surgery. This review studies data relevant to this question. A total of 17 randomized trials were analysed. Since 1976, the rate of sphincter saving surgery increased from 20% to 75%. In none of the 17 trials it was possible to demonstrate a significant benefit of the neo-adjuvant regimens on the rate of sphincter saving surgery. There was a reduction in the risk of 5-year local recurrence partly due to these neo-adjuvant treatments. These neo-adjuvant regimens had no significant impact on the overall 5-year survival. None of the neo-adjuvant treatments tested was able to demonstrate an increase in the rate of sphincter saving surgery. The improvement in conservative surgery is mainly due to technical changes in surgery. Organ preservation after complete clinical response appears as an interesting hypothesis to test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Saving and Re-building Lives: Determinants of Short-term and Long-term Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethanjali SELVARETNAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyse both theoretically and empirically, the factors that influence the amount of humanitarian aid received by countries which are struck by natural disasters, particularly distinguishing between immediate disaster relief and long term humanitarian aid. The theoretical model is able to make predictions as well as explain some of the peculiarities in the empirical results. We show that both short and long term humanitarian aid increases with number of people killed, financial loss and level of corruption, while GDP per capita had no effect. More populated countries receive more humanitarian aid. Earthquake, tsunami and drought attract more aid.

  5. Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia is clinically superior, saves lives and is cheaper than non guideline adherent therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke MH

    2011-07-01

    complicated pathogen risk score (CPRS compared to those who received adequate therapy. This shows that therapy based on local experiences may be sufficient for patients with low CPRS but inadequate for those with high CPRS. Linear regression models showed that single items of the CPRS like extrapulmonary organ failure or late onset had no significant influence on the results. Conclusion Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy is clinically superior, saves lives and is less expensive than non guideline adherent therapy. Using a CPRS score can be a useful tool to determine the right choice of initial intravenous antibiotic therapy. the net effect on the German healthcare system per year is estimated at up to 2,042 lives and EUR 125,819,000 saved if guideline-adherent initial therapy for HAP/VAP were established in all German ICUs.

  6. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...... of standard optimization techniques and focuses instead on direct consideration on saving. We provide a section on facts: who save and how much. We then discuss informally the recent decline in the U.S. saving rate and whether the theory is of much use in understanding this and other changes in aggregate...... be rationalized within a simple life cycle model. We also review a great number of studies of the consumption Euler equations. Based on our analysis of the studies cited we conclude that there is still mixed evidence that consumption is excessively sensitive to income. We also examine in depth the recent...

  7. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-02-01

    After a pilot study on skin cancer screening was performed between 2003 and 2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, the country implemented what to the authors' knowledge is the first nationwide skin cancer screening program in the world in 2008. The objective of the current study was to provide details regarding mortality trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany in relation to the screening. Annual age-standardized mortality rates for skin melanoma (using the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10] code C43) and malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) were analyzed. The European Standard population was used for age standardization. A bias analysis was performed to estimate the number of skin melanoma deaths that may have been incorrectly counted as ICD-10 code C76-C80 when the skin melanoma mortality declined in Schleswig-Holstein. The observed mortality decline in Schleswig-Holstein 5 years after the pilot study was accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) that is not explainable by an increase in the incidence of these neoplasms. Incorrect assignment of 8 to 35 and 12 to 23 skin melanoma deaths per year among men and women, respectively, as ICD-10 code C76-C80 during 2007 through 2010 could explain the transient skin melanoma mortality decline observed in Schleswig-Holstein. Five years after implementation of the program, the nationwide skin melanoma mortality increased (age-standardized rate change of +0.4 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6] in men and +0.1 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 0.2] in women). Although the current analyses raise doubts that the skin cancer screening program in Germany can reduce the skin cancer mortality rate, the authors do not believe the program

  8. Losing weight to save lives: A review of the role of automobile weight and size in traffic fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Marc; Wenzel, Tom

    2001-07-01

    Critics of higher fuel economy standards for vehicles have long argued that improving vehicle fuel economy will require reducing vehicle weight, and that would result in an increase in the number of fatalities from vehicle crashes. Several researchers have estimated that an across-the-board reduction of vehicle weight would reduce passenger safety (Evans 1991; Kahane 1997; U.S. GAO 1994). However, little research has been done on the relationship of vehicle size and fatality rates, independent of weight (see, however, Joksch, Massie, and Pichler 1998). In this report we review previous analyses of the relationship of vehicle weight and safety. We do this to study the opportunities to improve fuel economy in a more sophisticated way than across-the-board mass reduction. The aim is to explore improvements in traffic safety by making selected vehicle groups lighter, and retaining or enlarging selected vehicle dimensions. Unfortunately, the effects of size and mass have not been accurately separated in the crash fatality data, so some of our claims are only supported by general arguments from physics. In a follow-up report we will attempt to analyze crash fatality data to determine crash worthiness if the weight of certain vehicle groups would be decreased while maintaining or increasing vehicle size. The first section of this report provides an introduction to fatal vehicle crashes in the United States. We summarize several trends in automotive crash statistics over the last 20 years. Then we discuss approaches analysts have taken in studying factors that affect ''exposure'', the likelihood of being involved in a serious crash. In Section 2 we discuss standardized crash tests and the basic physics of crashes. We review previous research on the effect of vehicle mass in two-vehicle crashes in Section 3. We also present new research on reductions in risk achieved by recent light vehicles. Section 4 presents previous estimates of the effect of

  9. From ZeRO to HeRO: Saving lives one HeRO at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Dr Charlotte; Hansrani, Miss Monica

    2016-01-01

    This case report intends to highlight the Haemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft as a potential long term option for ongoing dialysis in patients with central venous stenosis. A 55year old patient, who developed end stage renal failure (ESRF) after chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer, presented at the limit of her dialysis access after a 15year haemodialysis history causing central vein stenosis. The patient was initially started on peritoneal dialysis but after repeated peritonitis was switched to haemodialysis. Over fifteen years of haemodialysis the patient had fistulae created in all four limbs. She had multiple tunnelled neck lines and developed an occluded left brachiocephalic vein and stenosed superior vena cava. Catheter dialysis via the right internal jugular vein was attempted but proved increasingly problematic due to poor clearances and frequent catheter changes. A further attempt was made to treat with peritoneal dialysis, but again, this was unsuccessful. As the patient had two failed attempts at peritoneal dialysis, had exhausted all her peripheral access options, and was having problematic catheter dialysis, she was offered the option of the HeRO graft as a 'last resort'. The HeRO graft is a fully subcutaneous vascular access system that bypasses the central venous system providing haemodialysis access for patients with central venous stenosis. It consists of an arterial graft component and a venous outflow component, which are connected via a titanium connector. The central vein stenosis/occlusion is stented with insertion of the graft in to the right atrium, which is then secured to the arterial component for needling. So that successful dialysis could be completed as soon as possible post-operatively, the HeRO graft, in this instance, was combined with an immediate needling graft (Acuseal). This allowed the patient to receive successful dialysis within hours of completing the procedure. This patient had reached the end of her

  10. Determining Optimal Strategies to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality in Rural Areas in Western China: an Assessment Using the Lives Saved Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Su Fang; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wen, Chun Mei; Xu, Xiao Chao; Guo, Yan

    2015-08-01

    China, as a whole, is about to meet the Millennium Development Goals for reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR), but the disparities between rural area and urban area still exists. This study estimated the potential effectiveness of expanding coverage with high impact interventions using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). It was found that gestational hypertension, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage, preterm birth, neonatal asphyxia, and neonatal childhood pneumonia and diarrhea are still the major killers of mothers and children in rural area in China. It was estimated that 30% of deaths among 0-59 month old children and 25% of maternal deaths in 2008 could be prevented in 2015 if primary health care intervention coverage expanded to a feasible level. The LiST death cause framework, compared to data from the Maternal and Child Mortality Surveillance System, represents 60%-80% of neonatal deaths, 40%-50% of deaths in 1-59 month old children and 40%-60% of maternal deaths in rural areas of western China. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. A Science that Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda; Jones, Griff

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-seven deaths per week, nine per day, one every two hours: Motor-vehicle crashes are the number one killer of teenagers in the United States, and although fatalities have declined in recent years, almost 3,500 teenagers still die every year in motor vehicle crashes (NHTSA 2011). In fact, 35% of all deaths among 16- to 19-year-olds are…

  12. Protective efficacy of malaria case management and intermittent preventive treatment for preventing malaria mortality in children: a systematic review for the Lives Saved Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steketee Richard W

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lives Saved Tool (LiST model was developed to estimate the impact of the scale-up of child survival interventions on child mortality. New advances in antimalarials have improved their efficacy of treating uncomplicated and severe malaria. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and parenteral or rectal artemisinin or quinine for severe malaria syndromes have been shown to be very effective for the treatment of malaria in children. These interventions are now being considered for inclusion in the LiST model. However, for obvious ethical reasons, their protective efficacy (PE compared to placebo is unknown and their impact on reducing malaria-attributable mortality has not been quantified. Methods We performed systematic literature reviews of published studies in P. falciparum endemic settings to determine the protective efficacy (PE of ACT treatment against malaria deaths among children with uncomplicated malaria, as well as the PE of effective case management including parenteral quinine against malaria deaths among all hospitalized children. As no randomized placebo-controlled trials of malaria treatment have been conducted, we used multiple data sources to ascertain estimates of PE, including a previously performed Delphi estimate for treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Results Based on multiple data sources, we estimate the PE of ACT treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria on reducing malaria mortality in children 1–23 months to be 99% (range: 94-100%, and in children 24-59 months to be 97% (range: 86-99%. We estimate the PE of treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria with effective case management including intravenous quinine on reducing malaria mortality in children 1-59 months to be 82% (range: 63-94% compared to no treatment. Conclusions This systematic review quantifies the PE of ACT used for treating uncomplicated malaria and effective case

  13. The impact of eliminating within-country inequality in health coverage on maternal and child mortality: a Lives Saved Tool analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Adrienne

    2017-11-07

    Inequality in healthcare across population groups in low-income countries is a growing topic of interest in global health. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST), which uses health intervention coverage to model maternal, neonatal, and child health outcomes such as mortality rates, can be used to analyze the impact of within-country inequality. Data from nationally representative household surveys (98 surveys conducted between 1998 and 2014), disaggregated by wealth quintile, were used to create a LiST analysis that models the impact of scaling up health intervention coverage for the entire country from the national average to the rate of the top wealth quintile (richest 20% of the population). Interventions for which household survey data are available were used as proxies for other interventions that are not measured in surveys, based on co-delivery of intervention packages. For the 98 countries included in the analysis, 24-32% of child deaths (including 34-47% of neonatal deaths and 16-19% of post-neonatal deaths) could be prevented by scaling up national coverage of key health interventions to the level of the top wealth quintile. On average, the interventions with most unequal coverage rates across wealth quintiles were those related to childbirth in health facilities and to water and sanitation infrastructure; the most equally distributed were those delivered through community-based mass campaigns, such as vaccines, vitamin A supplementation, and bednet distribution. LiST is a powerful tool for exploring the policy and programmatic implications of within-country inequality in low-income, high-mortality-burden countries. An "Equity Tool" app has been developed within the software to make this type of analysis easily accessible to users.

  14. Metrics for Identifying Food Security Status and the Population with Potential to Benefit from Nutrition Interventions in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Walker, Neff; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) uses the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as a proxy for food security to identify the percentage of the population with the potential to benefit from balanced energy supplementation and complementary feeding (CF) interventions, following the approach used for the Lancet 's 2008 series on Maternal and Child Undernutrition. Because much work has been done in the development of food security indicators, a re-evaluation of the use of this indicator was warranted. Objective: The aim was to re-evaluate the use of the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d as the food security proxy indicator in LiST. Methods: We carried out a desk review to identify available indicators of food security. We identified 3 indicators and compared them by using scatterplots, Spearman's correlations, and Bland-Altman plot analysis. We generated LiST projections to compare the modeled impact results with the use of the different indicators. Results: There are many food security indicators available, but only 3 additional indicators were identified with the data availability requirements to be used as the food security indicator in LiST. As expected, analyzed food security indicators were significantly positively correlated ( P food-insecure contexts. Conclusions: There was no single indicator identified that is ideal for measuring the percentage of the population who is food insecure for LiST. Thus, LiST will use the food security indicators that were used in the meta-analyses that produced the effect estimates. These are the poverty head-count ratio at $1.90/d for CF interventions and the prevalence of a low body mass index in women of reproductive age for balanced energy supplementation interventions. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Obesity increases the risk of end-stage renal disease among living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jayme E; Reed, Rhiannon D; Massie, Allan; MacLennan, Paul A; Sawinski, Deirdre; Kumar, Vineeta; Mehta, Shikha; Mannon, Roslyn B; Gaston, Robert; Lewis, Cora E; Segev, Dorry L

    2017-03-01

    Determining candidacy for live kidney donation among obese individuals remains challenging. Among healthy non-donors, body mass index (BMI) above 30 is associated with a 16% increase in risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, the impact on the ESRD risk attributable to donation and living with only one kidney remains unknown. Here we studied the risk of ESRD associated with obesity at the time of donation among 119 769 live kidney donors in the United States. Maximum follow-up was 20 years. Obese (BMI above 30) live kidney donors were more likely male, African American, and had higher blood pressure. Estimated risk of ESRD 20 years after donation was 93.9 per 10 000 for obese; significantly greater than the 39.7 per 10 000 for non-obese live kidney donors. Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, blood pressure, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and relationship to recipient, obese live kidney donors had a significant 86% increased risk of ESRD compared to their non-obese counterparts (adjusted hazard ratio 1.86; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.30). For each unit increase in BMI above 27 kg/m2 there was an associated significant 7% increase in ESRD risk (1.07, 1.02-1.12). The impact of obesity on ESRD risk was similar for male and female donors, African American and Caucasian donors, and across the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate spectrum. These findings may help to inform selection criteria and discussions with persons considering living kidney donation. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simplification and Saving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2012-01-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  17. Retirement plans, personal saving, and saving adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoboski, P

    2000-03-01

    This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily

  18. Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing attention is being paid to the quality of meat as living standards rise and this tendency is accentuat- ed in game meat. Whereas game meat is a common and essential component of the human diet in some countries, it is considered a delicacy in highly developed countries and for this reason stronger emphasis is ...

  19. K R Y Simha We live in an increasingly fragmented world of social ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We live in an increasingly fragmented world of social, cultural, political, economical and technological change. Instantaneous dissemi- nation of information via satellites, optical fibers and computer networks has swept away archaic institutes and universities like a tsu- nami. The languid pace of learning has been a.

  20. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vag...

  1. More Americans Living Longer With Cardiovascular Disease Will Increase Costs While Lowering Quality Of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Cutler, David

    2013-01-01

    In the past several decades some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased--factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans’ average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer--factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact ...

  2. Secure savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn, Tom

    1996-09-01

    When it was installed, Dartmoor Prison`s environmental management system promised enough savings in labour and energy to pay for itself in well under five years. The system`s benefits are appreciated by staff and are thoroughly practical. (author)

  3. New Understanding of Hubble Space Telescope Gyro Current Increase Led to a Method to Save a Failing Gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the history of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program, gyro current increases have been observed to occur, oftentimes leading to gyro failure. The explanation was that debris from the surfaces of the gas bearings, with only 50 millionths on an inch clearance, resulted in rotor restriction, which increased friction, torque, and current. However, the rotor restriction theory never could account for the fact that a restart of the gyro would restore the current back to nominal. An effort was made to understand this puzzling gyro behavior after two HST gyros exhibited increased current within the same week in November 2015. A review board was created to resolve these anomalies and generate operational procedures to potentially extend gyro life.

  4. Energy saving report; Energispareredegoerelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Making the energy consumption more efficient in Denmark by means of energy saving are connected to the Danish government's overall National Growth Strategy. A reduced consumption of energy as a result of economic attractive energy saving initiatives leads to reduced energy costs and consequently an improvement of Denmark's competitive power. Furthermore, reducing the energy consumption decreases the vulnerability towards rising energy prices, and the security of supplies is increased. Finally energy conservation serves as a means of reducing environmental impact from the energy sector. Energy consumption is not damaging to the environment in itself, however, to the extent that energy consumption causes negative impact on the environment, e.g. through discharge of environmentally damaging substances generated during energy production, a reduction of the energy consumption will benefit the environment. Energy saving in itself does not lead to a decrease in CO{sub 2} emission in Denmark unless it is accompanied by an adjustment of CO{sub 2} quotas on production of electricity. The Danish Government emphasizes that the energy saving efforts are cost-effective both for the society and for the consumers. The energy saving report contains an updated projection of the Danish energy consumption and an evaluation of the impacts of the energy saving efforts. The impacts of more effective end use of energy are described, and an account of the barriers preventing the realization of a number of potential economic attractive energy saving initiatives is made. Finally the energy saving report presents a number of proposals for new energy saving initiatives. (BA)

  5. Living with Cat and Dog Increases Vaginal Colonization with E. coli in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise; Bischoff, Anne Louise; Følsgaard, Nilofar; Carson, Charlotte G.; Chawes, Bo; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Mølgaard, Anne; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Methods The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010) pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. Results Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27–3.80], p = 0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08–2.12], p = 0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02–2.43], p = 0.042. Conclusions The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy. PMID:23049986

  6. Living with cat and dog increases vaginal colonization with E. coli in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stokholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Furred pets in the household are known reservoirs for pathogenic bacteria, but it is not known if transmission of bacteria between pet and owner leads to significantly increased rate of infections. We studied whether cats and dogs living in the household of pregnant women affect the commensal vaginal flora, and furthermore the need for oral antibiotics and rate of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. METHODS: The novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC(2010 pregnancy cohort of 709 women participated in this analysis. Detailed information on pet exposure, oral antibiotic prescriptions filled at pharmacy and urinary tract infection during pregnancy was obtained and verified prospectively during clinic visits. Vaginal cultures were obtained at pregnancy week 36. RESULTS: Women, who had cat or dog in the home during pregnancy, had a different vaginal flora, in particular with increased Escherichia coli (E. coli colonization; odds ratio after adjustment for lifestyle confounders and antibiotics 2.20, 95% CI, [1.27-3.80], p=0.005. 43% of women living with cat and/or dog in the home used oral antibiotics compared to 33% of women with no cat or dog; adjusted odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI, [1.08-2.12], p=0.016. Women living with cat had increased frequency of self-reported urinary tract infection; adjusted odds ratio 1.57, 95% CI, [1.02-2.43], p=0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The increased vaginal E. coli colonization in women living with cat or dog suggests a clinically important transmission of pathogenic bacteria from pet to owner substantiated by increased rate of antibiotic use and urinary tract infections which, which is of particular concern during pregnancy.

  7. Saving The Savable: Using Bystanders To Increase Survival From Out Of Hospital Cardiac Arrest (Ohca) In New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    results also confirm that workplace training and CPR in school are effective for training large segments of the community. However, the survey also...increasingly a part of everyday life for millions of Americans. Further, it can be expected that future generations will follow the lead of millennials

  8. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy increases the supply of living donor kidneys: a center-specific microeconomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Johnson, L B

    2000-05-27

    A tenet of microeconomics is that new technology will shift the supply curve to the right. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a new technique for removal of living donor kidneys. Centers performing this procedure have noted an increased number of patients presenting for donor evaluation. This has not been previously studied. The records of all LDN performed from May 1998 to February 1999 were reviewed. The following variables were examined: sex, age, related vs. unrelated donation, estimated blood loss, i.v. analgesia, length of stay, and time out of work. Donors undergoing traditional open donor nephrectomy during January 1997 to May 1998 served as the control group. A composite cost index was constructed. LDN significantly decreased length of stay, pain, and time out of work; the supply function shifted to the right. Telephone interviews revealed that 47% donated solely because of the LDN procedure. LDN increases the supply of living donor kidneys.

  9. Can savings induced by off-patent drugs balance the increase of pharmaceutical expense associated with the high ageing rate of the italian population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The predicted ageing rate of the Italian population is one of the highest worldwide and this condition is expected to produce a growing increase in pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess whether or not off-patent drugs could counterbalance the economic effects generated by the aging of the Italian population in the next ten years.

    Methods: On the basis of the predicted ageing rate of the Italian population for the period 2008-2018, the average annual cumulative increase of pharmaceutical expenditure and potential savings generated by the future loss of patent coverage have been considered in order to identify the year of the Breakeven Point.

    Results: The economic effect induced by the progressive ageing of population produces an average of 0.94% cumulative increase in local pharmaceutical expenditure per year, corresponding to an incremental pharmaceutical expenditure of about € 116 millions per year. A number of 509 brands (103 active substances will lose their patent coverage in the next 10 years. Considering both the present legislation and a level of price reduction, after patent expiration, corresponding to 40%, it is predicted that the Breakeven Point will be achieved at the end of 2011.

    Conclusions: In this study, a long term balance between the predictable increase of pharmaceutical expenditure induced by the ageing of Italian population and savings produced by future off-patent drugs was not established. In order to assure the future sustainability of pharmaceutical expenditure, this study supports the need for the development of new health policy strategies.

  10. Energy savings implication of the increase in peas and lentils in rotations in western Canada and soybeans in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coxworth, E. [Biomass Productions and Processing Consultant, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Biederbeck, V.O.; Campbell, C.A.; Zentner, R.P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, SK (Canada); Entz, M.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Plant Science

    1997-07-01

    The effects of substitution of legumes for grains in cropping systems were studied. Legumes require less energy to produce than most other crops and can reduce the energy costs of non-legume crops which follow the legume in the rotation. Legumes have low nitrogen fertilizer requirements, they leave some biologically fixed nitrogen in the soil after harvest, and yields of following crops may be increased by rotation effects. A well designed ethanol production system can produce two units of renewable energy for every unit of fossil fuel-based energy required to produce the grain crop and process it to ethanol. Forty per cent of the energy costs of ethanol is the energy cost of production. Therefore, methods that reduce the energy cost of producing the feedstock would reduce the energy cost of ethanol. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Live attenuated influenza virus increases pneumococcal translocation and persistence within the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Klugman, Keith P; Rosch, Jason W; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2015-07-15

    Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) increases susceptibility to respiratory bacterial infections, resulting in increased bacterial carriage and complications such acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Recently, vaccination with live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) was reported to enhance subclinical bacterial colonization within the nasopharynx, similar to IAV. Although LAIV does not predispose to bacterial pneumonia, whether it may alter bacterial transmigration toward the middle ear, where it could have clinically relevant implications, has not been investigated. BALB/c mice received LAIV or phosphate-buffered saline 1 or 7 days before or during pneumococcal colonization with either of 2 clinical isolates, 19F or 7F. Middle ear bacterial titers were monitored daily via in vivo imaging. LAIV increased bacterial transmigration to and persistence within the middle ear. When colonization followed LAIV inoculation, a minimum LAIV incubation period of 4 days was required before bacterial transmigration commenced. While LAIV vaccination is safe and effective at reducing IAV and coinfection with influenza virus and bacteria, LAIV may increase bacterial transmigration to the middle ear and could thus increase the risk of clinically relevant acute otitis media. These data warrant further investigations into interactions between live attenuated viruses and naturally colonizing bacterial pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Inflammatory challenge increases measures of oxidative stress in a free-ranging, long-lived mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-12-15

    Oxidative stress - the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutralising antioxidants - has been under debate as the main cause of ageing in aerobial organisms. The level of ROS should increase during infection as part of the activation of an immune response, leading to oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Yet, it is unknown how long-lived organisms, especially mammals, cope with oxidative stress. Bats are known to carry a variety of zoonotic pathogens and at the same time are, despite their high mass-specific basal metabolic rate, unusually long lived, which may be partly the result of low oxidative damage of organs. Here, we asked whether an immune challenge causes oxidative stress in free-ranging bats, measuring two oxidative stress markers. We injected 20 short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) with bacterially derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 20 individuals with phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) as a control. Individuals injected with LPS showed an immune reaction by increased white blood cell count after 24 h, whereas there was no significant change in leukocyte count in control animals. The biological antioxidant potential (BAP) remained the same in both groups, but reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) increased after treatment with LPS, indicating a significant increase in oxidative stress in animals when mounting an immune reaction toward the inflammatory challenge. Control individuals did not show a change in oxidative stress markers. We conclude that in a long-lived mammal, even high concentrations of antioxidants do not immediately neutralise free radicals produced during a cellular immune response. Thus, fighting an infection may lead to oxidative stress in bats.

  13. Saving Turtles; rehabilitating practices and enactments: the entangled lives of sea turtles and people in a turtle conservation organisation in Far Northern Queensland, Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Thomas Sebastian Stolp

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explores encounters between humans and sea turtles. Based on six months fieldwork in Cairns, Far Northern Queensland, Australia, my ethnography revolves around Saving Turtles1, an environmental organisation that works to rehabilitate sick and injured sea turtles in two turtle rehab-centres; improvised, yet sturdy and well functioning hospitals built for sea turtles. I discuss how sea turtles emerge differentially through the nexus of practices that connects to this organi...

  14. Healthcare Expenditure and Productivity Cost Savings from Reductions in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Associated with Increased Intake of Cereal Fibre among Australian Adults: A Cost of Illness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; George, Alice; Cassettari, Tim; Yulin, Lev; Tuck, Kate; Pezzullo, Lynne

    2018-01-02

    An ageing population and growing prevalence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are putting increased pressure on healthcare expenditure in Australia. A cost of illness analysis was conducted to assess the potential savings in healthcare expenditure and productivity costs associated with lower prevalence of CVD and T2D resulting from increased intake of cereal fibre. Modelling was undertaken for three levels of increased dietary fibre intake using cereal fibre: a 10% increase in total dietary fibre; an increase to the Adequate Intake; and an increase to the Suggested Dietary Target. Total healthcare expenditure and productivity cost savings associated with reduced CVD and T2D were calculated by gender, socioeconomic status, baseline dietary fibre intake, and population uptake. Total combined annual healthcare expenditure and productivity cost savings of AUD$17.8 million-$1.6 billion for CVD and AUD$18.2 million-$1.7 billion for T2D were calculated. Total savings were generally larger among adults of lower socioeconomic status and those with lower dietary fibre intakes. Given the substantial healthcare expenditure and productivity cost savings that could be realised through increases in cereal fibre, there is cause for the development of interventions and policies that encourage an increase in cereal fibre intake in Australia.

  15. Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cantwell, Roch

    2011-03-01

    In the triennium 2006-2008, 261 women in the UK died directly or indirectly related to pregnancy. The overall maternal mortality rate was 11.39 per 100,000 maternities. Direct deaths decreased from 6.24 per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 4.67 per 100,000 maternities in 2006–2008 (p = 0.02). This decline is predominantly due to the reduction in deaths from thromboembolism and, to a lesser extent, haemorrhage. For the first time there has been a reduction in the inequalities gap, with a significant decrease in maternal mortality rates among those living in the most deprived areas and those in the lowest socio-economic group. Despite a decline in the overall UK maternal mortality rate, there has been an increase in deaths related to genital tract sepsis, particularly from community acquired Group A streptococcal disease. The mortality rate related to sepsis increased from 0.85 deaths per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 1.13 deaths in 2006-2008, and sepsis is now the most common cause of Direct maternal death. Cardiac disease is the most common cause of Indirect death; the Indirect maternal mortality rate has not changed significantly since 2003-2005. This Confidential Enquiry identified substandard care in 70% of Direct deaths and 55% of Indirect deaths. Many of the identified avoidable factors remain the same as those identified in previous Enquiries. Recommendations for improving care have been developed and are highlighted in this report. Implementing the Top ten recommendations should be prioritised in order to ensure the overall UK maternal mortality rate continues to decline.

  16. The effect of net foreign assets on saving rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben David Nissim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing empirical data we find that many countries try to delay the decision of increasing saving rate in order to avoid a decrease of the living standards. However the delay leads a deterioration of countries financial stability. We present a simple theoretical model that connects between countries' saving rate and their net foreign assets. Using cross section data set of 135 countries in 2010 we estimated the econometric relation between saving rate in 2010 as dependent variable and two explanatory variables: the current account in 2010 and the aggregated current account during 1980-2010. Our findings show that industrial countries in a bad financial state tend to decrease their saving rate as external debt is larger causing to deterioration in external debt while countries with good financial state tend to increase their saving rate and the tendency increase as financial state becomes better. Only in countries with a very large external debt saving rate tends to grow. The results point that gross foreign debt will keep increasing and will worsen world financial state causing increased risk of getting into a world crisis.

  17. Building human capital to increase earning power among people living with mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ni; Schmidt, Lisa T; Gill, Kenneth J; Pratt, Carlos W

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory, a well-established model from the field of economics, maintains that a person's lifetime earnings are affected by the amount of education and job training they receive. This study uses Human Capital Theory to predict wages and explain employment outcomes among individuals living with psychiatric illnesses. Hourly wages were examined between 100 individuals with mental illnesses and 100 matched comparisons who had no mental illnesses. The study found that participants with mental illnesses earned $12.19 an hour vs. $14.54 an hour earned by their counterparts without disability. The study also revealed that higher educational attainment and longer work history predicted higher wages among participants with mental illnesses. The severity of psychiatric symptoms and diagnosis, however, did not predict wages. These findings indicate that human capital variables are correlated with wages earned by persons living with mental illnesses. Findings also suggest that assisting mental health consumers in the pursuit of education and job training may increase earning potential which can lead to financial independence and community integration. This supports the value in developing and implementing Supported Education to assist consumers in acquiring education and job training.

  18. Increase in natural killer cell activity following living-related liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M; Kita, Y; Saito, S; Nishimura, M; Ito, M; Mizuta, K; Tanaka, H; Harihara, Y; Kawarasaki, H; Hashizume, K; Makuuchi, M

    1998-01-01

    We monitored the serial changes of natural killer cell (NK) activity in eight recipients of living-related liver transplantation. The HLA types of all eight patients were haplotypically identical with those of their donors. Tacrolimus and methylprednisolone were used for immunosuppression. The NK activity before transplantation was 24.1 +/- 20.2% which is surprisingly low when compared with the value for normal individuals (67.7 +/- 13.2%, P Serial changes in NK activity revealed a minimum of 6.1 +/- 3.6% 1 week after transplantation, gradually increasing to 49.2 +/- 12.5% at 2 months after transplantation. These results suggest that the diseased liver might play an important role in the suppression of NK activity.

  19. Increased respiratory symptoms in COPD patients living in the vicinity of livestock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, C Joris; van Dijk, Christel E; Heederik, Dick; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of local residents, but results are inconsistent. This study aims to explore associations between the presence of livestock farms and respiratory health in an area of high-density livestock farming in the Netherlands. We focused especially on associations between farm exposures and respiratory symptoms within subgroups of potentially susceptible patients with a pre-existing lung disease.In total, 14 875 adults (response rate 53.4%) completed a questionnaire concerning respiratory health, smoking habits and personal characteristics. Different indicators of livestock farm exposures relative to the home address were computed using a geographic information system.Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma was lower among residents living within 100 m of a farm (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.91 and OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.93, respectively). However, >11 farms in 1000 m compared to fewer than four farms in 1000 m (fourth quartile versus first quartile) was associated with wheezing among COPD patients (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01-2.89). Using general practitioners' electronic medical records, we demonstrated that selection bias did not affect the observed associations.Our data suggest a protective effect of livestock farm emissions on the respiratory health of residents. Nonetheless, COPD patients living near livestock farms reported more respiratory symptoms, suggesting an increased risk of exacerbations. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  20. Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; Hahn, A G; Aughey, R J; Martin, D T; Ashenden, M J; Clark, S A; Garnham, A P; Roberts, A D; Slater, G J; McKenna, M J

    2001-11-01

    This study investigated whether hypoxic exposure increased muscle buffer capacity (beta(m)) and mechanical efficiency during exercise in male athletes. A control (CON, n=7) and a live high:train low group (LHTL, n=6) trained at near sea level (600 m), with the LHTL group sleeping for 23 nights in simulated moderate altitude (3000 m). Whole body oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured under normoxia before, during and after 23 nights of sleeping in hypoxia, during cycle ergometry comprising 4 x 4-min submaximal stages, 2-min at 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1), and 2-min 'all-out' to determine total work and VO(2peak). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was taken at rest and after a standardized 2-min 5.6 +/- 0.4 W kg(-1) bout, before and after LHTL, and analysed for beta(m) and metabolites. After LHTL, beta(m) was increased (18%, P buffer capacity. Further, reduced VO2 during normoxic exercise after LHTL suggests that improved exercise efficiency is a fundamental adaptation to LHTL.

  1. Increasing access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jill; Mofidi, Mahyar; Bednarsh, Helene; Gambrell, Alan; Tobias, Carol R

    2012-05-01

    Access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS is a severe problem. This article describes the design and impact of an Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative program, funded through the Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, that expanded oral health-care services for these individuals in rural Oregon. From April 2007 to August 2010, 473 patients received dental care (exceeding the target goal of 410 patients) and 153 dental hygiene students were trained to deliver oral health care to HIV-positive patients. The proportion of patients receiving oral health care increased from 10% to 65%, while the no-show rate declined from 40% to 10%. Key implementation components were leveraging SPNS funding and services to create an integrated delivery system, collaborations that resulted in improved service delivery systems, using dental hygiene students to deliver oral health care, enhanced care coordination through the services of a dental case manager, and program capacity to adjust to unanticipated needs.

  2. Fullerene-induced increase of glycosyl residue on living plant cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoling; Zhang, Xuejie; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jinxing; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru; Fang, Xiaohong

    2013-07-02

    In this work, we have investigated the change of cell wall for the tobacco plant cell (Nicotiana tobacum L. cv. Bright Yellow) under the repression of water-soluble carboxyfullerenes (C70(C(COOH)2)(2-4)). The adsorption of C70(C(COOH)2)(2-4) on cell wall led to the disruption of cell wall and membrane, and consequently, cell growth inhibition. Results from atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurement and confocal imaging revealed an increase of the glycosyl residue on the cell wall of carboxyfullerene-treated cells, with a time- and dose-dependent manner, and accompanied by the elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the stimulation-sensitive alteration of glycosyl residue and ROS was demonstrated, which suggested a possible protection strategy for the plant cells under fullerene repression. This study provides the first direct evidence on the change of plant cell wall composition under the repression of fullerene and is the first successful application of AFM ligand-receptor binding force measurement to the living plant cell. The new information present here would help to a better understanding and assessment of the biological effect of fullerenes on plant.

  3. Increasing Access to Oral Health Care for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jill; Mofidi, Mahyar; Bednarsh, Helene; Gambrell, Alan; Tobias, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS is a severe problem. This article describes the design and impact of an Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative program, funded through the Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, that expanded oral health-care services for these individuals in rural Oregon. From April 2007 to August 2010, 473 patients received dental care (exceeding the target goal of 410 patients) and 153 dental hygiene students were trained to deliver oral health care to HIV-positive patients. The proportion of patients receiving oral health care increased from 10% to 65%, while the no-show rate declined from 40% to 10%. Key implementation components were leveraging SPNS funding and services to create an integrated delivery system, collaborations that resulted in improved service delivery systems, using dental hygiene students to deliver oral health care, enhanced care coordination through the services of a dental case manager, and program capacity to adjust to unanticipated needs. PMID:22547878

  4. Spend Now or Spend Later: The Role of a Business Education and Critical Thinking Skills in Increasing Retirement Plan Saving Rates for New, Young Enrollees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, Priscilla A.; Kirby, Jill; Saajasto, Kegan

    2015-01-01

    For college graduates entering the workforce, contributing to an employer-sponsored 401(k) retirement plan can be an important way of saving for the future. However, contribution rates for young people in these plans are far below recommended percentages, leading to concerns about future financial stability for these individuals. Prior work has…

  5. Increased psychosocial risk, depression and reduced quality of life living with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Roslyn J; Thong, Kah Mean; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Ong, Albert C M

    2016-07-01

    The psychosocial impact of living with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the overall quality of life (QOL), mood, perceived social support and psychosocial risk of having a diagnosis of ADPKD in a patient cohort from a major UK nephrology centre serving a large catchment population. A postal questionnaire was sent to 349 patients registered at the Sheffield Kidney Institute with chronic kidney disease but not on renal replacement therapy (RRT). The questionnaire incorporated three validated forms: kidney disease quality-of-life short form (KDQOL SF1.3) to assess QOL; nine-item patient health questionnaire (PHQ9) to screen for depression; multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) to evaluate perceived social support; as well as a novel genetic psychosocial risk instrument (GPRI-ADPKD) designed to study the specific psychosocial impact of coping with a diagnosis of ADPKD. The overall response rate was 53%. Patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (psychosocial risk. Clinically significant depression was reported in 22% and 62% felt guilty about passing ADPKD on to their children. In multivariate analysis, female gender was associated with overall poorer psychosocial well-being, whereas increasing age, lower kidney function, larger kidneys and loss of a first degree relative from ADPKD were additional risk factors for QOL, depression or psychosocial risk, respectively. Our results reveal a significantly poorer QOL and increasing psychosocial risk with markers of disease progression in patients, particularly women, with ADPKD prior to starting RRT. The future management strategy of ADPKD should address these issues and provide for better individual and family support throughout the patient journey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Capital and Savings Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    We explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in imparting information about the returns to saving where potential knowledge gaps and mistrust exists. Using data from Vietnam we find strong evidence to support the hypothesis that information transmitted via reputable social...... organizations increases the proportion of liquid assets held in the form of deposits that yield a return. Our results imply that targeting information on the benefits of deposit saving through formal networks or groups would be effective in increasing the number of households that save at grassroots level....

  7. Increasing Activities of Daily Living Is as Easy as 1-2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Deanna; Osterkamp, Erin; Demmel, Kathleen; Kiniyalocts, Shivonne; Mock, Shawn; Mulligan, Kelly; Bell, Angela; Doughman, Crystal; Flemming, Miranda; Flesch, Laura; Hawkins, Deanna; Pate, Abigail; Bedel, Ashley; McKenna, Lori Ann; Teusink, Ashley; Jodele, Sonata; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Perentesis, John; Davies, Stella M; Dandoy, Christopher E

    2016-09-01

    Human flora are the most common cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Activities of daily living (ADL), including oral care and daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing, can lower the risk of infection. To address ADL compliance in our pediatric oncology and bone marrow transplant patients, we adopted the ADL 1-2-3 initiative: daily chlorhexidine gluconate bath and linen change, at least 2 activities per day, and oral care 3 times per day. Using the Model for Improvement we created a standardized ADL process that involved all providers. Interventions included addressing ADL 1-2-3 compliance during rounds, establishing accountability in care delivery, an oral care order set and algorithm, daily text message reminders, and physician intervention with noncompliant and high-risk patients. With our interventions, we increased our median compliance with the all-or-none ADL 1-2-3 initiative from 25% to 66% in 90 days. We have sustained our median compliance to 75% sixteen months after implementation. The greatest impact on compliance was seen with text message reminders to staff to complete and document the ADL 1-2-3 components, designated roles and responsibilities, and physician discussion with noncompliant and high-risk patients. Oral care algorithm and order set, daily text message reminders, and physician intervention with noncompliant and high-risk patients has improved our compliance. Units where compliance with ADL participation is low can benefit from incorporating elements from this ADL 1-2-3 initiative. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  8. Evaluation of an education intervention to increase the pursuit of living kidney donation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnieh, Lianne; McLaughlin, Kevin; Manns, Braden J; Klarenbach, Scott; Yilmaz, Serdar; Taub, Ken; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2011-03-01

    Many transplant candidates have concerns about living donation. To determine whether a structured educational session increased eligible kidney transplant candidates' pursuit of living donation. Eligible transplant candidates were randomized to standard of care (n = 50) or to the educational intervention (n = 50), which included both written materials and a 2-hour education session. The primary outcome was having a living donor contact the transplant program to express interest in donation for a patient, and a secondary outcome was the candidates' preference for treatment of end-stage renal disease; both outcomes were determined at 3 months after enrollment. Of the 100 patients randomized, 4 in the intervention group and 2 in the standard of care group had a living donor contact the program (P = .45). Within-group changes in treatment preference from baseline were seen in the education intervention group (P = .02), but not in the standard of care group (P = .37). This educational intervention did not increase the likelihood of a potential donor contacting the transplant program, compared with standard care. However, patients who received the educational intervention were more likely to change their treatment preference to living donation at study completion. Research investigating other methods of increasing living transplant rates is urgently required.

  9. Home humidity increased risk of tuberculosis in children living with adult active tuberculosis cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Lestari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the countries with the largest number of tuberculosis (TB cases in the world. Environmental factors play significant roles in infection and disease development in children living with adult active TB cases. The aim of this study was to explore the environmental factors affecting TB risk in children, including humidity and number of people living in the same house with the children.  Using a cross-sectional study design, children living with active TB adults for at least 8 weeks were recruited. The subjects underwent clinical examination, tuberculin skin test (TST and radiological investigations. Home visits were conducted three times daily, namely in the morning, at midday, and in the evening, to measure humidity by digital hygrometer and to observe home conditions. Of 56 index cases living with active TB adults in an urban low socio-economic setting, 64 contact TB children were recruited. These children were classified as class I with negative TST and no clinical signs, class II with positive TST and no clinical signs, and class III with both positive TST and clinical signs. There were 32 (50% class I, 10 (15.6% class II and 22 (34.3% class III children. However, a sub-sample of 43 showed positive results for Mtb 16S rRNA, indicating that all children were infected. The humidity cut-off point was set at 75%, p=0.04 and EP 2.09 (CI= 1.32-3.29, signifying that children living in houses with a humidity higher than 75%, were twice more likely to be tuberculin positive. Environmental conditions playing a role in disease development were humidity and number of people living in the house.

  10. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Cuttler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA appears questionable.

  11. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable. PMID:28321175

  12. Development of innovative activity of the enterprises of construction branch in the direction of increase in resource-saving and energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papelniuk, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The author studies innovative activity of enterprises and carries out the classification of conditions and factors of construction enterprises’ innovative activity, and conducts systematization of specific features of this innovative activity. On the basis of statistical data on structure and dynamics of innovations the author carries out the research with the use of methods of economic-mathematical modelling in order to offer the approach which will allow construction enterprises to define the directions of innovative activity for achievement of a resource-saving and energy efficiency in construction sector.

  13. Essay on Saving and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumption and saving decisions are at the heart of both short- and long-term macroeconomic analyses. Since the global crisis outbreak, one of the main issues for indebted countries has been whether to pursue a policy which promotes saving or to try to induce economic growth by increasing consumption. Consensus has not been reached on this issue, which is based on an old debate of whether a country should pursue a policy of Keynesianism or monetarism.

  14. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jonathan L; Christie, R James; Pollard, Emily J; Olsen, Steven C; Grainger, David W

    2016-02-10

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles to protect and deliver a viable bacterial vaccine, Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51), ballistically using commercial thermoplastic cellulosic degradable biobullets. Degradable PEG hydrogel rods loaded with ∼10(10) live RB51 bacteria (CFUs) were fabricated using three different polymerization methods, cut into fixed-sized payload segments, and lyophilized. Resulting dense, glassy RB51 vaccine-loaded monoliths were inserted into thermoplastic biobullet 100-μL payload chambers. Viability studies of lyophilized formulations assessed as a function of time and storage temperature supported the abilities of several conditions to produce acceptable vaccine shelf-lives. Fired from specifically designed air rifles, gel-loaded biobullets exhibit down-range ballistic properties (i.e., kinetic energy, trajectory, accuracy) similar to unloaded biobullets. Delivered to bovine tissue, these hydrogels rehydrate rapidly by swelling in tissue fluids, with complete hydration observed after 5h in serum. Live RB51 vaccine exhibited excellent viability following carrier polymerization, lyophilization, and storage, at levels sufficient for vaccine dosing to wild range bison, the intended target. These data validate lyophilized degradable PEG hydrogel rods as useful drug carriers for remote delivery of both live vaccines and other therapeutics to livestock, wildlife, or other free-range targets using ballistic technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes increases stiffness of live cardiomyocytes measured by atomic force microscopy nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benech, Juan C; Benech, Nicolás; Zambrana, Ana I; Rauschert, Inés; Bervejillo, Verónica; Oddone, Natalia; Damián, Juan P

    2014-11-15

    Stiffness of live cardiomyocytes isolated from control and diabetic mice was measured using the atomic force microscopy nanoindentation method. Type 1 diabetes was induced in mice by streptozotocin administration. Histological images of myocardium from mice that were diabetic for 3 mo showed disorderly lineup of myocardial cells, irregularly sized cell nuclei, and fragmented and disordered myocardial fibers with interstitial collagen accumulation. Phalloidin-stained cardiomyocytes isolated from diabetic mice showed altered (i.e., more irregular and diffuse) actin filament organization compared with cardiomyocytes from control mice. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) pump expression was reduced in homogenates obtained from the left ventricle of diabetic animals compared with age-matched controls. The apparent elastic modulus (AEM) for live control or diabetic isolated cardiomyocytes was measured using the atomic force microscopy nanoindentation method in Tyrode buffer solution containing 1.8 mM Ca(2+) and 5.4 mM KCl (physiological condition), 100 nM Ca(2+) and 5.4 mM KCl (low extracellular Ca(2+) condition), or 1.8 mM Ca(2+) and 140 mM KCl (contraction condition). In the physiological condition, the mean AEM was 112% higher for live diabetic than control isolated cardiomyocytes (91 ± 14 vs. 43 ± 7 kPa). The AEM was also significantly higher in diabetic than control cardiomyocytes in the low extracellular Ca(2+) and contraction conditions. These findings suggest that the material properties of live cardiomyocytes were affected by diabetes, resulting in stiffer cells, which very likely contribute to high diastolic LV stiffness, which has been observed in vivo in some diabetes mellitus patients. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A joint, multilateral approach to improve compliance with hand hygiene in 4 countries within the Baltic region using the World Health Organization's SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytsy, Birgitta; Melbarde-Kelmere, Agita; Hambraeus, Anna; Liubimova, Anna; Aspevall, Olov

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to explore the usefulness of a modified World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene program to increase compliance with hand hygiene among health care workers (HCWs) in Latvia, Lithuania, Saint Petersburg (Russia), and Sweden and to provide a basis for continuing promotion of hand hygiene in these countries. The study was carried out in 2012. Thirteen hospitals participated, including 38 wards. Outcome data were handrub consumption, compliance with hand hygiene measured with a modified WHO method, and assessment of knowledge among HCWs. Interventions were education of the nursing staff, posters and reminders in strategic places in the wards, and feedback of the results to nursing staff in ward meetings. Feedback of results was an effective tool for education at the ward level. The most useful outcome measurement was handrub consumption, which increased by at least 50% in 30% of the wards. In spite of this, handrub consumption remained at a low level in many of the wards. There are several reasons for this, and the most important were self-reported nursing staff shortage and fear of adverse effects from using alcoholic handrub and verified skin irritation. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased odds of live birth in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles with shorter ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Friedman, Caroline; Hutchinson, Anne P; Lekovich, Jovana P; Elias, Rony T; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of prolonged ovarian stimulation on pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles with fresh day 3 ET. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. All patients initiating their first IVF cycle with fresh day 3 ET. Prolonged ovarian stimulation was defined as a duration of more than two standard deviations (95th percentile) for the study cohort (i.e., >13 days). None. Live birth rate was considered the primary outcome and was compared between patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for ≤13 days and >13 days. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all pregnancy outcomes after day 3 ET were calculated. The OR for live birth was adjusted using logistic regression. A total of 6,410 and 339 patients underwent ovarian stimulation for ≤13 days and >13 days, respectively. There were no differences in the demographics or mean number of day 3 embryos transferred between the two groups. Ovarian stimulation ≤13 days was associated with increased odds of clinical pregnancy (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.19-3.89) and live birth (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.25-4.43). The increased odds for live birth in the ≤13-day group remained unchanged after logistic regression. Patients with clinical pregnancies in the >13-day group were younger (34.6 ± 4.91 years) compared with those who did not conceive (38.2 ± 4.72 years). Our findings suggest that ovarian stimulation ≤13 days is associated with increased odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth. In patients undergoing ovarian stimulation >13 days, younger age is associated with live birth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Zinc plays an important role in cellular growth, cellular differentiation and metabolism. The results of previous meta-analyses evaluating effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth are inconsistent. We have updated and evaluated the available evidence according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria and tried to explain the difference in results of the previous reviews. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library, IZiNCG database and WHO regional data bases using different terms for zinc and linear growth (height. Data were abstracted in a standardized form. Data were analyzed in two ways i.e. weighted mean difference (effect size and pooled mean difference for absolute increment in length in centimeters. Random effect models were used for these pooled estimates. We have given our recommendations for effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the form of absolute increment in length (cm in zinc supplemented group compared to control for input to Live Saves Tool (LiST. Results There were thirty six studies assessing the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in children Conclusions Zinc supplementation has a significant positive effect on linear growth, especially when administered alone, and should be included in national strategies to reduce stunting in children

  19. ARC Code TI: Save

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Save is a framework for implementing highly available network-accessible services. Save consists of a command-line utility and a small set of extensions for the...

  20. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Environmental economics: Saving lives, money, and ecosystems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2010 ... Environmental economics gives developing countries a unique tool to make development sustainable and to leapfrog over many of the mistakes that industrialized nations have made. IDRC has worked with researchers in developing countries to build this field of applied research, which provides ...

  2. CDC Vital Signs: HIV Care Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in HIV medical care. Health departments and communitybased organizations can Expand HIV testing services to get people ... Diseases (STDs) CDC Global HIV/AIDS CDC Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Preventing Chronic Disease On ...

  3. Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Kathleen; Mathers, Colin; Bonita, Ruth

    2007-02-01

    Stroke caused an estimated 5.7 million deaths in 2005, and 87% of these deaths were in low-income and middle-income countries. Without intervention, the number of global deaths is projected to rise to 6.5 million in 2015 and to 7.8 million in 2030. The rising burden of stroke, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, leads us to propose a worldwide goal for stroke: a 2% reduction each year over and above that which may happen as a result of better case management and treatment. The experience of high-income countries indicates that sustained interventions can achieve at least the required 4% annual average decline in stroke mortality for people age 60-69 years. Achieving this goal for stroke would result in 6.4 million fewer deaths from stroke from 2005 to 2015. More of these deaths will be averted in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  4. WORKING SAVES WOMEN’S LIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Uysal; Hande Paker

    2012-01-01

    Despite sustained efforts in Turkey for many years, violence against women persists. Studies on violence against women reveal that women’s perception about and their attitude towards violence appears to be an important factor regarding the issue. In this research note, the relationship between women’s attitude towards domestic violence and their employment status is analyzed. Even if factors like women’s own education levels, spouse’s education levels, and their regions of residence are taken...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Safer Food Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... states. 46% of multistate foodborne outbreaks result in product recalls. Problem Multistate foodborne outbreaks are serious and hard ... to help investigators identify what made people sick. Recall products linked to an outbreak and notify customers. Choose ...

  6. Safer Food Saves Lives PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This 60 second PSA is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  7. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 6/19/2008.

  8. Environmental economics: Saving lives, money, and ecosystems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-07

    Oct 7, 2010 ... Environmental economists shed light on underlying causes of environmental degradation and apply economic principles to design solutions that benefit people and the planet. ... Her groundbreaking findings were published in 2009 in the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences.

  9. Simulations to save time, money, and lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackett, D.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Laboratory`s Conflict Simulation Laboratory (CSL) has been developing computerized programs to simulate combat and other conflicts since 1974. All branches of the military use these systems for training purposes and to prepare for operations as diverse as the 1989 invasion of Panama and peacekeeping in Somalia. The CSL is presently continuing development of the Joint Tactical Simulation (JTS) and recently began work on the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) program for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Army is still using the CSL`s first model, Janus.

  10. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  11. Impact on short-lived climate forcers increases projected warming due to deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C E; Monks, S A; Spracklen, D V; Arnold, S R; Forster, P M; Rap, A; Äijälä, M; Artaxo, P; Carslaw, K S; Chipperfield, M P; Ehn, M; Gilardoni, S; Heikkinen, L; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Reddington, C L S; Rizzo, L V; Swietlicki, E; Vignati, E; Wilson, C

    2018-01-11

    The climate impact of deforestation depends on the relative strength of several biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. In addition to affecting the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere and surface albedo, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that alter the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which include aerosol, ozone and methane. Here we show that a scenario of complete global deforestation results in a net positive radiative forcing (RF; 0.12 W m-2) from SLCFs, with the negative RF from decreases in ozone and methane concentrations partially offsetting the positive aerosol RF. Combining RFs due to CO2, surface albedo and SLCFs suggests that global deforestation could cause 0.8 K warming after 100 years, with SLCFs contributing 8% of the effect. However, deforestation as projected by the RCP8.5 scenario leads to zero net RF from SLCF, primarily due to nonlinearities in the aerosol indirect effect.

  12. Increased live births after day 5 versus day 6 transfers of vitrified-warmed blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbing, Alice; Shaw-Jackson, Chloë; Ameye, Lieveke; Colin, Jérôme; Rozenberg, Serge; Autin, Candice

    2017-12-04

    An investigation into the clinical implications of delayed blastulation (day 5 versus day 6) was carried out for cryo cycles, as heterogeneous results persist in the current literature. We performed a retrospective study comparing clinical pregnancies and live births between 178 blastocysts vitrified and warmed on day 5 versus 149 on day 6. The stage of blastocyst development was taken into account and adjustment for confounding factors was performed. Our results demonstrate a significant difference in clinical pregnancy (43 versus 23% p value day of vitrification, in favour of day 5. This difference persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratio for clinical pregnancies and deliveries for the day 5 group compared to that of the day 6 group was 2.83 (95%CI, 1.48 to 5.41) and 2.94 (95%CI, 1.39 to 6.22), respectively. When the stage of development of the blastocyst was taken into consideration, we still observed a significant advantage of day 5 versus day 6 vitrification. Day of vitrification (day 5 versus day 6) appears to be an independent predictor of clinical outcomes. Stratification of our cohort was carried out according to the developmental stage, and significant differences persisted. Although the transfer of day 6 cryopreserved embryos remains a viable option, giving priority to a day 5 embryo would reduce the time to pregnancy.

  13. On savings ratio.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochuan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the factors that affect saving and consumption behaviours, in a context where some believe that the high savings ratio of the East Asia and oil-producing countries is one major cause for the global imbalances and the crisis. The paper elaborates on the factors behind the high savings ratios in East Asia and oil producing countries and low savings ratios in the United States. It argues that the high savings in East Asia can mainly be explained by cultural and structural fac...

  14. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    framework and guidelines for the following EEO period, i.e. 2013-2020. This paper focuses on the net savings impact and describes the evaluation method used to determine this. Three complementary analyses are described: 1) An analysis of the additionality of the reported saving, 2) an analysis...... the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... are inappropriately high. The net impact in the residential sector, on the other hand, was found to be very low. The evaluation recommended that the new EEO design addresses the additionality issues in order to ensure that savings realised in the residential sector are more cost-effective from a socioeconomic...

  15. Improving preemptive transplant education to increase living donation rates: reaching patients earlier in their disease adjustment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Rebecca; Waterman, Amy D

    2008-12-01

    Patients who receive a preemptive kidney transplant before starting dialysis avoid the medical complications related to dialysis and have the highest graft success and lowest mortality rates. Because only 2.5% of incident patients receive kidney transplants preemptively, improved psychosocial education may assist more patients in accessing preemptive transplant. This article outlines (1) unique psychosocial issues affecting patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 (glomerular filtration rates > 20 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and (2) how an educational program about preemptive living donor transplant should be designed and administered to increase access to this treatment option. Early referral patients may be overwhelmed in coping with and learning about their disease and, therefore, not ready to make a treatment decision, or they may be highly motivated to obtain a transplant to avoid dialysis and return to a normal life. An education program that defines the quality-of-life and health benefits possible with early transplant is outlined. The program is focused on minimizing the disruption of starting 2 treatment techniques and maximizing early transplant health, graft survival, employability, and retention of insurance coverage. Once the benefits of preemptive living donor transplant are outlined, educators can focus on demystifying the living donor evaluation process and assisting interested patients in planning how to find a living donor. To reach all patients, especially racial minorities, education about preemptive transplant should be available in primary-care physicians' and community nephrologists' offices, at dialysis centers, and through other kidney organizations.

  16. Increased mortality among Indigenous persons in a multisite cohort of people living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Anita C; Younger, Jaime; Beaver, Kerrigan; Jackson, Randy; Loutfy, Mona; Masching, Renée; Nobis, Tony; Nowgesic, Earl; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Whitebird, Wanda; Zoccole, Art; Hull, Mark; Jaworsky, Denise; Benson, Elizabeth; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N; Cooper, Curtis; Hogg, Robert S; Klein, Marina B; Machouf, Nima; Montaner, Julio S G; Tsoukas, Chris; Raboud, Janet

    2017-06-16

    Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on time until death after adjusting for age, gender, injection drug use, being a man who has sex with men, hepatitis C, province of origin, baseline VL and CD4 count, year of cART initiation and class of antiretroviral medication. The study sample consisted of 7080 participants (497 Indigenous, 2471 Caucasian, 787 African/Caribbean/Black (ACB), 629 other, and 2696 unknown ethnicity). Most Indigenous persons were from British Columbia (BC) (83%), with smaller numbers from Ontario (13%) and Québec (4%). During the study period, 714 (10%) participants died. The five-year survival probability was lower for Indigenous persons (0.77) than for Caucasian (0.94), ACB (0.98), other ethnicities (0.96) and unknown ethnicities (0.85) (p < 0.0001). In an adjusted proportional hazard model for which missing data were imputed, Indigenous persons were more likely to die than Caucasian participants (hazard ratio = 2.69, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for Indigenous persons was higher than for other ethnicities and is largely reflective of the BC population. Addressing treatment challenges and identifying HIV- and non-HIV-related causes for mortality among Indigenous persons is required to optimize their clinical management.

  17. Uterine immune profiling for increasing live birth rate: A one-to-one matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lédée, Nathalie; Prat-Ellenberg, Laura; Chevrier, Lucie; Balet, Richard; Simon, Cynthia; Lenoble, Clarisse; Irani, Elie El; Bouret, Dominique; Cassuto, Guy; Vitoux, Dominique; Vezmar, Katia; Bensussan, Armand; Chaouat, Gérard; Petitbarat, Marie

    2017-02-01

    Embryo implantation remains the main limiting factor in IVF/ICSI program. Endometrial immune remodeling events begin before implantation and are a vital process for pregnancy, preparing future maternal immune tolerance and regulating the placentation process. Between 2012 and 2014, 193 patients (analyzed group) enrolled in our IVF program benefitted of an endometrial immune profiling to determine if their uterus was immunologically ready to accept an embryo and, if not, the specific immune mechanisms involved. Subsequently, they had an effective embryo transfer (ET) with personalization of their treatments if an immune deregulation has been diagnosed. Each analyzed patient was paired to the closest patient included in the IVF program according to biological criteria (age, number of mature oocytes, stage and number of transferred embryo), which had no endometrial immune profiling (193 patients, non-analyzed group). 78% of analyzed patients had a uterine immune dysregulation and therefore care personalization. Their corresponding live birth rate (LBR) was twice higher than observed in the matched control group with conventional cares (30.5% versus 16.6%, OR: 2.2 [1.27-3.83] p=0.004) with a simultaneous drastic reduction of miscarriages per initiated pregnancy (17.9% versus 43.2%, OR: 0.29 [0.12-0.71], p=0.005). 22% of analyzed patients had no dysregulation. They did not differ from their matched controls for LBR and miscarriages. Uterine immune profiling enables an integrated approach of infertility that includes endometrial immunity as a key factor in planning personalized IVF/ICSI treatments. Personalization of treatment according to the woman's uterine immune balance produced a very significantly higher LBR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2011: another increase in experimentation, but is there a shift in emphasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    The 2011 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with almost 3.8 million procedures being conducted. Unlike those in previous years, this increase is not exclusively due to the breeding and utilisation of genetically altered animals, although they are still involved in the greatest proportion of procedures. That a shift toward fundamental research may have become the primary cause of increases in animal experiments is discussed. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are reviewed. In addition, some areas of concern and optimism are outlined. 2012 FRAME.

  19. Increasing live birth rate by preimplantation genetic screening of pooled polar bodies using array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feichtinger

    Full Text Available Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using array-CGH to evaluate trophectoderm cells. However, in some countries, the analysis of embryonic cells is restricted by law. Therefore, we used BAC array-CGH to assess the impact of polar body analysis on the live birth rate. A disadvantage of polar body aneuploidy screening is the necessity of the analysis of both the first and second polar bodies, resulting in increases in costs for the patient and complex data interpretation. Aneuploidy screening results may sometimes be ambiguous if the first and second polar bodies show reciprocal chromosomal aberrations. To overcome this disadvantage, we tested a strategy involving the pooling of DNA from both polar bodies before DNA amplification. We retrospectively studied 351 patients, of whom 111 underwent polar body array-CGH before embryo transfer. In the group receiving pooled polar body array-CGH (aCGH analysis, 110 embryos were transferred, and 29 babies were born, corresponding to live birth rates of 26.4% per embryo and 35.7% per patient. In contrast, in the control group, the IVF treatment was performed without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS. For this group, 403 embryos were transferred, and 60 babies were born, resulting in live birth rates of 14.9% per embryo and 22.7% per patient. In conclusion, our data show that in the aCGH group, the use of aneuploidy screening resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate compared with the control group, supporting the benefit of PGS for IVF couples in

  20. Western environment/lifestyle is associated with increased genome methylation and decreased gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guicheng; Wang, Kui; Schultz, Ennee; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Annamalay, Alicia; Laing, Ingrid A; Hales, Belinda J; Goldblatt, Jack; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Several human diseases and conditions are disproportionally distributed in the world with a significant "Western-developed" vs. "Eastern-developing" gradient. We compared genome-wide DNA methylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 25 newly arrived Chinese immigrants living in a Western environment for less than 6 months ("Newly arrived") with 23 Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for more than two years ("Long-term") with a mean of 8.7 years, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In a sub-group of both subject groups (n = 12 each) we also investigated genome-wide gene expression using a Human HT-12 v4 expression beadChip. There were 62.5% probes among the total number of 382,250 valid CpG sites with greater mean Beta (β) in "Long-term" than in "Newly arrived". In the regions of CpG islands and gene promoters, compared with the CpG sites in all other regions, lower percentages of CpG sites with mean methylation levels in "Long-term" greater than "Newly arrived" were observed, but still >50%. The increase of methylation was associated with a general decrease of gene expression in Chinese immigrants living in the Western environment for a longer period of time. After adjusting for age, gender and other confounding factors the findings remained. Chinese immigrants living in Australia for a longer period of time have increased overall genome methylation and decreased overall gene expression compared with newly arrived immigrants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Good practice in saving energy at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Paola; Bonazzi, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    We teach students between 14 and 18 years old at a high school in Italy. In the first class, one of the topics we treat is related to the atmosphere. The students learn the composition of air, the importance of the natural greenhouse effect in keeping the average temperature of the planet and how human activity is increasing the level of greenhouse gases, enhancing greenhouse effect and causing global warming. It is possible to reach this knowledge using different materials and methods such as schoolbooks, articles, websites or films, individual or group work, but as students gradually become aware of the problem of climate change due to global warming, it is necessary to propose a solution that can be experienced and measured by students. This is the aim of the project "Switch off the light, to switch on the future". The project doesn't need special materials to be carried out but all the people in the community who work and "live" at school should participate in it. The project deals directly with saving electric energy, by changing the habits of the use of electricity. Saving electric energy means saving CO2 emitted to atmosphere, and consequently contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Normally, lights in the school are switched on in the early morning and switched off at the end of lessons. Nobody is responsible to turn out the lights in classes, so students choose one or two "Light guardians" who are responsible for the light management. Simple rules for light management are written and distributed in the classes so that the action of saving energy is spread all over the school. One class participates in the daily data collection from the electricity meter, before and after the beginning of the action. At the end of the year the data are treated and presented to the community, verifying if the electric consumption has been cut down or not. This presentation is public, with students who directly introduce collected data, results and

  2. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddin, Carl J; O'Connor, Nessa E; Harrod, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Theoretically, each species' ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species' range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana's preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM), appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  3. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Reddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM, appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  4. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  5. Children living near chipboard and wood industries are at an increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Paolo, Girardi; Guarda, Linda; Pironi, Vanda; Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Pollutants emitted from wood processing factories may be harmful to the health of the population. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate whether proximity to wood factories was associated with the risk of hospital admissions in children living in the Viadana district (Italy), where two big chipboard industries and other smaller wood factories (sawmills, multi-strata layer manufacturing) are located. In 2006, children (3-14 years) living in the Viadana district were surveyed through a parental questionnaire (n=3854), their home/school addresses were geocoded and the distances to the wood industries were calculated. Hospital discharge records for the years 2007-2009 were obtained. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the association between hospitalization rates and distance to the factories, adjusting for sex, age, nationality, parents' education, exposure to passive smoking and reported traffic near home. During the 3-year follow-up, the risk of hospitalization for all diagnoses (Hospitalization Hazard Ratio, HHR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.24-1.95) and for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.80; 95% CI: 1.14-2.86) was greater in the children living close (factories were also at increased risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HHR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.06-2.85). This study highlights a health problem for the children living close to chipboard and wood factories in the Viadana district. Further research should develop accurate exposure models based on objective measurements of air pollution in order to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A Website Intervention to Increase Knowledge About Living Kidney Donation and Transplantation Among Hispanic/Latino Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elisa J; Feinglass, Joe; Carney, Paula; Vera, Karina; Olivero, Maria; Black, Anne; O'Connor, Kate Grubbs; Baumgart, Jessica MacLean; Caicedo, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Hispanic dialysis patients often encounter barriers to learning about living kidney donation and transplantation. Effective culturally targeted interventions to increase knowledge are lacking. We developed a culturally targeted educational website to enhance informed treatment decision making for end-stage kidney disease. A pretest/posttest intervention study was conducted among adult Hispanic patients undergoing dialysis at 5 dialysis centers in Chicago, Illinois. Surveys included a 31-item, multiple-choice pretest/posttest of knowledge about kidney transplantation and living donation, attitudes about the website, Internet use, and demographics. The intervention entailed viewing 3 of 6 website sections for a total of 30 minutes. The pretest/posttest was administered immediately before and after the intervention. Participants completed a second posttest via telephone 3 weeks thereafter to assess knowledge retention, attitudes, and use of the website. Sixty-three patients participated (96% participation rate). Website exposure was associated with a mean 17.1% same day knowledge score increase between pretest and posttest (P < .001). At 3 weeks, participants' knowledge scores remained 11.7% above pretest (P < .001). The greatest knowledge gain from pretest to 3-week follow-up occurred in the Treatment Options (P < .0001) and Cultural Beliefs and Myths (P < .0001) website sections. Most participants (95%) "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that they would recommend the website to other Hispanics. Web-based education for patients undergoing dialysis can effectively increase Hispanics' knowledge about transplantation and living kidney donation. Study limitations include small sample size and single geographic region study. Dialysis facilities could enable website access as a method of satisfying policy requirements to provide education about kidney transplantation. © 2016, NATCO.

  7. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  8. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  9. ICSC – Policy for energy saving and increase of efficiency in Russia in the spheres of construction, housing and community amenities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarinov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s GDP energy intensity today is approximately 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of economically developed countries. To increase its economic competitive ability, Russia needs to achieve energy efficiency in different spheres, including construction, housing and community amenities. Close examination of implemented management measures and world experience revealed that in order to achieve a further energy efficiency increase Russia needs to boost economic interest of the participants concerned and to form effective mechanisms of economic management, and this should be done along with improvement of administrative governance. The paper focuses on the barriers that hamper economic motivation and provides recommendations for energy efficiency increase. Even partial implementation of suggested measures, in our opinion, will increase energy efficiency in the spheres of construction and housing accommodation, which is illustrated through the example of a residential building located in Yekaterinburg (Russia, Middle Urals.

  10. Polish households’ saving strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Anioła

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of households’ saving strategies types classification. A cluster analysis method, based on households’ saving portfolio, was used for classification. Six types of strategies were distinguished: low risk, conservative, very passive, very conservative, diversification and aggressive.

  11. Potential energy savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings.......This chapter describes the chosen methods for estimating the potential energy savings if ordinary window glazing is exchanged with aerogel glazing as well as commercial low-energy glazings....

  12. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  13. Saving Can Save from Death Anxiety: Mortality Salience and Financial Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending. PMID:24244497

  14. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    Full Text Available Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American, that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  15. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  16. Are Women Empowered to Save?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Woolley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female economic empowerment – rising earnings, increased opportunities, greater labour force participation – has given many women the means to save. The shifting of responsibility for retirement security from employers and governments onto individuals has given women a reason to save. But are women actually saving? In this paper, we explore the relationship between the gender dynamics within a family and the accumulation of wealth. We find that little evidence in support of the conventional wisdom that families with a female financial manager save more and repay their debts more often. We find some evidence that male financial management leads to greater savings, and other evidence suggesting that savings patterns have a complex relationship with intra-family gender dynamics. El empoderamiento económico de la mujer – el aumento de los ingresos, mayores oportunidades, mayor participación laboral – ha dado a muchas mujeres los medios para ahorrar. Al pasar la responsabilidad de los ingresos de la jubilación de los empleadores y el gobierno a los individuos ha dado a las mujeres un motivo para ahorrar. ¿Pero realmente ahorran las mujeres? En este artículo se analizan las relaciones entre las dinámicas de género en una familia, y la acumulación de riqueza. Se ha llegado a la conclusión de que hay poca evidencia que apoye la creencia convencional de que las familias en las que una mujer gestiona las financias ahorran más y devuelven sus créditos más frecuentemente. Se ha encontrado alguna evidencia de que la gestión financiera por varones acarrea mayores ahorros, y otras evidencias que sugieren que los patrones de ahorro tienen una relación compleja con las dinámicas de género dentro de la familia.

  17. A Clustered Randomized Trial of an Educational Intervention During Transplant Evaluation to Increase Knowledge of Living Donor Kidney Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Francis L; Peipert, John D; Holland, Bart K; Brown, Diane R; Waterman, Amy D

    2017-12-01

    Maximizing education about living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) during the in-person evaluation at the transplant center may increase the numbers of kidney patients pursuing LDKT. Research Questions and Design: To test the effectiveness of a 1-time LDKT educational intervention, we performed a cluster-randomized trial among 499 patients who presented for evaluation of kidney transplant. We compared usual care education (n = 250) versus intensive LDKT education (n = 249), which was implemented only on the evaluation day and consisted of viewing a 25-minute video of information and stories about LDKT and discussion of LDKT possibilities with an educator. Our primary outcome was knowledge of LDKT, 1 week after the transplant evaluation. One week after evaluation, patients who received intensive education had higher knowledge than patients who received usual care (12.7 vs. 11.7; P = .0008), but there were no differences in postevaluation readiness for LDKT. Among patients who had not previously identified a potential living donor, receiving intensive education was associated with increased willingness to take steps toward LDKT. In conclusion, expansion of LDKT education within the evaluation day may be helpful, but interventions that are implemented at multiple times and for greater duration may be necessary to ensure larger and long-term behavioral changes in pursuit of LDKT.

  18. Building Savings and Investments Culture among Nigerians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    food, the more developed the society becomes because the money not spent on consumption is saved to provide the resources that are needed to fund investment. (Olusoji, 2003). Smiths (1776) recognized the importance of savings when he observed that capital is increased by parismony and diminished by prodigality ...

  19. New Option in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Allows for the Conversion of Prevalence of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births to Prevalence of Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software model that estimates the health impact of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health. One of the outputs of the model is an estimation of births by fetal size [appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA)] and by length of gestation (term or preterm), both of which influence birth weight. LiST uses prevalence estimates of births in these categories rather than of birth weight categories, because the causes and health consequences differ between SGA and preterm birth. The World Health Assembly nutrition plan, however, has set the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) as a key indicator, with a specific goal of a 30% reduction in LBW prevalence by 2025. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop an algorithm that will allow LiST users to estimate changes in prevalence of LBW on the basis of changes in coverage of interventions and the resulting impact on prevalence estimates of SGA and preterm births. Methods: The study used 13 prospective cohort data sets from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 5 from Asia, and 4 from Latin America), with reliable measures of gestational age and birth weight. By calculating the proportion of LBW births among SGA and preterm births in each data set and meta-analyzing those estimates, we calculated region-specific pooled rates of LBW among SGA and preterm births. Results: In Africa, 0.4% of term-AGA, 36.7% of term-SGA, 49.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Asia, 1.0% of term-SGA, 47.0% of term-SGA, 36.7% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Latin America, 0.4% of term-AGA, 34.4% of term-SGA, 32.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. Conclusions: The simple conversion factor proposed here allows for the estimation of LBW within LiST for most LMICs. This will allow LiST users to approximate the impact of their health programs on

  20. Sustained in vivo signaling by long-lived IL-2 induces prolonged increases of regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Charles J.M.; Sun, Yongliang; Nowak, Urszula M.; Clark, Jan; Howlett, Sarah; Pekalski, Marcin L.; Yang, Xin; Ast, Oliver; Waldhauer, Inja; Freimoser-Grundschober, Anne; Moessner, Ekkehard; Umana, Pablo; Klein, Christian; Hosse, Ralf J.; Wicker, Linda S.; Peterson, Laurence B.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing FOXP3 are essential for the maintenance of self-tolerance and are deficient in many common autoimmune diseases. Immune tolerance is maintained in part by IL-2 and deficiencies in the IL-2 pathway cause reduced Treg function and an increased risk of autoimmunity. Recent studies expanding Tregs in vivo with low-dose IL-2 achieved major clinical successes highlighting the potential to optimize this pleiotropic cytokine for inflammatory and autoimmune disease indications. Here we compare the clinically approved IL-2 molecule, Proleukin, with two engineered IL-2 molecules with long half-lives owing to their fusion in monovalent and bivalent stoichiometry to a non-FcRγ binding human IgG1. Using nonhuman primates, we demonstrate that single ultra-low doses of IL-2 fusion proteins induce a prolonged state of in vivo activation that increases Tregs for an extended period of time similar to multiple-dose Proleukin. One of the common pleiotropic effects of high dose IL-2 treatment, eosinophilia, is eliminated at doses of the IL-2 fusion proteins that greatly expand Tregs. The long half-lives of the IL-2 fusion proteins facilitated a detailed characterization of an IL-2 dose response driving Treg expansion that correlates with increasingly sustained, suprathreshold pSTAT5a induction and subsequent sustained increases in the expression of CD25, FOXP3 and Ki-67 with retention of Treg-specific epigenetic signatures at FOXP3 and CTLA4. PMID:25457307

  1. Significant increases in pulping efficiency in C4H-F5H-transformed poplars: improved chemical savings and reduced environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Shannon K; Ellis, Dave; Gilbert, Margarita; Chapple, Clint; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2003-10-08

    The gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) was overexpressed in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) using the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) promoter to drive expression specifically in cells involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway and was shown to significantly alter the mole percentage of syringyl subunits in the lignin, as determined by thioacidolysis. Analysis of poplar transformed with a C4H-F5H construct demonstrated significant increases in chemical (kraft) pulping efficiency from greenhouse-grown trees. Compared to wild-type wood, decreases of 23 kappa units and increases of >20 ISO brightness units were observed in trees exhibiting high syringyl monomer concentrations. These changes were associated with no significant modification in total lignin content and no observed phenotypic differences. C4H-F5H-transformed trees could increase pulp throughputs at mills by >60% while concurrently decreasing chemicals employed during processing (chemical pulping and bleaching) and, consequently, the amount of deleterious byproducts released into the environment.

  2. 5 case studies : boiler system increases availability of hot water in CAP REIT apartment buildings while saving energy : electric-to-gas retrofit drives down energy costs and improves building performance : Novitherm heat reflector panels saves 28 per cent in heating costs for apartment building : Novitherm heat reflector panel installation with system adjustment saves 33.2 per cent in energy costs : natural gas conversion saves over $315,000 a year for condominium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    These 5 case studies presented the details of new systems and retrofits conducted by Enbridge Gas Distribution and its partners to improve the energy efficiency of various public and residential buildings. System retrofits included the installation of boiler system installed to address tenant demands on the domestic hot water systems of properties purchased purchased by the CAP REIT organization. The comprehensive program used to address the problems included replacement of the systems with high efficiency heating boilers designed to integrate space, hot water, ramp, and pool heat. A centralized controller included setback control, trend-following processors, and the isolation of heating equipment. The second case study described an electric-to-gas conversion of a make-up air unit and boiler system at an all-electric apartment building. The system was designed to address excessive air handling and water heating costs. The gas conversion included new heating and hot water boilers, as well as a number of efficiency upgrades. The third and fourth case study described the installation of Novitherm heat reflector panels at apartment buildings in Toronto. The fifth case study described a natural gas conversion project conducted at a luxury condominium. Energy savings for all 5 projects were presented. 9 figs.

  3. Living with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life TIPS To Its Fullest LIVING WITH LOW VISION Savings Medical Bills A VARIETY OF EYE CONDITIONS, ... which occupational therapy practitioners help people with low vision to function at the highest possible level. • Prevent ...

  4. Living with Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epidemic Larger than Estimated, American Lung Association Continues Tradition of Funding Research to Investigate TB, Save Lives ... Member Center | RSS | Terms Of Use | Privacy Our Family Of Sites nonprofit software Join the fight for ...

  5. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. Methods We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Results The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67). Conclusions These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease. PMID:27814374

  6. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000's: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV's unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34-1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59-2.67). These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease.

  7. Increased cancer incidence of Changhua residents living in Taisi Village north to the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Fang; Chio, Chia-Pin; Yuan, Tzu-Hsuen; Yeh, Yen-Po; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2018-01-29

    Cancer risks of residents living north to the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex has not been studied before. Our study subjects were recruited in 2014-16 from three zones north to the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex, which included 229 participants from the Taisi Village (average 5.5 km from the complex), 1333 participants from the other 14 villages in Dacheng Township (9.2 km), and 372 participants from the Zhutang Township (19.9 km). Their occurrence of cancer in years-post-complex-operation (YPO) was defined by having a new cancer recorded (ICD-9: 140-208) in National Health Insurance Research Database since 1999. Poisson regression was conducted to compare incidence rate ratio among three zones in 10-16 YPO. We found that all-cause cancer incidence of 10-16 YPO (per 1,000 person-years) in Taisi Village (8.44) was higher than that in Dacheng (3.42) and Zhutang (2.72). Taisi residents had significantly higher concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, and Tl than Dacheng and Zhutang residents. The all-cause cancer incidence rate ratio between 10-16 and 0-9 YPO was 8.44 for Taisi residents. All-cause cancer incidence rate of Taisi residents was 2.55 times higher than Dacheng residents (95% CI: 1.89-3.45) and 2.43 times higher than Zhutang residents (95% CI: 1.54-3.84) in 10-16 YPO. We conclude that all-cause cancer risk was significantly increased for Taisi residents living near the No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Complex for 10-16 years after the complex began operating. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Energy efficiency: Building labels lead to savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Various programmes have been introduced to increase energy efficiency in buildings. A study of commercial buildings in Los Angeles, USA, now finds that voluntary certification programmes have been effective at lowering energy use, bringing savings of up to 30%.

  9. A natural antipredation experiment: predator control and reduced sea ice increases colony size in a long-lived duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moe, Børge; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Hanssen, Frank; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2013-09-01

    Anthropogenic impact on the environment and wildlife are multifaceted and far-reaching. On a smaller scale, controlling for predators has been increasing the yield from local natural prey resources. Globally, human-induced global warming is expected to impose severe negative effects on ecosystems, an effect that is expected to be even more pronounced in the scarcely populated northern latitudes. The clearest indication of a changing Arctic climate is an increase in both air and ocean temperatures leading to reduced sea ice distribution. Population viability is for long-lived species dependent on adult survival and recruitment. Predation is the main mortality cause in many bird populations, and egg predation is considered the main cause of reproductive failure in many birds. To assess the effect of predation and climate, we compared population time series from a natural experiment where a trapper/down collector has been licensed to actively protect breeding common eiders Somateria mollissima (a large seaduck) by shooting/chasing egg predators, with time series from another eider colony located within a nature reserve with no manipulation of egg predators. We found that actively limiting predator activity led to an increase in the population growth rate and carrying capacity with a factor of 3-4 compared to that found in the control population. We also found that population numbers were higher in years with reduced concentration of spring sea ice. We conclude that there was a large positive impact of human limitation of egg predators, and that this lead to higher population growth rate and a large increase in size of the breeding colony. We also report a positive effect of warming climate in the high arctic as reduced sea-ice concentrations was associated with higher numbers of breeding birds.

  10. Increasing distance from California bay laurel reduces the risk and severity of Phytophthora ramorum canker in coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt

    2008-01-01

    Foliar infections in California bay (Umbellularia californica) are the most important known source of inoculum contributing to Phytophthora ramorum canker in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia). This research addressed the question whether there is a ?safe? distance between California bay and coast live oak beyond...

  11. 10 CFR 436.21 - Savings-to-investment ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings-to-investment ratio. 436.21 Section 436.21 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.21 Savings-to-investment ratio. The savings-to-investment ratio... conservation measure. The denominator of the ratio is the present value of the net increase in investment and...

  12. The Saving Behaviour of a Two Person Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The facts that wives are typically younger than their husbands and that women typically live longer than men imply that wives may have more incentive to save for old age than do husbands. A theoretical model of the determination of household saving and portfolio choice is introduced which takes...... into account differences in preferences for saving. The most important result is that the level and the composition (portfolio) of saving and the time path of consumption are dependent on the distribution of income within the household...

  13. Increasing fluid intake and reducing dehydration risk in older people living in long-term care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Diane; Jimoh, Florence; Wilsher, Stephanie Howard; Hooper, Lee

    2015-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of interventions and environmental factors on increasing fluid intake or reducing dehydration risk in older people living in long-term care facilities. Systematic review of intervention and observational studies. Thirteen electronic databases were searched from inception until September 2013 in all languages. References of included papers and reviews were checked. Intervention and observational studies investigating modifiable factors to increase fluid intake and/or reduce dehydration risk in older people (≥65 years) living in long-term care facilities who could drink orally. Two reviewers independently screened, selected, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias from included studies; narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 4328 titles and abstracts were identified, 325 full-text articles were obtained and 23 were included in the review. Nineteen intervention and 4 observational studies from 7 countries investigated factors at the resident, institutional, or policy level. Overall, the studies were at high risk of bias due to selection and attrition bias and lack of valid outcome measures of fluid intake and dehydration assessment. Reported findings from 6 of the 9 intervention studies investigating the effect of multicomponent strategies on fluid intake or dehydration described a positive effect. Components included greater choice and availability of beverages, increased staff awareness, and increased staff assistance with drinking and toileting. Implementation of the US Resident Assessment Instrument reduced dehydration prevalence from 3% to 1%, P = .01. Two smaller studies reported positive effects: one on fluid intake in 9 men with Alzheimer disease using high-contrast red cups, the other involved supplementing 13 mildly dehydrated residents with oral hydration solution over 5 days to reduce dehydration. Modifications to the dining environment, advice to residents, presentation of beverages, and mode of delivery (straw vs beaker

  14. Risk transfer via energy savings insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-10-01

    Among the key barriers to investment in energy efficiency improvements are uncertainties about attaining projected energy savings and apprehension about potential disputes over these savings. The fields of energy management and risk management are thus intertwined. While many technical methods have emerged to manage performance risks (e.g. building commissioning), financial risk transfer techniques are less developed in the energy management arena than in other more mature segments of the economy. Energy Savings Insurance (ESI) - formal insurance of predicted energy savings - is one method of transferring financial risks away from the facility owner or energy services contractor. ESI offers a number of significant advantages over other forms of financial risk transfer, e.g. savings guarantees or performance bonds. ESI providers manage risk via pre-construction design review as well as post-construction commissioning and measurement and verification of savings. We found that the two mos t common criticisms of ESI - excessive pricing and onerous exclusions - are not born out in practice. In fact, if properly applied, ESI can potentially reduce the net cost of energy savings projects by reducing the interest rates charged by lenders, and by increasing the level of savings through quality control. Debt service can also be ensured by matching loan payments to projected energy savings while designing the insurance mechanism so that payments are made by the insurer in the event of a savings shortfall. We estimate the U.S. ESI market potential of $875 million/year in premium income. From an energy-policy perspective, ESI offers a number of potential benefits: ESI transfers performance risk from the balance sheet of the entity implementing the energy savings project, thereby freeing up capital otherwise needed to ''self-insure'' the savings. ESI reduces barriers to market entry of smaller energy services firms who do not have sufficiently strong balance

  15. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2012: another increase in experimentation - genetically-altered animals dominate again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2012 reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with just over 4.1 million procedures being started in that year. Despite the previous year's indication that the dominance of the production and use of genetically-altered (GA, i.e. genetically-modified animals plus animals with harmful genetic defects) animal might be abating, it returned with a vengeance in 2012. Breeding increased from 43% to 48% of all procedures, and GA animals were involved in 59% of all the procedures. Indeed, if the breeding of these animals were removed from the statistics, the total number of procedures would actually decline by 2%. In order to honour their pledge to reduce animal use in science, the Coalition Government will have to address this issue. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. 2013 FRAME.

  16. Vestigial mutants of Drosophila melanogaster live better in the presence of aminopterin: increased level of dihydrofolate reductase in a mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, J; Bazin, C; Le Menn, A

    1989-09-01

    Vestigial (vg) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster are characterized by atrophied wings. In this paper we show that: (1) aminopterin an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR), an inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase induce nicks in the wings of wild-type flies and phenocopies of the vg mutant phenotype when vg/+ and vgB/+ flies are reared on these substances (vgB is a deficiency of the vg locus). Only thymidine and thymidylate can rescue the flies from the effect of aminopterin. We propose that the vg phenotype is due to a decrease in the dTMP pool in the wings. (2) Mutant vg strains yield more offspring on medium containing aminopterin than on normal medium. The resistance of vg larvae to the inhibitor seems specific to the gene. This is the first case of aminopterin resistance in living eucaryotes. In contrast sensitivity of the vg larvae to FUdR is observed. (3) An increase in the activity and amount of DHFR is observed in mutant strains as compared with the wild-type flies. Our data suggest that the vg+ gene is a regulatory gene acting on the DHFR gene or a structural gene involved in the same metabolic pathway.

  17. Trade-off mediated effects on the genetics of human survival caused by increasingly benign living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenos, Fotios; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2006-08-01

    It is sometimes suggested that modern life, with its planned fertility and medically assisted compensation for genetic disadvantage, has greatly reduced the power of natural selection to produce significant further human evolution. However, this overlooks the very recent and dramatic changes that have occurred in the patterns of human mortality, driven by the development of increasingly benign living conditions. Where the genetics of survival are significantly influenced by life history trade-offs, as is now thought to be the case for ageing and longevity, a change in the environment can shift the optimal balance that was established through natural selection under previous conditions. We examine this possibility in the context of the dramatic recent change in the mortality pressure exerted by infectious disease using a model of a hypothetical immunogenetic trade-off that weighs survival against fecundity. Our results predict that such a change might have a significant effect on population genetics over relatively short-timescales, and they may also resolve the paradox of genes that impair fertility in present-day populations by showing how such genes might be a legacy from a powerful trade-off that has acted until very recently.

  18. Single-living is associated with increased risk of long-term mortality among employed patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Erland; Mard, Shan

    2010-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the impact of social support on adverse outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the relation between single-living and long-term all-cause mortality after MI....

  19. IRA's for College Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michael S.; Byce, Charles R.

    This paper analyzes the merits of proposals to encourage saving for college by permitting families to use funds accumulated in Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA's) to pay postsecondary education expenses. The paper argues that tax treatment of such expenditures might parallel that for expenditures of IRA's for retirement purposes--deferring tax…

  20. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  1. New Savings through Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battise, Laura

    2011-01-01

    After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…

  2. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  3. Prolonged Living as a Refugee from the Area Around a Stricken Nuclear Power Plant Increases the Risk of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although it is well known that the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011) resulted in a large number of disaster-related deaths, it is not common knowledge that the number of disaster-related deaths continues to increase, even four years after the earthquake, in Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear power plant accident occurred. There has been a lack of a minute and critical analysis for the causes for this continuous increase. In this report, the causes for the increase in disaster-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture were analyzed by aggregating and comparing multiple data released by public organizations (the Reconstruction Agency, the National Police Agency, and Fukushima Prefecture), which may also have implications for developing response strategies to other disasters. The disaster-related death rate, the dead or missing rate, and the refugee rate (the number of disaster-related deaths, dead or missing persons, and refugees per 1,000 people) in each prefecture in stricken areas, and also each city, county, town, and village in Fukushima Prefecture, were calculated and compared with each other. The populations which were used for the calculation of each death rate in the area were based on the number of dead victims who had lived in the area when the earthquake occurred, regardless of where they were at the time of their death. The disaster-related death rate was higher than the dead or missing rate in the area around a stricken nuclear power plant in Fukushima Prefecture. These areas coincide exactly with the Areas under Evacuation Orders because of unsafe radiation levels. The external and internal radiation doses of most of the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake have appeared not to be so high to harm their health, until now. The psychological stress associated with being displaced from one's home for a long time with an uncertain future may be the cause for these disaster-related deaths. There is an urgent need to recognize refugees

  4. The spirit of capitalism and savings behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-fu Zou

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a capitalist-spirit model of savings by including wealth in the intertemporal utility function. While this model includes the life-cycle model and bequest model as two special cases, it sheds light on why wealth holding has tended to increase with age, why decumulation of wealth after retirement has not happened, and why households with and without children have not shown significant differences in their savings behavior. The capitalist-spirit approach is especially useful...

  5. A revised activities of daily living/instrumental activities of daily living instrument increases interpretive power: theoretical application for functional tasks exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieo, Robert; Watson, Roger; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2010-01-01

    As the number of adults in older age groups expands, difficulty performing usual activities of daily life is a rising health concern. A common exercise regimen employed to attenuate functional decline and disability has been resistance strength training. However, recent evidence suggests that functional tasks exercise may be more effective in preventing disability. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measures are one of the most widely used tools in gerontology, and yet the full sensitivity of these instruments is often not realized. The purpose of this study is to enhance the interpretive power of ADL by formally confirming a hierarchy of decline, assessing discriminatory power, and examining option characteristic curves. Theoretically, a revised ADL instrument can improve the efficacy of functional tasks training programs. This was a cross-sectional study that employed Item Response Theory (IRT) to interpret ADL outcomes. Participants consisted of community-dwelling older adults (n=548, aged 79) living in Scotland. A Mokken scale with rho=0.77 was obtained, indicating good reliability, and satisfying the IRT assumption that a single unidimensional scale is present. The set H coefficient of 0.48 indicated that the scale may be ordered by decreasing difficulty, with the 'Cut your own toe-nails?' item being the most difficult and 'Tie a good knot in a piece of string?' being the least difficult. Discriminatory and option characteristic parameters revealed 'Get on a bus?' to be the task most closely related to the latent construct and that item options can be used to ascertain critical thresholds for prevention type strategies. Examining parameters relating to difficulty, discriminatory power, and option characteristics facilitated the identification of ADL/Instrumental ADL items that may serve to enhance functional task training in community-dwelling older adults. These analyses demonstrated that functional tasks have differing levels of discriminatory power, and that

  6. Cognitively-Related Basic Activities of Daily Living Impairment Greatly Increases the Risk of Death in Alzheimers Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Chan, Wenyaw; Chen, Ping-Jen; Zimmerman, Carissa; Waring, Stephen; Doody, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Some Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients die without ever developing cognitively impaired basic activities of daily living (basic ADL), which may reflect slower disease progression or better compensatory mechanisms. Although impaired basic ADL is related to disease severity, it may exert an independent risk for death. This study examined the association between impaired basic ADL and survival of AD patients, and proposed a multistate approach for modeling the time to death for patients who demonstrate different patterns of progression of AD that do or do not include basic ADL impairment. 1029 patients with probable AD at the Baylor College of Medicine Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center met the criteria for this study. Two complementary definitions were used to define development of basic ADL impairment using the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale score. A weighted Cox regression model, including a time-dependent covariate (development of basic ADL impairment), and a multistate survival model were applied to examine the effect of basic ADL impairment on survival. As expected decreased ability to perform basic ADL at baseline, age at initial visit, years of education, and sex were all associated with significantly higher mortality risk. In those unimpaired at baseline, the development of basic ADL impairment was also associated with a much greater risk of death (hazard ratios 1.77-4.06) over and above the risk conferred by loss of MMSE points. A multi-state Cox model, controlling for those other variables quantified the substantive increase in hazard ratios for death conferred by the development of basic ADL impairment by two definitions and can be applied to calculate the short term risk of mortality in individual patients. The current study demonstrates that the presence of basic ADL impairment or the development of such impairments are important predictors of death in AD patients, regardless of severity.

  7. Living cellular construct for increasing the width of keratinized gingiva: results from a randomized, within-patient, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd; Nevins, Marc L; Neiva, Rodrigo; Cochran, David L; Mellonig, James T; Giannobile, William V; Bates, Damien

    2011-10-01

    The standard of care for increasing keratinized gingiva adjacent to teeth that do not require root coverage is the free gingival graft (FGG). A pilot study indicated that the use of a living cellular construct (LCC) could be effective in this clinical scenario. A pivotal, multicenter, randomized, within-patient, controlled, open-label trial was conducted (N = 96 patients). After removing the mucosa and keratinized gingiva from the test site, either an LCC or FGG was applied. The primary efficacy endpoint was the ability of the LCC to regenerate ≥2 mm keratinized gingiva at 6 months. Secondary measures were the same color and texture as the adjacent tissue, a 1-mm width of keratinized gingiva at 6 months, patient treatment preference, surgical site sensitivity at 1 week, and patient-reported pain after 3 days. Safety was assessed by reports of adverse events. At 6 months, the LCC regenerated ≥2 mm of keratinized gingiva in 95.3% of patients (81 of 85 patients; P FGG generated more keratinized gingiva than the LCC (4.57 ± 1.0 mm versus 3.2 ± 1.1 mm, respectively). The gingiva regenerated with the LCC matched the color and texture of the adjacent gingiva. All patients achieved ≥1 mm keratinized gingiva with the LCC treatment by 6 months, and more patients preferred treatment with the LCC than with the FGG. No difference in sensitivity or pain was noted between the treatments. The treatments were well tolerated, and reported adverse events were typical for this type of periodontal surgery. The use of an LCC may provide a safe and effective therapy for augmenting the zone of keratinized gingiva.

  8. Single-living is associated with increased risk of long-term mortality among employed patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Erl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Finn Erland Nielsen, Shan MardDepartment of Cardiology S, Herlev University Hospital, DenmarkObjective: There is conflicting evidence about the impact of social support on adverse outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI. We examined the relation between single-living and long-term all-cause mortality after MI.Design: A prospective cohort study of 242 employed patients with MI followed up to 16 years after MI.Results: A total of 106 (43.8% patients died during the follow-up. Single-living nearly doubled the risk of death; after adjusting for potential confounding factors, single-living was an independent predictor of death, with a hazard ratio of 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.52–4.30. Other predictors of death were diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, age, and ejection fraction less than 35%.Conclusion: Single-living is a prognostic determinant of long-term all-cause mortality after MI.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, social support, single-living, prognosis.

  9. The Effect of Providing Peer Information on Retirement Savings Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Milkman, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a field experiment in a 401(k) plan, we measure the effect of disseminating information about peer behavior on savings. Low-saving employees received simplified plan enrollment or contribution increase forms. A randomized subset of forms stated the fraction of age-matched coworkers participating in the plan or age-matched participants contributing at least 6% of pay to the plan. We document an oppositional reaction: the presence of peer information decreased the savings of nonparticipants who were ineligible for 401(k) automatic enrollment, and higher observed peer savings rates also decreased savings. Discouragement from upward social comparisons seems to drive this reaction. PMID:26045629

  10. 'Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it'. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Mutebi, Aloysius; Jane, Pacuto; Tumuhairwe, Juliet; Tetui, Moses; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-08-01

    Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members' access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members' views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically. Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution. Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like 'a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted', as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with non-governmental organizations that can provide support to such groups.

  11. ‘Nurture the sprouting bud; do not uproot it’. Using saving groups to save for maternal and newborn health: lessons from rural Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Muhumuza Kananura, Rornald; Mutebi, Aloysius; Jane, Pacuto; Tumuhairwe, Juliet; Tetui, Moses; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. Objectives: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. Methods: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda. Saving groups were identified and provided with support to enhance members’ access to maternal and newborn health. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 18 key informant interviews (KIIs) were conducted to elicit members’ views about saving practices. Document review was undertaken to identify key lessons for supporting saving groups. Qualitative data are presented thematically. Results: Awareness of the importance of saving, safe custody of money saved, flexible saving arrangements and easy access to loans for personal needs including transport during obstetric emergencies increased willingness to save with saving groups. Saving groups therefore provided a safety net for the poor during emergencies. Poor management of saving groups and detrimental economic practices like gambling constrained saving. Efficient running of saving groups requires that they have a clear management structure, which is legally registered with relevant authorities and that it is governed by a constitution. Conclusions: Saving groups were considered a useful form of saving that enabled easy acess to cash for birth preparedness and transportation during emergencies. They are like ‘a sprouting bud that needs to be nurtured rather than uprooted’, as they appear to have the potential to act as a safety net for poor communities that have no health insurance. Local governments should therefore strengthen the management capacity of saving groups so as to ensure their efficient running through partnerships with

  12. The HIV Anticaptory Saving Motive : An Empirical Analysis in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; van de Kuilen, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on saving behaviour. Two important characteristics of HIV result in opposing forces on savings: mortality increases, which reduces savings, and long-term illness risk increases, which enhances savings. We use a two period life-cycle model with

  13. Genuine savings and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, Nicholas David; Dupuy, Louis Paul; MCLAUGHLIN, Eoin

    2015-01-01

    Genuine Savings has emerged as the leading economic indicator of sustainable economic development at the country level. It derives from the literatures on weak sustainability, wealth accounting and national income accounting. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of GS, focusing on the relationship between changes in a nation's extended capital stock and the future path of consumption. The indicator has entered widespread use propelled by the World Bank's publications, despite its varying ...

  14. Trade-off between increased survival and reduced growth for blue mussels living on Pacific oyster reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschweiler, Nina; Christensen, Helle Torp

    2011-01-01

    22days. Shell growth was significantly reduced for mussels placed on the bottom compared to mussels at the top of an oyster reef. Condition index was lower for mussels on the bottom of the reef irrespective of whether placed between dead or living oysters. We conclude that mussels experience a trade...

  15. Single-living is associated with increased risk of long-term mortality among employed patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Erland; Mard, Shan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is conflicting evidence about the impact of social support on adverse outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We examined the relation between single-living and long-term all-cause mortality after MI. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of 242 employed patients with MI fol...

  16. Will Renewable Energy Save Our Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses some important fundamental issues behind application of renewable energy (RE) to evaluate its impact as a climate change mitigation technology. The discussed issues are the following: definition of renewable energy, concentration of RE by weight and volume, generation of electrical energy and its power at unit area, electrical energy demand per unit area, life time approach vs. layman approach, energy return time, energy return ratio, CO2 return time, energy mix for RES production and use, geographical distribution of RES use, huge scale of energy shift from RES to non-RES, increase in energy consumption, Thermodynamic equilibrium of earth, and probable solutions for energy future of our energy and environmental crisis of today. The future solution (that would enable to human civilization further welfare, and good living, but with lower release of CO2 in atmosphere) may not be only RES. This will rather be an energy mix that may contain nuclear energy, non-nuclear renewable energy, or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration, efficient energy technologies, energy saving, and energy consumption decrease.

  17. Social Capital and Savings Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Khai, Luu Duc

    In this paper, we analyze household savings in rural Vietnam paying particular attention to the factors that determine the proportion of savings held as formal deposits. Our aim is to explore the extent to which social capital can play a role in promoting formal savings behavior. Social capital...

  18. Saving water through global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water

  19. What is the impact of interventions that prevent fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; da Silva, Zilda Pereira; Santos, Patrícia Carla; Raspantini, Priscila Ribeiro; Moura, Barbara Laisa Alves; de Almeida, Marcia Furquim; do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2015-07-23

    There is a global growing trend of preterm births and a decline trend of fetal deaths. Is there an impact of the decline of fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil? The time trends were evaluated by gestational age through exponential regression analysis. Data analyzed included the fetal mortality ratio, proportion of preterm live births, fertility rate of women 35 years and over, prenatal care, mother's education, multiple births and cesarean section deliveries. A survival analysis was carried out for 2000 and 2010. Preterm births showed the highest annual increase (3.2%) in the less than 28 weeks of gestation group and fetal mortality ratio decreased (7.4%) in the same gestational age group. There was an increase of cesarean section births and it was higher in the education (8.8%) and an increased trend in multiple births and fertility rates of women of 35 years and over. The variables were highly correlated to which other over time. In 2000, 8.2% of all pregnancies resulted in preterm births (0.9% in fetal deaths and 7.3% in live births). In 2010, the preterm birth increased to 9.4% (0.8% were preterm fetal deaths and 8.6% preterm live births). The results suggest that 45.2% could be the maximum contribution of successful interventions to prevent a fetal death on the increase in preterm live births. This increasing trend is also related to changes of the women reproductive profile with the change of the women reproductive profile and access to prenatal care.

  20. Children Living near a Sanitary Landfill Have Increased Breath Methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in Their Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Bezerra de Araujo Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher P<0.05 concentrations in those who lived in the slum near the landfill (3.16×107 CFU/g of feces, comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05×106 CFU/g of feces and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93×105 CFU/g of feces. The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  1. The precarious balance between ‘supply’ and ‘demand’ for health care: The increasing global demand for rehabilitation service for individuals living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Hamdan, Elham; Mazeedi, Sabriya Al; Brooks, Dina

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is becoming a critical health concern that affects people living in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been demonstrated to be a clinical and cost-effective approach to minimizing the effects of COPD. Despite global predictions of an increased incidence of COPD, there continues to be an important misalignment between the demand and the supply of PR services. In other words, only a small proportion of individuals with COPD who require, or would benefit from, PR programs are receiving them on the global stage. This issue may be even more pronounced in middle- and low-income countries where the burden of disease is reported to be highest, and where access to health services and trained health professionals appears be to lowest. Given this predicament, we suggest that PR services must be viewed as an effective way in which to generate clinical efficiencies within health systems, and has the potential to relieve pressure on acute care systems. Although implementing PR programs require commitment and financial investment, we argue that such investments would yield important social and aggregated financial cost savings in the long term. PMID:18990966

  2. Locomotive energy savings possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic indicators of electrodynamic braking have not been properly estimated. Vehicles with alternative power trains are transitional stage between development of pollution- free vehicles. According to these aspects the investigation on conventional hybrids drives and their control system is carried out in the article. The equation that allows evaluating effectiveness of regenerative braking for different variants of hybrid drive are given. Presenting different types of locomotive energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking energy any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  3. Water Saving for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  4. The Saving Behaviour of a Two Person Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    and portfolio choice taking into account differences in preferences for saving. The model is a non-cooperative game in which each person can use their own current income to contribute to current (household) consumption or to a range of assets. The results derived are in marked contrast to 'unitary' models......Wives are typically younger than their husbands and women typically live longer than men. These two facts mean that for a typical married couple, wives have more incentive to save for old age than do husbands. This paper presents a theoretical model of the determination of household saving...... of intertemporal allocation that assume a single household utility function and conclude that saving is unaffected by the distribution of income within the household. The most important result is that the level and the composition (portfolio) of savings and the time path of consumption is highly dependent...

  5. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  6. Computer simulation for optimizing windbreak placement to save energy for heating and cooling buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler

    1991-01-01

    Saving energy has recently acquired new importance because of increased concern for dwindling fossil fuel supplies and for the problem of carbon dioxide contributions to global climate change. Many studies have indicated that windbreaks have the ability to save energy for heating buildings. Suggested savings have ranged up 40 percent; though more commonly savings of...

  7. International Comparison of Household Savings Behaviour: The German Savings Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Börsch-Supan

    2002-01-01

    This mea discussion paper presents excerpts of the International Savings Comparison Project covering household savings behaviour in seven countries. The whole series of comparative country studies can be found in a special issue of the journal “Research in Economics†, Volume 55, Number 2, June 2001. The introduction gives an outline of the research program of the project. A project as complex as the International Savings Comparison Project has sparked discussions and controversy. Tullio J...

  8. Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Incentives to Increase the Rate of Organ Donations from the Living: A Moral Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilan, Michael Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the morality of schemes of payment to live donors/sellers of organs for transplantation. Following empirical and historical evidence, it is argued that consent to sell organs is substantially different from consent to ordinary business transactions and that legalization of exchanges of organs with financial benefits deviates significantly from the scope of liberal toleration and liberal conceptions of human rights. Although altruistic giving is commendable, it is immoral for society to benefit from them without conferring to the donors benefits such as health and nursing insurance for life. Non-alienable and non-fungible benefits of this kind are moral as incentives to organ donation/giving. PMID:23908808

  9. Saving environment for human survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N C

    The environmental crisis is complex, requiring many solutions. However, it is the responsibility of the State Government to protect and improve the environment. This can not be accomplished by merely writing legislation but by enforcing measures to save the natural world. The world environmental crisis has resulted in the ubiquitous poverty of developing nations (called the "pollution of poverty"). The growing control of resources has allowed a small consortium of powerful countries the ability to enjoy Earth's resources while other developing countries suffer in the abyss of the crisis. A redistribution of power and resources shared by the entire global community is needed. Although measures such as the Environmental Protection Act of 1986 have begun to set standards for a higher quality of living, not all industries have been regulated by the act, and no effective method of monitoring industrial pollution has been established in India. Factors such as depleting jungles, the squandering of natural resources such as soil, water and air and rapid urbanization have accelerated the need for stronger environmental laws and greater awareness and actions. A philosophy that emphasizes the inter-dependence of man and nature most be adopted globally if the augmenting crisis is to be abated.

  10. 2011 John M. Eisenberg Patient Safety and Quality Awards. The Henry Ford Health System No Harm Campaign: a comprehensive model to reduce harm and save lives. innovation in patient safety and quality at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, William A; Hawkins, Susan; Jordan, Jack; Voutt-Goos, Mary J

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Henry Ford Health System launched its "No Harm Campaign," designed to integrate harm-reduction interventions into a systemwide initiative and, ultimately, to eliminate harm from the health care experience. The No Harm Campaign aims to decrease harm events through enhancing the system's culture of safety by reporting and studying harm events, researching causality, identifying priorities, and redesigning care to eliminate harm. The campaign uses a comprehensive set of 27 measures for harm reduction, covering infection-, medication-, and procedure-related harm, as well as other types of harm, all of which are combined to comprise a unique global harm score. The campaign's objective is to reduce all-cause harm events systemwide by 50% by 2013. A wide range of communication processes, from systemwide leadership retreats to daily e-mail news sent to all employees and physicians, is used to promote the campaign. In addition, the campaign is on the intranet "Knowledge Wall," where monthly dashboards, meeting minutes, and best practices and the work of our teams and collaboratives are documented and shared. From 2008 through 2011, a 31% reduction in harm events and an 18% reduction in inpatient mortality occurred systemwide. Building infrastructure, creating a culture of safety, providing employee training and education, and improving work process design are critical to systemwide implementation of harm-reduction efforts. Key actions for ongoing success focus on leadership, disseminating performance, putting everyone to work, and stealing ideas through national and local collaborations. A financial model was created to assess cost-savings of reducing harm events; early results total nearly $10 million in four years.

  11. Saving water through global trade

    OpenAIRE

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; H. H. G. Savenije

    2005-01-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The report analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been r...

  12. Increasing use of 'party drugs' in people living with HIV on antiretrovirals: a concern for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchi, Margherita; Stuart, David; Castles, Richard; Khoo, Saye; Back, David; Boffito, Marta

    2015-08-24

    Use of 'party drugs', a particular set of recreational drugs used in the context of 'ChemSex', is frequent among MSM living with HIV. A recently published observational study showed that more than half of HIV-infected MSM interviewed reported use of illicit substances in the previous 3 months, with frequent concomitant use of three or more drugs. These substances are a combination of 'club drugs' (methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, benzodiazepine) and drugs that are more specifically used in a sexualized context (methamphetamine, mephedrone, poppers and erectile dysfunction agents). Although formal data on pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions between recreational drugs and antiretroviral agents are lacking, information regarding potentially toxic interactions can be theorized or sometimes conclusions may be drawn from case studies and cohort observational studies. However, the risk of coadministering party drugs and antiretrovirals should not be overestimated. The major risk for a drug-drug interaction is when using ritonavir-boosting or cobicistat-boosting agents, and maybe some nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Knowledge of the metabolic pathways of 'party drugs' may help in advising patients on which illicit substances have a high potential for drug-drug interactions, as this is not the case for all.

  13. Energy savings and comfort changes in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krighaar, M. [COWI (Denmark); Ivanauskas, A. [Klaipedos Energija SPAB (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    This article presents the results from a demonstration project on building installations in the city Klaipeda, Lithuania. The project demonstrates the energy savings and increased comfort level achieved by installation of various energy saving measures and includes a cost benefit analysis. The demonstration area consists of eight typical buildings. The outcome of the project provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results and experience to be transferred to 2,500 buildings in Klaipeda and buildings in Lithuania in general. (au)

  14. Increased dietary protein in the second trimester of gestation increases live weight gain and carcass composition in weaner calves to 6 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Pacheco, G G; Curtain, L D; Rutland, C; Knott, L; Norman, S T; Phillips, N J; Perry, V E A

    2017-06-01

    Genetically similar nulliparous Polled Hereford heifers from a closed pedigree herd were used to evaluate the effects of dietary protein during the first and second trimester of gestation upon foetal, placental and postnatal growth. Heifers were randomly allocated into two groups at 35 days after artificial insemination (35 days post conception (dpc)) to a single bull and fed high (15.7% CP) or low (5.9% CP) protein in the first trimester (T1). At 90 dpc, half of each nutritional treatment group changed to a high- or low-protein diet for the second trimester until 180 dpc (T2). High protein intake in the second trimester increased birth weight in females (P=0.05), but there was no effect of treatment upon birth weight when taken over both sexes. Biparietal diameter was significantly increased by high protein in the second trimester with the effect being greater in the female (P=0.02), but also significant overall (P=0.05). Placental weight was positively correlated with birth weight, fibroblast volume and relative blood vessel volume (Pprotein first trimester treatment group (Pprotein in the second trimester (P=0.06). Calves from heifers fed the high-protein treatment in the second trimester weighed significantly more on all occasions preweaning (at 1 month (P=0.0004), 2 months (P=0.006), 3 months (P=0.002), 4 months (P=0.01), 5 months (P=0.03), 6 months (P=0.001)), and grew at a faster rate over the 6-month period. By 6 months of age, the calves from heifers fed high nutrition in the second trimester weighed 33 kg heavier than those fed the low diet in the second trimester. These results suggest that dietary protein in early pregnancy alters the development of the bovine placenta and calf growth to weaning.

  15. The Effectiveness of Micro-credit Programmes Focusing on Household Income, Expenditure and Savings: Evidence From Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Haque Ariful

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effectiveness of microfinance on household income, expenditure and savings. The survey examined those borrowers who had successfully completed at least three cycles of a loan. A household level survey (N=3000 was carried out to collect information about individuals receiving microcredit from one of the largest NGOs, ASA. The authors employed a multiple regression and discovered that the microcredit programme of ASA has a significant positive impact on household income, expenditures and savings. Moreover, the paper reveals that the level of education plays an important and statistically significant role in increasing the household income, expenditure and savings. Hence, the ASA microcredit programme has a positive impact on reducing poverty in Bangladesh and enhancing the competitiveness of deprived rural and urban households in improving their standard of living.

  16. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    behaviour. The research shows the best solution for each of the climates and compares them with Olgyay´s findings. Finally, for each climate the energy saving potential is defined and then compared to Lechner's conclusions. Defining The Energy Saving Potential of Architectural Design (PDF Download Available......Designers, in response to codes or voluntary " green building " programs, are increasingly concerned with building energy demand reduction, but they are not fully aware of the energy saving potential of architectural design. According to literature, building form, construction and material choices......). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279885641_Defining_The_Energy_Saving_Potential_of_Architectural_Design [accessed Jan 21, 2016]....

  17. Savings education: Learning the value of self-control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Hutton

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a funded school-based allowance and savings program targeted at economically disadvantaged students with poor educational outcomes to help poor children develop less present-biased time preference patterns so as to increase student effort and skills acquisition, avoid the pitfalls that pave the path of adolescence and move from poverty to middle class status as adults. Time orientation is associated with low educational investments, poor educational outcomes, out-of wedlock and teenage childbirth, criminality, and poverty, and nothing better characterizes the role of time preferences in distinguishing socioeconomic classes than attitudes and behavior with respect to money income. In poverty, money income is to be spent whereas in the middle class and the wealthy, money is to be managed and invested and children are taught the value of self-control and delayed gratification through the accumulation, savings and investment of regular allowances. We propose a model program parameterized in a way that children, given complete freedom of choice, should develop more future oriented preferences resulting in greater effort and skills acquisition in school, and the habits of conduct necessary for productive work life. Program cost, which cannot exceed program design, can be reasonably anticipated and is directly related to the benefit - the more that a child saves, the higher the cost, but the more likely that the child has acquired a future time orientation. We present evidence that even if the estimated maximum disbursements occurred and only a minimal percent of participating students changed their lives, the estimated benefits should outweigh disbursement costs.

  18. Increasing Awareness of Practice through Interaction across Communities: The Lived Experiences of a Mathematician and Mathematics Teacher Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiler, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations between mathematicians and mathematics teacher educators are increasingly being expected, and realized, within the context of mathematics teacher education. Most research related to collaborative efforts between members of the mathematics and mathematics education communities has focused on the products, rather than the process of…

  19. Saving gas project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maria Anunciacao S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garantizado, Maria Auxiliadora G. [CONCREMAT Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The work presented was implemented in municipalities around the construction of the pipeline project Urucu-Coari-Manaus, the Engineering / IETEG-IENOR, because of the constant release of workers, consequently the finishing stages of this work and its future completion. The Project aims to guide saving gas with the workforce, their families and communities to the enterprise of small business cooperatives and solidarity within the potential of the site. This project is developed through the workshops: entrepreneur ship, tourism, use, reuse and recycling of products, and hortifruiti culture, agroecology, agribusiness (cooperativism solidarity) and forestry. Its execution took place in two phases, the first called 'pilot' of 12/12/2007 to 27/03/2008 in sections A and B1, in the municipality of Coari stretch and B2 in Caapiranga. The second phase occurred from 30/06 to 27/09/08, in the words B1, in the municipalities of Codajas and Anori words and B2 in Iranduba, Manacapuru and Anama. The workshops were held in state and municipal schools and administered by the Institute of Social and Environmental Amazon - ISAM, which had a team of coordinators, teachers, experts and masters of the time until the nineteen twenty-two hours to implement the project. (author)

  20. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  1. The use of pulsed magnetic fields to increase the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhytchak, M.; Lynnyk, A.; Zablotskii, V.; Dempsey, N. M.; Dias, A. L.; Bonfim, M.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Kubinová, Š.; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.

    2017-12-01

    Remote control of the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with cells is fundamental to any potential downstream applications of magnetic nanoparticles such as gene and drug delivery vehicles and magnetic cell labeling. Thus, approaches based on the application of external magnetic fields to increase the efficiency of magnetic cell labeling are desirable. Here, we report a simple approach that enhances magnetic cell labeling using pulsed magnetic fields. The rate of uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and transport across the cell membrane were enhanced upon application of a high intensity (7 T) short pulse width (˜15 μs) magnetic field. We present a quantitative analysis and mechanistic explanation of how a pulsed magnetic field influences the uptake of SPIONs by cells. Our findings offer insights into the mechanics of how pulsed magnetic fields can be effectively used to optimize magnetic cell labeling, which can provide a basis for better controlled biomedical applications of SPIONs.

  2. Does aircraft noise exposure increase the risk of hypertension in the population living near airports in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Lefèvre, Marie; Champelovier, Patricia; Lambert, Jacques; Laumon, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The largest study until now around 6 major European airports, the HYENA (HYpertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports) study, reported an excess risk of hypertension related to long-term aircraft noise exposure. The DEBATS (Discussion on the health effects of aircraft noise) study investigated the relationship between this exposure and the risk of hypertension in men and in women near French airports. Blood pressure of 1244 participants older than 18 years of age was measured. Information about health, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors was collected by means of a face-to-face questionnaire performed at home by an interviewer. Aircraft noise exposure was assessed for each participant's home address using noise maps. They were calculated with the Integrated Noise Model with a 1 dB(A)-resolution. The major potential confounders being risk factors for hypertension were included in the logistic regression models: age, occupational activity, body mass index, physical activity and alcohol consumption. After adjustment for the main potential confounders, an exposure-response relationship was evidenced between the risk of hypertension and aircraft noise exposure at night for men only. A 10-dB(A) increase in L night was associated with an OR of 1.34 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.97). These findings contribute to the overall evidence suggesting that aircraft noise exposure at night-time may increase the risk of hypertension in men. Hypertension is a well-known and established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association reported in the present study between aircraft noise and hypertension implies that aircraft noise might be a risk factor also for cardiovascular disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  4. Rising HIV notifications in Australia: accounting for the increase in people living with HIV and implications for the HIV transmission rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Samitha; Chen, Marcus Y; Hocking, Jane S; Grulich, Andrew E; Fairley, Christopher K

    2007-03-01

    To describe the changes in notification rates for HIV, as a proportion of people living with HIV infection, in Australia. Notification data on HIV and AIDS-related deaths published by the National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research were obtained and analysed for the period of 1988-2004. The annual HIV notification rate per 100 people living with HIV fell significantly between 1988 and 1999 for all HIV cases and for men who have sex with men (MSM) specifically (P < 0.01). However, although there was an increase in HIV notifications between 2000 and 2004 (P = 0.01 for all HIV cases and P = 0.06 for MSM), the notification rate per 100 people living with HIV remained relatively stable (P = 0.6 for all HIV cases and P = 0.4 for MSM). These data suggest that despite significant rises in notifications for HIV, the effective reproductive rate for HIV has remained relatively stable since 1999.

  5. Social Capital, Network Effects and Savings in Rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    social networks in rural Vietnam can play a role in increasing formal savings where knowledge gaps exist. Networks are defined as active membership of women’s unions and the quality of networks is measured by the level of formal savings observed among group members. We find that membership of high...... quality networks leads to higher levels of saving in formal financial institutions and to higher levels of saving for productive investments as compared with other precautionary or lifecycle motives. Our results suggest that transmitting financial information through formal networks could be effective...... in increasing formal savings at grassroots level. We also conclude that ensuring information disseminated by networks is both accurate and desirable as well as important given that behavioural effects are also found in low-quality networks....

  6. Electromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabi, N; Mobasheri, H; Faraji-Dana, R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultra high frequency (UHF) nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the channel activities of nanopore forming protein, OmpF porin, were investigated. The voltage clamp technique was used to study the single channel activity of the pore in an artificial bilayer in the presence and absence of the electromagnetic fields at 910 to 990 MHz in real time. Channel activity patterns were used to address the effect of EMF on the dynamic, arrangement and dielectric properties of water molecules, as well as on the hydration state and arrangements of side chains lining the channel barrel. Based on the varied voltage sensitivity of the channel at different temperatures in the presence and absence of EMF, the amount of energy transferred to nano-environments of accessible groups was estimated to address the possible thermal effects of EMF. Our results show that the effects of EMF on channel activities are frequency dependent, with a maximum effect at 930 MHz. The frequency of channel gating and the voltage sensitivity is increased when the channel is exposed to EMF, while its conductance remains unchanged at all frequencies applied. We have not identified any changes in the capacitance and permeability of membrane in the presence of EMF. The effect of the EMF irradiated by cell phones is measured by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in artificial model of human head, Phantom. Thus, current approach applied to biological molecules and electrolytes might be considered as complement to evaluate safety of irradiating sources on biological matter at molecular level.

  7. Caffeine increases sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in a free-living population: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Russell S J; Swinburn, Boyd A; Sayompark, Dhoungsiri; Whitelock, Susie; Riddell, Lynn J

    2015-01-28

    Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been associated with overweight and obesity. Caffeine is a common additive to SSB, and through dependence effects, it has the potential to promote the consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The objective of the present study was to assess the influence that caffeine has on the consumption of SSB. Participants (n 99) were blindly assigned to either a caffeinated SSB (C-SSB) or a non-caffeinated SSB (NC-SSB) group. Following randomisation, all participants completed a 9 d flavour-conditioning paradigm. They then completed a 28 d ad libitum intake intervention where they consumed as much or as little of C-SSB or NC-SSB as desired. The amount consumed (ml) was recorded daily, 4 d diet diaries were collected and liking of SSB was assessed at the start and end of the intervention. Participants (n 50) consuming the C-SSB had a daily SSB intake of 419 (sd 298) ml (785 (sd 559) kJ/d) over the 28 d intervention, significantly more than participants (n 49) consuming the NC-SSB (273 (sd 278) ml/d, 512 (sd 521) kJ/d) (P=0.05). However, participants who consumed the C-SSB liked the SSB more than those who consumed the NC-SSB (6.3 v. 6.0 on a nine-point hedonic scale, P= 0.022). The addition of low concentrations of caffeine to the SSB significantly increases the consumption of the SSB. Regulating caffeine as a food additive may be an effective strategy to decrease the consumption of nutrient-poor high-energy foods and beverages.

  8. The Egg or the Chick first; saving or GDP Growth: Case for Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds that a 1% increase in GDP growth rate leads to a 0.5% increase in private saving in the long run which is consistent with the life cycle hypothesis. A striking result in the saving function is the positive effect that population growth rate seems to have on private savings which puts into question the notion of a ...

  9. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  10. Energy saving statutes and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rado, L.

    1981-11-01

    The West German Federal government and the state governments are endeavouring to introduce energy saving measures with the aid of statutes, regulations, and ordinances. In his introductory remarks, the author briefly refers to the various activities since 1974 and on the basis of a 1976 report subjects the present status of statutes and ordinances on energy saving measures to a critical analysis. Special emphasis is placed on the interest of the gas supply industry.

  11. FY 1995 cost savings report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  12. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  13. Long-lived Snell dwarf mice display increased proteostatic mechanisms that are not dependent on decreased mTORC1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua C; Bruns, Danielle R; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Miller, Richard A; Miller, Benjamin F; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-06-01

    Maintaining proteostasis is thought to be a key factor in slowed aging. In several growth-restricted models of long-life, we have shown evidence of increased proteostatic mechanisms, suggesting that proteostasis may be a shared characteristic of slowed aging. The Snell dwarf mouse is generated through the mutation of the Pit-1 locus causing reductions in multiple hormonal growth factors and mTORC1 signaling. Snell dwarfs are one of the longest lived rodent models of slowed aging. We hypothesized that proteostatic mechanisms would be increased in Snell compared to control (Con) as in other models of slowed aging. Using D2O, we simultaneously assessed protein synthesis in multiple subcellular fractions along with DNA synthesis in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver over 2 weeks in both sexes. We also assessed mTORC1-substrate phosphorylation. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis was decreased in all protein fractions of Snell compared to Con, varied by fraction in heart, and was not different between groups in liver. DNA synthesis was lower in Snell skeletal muscle and heart but not in liver when compared to Con. The new protein to new DNA synthesis ratio was increased threefold in Snell skeletal muscle and heart compared to Con. Snell mTORC1-substrate phosphorylation was decreased only in heart and liver. No effect of sex was seen in this study. Together with our previous investigations in long-lived models, we provide evidence further supporting proteostasis as a shared characteristic of slowed aging and show that increased proteostatic mechanisms may not necessarily require a decrease in mTORC1. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Investigating the distribution of the value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the value of travel time savings (VTTS) is investigated employing various nonparametric techniques to a large dataset originating from a stated choice experiment. The data contain choices between a fast and more expensive alternative and a slow and less expensive alternative....... Increasing the implicit price of time leads to an increased share of respondents who decline to pay to save time. But a significant proportion of respondents, 13%, remain willing to pay to save time at the highest price of time in the design. This means that the right tail of the VTTS distribution...

  15. Allergy, living and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; Dahl, R

    2012-01-01

    Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care.......Allergy Living and Learning (ALL) is a European initiative designed to increase knowledge and understanding of people living with allergies in order to improve respiratory allergy care....

  16. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  17. The hospital as business. How saving money can help save lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, J; Garvin, M

    1997-11-01

    As hospitals and clinics merge into integrated delivery networks dependent for patients on health maintenance organizations, it is sometimes hard to remember who's on first. Instead of doctors, nurses, patients and hospitals, the world of health care now contains an alphabet soup of IDNs, HMOs, providers, consumers and payers. The changes extend deeply into the materials management department, where simply bargaining for the best price has been complicated by standardization, capitation, and a host of expense management strategies. Perhaps as a result of this ever-changing identity, most hospitals have yet to fully adopt the style and culture of the businesses they really are. Even purchasing managers, who are closer to the business end of the operation, are caught up in the traditional image. In the following comments, two experts in materials management explore the impact that this ambivalence has on a hospital's relationship with the outside world--including suppliers. Joseph Colonna is corporate vice president of the purchasing program at Shared Services Healthcare, Atlanta. Michael Garvin is an adjunct professor at the University of Iowa, and a researcher in medical supply purchasing practices.

  18. Saving the Plants That Save Lives. SPACHEE/Fiji Department of Forestry Women and Forests Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathy, Kerrie

    1995-01-01

    The South Pacific Action Committee for Human Ecology and Environment (SPACHEE) involved women in experiential workshops to explore forest ecosystems. The first phase focused on the forest environment, the second on documenting and promoting traditional medicine and medicinal plants, valuable local knowledge that can persuade people to protect the…

  19. Saving Lives and Money Two Wheels at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the showroom floor of any dealership. Both services recognize the high risk associated with riding a sport bike, and seek to curtail the accidents...manufacturers are in the business to maximize their profits through the sale of motorcycles. The sport bikes we see today on the showroom floor of any...years. Adding to the aforementioned characteristics, the newest motorcycles on the showroom floor all have the latest technology trickled down from

  20. Saving Lives on the Battlefield (Part 2) - One Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-30

    officers which includes emphasis upon pre-hospital care delivery. Conclusion History teaches that the lessons we have learned regarding combat...Services’ medical departments, and deployed medical personnel minimize use of platelet-inhibiting drugs (e.g. aspirin , Motrin, other COX-1 NSAIDs, SSRIs

  1. Saving children's lives: a communication campaign in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, N

    1985-01-01

    There are 2 features of Egypt's National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project (NCDDP) that are central to its effective management: the NCDDP enjoys a certain degree of autonomy to the extent that it can reach beyond the Ministry of Health to bring in specialists through grants and contracts, and it has the power to manage its own budget and personnel; and the NCDDP is not a group of separate program elements but an integration of elements -- training of health workers; production, distribution, and marketing of oral rehydration salts (ORS); monitoring and evaluation of the project; and education and promotion via television, radio, and other public media. These aspects are all concurrently active, and all are maintained and coordinated through the Secretariat, the technical arm of NCDDP. The goal of the communications element, the focus of this discussion, is to teach, persuade, and change the behaviors of all Egyptian mothers of children under 3 years and other specific target groups, especially health personnel, pharmacists, mass media reporters, and decisionmakers involved with the management of diarrhea and dehydration programs. Data acquired through target audience research provides program planners with the most useful and valid information upon which to build a communication campaign. This holds true whether the activity is to select an appropriate logo to call attention to the campaign or to determine the most effective channels through which to communicate social messages. Regarding the logo, 4 designs were selected from among 10 submitted by independent artists and advertising agencies. Focus groups and brief interviews in public places on these 4 logos were carried out to determine audience response. Questioning the mothers who participated in focus groups helped project staff determine what amount of fluid a mother would find believable to give to a child with diarrhea. In addition, surveys showed that a 200cc packet of salts would be the most practical size for home use. A plastic cup and spoon also were developed for distribution with the packet. Field research showed that mothers favored simples names for the solution that either convey a warm feeling or that describe the purpose of the solution. Television history was made with NCDDP ads. It was the 1st time a famous person was used to deliver a socially-oriented message and only the 2nd time the testimonial format was used on television. Messages were designed as much for medical professionals as for mothers. The success of the NCDDP project in Egypt demonstrates that the mass media can help change behavior but that all other elements of a mass campaign must be equally well planned and coordinated to achieve this success.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Colorectal Cancer Tests Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is right for them. Know their own family history and any personal risks they may have for CRC. Encourage friends and ... Vital Signs Issue details: Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Use — United States, 2012, Morbidity and ...

  3. Early Detection of Viral Hepatitis Can Save Lives - PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    Early detection of viral hepatitis can help prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  4. First-Aid Kits: Stock Supplies That Can Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disposable nonlatex examination gloves, several pairs Duct tape Petroleum jelly or other lubricant Plastic bags, assorted sizes ... Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and aspirin (never give aspirin to children) Hydrocortisone cream Cough ...

  5. Emergency Systems Save Tens of Thousands of Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To improve distress signal communications, NASA pioneered the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system. Since its inception, the international system known as Cospas-Sarsat has resulted in the rescue of more than 30,000 people. Techno-Sciences Inc., of Beltsville, Maryland, has been involved with the ground station component of the system from its earliest days.

  6. The World Health Organization's Clean Hands Save Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwilghen, D.

    2017-01-01

    Even before the discovery of germs, the practice of hand hygiene had revealed itself as a crucial element in the fight against infectious diseases. In fact, supported by the historical discoveries and more recent evidence based data, the World Health Organization considers hand hygiene...... health and integrity as the first principle of good hand hygiene, using decontamination methods and products that are the least harmful to the skin is mandatory. This is why the currently accepted presurgical hand preparation methods do not involve aggressive brushing and disinfecting soaps anymore....... Rather, hands should be washed with a neutral pH friendly soap first before a hydroalcoholic solution is applied. Although the principles and benefits of proper hand hygiene have been recognised in the healthcare world, one of the major drawbacks remains the lack of compliance with established protocols...

  7. Combat Trauma -- Placing Surgeons to Save the Most Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    develop a very close relationship 8 with “their” surgeon. This relationship adds to the separation anxiety of moving the surgeon away from the local...wounding is well established.” 15 University Hospital, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, “The Golden Hour,” http...University Hospital University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. “The Golden Hour.” http://www.theuniversityhospital.com/trauma/gold.htm

  8. Destination: Saving Lives and Providing Hope in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    mission. “My song ‘New Beginning’ is a tribute to those affected by the earthquakes in Haiti and Chile and to those who work every day to try and...bridge. Disaster relief efforts were replicated in Octo- ber 1963 following Hurricane Flora and in August 1964 following Hur- ricane Cleo. From October

  9. Canada Selects African Health Organizations to Help Save the Lives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC-CRDI

    working with policymakers and decision-makers to help make the best health policy decisions, and,. • identifying how nurses, doctors, and other health professionals can better deliver the care that is needed. Global Health Research Initiative. International Development Research Centre. PO Box 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada ...

  10. Domestic embedded reporter program: saving lives and securing tactical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    intimidation or coercion; or (iii) to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination. or kidnapping ; and occur primarily within the...affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, assassination. or kidnapping ; and occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the U.S

  11. CDC Vital Signs-Safer Food Saves Lives

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-03

    This podcast is based on the November 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Contaminated food sent to several states can cause multistate outbreaks of foodborne illness and make a lot of people seriously ill. Learn what can be done to prevent and stop outbreaks.  Created: 11/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/3/2015.

  12. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  13. Building the Social Work Workforce: Saving Lives and Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Briar-Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article depicts a journey over the decades to address some of the needs of children and families in the child welfare system. Recounting a few key milestones and challenges in the past 40 years, it is argued that workforce development is one key to improved outcomes for abused and neglected children and their families. Major events and several turning points are chronicled. Emerging workforce needs in aging are also cited as lessons learned from child welfare have implications for building a gero savvy social work workforce. Funding streams involving IV-E and Medicaid are discussed. It is argued that workforce development can be a life and death issue for some of these most vulnerable populations. Thus, the workforce development agenda must be at the forefront of the social work profession for the 21st century. Key funding streams are needed to foster investments in building and sustaining the social work workforce.

  14. Hand Hygiene Saves Lives: Patient Admission Video (Short Version)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-01

    This podcast is for hospital patients and visitors. It emphasizes two key points to help prevent infections: the importance of practicing hand hygiene while in the hospital, and that it's appropriate to ask or remind healthcare providers to practice hand hygiene.  Created: 5/1/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID).   Date Released: 4/26/2010.

  15. Saving the lives of women, newborns, and children: a formative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite economic growth in Nigeria, maternal and infant mortality rates remain among the highest in the world. Civil society organisations (CSOs) play a critical role in ensuring governmental accountability to fulfil commitments that improve health outcomes for women, newborns, and children. This formative study was ...

  16. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives, Protecting People

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-06-04

    24/7, CDC provides health information, responds to public health emergencies and natural disasters, and monitors disease.  Created: 6/4/2012 by Office of the Associate Director of Communciation (OADC).   Date Released: 6/4/2012.

  17. Suicide in the Fire Service: Saving the Lives of Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Firefighters,” Work & Stress 20, no. 1 (March 2006): 37–48. xvi rise, but PTSD by itself does...Although stress from these issues is not directly related to their work as a firefighter, there may be bleed over, which can add to their stress at work ...off from PTSD and or suicide can reach $2,571 per day. Note that there is not a large difference in wages for the regular -duty firefighter and the

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vital Signs Note: Javascript is disabled or is ...

  19. World Health Organization "SAVE LIVES : Clean Your Hands" global campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, Boudjema; Philippe, Brouqui

    2017-11-03

    Literature is rich on health care contaminated fomites , some with link to multi-drug resistant microorganism hospital acquired outbreaks. While hand hygiene campaign should be part of the multi-drug resistant battle beside antibiotic use, the authors questioned on the role of contaminated fomites. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Studying deaths can save lives | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-19

    Dec 19, 2017 ... But governments and health systems need to improve their understanding of the causes if they are to avoid them. Each death has .... “Our approach is both to address research questions, but also to develop engineering approaches that make it much easier to scale up and sustain the studies.” The results ...

  1. Shock Absorbers Save Structures and Lives during Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With NASA funding, North Tonawanda, New York-based Taylor Devices Inc. developed fluidic shock absorbers to safely remove the fuel and electrical connectors from the space shuttles during launch. The company is now employing the technology as seismic dampers to protect structures from earthquakes. To date, 550 buildings and bridges have the dampers, and not a single one has suffered damage in the wake of an earthquake.

  2. Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin M; McGuinness, Seamus G; Cleary, Eimear; Jefferies, Janis; Owens, Christabel; Kelleher, Cecily C

    2017-04-13

    Background: Suicide is a significant public health concern, which impacts on health outcomes. Few suicide research studies have been interdisciplinary. We combined a psychobiographical autopsy with a visual arts autopsy, in which families donated stories, images and objects associated with the lived life of a loved one lost to suicide. From this interdisciplinary research platform, a mediated exhibition was created ( Lived Lives ) with artist, scientist and families, co-curated by communities, facilitating dialogue, response and public action around suicide prevention. Indigenous ethnic minorities (IEMs) bear a significant increased risk for suicide. Irish Travellers are an IEM with social and cultural parallels with IEMs internationally, experiencing racism, discrimination, and poor health outcomes including elevated suicide rates (SMR 6.6). Methods: An adjusted Lived Lives exhibition, Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective manifested in Pavee Point, the national Traveller and Roma Centre. The project was evaluated by the Travelling Community as to how it related to suicide in their community, how it has shaped their understanding of suicide and its impacts, and its relevance to other socio-cultural contexts, nationally and internationally. The project also obtained feedback from all relevant stakeholders. Evaluation was carried out by an international visual arts research advisor and an independent observer from the field of suicide research. Results: Outputs included an arts-science mediated exhibition with reference to elevated Irish Traveller suicide rates. Digital online learning materials about suicide and its aftermath among Irish Travellers were also produced. The project reached its target audience, with a high level of engagement from members of the Travelling Community. Discussion: The Lived Lives methodology navigated the societal barriers of stigma and silence to foster communication and engagement, working with cultural values, consistent with an adapted

  3. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  4. Pension saving responses to anticipated tax changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Skov, Peer

    2017-01-01

    A Danish tax reform, passed in May 2009 and taking effect from the beginning of 2010, lowered the marginal tax rate on top bracket taxable income from 63% to 56%. Because contributions to pension accounts are tax deductible, the reform provided an incentive to increase pension contributions before...... the change in taxation. Using high frequency panel data, we document a temporary increase in pension contributions in the second half of 2009 in response to the anticipated change in taxation, and that this led to an increase in total savings in this period. The response is driven by less than 5% of those...

  5. The Effect of Generate Argument’ Instruction Model to Increase Reasoning Ability of Seventh Grade Students on Interactions of Living Thing with their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawanti, Y.; Siahaan, P.; Widodo, A.

    2017-02-01

    This study aim to examine the effect of generates an argument instruction model to increase students’ thinking skills, especially reasoning ability in lesson material of interactions of living thing with their environment. The study use weak experimental method with and the design is One-group pretest-posttest design. Sample in this study consists of 34 junior high school students of Seventh Grade in one of the junior high school in Ciamis. The instrument used to collect data is the essay questions of reasoning ability test according to reasoning Marzano’s framework which consist of the eight indicators that are comparing, classifying, induction, deduction, constructing support, analyzing perspectives, analyzing errors, and abstraction. In generally, the results show there is an increase in the students’ reasoning ability is significantly (Sig = 0.000). In addition, an increase in the ability of reasoning also viewed based on gender, and the result show there is not significantly (Sig = 0.168) the difference of reasoning ability between male student and female student. Increasing the ability of reasoning divided into two categories that is middle and low category.

  6. Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

  7. Is living kidney donation the answer to the economic problem of end-stage renal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Gill, John

    2009-09-01

    The escalating number and cost of treating patients with end-stage renal disease is a considerable economic concern for health care systems and societies globally. Compared with dialysis, kidney transplantation leads to improved patient survival and quality of life, as well as cost savings to the health payer. Despite efforts to increase kidney transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to grow. In this article we explore the economic consideration of both living and deceased transplantation. Although living kidney donation has several advantages from an economic perspective, efforts to increase both deceased and living donation are required. Strategies to increase kidney donation are underfunded, and even costly strategies are likely to lead to net health care savings. However, demonstration of efficacy of these strategies is required to ensure efficient use of resources.

  8. Water Saving Strategies & Ecological Modernisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Elle, Morten

    2005-01-01

    -tainable water management. The paper focuses on the experiences from different water saving initiatives carried out since the mid 80s relating them to some central aspects of Ecological Modernisation theories: · Demands for tools and targets · New tasks and roles for suppliers, consumers and stakeholders...... to 125 l/capita/day in 2002. A series of different strategies, targets and tools have been implemented: Emphasizing demand side instead of supply side, using and communicating indicators, formulating goals for reducing water consumption and developing learning processes in water management. A main......Drawing on case studies of water saving campaigns and new collaborations, the pa-per will serve, on the one hand, as an interpretation of the water saving strategy in Co-penhagen in the light of Ecological Modernisation, and on the other hand, as a critical discussion of Ecological Modernisation...

  9. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  10. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a note...

  11. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...... their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm....

  12. Save journalism - to what end?

    OpenAIRE

    Tobie Wiese

    2011-01-01

    I was given a rather sexy heading – 'Forget the rhino, save journalism' – under which to say a few words. I would agree with the assumption that both are under threat, but while most people will have a natural inclination to save an endangered animal I’m not so sure about how many will stand up for the survival of journalism. After all, why do we need journalism? And secondly, it seems to me that much of the woes that journalism is going through at present are self-inflicted.
    It is...

  13. Estimated time of arrival and debiasing the time saving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Gabriella; Patten, Christopher J D; Svenson, Ola; Eriksson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The time saving bias predicts that the time saved when increasing speed from a high speed is overestimated, and underestimated when increasing speed from a slow speed. In a questionnaire, time saving judgements were investigated when information of estimated time to arrival was provided. In an active driving task, an alternative meter indicating the inverted speed was used to debias judgements. The simulated task was to first drive a distance at a given speed, and then drive the same distance again at the speed the driver judged was required to gain exactly 3 min in travel time compared with the first drive. A control group performed the same task with a speedometer and saved less than the targeted 3 min when increasing speed from a high speed, and more than 3 min when increasing from a low speed. Participants in the alternative meter condition were closer to the target. The two studies corroborate a time saving bias and show that biased intuitive judgements can be debiased by displaying the inverted speed. Practitioner Summary: Previous studies have shown a cognitive bias in judgements of the time saved by increasing speed. This simulator study aims to improve driver judgements by introducing a speedometer indicating the inverted speed in active driving. The results show that the bias can be reduced by presenting the inverted speed and this finding can be used when designing in-car information systems.

  14. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor of saving energy in the sphere of housing construction and reducing the energy intensity of the entire Russian economy.

  15. Is the 'Anti-Statin' Trend Threatening Lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167369.html Is the 'Anti-Statin' Trend Threatening Lives? Internet-fueled movement has heart experts concerned about ... drugs that are responsible for saving millions of lives are somehow bad for you." Most side effects ...

  16. Energy Savings in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper outlines the concept of energy savings as opposed to energy efficency. Afterwards are described briefly the up and down role of energy savings in recent Danish energy policy. It discusses the failure of leaving electricity savings and Integrated Resource Planning to the electricity...... and discussed. This finally leads to the difficulties in combining a more free market for energy in EU with a strong efforts to save energy. Ideas for electricity and heat saving policies are suggested....

  17. Replacing single frozen-thawed euploid embryos in a natural cycle in ovulatory women may increase live birth rates compared to medicated cycles in anovulatory women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alexis P; Setton, Robert; Stone, Logan D; Pereira, Nigel; Xu, Kangpu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes between natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in ovulatory women and programmed FET cycles in anovulatory women after undergoing in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening (IVF-PGS). This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an academic medical center. Patients undergoing single FET IVF-PGS cycles between October 2011 and December 2014 were included. Patients were stratified by type of endometrial replacement: programmed cycles with estrogen/progesterone replacement and natural cycles. IVF-PGS with 24-chromosome screening was performed on all included patients. Those patients with euploid embryos had single embryo transfer in a subsequent FET. The primary study outcome was live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included implantation, biochemical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. One hundred thirteen cycles met inclusion criteria: 65 natural cycles and 48 programmed cycles. The programmed FET group was younger (35.9 ± 4.5 vs. 37.5 ± 3.7, P = 0.03) and had a higher AMH (3.95 ± 4.2 vs. 2.37 ± 2.4, P = 0.045). The groups were similar for BMI, gravidity, parity, history of uterine surgery, and incidence of Asherman's syndrome. There was also no difference in embryo grade at biopsy or transfer, and proportion of day 5 and day 6 transfers. Implantation rates were higher in the natural FET group (0.66 ± 0.48 vs. 0.44 ± 0.50, P = 0.02). There was no difference in the rates of biochemical pregnancy or miscarriage. After controlling for age, live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate was higher in natural FETs with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.68 (95% CI 1.22-5.87). Natural FET in ovulatory women after IVF-PGS is associated with increased implantation and live birth rates compared to programmed FET in anovulatory women. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these findings hold true in other patient cohorts.

  18. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness contributes to increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian compared with European men living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouri, N; Purves, D; McConnachie, A; Wilson, J; Gill, J M R; Sattar, N

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which increased insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in South Asian men, compared with white European men, living in the UK, was due to lower cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake [VO(2max)]) and physical activity. One hundred South Asian and 100 age- and BMI-matched European men without diagnosed diabetes, aged 40-70 years, had fasted blood taken for measurement of glucose concentration, HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), plus other risk factors, and underwent assessment of physical activity (using accelerometry), VO(2max), body size and composition, and demographic and other lifestyle factors. For 13 South Asian and one European man, HbA1c levels were >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol), indicating potential undiagnosed diabetes; these men were excluded from the analyses. Linear regression models were used to determine the extent to which body size and composition, fitness and physical activity variables explained differences in HOMA(IR) and fasting glucose between South Asian and European men. HOMA(IR) and fasting glucose were 67% (p < 0.001) and 3% (p < 0.018) higher, respectively, in South Asians than Europeans. Lower VO(2max), lower physical activity and greater total adiposity in South Asians individually explained 68% (95% CI 45%, 91%), 29% (11%, 46%) and 52% (30%, 80%), respectively, and together explained 83% (50%, 119%) (all p < 0.001) of the ethnic difference in HOMA(IR). Lower VO(2max) and greater total adiposity, respectively, explained 61% (9%, 111%) and 39% (9%, 76%) (combined effect 63% [8%, 115%]; all p < 0.05) of the ethnic difference in fasting glucose. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness is a key factor associated with the excess insulin resistance and fasting glycaemia in middle-aged South Asian, compared with European, men living in the UK.

  19. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  20. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  1. Do the Rich Save More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynan, Karen E.; Skinner, Jonathan; Zeldes, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The question of whether higher-lifetime income households save a larger fraction of their income was the subject of much debate in the 1950s and 1960s, and while not resolved, it remains central to the evaluation of tax and macroeconomic policies. We resolve this longstanding question using new empirical methods applied to the Panel Study of…

  2. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  3. Study on data acquisition system for living environmental information for biofication of living spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Norihisa; Mita, Akira

    2008-03-01

    In Japan's rapidly aging society, the number of elderly people living alone increases every year. Theses elderly people require more and more to maintain as independent a life as possible in their own homes. It is necessary to make living spaces that assist in providing safe and comfortable lives. "Biofication of Living Spaces" is proposed with the concept of creating save and pleasant living environments. It implies learning from biological systems, and applying to living spaces features such as high adaptability and excellent tolerance to environmental changes. As a first step towards realizing "Biofied Spaces", a system for acquisition and storing information must be developed. This system is similar to the five human senses. The information acquired includes environmental information such as temperature, human behavior, psychological state and location of furniture. This study addresses human behavior as it is the most important factor in design of a living space. In the present study, pyroelectric infrared sensors were chosen for human behavior recognition. The pyroelectric infrared sensor is advantageous in that it has no limitation on the number of sensors put in a single space because sensors do not interfere with each other. Wavelet analysis was applied to the output time histories of the pyroelectric infrared sensors. The system successfully classified walking patterns with 99.5% accuracy of walking direction (from right or left) and 85.7% accuracy of distance for 440 patterns pre-learned and an accuracy of over 80% accuracy of walking direction for 720 non-learned patterns.

  4. Energy saving obligations—cutting the Gordian Knot of leverage?

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Clemens; Rosenow, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Giraudet, Louis-Gaëtan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Better leverage of public funding is essential in order to trigger the invest-ment needed for energy efficiency. In times of austerity governments in-creasingly look at policy instruments not funded by public expenditure and Energy Savings Obligations represent one option. Because Energy Savings Obligations are paid for by all energy customers, the degree to which they are able to raise additional private capital for energy efficiency invest-ments is crucial with regar...

  5. Energy-saving measures in multi-storage housing construction

    OpenAIRE

    Мария Дмитриевна Коровина; Полина Сергеевна Барашкова

    2017-01-01

    In this article the main directions of energy saving in multi-storey housing construction and methods for increasing energy efficiency are considered. The main problems of implementing energy-saving measures were touched; the need for their analysis during the development of each construction project with a view to choosing the most effective complex from the energy, economic, ecological and social points of view was justified. It is noted that such an approach can become an important factor ...

  6. Increasing Number and Proportion of Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes among Women Living with HIV in the Ottawa Area: A 20-Year Clinical Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Buchan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence and associated risks with adverse obstetrical outcomes among women living with HIV are not well measured. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate the prevalence and correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes among women with HIV. Methods. This 20-year (1990–2010 clinical case series assessed the prevalence of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV receiving care at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH. General estimating equation modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, while controlling for year of childbirth clustering. Results. At TOH, there were 127 deliveries among 94 women (1990–2010: 22 preterm births, 9 births with low birth weight, 12 births small for gestational age, and 4 stillbirths. Per year, the odds of adverse obstetrical outcomes increased by 15% (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03–1.30. Psychiatric illness (AOR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.12–6.24, teen pregnancy (AOR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.04–1.46, and recent immigrant status (AOR: 7.24, 95% CI: 1.30–40.28 were the strongest correlates of adverse obstetrical outcomes. Conclusions. The increasing number and proportion of adverse obstetrical outcomes among pregnant women with HIV over the past 20 years highlight the need for social supports and maternal and child health interventions, especially among adolescents, new immigrants, and those with a history of mental illness.

  7. ENERGY SAVING MODES DEFINITION OF TRAINS HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kyslyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide search for rational energy consumption depending on the time course of the train. When selecting energy-efficient trajectory of the train and the development of regime charts conducting trains must take into account variables such as: the profile of the site, weight train, locomotive series, etc. When increasing the speed of the growth it occurs the resistance movement, which is proportional to the square of the speed, which leads to higher costs of fuel and energy resources. In contrast, the reduction of costs due to the decrease in speed leads to an increase in travel time of the train, which should be consistent with the timetable and other technical and economic parameters, depending on the speed. The article describes one way to reduce the cost of energy for traction. The aim of the article is to reduce energy consumption by identifying energy-saving control modes. It occurs with the locomotive optimization function of control actions on the running time of the train and the flow of energy in the management of the train from the end of the acceleration to go to the coasts. Methodology. The technique of choice of energy saving path of the train and power control and electric locomotives with electric transmission provides the calculation of multiple paths with variable input data and parameters of the composition of the train situation. The methodology takes into account the uniform mathematical methods of search and parametric optimization. For uniformity of motion needed to slow down the accelerating forces are balanced. Findings. On the basis of calculations of multiple advanced algorithms determine the trajectories of energy-saving trains, built multiparametric locomotive power control function, which can reduce energy consumption by 11 to 13% depending on the weight of the train and the train situation. Originality. The author obtained the energy-saving

  8. SAVING BEHAVIOUR AND DETERMINANTS OF SAVING MOBILIZATION BY RURAL FINANCIAL CO-OPERATORS IN TIGRAI REGION, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebhatu Kifle Tesfamariam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identified and examined saving behaviour and determinants of saving mobiliza-tion by the rural co-operators in Southern Tigrai Ethiopia. The input for the study was ob-tained from randomly selected 120 rural household savers from six purposively selected ru-ral savings and credit cooperatives. The result of the study using least squares method showed that savings mobilized is determined by household annual income, amount of loan borrowed and year of member stay in the cooperative. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving mobilization of coopera-tive members in the study area. Besides, economically feasible cooperative societies in the region should be encouraged among the rural households by supporting them with revolv-ing funds as they are more effective and efficient in mobilizing rural savings and provide collateral plus guarantor-based loans with low default rate. This will enable them to boost up their production output and increase their savings thereby stimulating the rural economy.

  9. Watching Eyes and Living up to Expectations: Unkind, Not Kind, Eyes Increase First Mover Cooperation in a Sequential Prisoner’s Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Pauwels

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Why and when images of watching eyes encourage prosocial behavior is still subject to discussion, and two recent meta-analyses show no effect of watching eyes on generosity. This study aims to discern the effect of watching eyes of different valence on two separate aspects of prosocial behavior, and additionally investigates whether individuals’ social value orientation moderates the effect of eyes. (2 Methods: Individuals take on the role of either a first or second mover in an incentivized, anonymous sequential prisoner’s dilemma (n = 247, a two-person game which separates the need to form expectations about the other player (first mover cooperation, trust from the motive of greed (second mover cooperation, reciprocity. During decision-making, a picture of either kind eyes, unkind eyes, or a control picture is presented above each decision matrix. (3 Results: The results indicate that unkind eyes, and not kind eyes, significantly boost first mover cooperation. In contrast, neither type of eye cues increase second mover cooperation. Social value orientation does not moderate these effects. (4 Conclusions: Thus, the data suggest that the valence of eye cues matters, and we propose that unkind eyes urge first movers to live up to the interaction partner’s expectations.

  10. Early systemic inflammatory response in mice after a single oral gavage with live Escherichia coli is evidenced by increased TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Ana; Jerin, Aleš; Zdovc, Irena; Budefeld, Tomaž; Verstraete, Frank J M; Eržen, Damijan; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Petelin, Milan; Hitti, Tina; Pavlica, Zlatko

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with 10(8) CFU Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and euthanized 2.5, 7, 13 and 25 h post-inoculation. The levels of organ nitric oxide (NO) and plasma endotoxin, TNF-alpha and nitrite/nitrate (NO(x)) were compared to those found in sham-inoculated mice, to evaluate systemic host-response to a low-level oral exposure to Gram-negative bacteria. Organ bacterial culture and immunohistochemistry for iNOS were performed on lungs, liver, kidneys and brain from all mice. Organ NO and plasma TNF-alpha levels were higher in E. coli-inoculated animals, but no differences were detected in plasma endotoxin levels, NO(x) or iNOS immunostaining for any of the animal groups. Single oral gavage with live E. coli stimulates an early systemic immune response in clinically healthy mice as evidenced by increased plasma TNF-alpha and organ NO levels, but bacteremia and endotoxemia are not related to this inflammatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Living alone, obesity, and smoking increase risk for suicide independently of depressive mood findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara; Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Erazo, Natalia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders, particularly with depression. There is insufficient knowledge to what extent sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics contribute to suicide risk. A population-based cohort study on three independent cross-sectional MONICA/KORA Augsburg surveys with 12,888 subjects (6456 men, 6432 women) was followed up on average for 12.0 years. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, chronic disease conditions, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, personality type, and other psychodiagnostic parameters was assessed by standardized interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of relative risks for suicide mortality. Additionally, population-attributable risks were calculated. Within the follow-up period, a total of 1449 persons had died, 38 of them by suicide. Although several variables were associated with increased risk in the basic analyses, only obesity (HR=2.73), smoking (HR=2.23), and living alone (HR=2.19) remained significantly associated with suicide additionally to male sex (HR=3.57) and depressed mood (HR=2.01) in a multivariate analysis. The generalization of our findings to countries with different social, economic or cultural conditions may be questioned. Our findings extend the knowledge about sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors for suicide in the general population: Suicide prevention measures should not consider only subjects with mental disorders but also address other adverse conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. FINANCIAL SITUATION AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS SAVING IN POLISH SOCIETY:EVIDENCE FROM MICRO DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANETA MARIA KŁOPOCKA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Savings of the household sector are undoubtedly very important both in terms of micro- (for the optimum personal finance management and macroeconomics (from the perspective of the economic growth. Furthermore, the major transformation has occurred in the household saving behavior in Poland in recent years. This is due to sharp changes in the functioning of the households in the period of economic transformation and is the result of the global financial and economic crisis. This paper provides empirical evidence of the complex interrelations of income, level of optimism/pessimism, attitudes towards saving and households' consumption–savings decisions. There is a strong income and savings relationship due to the positive income effect on the household saving propensity (through the increased motivation and the long run planning acceptance and the saving ability due to ample satisfaction of household consumption needs. Higher income leads to the self-restraint rejection. The level of household optimism/pessimism exerts a substantial effect on the saving motives and attitudes towards saving. The decreasing expectations leads to the slope of the overall saving motivation. Moreover pessimists seem to reveal the lowest inclination to deliberate saving. Simultaneously, they seem to be most suspicious about the bank loan incurring. The level of optimism is positively associated with both the share of savers and the level of accumulated savings.

  13. Pilot study of a brief intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour and self-identity to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Goyder, Elizabeth; Harris, Peter R; Campbell, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    This study sought to estimate the effects of a novel intervention, compared with usual chlamydia testing promotion, on chlamydia test uptake and intentions among young people living in deprived areas. The intervention was based on the theory of planned behaviour, augmented with self-identity, and targeted the significant predictors of chlamydia testing intentions identified in the previous research. Cluster randomization was used to allocate college tutor groups (intervention n = 10; control n = 11) to the intervention or control group. The sample comprised 253 participants (intervention n = 145, control n = 108). The primary outcome was test offer uptake at the end of the session. Other outcomes measured at immediate follow-up were intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and self-identity. Generalized estimating equations, controlling for cluster effects and sexual activity, found a small but non-significant effect of condition on test offer uptake, OR = 1.65 (95% CI 0.70, 3.88) p = .25, with 57.5% of intervention participants accepting the offer of a test compared with 40.2% of control participants. Using the same analysis procedure, small-to-medium intervention effects were found on other outcome variables, including a significant effect on attitudes towards chlamydia testing, OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.00, 1.87), p = .05. The results provide encouraging initial evidence that this theory-based intervention, targeting the key determinants of chlamydia testing, may help to improve chlamydia testing uptake in a high-risk group. They support the conduct of a larger trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. What is already known on this subject? Young people living in areas of increased socio-economic deprivation have been identified as a high-risk group for chlamydia. Previous research within an extended model of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) found that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and self

  14. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  15. Saving Money and Time with Virtual Server

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 consistently proves to be worth its weight in gold, with new implementations thought up every day. With this product now a free download from Microsoft, scores of new users are able to experience what the power of virtualization can do for their networks. This guide is aimed at network administrators who are interested in ways that Virtual Server 2005 can be implemented in their organizations in order to save money and increase network productivity. It contains information on setting up a virtual network, virtual consolidation, virtual security, virtual honeypo

  16. Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk Hamilton; Michael Clemens

    1999-01-01

    .... After developing the theory of genuine savings-traditional net savings less the value of resource depletion and environmental degradation plus the value of investment in human capital-this article...

  17. The Lively Legs self-management programme increased physical activity and reduced wound days in leg ulcer patients: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Borm, G.F.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Evers, A.W.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Achterberg, T. van

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the effectiveness of the Lively Legs program for promoting adherence with ambulant compression therapy and physical exercise as well as effects on leg ulcer recurrence. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Eleven outpatient clinics for dermatology in the

  18. The payout behaviour of German savings banks

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Our analysis finds that despite the growing number, the majority of savings banks currently do not make any payouts. Furthermore, savings banks distribute only a small part of their net profit to the shareholders. This means that they can still build up capital even if they make payouts. Savings banks also hold significantly more capital than is called for by the regulatory framework. Finally, the regression analysis shows that savings banks that have less capital distribute profits to their ...

  19. Household savings behaviour in crisis times

    OpenAIRE

    Carin van der Cruijsen; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen; Robert Mosch

    2011-01-01

    We analyze whether households' savings behaviour was affected by adverse experiences during the crisis and knowledge about banking supervision. Using a survey among Dutch households, we find that both factors have affected the allocation of savings. Individuals whose bank went bankrupt or received government support during the crisis gather more information about banks and saving instruments and are more likely to have savings at several banks. Respondents with better knowledge about banking ...

  20. How Health Humanities Will Save the Life of the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, the humanities have been shrinking in number of students, percent of faculty, and in number of degrees awarded. Humanities students also earn lower salaries than their STEM-prepared peers. At the same time, the health humanities have been in ascendance over the last fifteen years. The number of majors, minors and certificates has increased 266% in that time frame, attracting large numbers of students and preparing future patients, lay caregivers, and health care providers to interact with a complicated and dehumanized medical system. In 1982, British philosopher and educator Stephen Toulmin declared that medicine saved philosophy from irrelevance and possibly extinction. I propose that the health humanities can serve a similar function to stave off the decline of the broader humanities. The health humanities can (1) model an applied approach for the broader humanities to attract student interest; (2) develop students' capacity for critical reading, writing and reflection about health and medicine in society, practice, and their own lives and (3) inoculate all students against the influence of medicine, whether through preparing pre-health students to navigate the hidden medical curriculum or preparing future patients to navigate the health care system.

  1. Underutilization of aspirin in people living with human immunodeficiency virus at increased risk for acute myocardial infarction: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Pak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: With the increased availability of potent combination antiretroviral therapies, the life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV has greatly increased. This rapid improvement in lifespan has served as a catalyst for a paradigm shift in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care. The focus of HIV care models has transitioned from the sole treatment of acute opportunistic infections to comprehensive management of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. Multiple studies have demonstrated that PLHIV are 50% more likely to develop acute myocardial infarction (AMI, compared to the general population. Cardiovascular risk prevention is becoming an essential component of the overarching HIV treatment plan. Aims: This meta-analysis aims to compare the rate of aspirin use for AMI prevention in indicated patients between PLHIV and general population. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases were used to identify observational cohort trials. Studies were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion criteria. Two separate random-effects meta-analyses' models were performed using the DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value. Meta-regression with study level variables was used to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. The funnel-plot-based trim-and-fill method was applied to detect and adjust for potential publication bias. Statistical tests were two-sided and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 13 studies were included for analysis. In these trials, 30.4% of PLHIV with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD used aspirin for AMI prevention, compared to 36.9% of patients at risk of CHD in the general population. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that aspirin is underutilized in both PLHIV and the general population across broad geographical zones. Aspirin use

  2. 75 FR 9126 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... CFR Part 230 Truth in Savings AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION... amending Regulation DD, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the..., which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The...

  3. 75 FR 31673 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... CFR Part 230 Truth in Savings AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The final rule... adopted a final rule amending Regulation DD, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official...

  4. 75 FR 47173 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA... rule amending part 707, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff... . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Interim Final Rule (Truth in Savings)'' in the e-mail subject line. Fax...

  5. Income inequality, status seeking, and savings rates in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bilson Darku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Canadian provincial-level data and a variant of James uesenberry’s relative income hypothesis proposed by Frank et al. (2010 to examine the relationship between income inequality and savings rates. The theory predicts that increased expenditure of top income earners leads those just below them in the income scale to spend more as well, then the next group also spends more, and so on. This phenomenon is due to people’s status seeking behaviour. Hence, increased income inequality will trigger increases in consumption by individuals in all income groups, which in turn leads to declining personal savings rates. The empirical analysis based on this theory led to some interesting findings. First, at the national level, increased income inequality has a significant negative effect on personal savings rates. At the provincial level, the relationship also emerges in eight of ten provinces. Second, both the national and provincial results imply that growth in per capita income that worsens income inequality impacts negatively on personal savings rates. I interpret the results as evidence that social factors such as status-seeking generate consumption interdependence and are significant determinants of consumption and savings decisions of Canadians.

  6. Increasing Uptake of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infection, and Family Planning Services, and Reducing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Youth Living With HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Burnett-Zieman, Brady; Banura, Cecily; Okal, Jerry; Elang, Margret; Ampwera, Rodgers; Caswell, Georgina; Amanyire, Diana; Alesi, Jacquelyne; Yam, Eileen

    2017-02-01

    To address barriers to care for youth living with HIV (YLHIV), the Link Up project implemented a peer-led intervention model that provided a comprehensive package of HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights services through community-based peer support groups for YLHIV. Peer educators delivered targeted counseling and health education, and referred YLHIV to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and reproductive health services that were available at youth-oriented sexual and reproductive health and rights facilities. At baseline (October to November 2014), 37 peer support groups for YLHIV were established in Luwero and Nakasongola districts. During this same time period, we recruited a cohort of 473 support group members, aged 15-24 years. After a 9-month intervention period (January to September 2015), we completed the end-line survey with 350 members of the original cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis applied to longitudinal data was used to assess changes in key outcomes from baseline to end line. Multivariate analyses showed significant increases at end line, compared with baseline, in self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.8 [1.3-2.6]), comprehensive HIV knowledge [AOR: 1.8 [1.3-2.6]), HIV disclosure (AOR: 1.6 [1.01-2.6]), condom use at last sex (AOR: 1.7 [1.2-2.5]), sexually transmitted infection uptake (AOR: 2.1 [1.5-2.9]), ART uptake (AOR: 2.5 [1.6-4.0]), ART adherence (AOR: 2.5 [1.3-4.9]), CD4 testing (AOR: 2.4 [1.5-3.6]), and current use of a modern contraceptive method (AOR: 1.7 [1.1-2.7]). Link Up's intervention strategy likely contributed to observed increases in self-efficacy, knowledge of HIV, condom use, HIV disclosure ART utilization and adherence, CD4 testing, STI testing uptake, and use of modern family planning methods. This model shows promise and should be adapted for use among YLHIV in similar settings and evaluated further. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. High BMI and male sex as risk factor for increased short-term renal impairment in living kidney donors - Retrospective analysis of 289 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Lukas W; Feka, Joy; Sabler, Philipp; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Susanne; Györi, Georg; Hofmann, Michael; Schwarz, Christoph; Soliman, Thomas; Böhmig, Georg; Kainz, Alexander; Salat, Andreas; Berlakovich, Gabriela A

    2017-10-01

    Kidney transplantation represents the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, nephrectomy bears certain short- as well as long-term risks for the healthy, voluntary donor. As obesity is increasing and is a known risk factor for surgical complications, we wanted to assess the impact of BMI on perioperative complication rates and renal function. We retrospectively assessed patients undergoing living donor kidney nephrectomy at our institution. We identified 289 donors that underwent unilateral nephrectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. Donors were categorized according to their BMI (BMI BMI ≥25/BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Where indicated, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups, a stepwise linear regression model was used to assess impact of BMI on the change of eGFR. 126 donors (43.6%) had a BMI BMI ≥25/BMI ≥30. BMI had no statistically significant influence on the percentage of laparoscopic approach (86.5% vs. 83.3% vs. 88.4%, p = 0.6564), on conversion rates (0% vs. 2.0% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.2879) or postoperative complication rates defined as Clavien Dindo ≥ II (8.7% vs. 13.3% vs. 14.0%, respectively; p = 0.4474). Notably, there were no Grade III or higher complications in any group. There was no difference in pre-operative kidney function, postoperative surgical site infection or systemic infection. BMI and male sex had a statistically significant influence on short-term decline of eGFR. Obese donors do not suffer from an increased risk of intraoperative or perioperative complication rates. However, male sex and high BMI are associated with a more pronounced short-term decline in renal function. The impact of BMI on long-term consequences for kidney donors needs to be defined in larger prospective cohorts. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 77 FR 20123 - Fee Change for Paying Agents Redeeming Definitive Savings Bonds and Savings Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Fiscal Service Fee Change for Paying Agents Redeeming Definitive Savings Bonds and Savings Notes AGENCY..., the Department of the Treasury will no longer pay fees to paying agents for redeeming definitive savings bonds and savings notes. The purpose of this change is to reduce Treasury's program costs. DATES...

  9. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies. 562.4 Section 562.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATORY REPORTING STANDARDS § 562.4 Audit of savings associations and savings...

  10. 76 FR 31680 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and.... Title of Proposal: General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan..., federal stock associations), 12 CFR 545.96(c) (agency business records, Federal stock associations), 12...

  11. Connecting possibilistic prudence and optimal saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Lucia Casademunt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the optimal saving problem in the framework of possibility theory. The notion of possibilistic precautionary saving is introduced as a measure of the way the presence of possibilistic risk (represented by a fuzzy number influences a consumer in establishing the level of optimal saving. The notion of prudence of an agent in the face of possibilistic risk is defined and the equivalence between the prudence condition and a positive possibilistic precautionary saving is proved. Some relations between possibilistic risk aversion, prudence and possibilistic precautionary saving were established.

  12. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  13. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  14. Active vs. Passive Decisions and Crowdout in Retirement Savings Accounts: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien; Leth-Petersen, Søren; Chetty, Raj

    2012-01-01

    's impact on total savings depends critically on whether it changes savings rates by active or passive choice. Tax subsidies, which rely upon individuals to take an action to raise savings, have small impacts on total wealth. We estimate that each $1 of tax expenditure on subsidies increases total saving...... by 1 cent. In contrast, policies that raise savings automatically even if individuals take no action – such as employer-provided pensions or automatic contributions to retirement accounts – increase wealth accumulation substantially. Price subsidies only affect the behavior of active savers who respond...... to incentives, whereas automatic contributions increase savings of passive individuals who do not reoptimize. We estimate that 85% of individuals are passive savers. The 15% of active savers who respond to price subsidies do so primarily by shifting assets across accounts rather than reducing consumption...

  15. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide room, board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by the sponsoring family or other paid caregivers, who usually live on ...

  16. Techniques for Daily Living: Curriculum Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others

    Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for daily living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what daily living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…

  17. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hostick, C.J. [IBP, Inc., Pasco, WA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region.

  18. Savings in acute care costs if all older adults treated for fall-related injuries completed matter of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Jonathan; Shankar, Kalpana Narayan; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Alyssa A

    Falls among older adults are a common and serious public health problem. Evidence-based fall prevention programs delivered in community settings and targeting older adults living independently are increasingly deployed throughout the nation. These programs tend to be offered by public and private organizations that serve older adults, and recruitment usually occurs through direct marketing to the target population, rather than through referrals from healthcare providers. Matter of Balance, a program developed to reduce fear of falling and associated activity restriction in community-dwelling older adults, is currently being delivered in 38 of the 50 United States. In this study, we estimate the one-year medical care cost savings if older adults treated at Massachusetts hospitals for fall-related injuries were referred by healthcare providers to participate in Matter of Balance. Data from several sources were used for this study. We estimated annual cost savings in older adult falls recidivism for a hypothetical 100 patients presenting at an emergency department for a fall-related injury, assuming that all were referred to, and 50 % completed, Matter of Balance. This cost-saving estimate was subsequently expanded based on the actual number (43,931) of older adult patients presenting at, and discharged from Massachusetts emergency departments for all fall-related injuries in 2012. Cost savings were calculated for two additional participation rates: 25 % and 75 %. The return on investment (ROI), was calculated based on the percentage of return per each dollar invested. The calculated ROI for Matter of Balance was 144 %. Statewide savings ranged from $2.79 million assuming a 25 % participation rate to $8.37 million, assuming a 75 % participation rate. Referral to evidence-based falls prevention programs of older adult patients presenting at EDs with a fall-related injury could reduce subsequent falls and associated treatment costs.

  19. On harm thresholds and living organ donation: must the living donor benefit, on balance, from his donation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nicola Jane

    2017-05-19

    For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner. (3) Donation is not liable to cause significant and long-term morbidity to, or the death of, the donor. This paper critically examines the suggestion that these criteria are not sufficient to offer a general account of justified living organ donation in the context of competent volunteers and that key to justified living organ donation is that donors receive sufficient benefits from their donation that these outweigh the harms they suffer. However, although this view-termed here 'The Donor Benefit Standard'-directs welcome attention to the many and complex motives which may underlie living organ donation, this paper ultimately concludes that given the threats this position poses to individual autonomy and the lives of those in need of organ transplants 'The Donor Benefit Standard' should ultimately be rejected.

  20. Analysis of the Precautionary Saving Motive Based on a Subjective Measure : (SAVE 2005-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelmeyer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the precautionary saving motive for households’ saving behaviour is unquestioned in the literature of the last two decades. However, the magnitude of precautionary savings and its influencing factors could not be satisfactorily determined. A subjective measure of the desired amount of precautionary savings in the German SAVE study 2005-2007 allows for the evaluation of these questions on a new basis without relying on a specific definition of wealth. This study supports the ...

  1. The risk of divorce and household saving behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad González Luna; Berkay Özcan

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the impact of an increase in the risk of divorce on the saving behaviour of married couples. From a theoretical perspective, the expected sign of the effect is ambiguous. We take advantage of the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous increase in the likelihood of marital dissolution. We analyze the saving behaviour over time of couples who were married before the law was passed. We propose a difference-in-differences approach where we use as comparison groups e...

  2. A Social Constructionist Inquiry Study on the Lived Experiences of Educators with Dyslexia Overcoming Workplace Barriers and Increasing Their Capacity for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research is to journey the lives of educators with dyslexia growing up as K-12 students, working in the K-12 educational environment, and the means by which those educators overcome workplace barriers as analyzed by three guidelines under the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principle, multiple means of…

  3. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  4. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H S; Wu, F; Aghai, Z

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown...

  5. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  6. What price commitment: what benefit? The cost of a saved life in a developing level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, Michael F; Bard, Michael R; Sagraves, Scott G; Toschlog, Eric A; Schenarts, Paul J; Goettler, Claudia E; Newell, Mark A; Robertson, Matthew J

    2009-11-01

    In 1999, a Level I Trauma Center committed significant resources for development, recruitment of trauma surgeons, and call pay for subspecialists. Although this approach has sparked a national ethical debate, little has been published investigating efficacy. This study examines the price of commitment and outcomes at a Level I Trauma Center. Direct personnel costs including salary, call pay, and personnel expenses were analyzed against outcomes for two periods defined as PRE (1994-1999) and POST (2000-2005). Patient care costs and 1999 to 2000 transition data were excluded. Demographics, outcomes, and direct personnel costs were compared. Significant mortality reductions stratified by age and injury severity score (ISS) were used to calculate lives saved in relation to direct personnel costs. Student's t test and chi were used (significance *p gender (62.4% vs. 63.7% male), mechanism of injury (11.5% vs. 11.8% penetrating), and percent intensive care unit admissions (30.1 vs. 29.9). Significant differences were noted for ISS (10.5 +/- 9.7 vs. 11.6 +/- 10.1*), percent admissions with ISS >or=16 (18.5 vs. 27.3*), and revised trauma score (10.8 +/- 2.8 vs. 10.7 +/- 2.8*). Both the average length of stay (6.8 +/- 8.8 vs. 6.5 +/- 9.8*) and percent mortality for ISS >or=16 (23 vs. 17*) were reduced. When mortality was stratified by both age and ISS, significant reductions were noted and a total of 173 lives were saved as a result. However, direct personnel costs increased from $7.6 million to $22.7 million. When cost is allocated to lives saved; the cost of a saved life was more than $87,000. Resources for program development, including salary and call pay, significantly reduced mortality. Price of commitment: $3 million per year. The cost of a saved life: $87,000. The benefit: 173 surviving patients who would otherwise be dead.

  7. Relationship Between Timing of Multiple Retention Bonuses and the Quality of Officers Retained on the Cost Savings for the Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    BETWEEN TIMING OF MULTIPLE RETENTION BONUSES AND THE QUALITY OF OFFICERS RETAINED ON THE COST SAVINGS FOR THE NAVY by Marley E. Cassels...RETENTION BONUSES AND THE QUALITY OF OFFICERS RETAINED ON THE COST SAVINGS FOR THE NAVY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Marley E. Cassels 7...objectives and providing cost savings. We found that a quality auction system could provide cost savings as much as $1,850,000 or could increase costs by

  8. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...... only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  9. "Saving Lives; Living the Dream": Gender and Emotional Labor Among Ambulance-Based 911 Paramedics

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Megan Bethany

    2016-01-01

    This project examines intersections of work, gender, and emotional labor among paramedics in Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Ethnographic research on gender and work analyzes labor through pre-gendered lenses: occupations are either masculinized or feminized, and the people who work those jobs are either in gender-matched occupations, or they are crossing over into occupations that have not traditionally been associated with their gender. EMS is a unique case in which workers are required t...

  10. Psychological determinants of household saving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nyhus, Ellen Katrine

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of a study that examined the impact of psychological variables on household saving and borrowing behaviour. Understanding saving behaviour is important for policy makers and financial institutions, but a comprehensive explanatory model that can explain individual differences in saving does not yet exist. The aim of this research has been to contribute towards the construction of such a model. The study was designed to answer four research q...

  11. Energy-Saving in Brew-Rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ulyanau

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates dynamics of rectification process on one plate of a column. The basic channels controlling brew-rectification process are described in the paper.The paper also considers problems pertaining to synthesis of an adaptive system that controls non-stationary objects with delay. Synthesis of adaptive systems that automatically control product quality and saving on power resources and productivity with the help of the second method of Lyapunov has been carried out in the paper.Industrial introduction of the given automatic control system of technological process shall permit to increase productivity of a rectification (10–15 %, to decrease specific power consumption by (5–10 % while preserving the specified quality of rectified ethyl alcohol and decrease alcohol losses with luting water and malt-residue.

  12. Saving orphan drug legislations: misconceptions and clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyry, Hanna I; Cox, Timothy M; Roos, Jonathan C P

    2016-01-01

    Orphan-drug sales are rocketing, with revenue expected to total $176 billion annually by 2020. As a share of the industry, orphan drugs now account for close to 15% of all prescription revenue globally (excluding generics) and the sector is set to grow at more than twice the rate (10.5%) of the overall prescription market (4.3%). But this success also equates to costs--borne by individual patients and cash-strapped health systems. Prices for orphan drugs can be 19 times higher than for other medications, hampering access for patients, many of whom are children. With ever more such expensive drugs reaching the market, the situation is becoming unsustainable and putting the survival of the orphan drug legislation itself at risk. Here the authors consider why there has been an increase in orphan drug designations, how orphan drug prices are set and regulated, before discussing proposals for how changes which could save the legislation.

  13. Aging, Saving, and Public Pensions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Horioka, Charles Yuji; Suzuki, Wataru; Hatta, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of population aging on Japan's household saving rate and on its public pension system and the impact of that system on Japan's household saving rate and obtain the following results: first, the age structure of Japan's population can explain the level of, and past and future trends in, its household saving rate; second, the rapid aging of Japan's population is causing Japan's household saving rate to decline and this decline can be expected to continue; third, the pay-as...

  14. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving...

  15. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, PA

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, the integration of wind power is affected by a large amount of cogeneration of heat and power. With ancillary services supplied by large-scale condensation and combined heat and power (CHP) plants, a certain degree of large-scale generation is required regardless of momentary wind input....... A lowered district heating demand and thereby lowered CHP-bound electricity generation would appear to increase the possibility of integration wind power but due to the ancillary services supplied by CHP plants, the situation is in fact the opposite. Heat savings may not be technically feasible......, if a certain production is required regardless of whether over-all electricity generation is sufficient. This article analyses this and although heat savings do have a negative impact on the amount of wind power the system may integrate a given moment in certain cases, associated fuel savings are notable...

  16. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In this study the influence of the personalized supply air temperature control strategy on energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of a personalized ventilation system have been investigated by means of simulations with IDA-ICE software. GenOpt software was used to determine the optimal...... supply air temperature. The simulated office room was located in a cold climate. The results reveal that the supply air temperature control strategy has a marked influence on energy consumption. The energy consumption with personalized ventilation may increase substantially (in the range: 61......–268%) compared to mixing ventilation alone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. The results show that the best supply air temperature control strategy is to provide air constantly at 20 °C. The most effective way of saving energy with personalized ventilation is to extend the upper room operative...

  17. Can private obstetric care be saved in South Africa? | Howarth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the question of whether private obstetric care in South Africa (SA) can be saved in view of the escalation in medical and legal costs brought about by a dramatic increase in medical negligence litigation. This question is assessed with reference to applicable medical and legal approaches. The crux of ...

  18. causal links among saving, investment and growth and determinants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    INF. Inflation rate. - (An increase in inflation rate reduces real interest rate and thus, reduces saving as people tend to diversify risks by spending on real assets than depositing money in the bank). LUSFC. Log of Final. Consumption values of the. United States of. America. - (In line with the relative income hypothesis, the.

  19. The Risk of Divorce and Household Saving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…

  20. 21 Cost-Saving Measures For The Judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Vapnek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Courts around the world are increasingly facing budget cuts and funding shortfalls. Budget problems are particularly acute in developing countries, where courts need to increase efficiency and access to justice while also managing resource limitations. International development agencies and donors expect measurable progress to justify continued funding of judicial reform projects. Yet, as rule of law efforts in developing countries improve public perception of courts and streamline court administration, more cases may be filed. Greater use of the courts puts greater strain on court resources, triggering the need to implement cost-saving measures while maintaining effective court administration.This paper outlines 21 measures that courts can implement to reduce costs. Specific examples from developing countries are presented wherever possible, with additional examples drawn from the United States and Europe. Although this paper is intended mainly for audiences in developing countries, the issues facing those courts are similar to issues addressed through court reforms in the United States over the past 50 years. For this reason, examples of cost-saving measures from developed countries such as the United States may be directly applicable or could be used as starting points to spur further cost savings innovation in the developing world.Section I of this paper explains the context for the implementation of judicial cost-saving measures, and raises some issues for reflection. Section II sets out specific judicial cost-saving measures, dividing them into three categories: measures that address court operations; measures directed at staffing and salaries; and measures that relate to court and case management. Section III discusses ways that countries and judiciaries can generate ideas for new and innovative cost-saving mechanisms.

  1. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2014-01-01

    A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

  2. Information technology applications in improving energy saving; IT-sovellukset ja energiatehokkuuden kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Heine, P.; Kallonen, M. (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Energy saving is becoming more and more important issue among the many actors within the strongly developing energy field. The hourly kWh-metering represents a new step in the electrical field - the number of the hourly kWh-metered customer points is increasing rapidly and the amount of the detailed data is huge. This also enables new approaches to find energy saving potentials. This project focuses to find energy saving potentials especially in households and office buildings. In this project, the hourly-metered energy data is linked with specific customer data to identify the energy saving potential and further developing products to make the energy use more efficient. (orig.)

  3. Healthy active living: a residence community-based intervention to increase physical activity and healthy eating during the transition to first-year university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Denver M Y; Bray, Steve R; Beatty, Kevin R; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the HAL community or no-treatment control residence and completed questionnaire measures at the beginning and end of the academic year. Students living in the HAL community reported significantly more MVPA (F[1, 58]=19.93, p<.001, ηp2=.26) and greater FVC (F[1, 56]=3.12, p=.08, ηp2=.05) compared with controls. Participants in the HAL condition also scored significantly higher in action planning (F[1, 58]=4.79, p<.05, ηp2=.08), partially mediating the effect of the intervention on MVPA. A peer-delivered healthy lifestyles intervention targeting first-year university students appears to be effective in preserving or enhancing health behaviors and cognitions during their transition into university life.

  4. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  5. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  6. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  7. Savings Behavior and Satisfaction with Savings: A Comparison of Low- and High-Income Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth P.; Schumm, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Data on 1,739 married couples from 13 states were analyzed. Associations between satisfaction with savings and level of savings with measures of motivation to save, motivations to spend, and family resources were found to differ substantially between low- and high-income couples. (Author/CH)

  8. Genuine Saving as a Sustainability Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Growth theory provides the intellectual underpinning for expanded national accounting and, through the measure of genuine saving, an indicator of when economies are on an unsustainable development path. This theory points in useful directions for countries concerned with sustainable development. The genuine savings analysis raises an important set of policy questions that goes beyond the t...

  9. Analysis of savings mobilization determinants among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successive governments and development partners in the country have always initiated programmes that stress availability of credit to rural farmers for agricultural development, while neglecting savings mobilization. Therefore, this study examined some important determinants of savings mobilization in Ijumu Local ...

  10. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on

  11. Saving Behavior and Portfolio Choice After Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; Alessie, Rob; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on saving behavior and portfolio choice after retirement and provides a descriptive analysis of this behavior by Dutch elderly households. Studying saving behavior in the Netherlands is informative because of the very different institutional background compared to

  12. 76 FR 3487 - Truth in Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: On July 22, 2009, NCUA published a final rule amending NCUA's Truth in... through automated systems. This final rule amends NCUA's Truth in Savings rule and official staff...

  13. [A delicate and life saving appendectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiot, Claude

    2014-01-01

    An appendectomy which was practiced in the camp of Dachau to save the life of one of the torturers looks like a dangerous wager and the writer shows how a good surgeon could win the bet through his skillfulness and save life of his comrades and his own.

  14. Must losing taxes on saving be harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizinga, Harry; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    Internationalization offers enhanced opportunities for individuals to place savingsabroad and evade domestic saving taxation. This paper asks whether the concomi-tant loss of saving taxation necessarily is harmful. To this end we construct a modelof many symmetric countries in which public goods ...

  15. What is an Adequate Standard of Living During Retirement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Schunk, D.

    2008-01-01

    Many economists and policy-makers argue that households do not save enough to maintain an adequate standard of living during retirement. However, there is no consensus on the answer to the underlying question what this standard should be, despite the fact that it is crucial for the design of saving

  16. Values and Technologies in Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    2000-01-01

    The chapter is based on the assumption, that technology improvement is not sufficient to achieve a sustainable world community. Changes in people´s values are necessary. A simple model suggest how values, together with basic needs and with the environmental and societal frames, determine people......´s behavioural pattern and lifestyles. Deliberate changes in social values are illustrated by a historical example. From the side of technology the basic principles in the economy of energy savings are briefly described. The marginally profitable energy savings provides an economic saving. The application...... of this saving can cause what is called the rebound effect, which reduces the savings obtained from the technology. Ways to avoid this effect are suggested, and they require value changes, primarly around frugality, consumption, and hard-working. There are indications that some of the necessary changes are well...

  17. Saving electricity in a hurry - update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2011-06-15

    As demonstrated by the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami-triggered blackouts in Japan, electricity shortfalls can happen anytime and anywhere. Countries can minimise the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of such electricity shortfalls by developing emergency energy-saving strategies before a crisis occurs. This new IEA report highlights preliminary findings and conclusions from electricity shortfalls in Japan, the United States, New Zealand, South Africa and Chile. It draws on recent analysis to: reinforce well-established guidelines on diagnosing electricity shortfalls, identifying energy-saving opportunities and selecting a package of energy-saving measures; and highlight proven practice for implementing emergency energy-saving programmes. This paper will be valuable to government, academic, private-sector and civil-society stakeholders who inform, develop and implement electricity policy in general, and emergency energy-saving programmes in particular.

  18. Housing-related lifestyle and energy saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    A new instrument for measuring housing-related lifestyle (HRL) is introduced and employed for identifying national and cross-national HRL segments in 10 European countries (N = 3190). The identified HRL segments are profiled and the practical importance of HRL for everyday energy-saving efforts...... in the home and for the energy-consumer’s openness to new energy saving opportunities (i.e., energy saving innovativeness) is investigated. The HRL instrument’s 71 items load on 16 dimensions within five lifestyle elements. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the instrument possesses metric...... of relevant background characteristics. A multivariate GLM analysis reveals that when differences in housing-related lifestyles are controlled, neither country of residence nor the interaction between lifestyle and country of residence influence energy saving innovativeness or everyday energy-saving efforts...

  19. Chapter 17: Estimating Net Savings: Common Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violette, D. M.; Rathbun, P.

    2014-09-01

    This chapter focuses on the methods used to estimate net energy savings in evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) studies for energy efficiency (EE) programs. The chapter provides a definition of net savings, which remains an unsettled topic both within the EE evaluation community and across the broader public policy evaluation community, particularly in the context of attribution of savings to particular program. The chapter differs from the measure-specific Uniform Methods Project (UMP) chapters in both its approach and work product. Unlike other UMP resources that provide recommended protocols for determining gross energy savings, this chapter describes and compares the current industry practices for determining net energy savings, but does not prescribe particular methods.

  20. Water saving in lowland rice production: an experimental and modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing demand for rice and decreasing water diversions to agriculture, urge for higher water productivity in rice production systems. One way to deal with this challenge is using water-saving regimes on field scale. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effects of water-saving