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Sample records for sauvignon grape berry

  1. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

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    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  2. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

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    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

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    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  4. Effect of Exogenous Abscisic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate on Anthocyanin Composition, Fatty Acids, and Volatile Compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grape Berries

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    Yan-Lun Ju

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, and volatile aromas are important for Cabernet Sauvignon grape quality. This study evaluated the effect of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA on the anthocyanin composition, fatty acids, lipoxygenase activity, and the volatile compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Exogenous ABA and MeJA improved the content of total anthocyanins (TAC and individual anthocyanins. Lipoxygenase (LOX activity also increased after treatment. Furthermore, 16 fatty acids were detected. The linoleic acid concentration gradually increased with ABA concentration. The fatty acid content decreased with increasing MeJA concentration and then increased again, with the exception of linoleic acid. After exogenous ABA and MeJA treatment, the C6 aroma content increased significantly. Interestingly, the exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments improved mainly the content of 1-hexanol, hexanal, and 2-heptanol. These results provide insight into the effect of plant hormones on wine grapes, which is useful for grape quality improvement.

  5. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

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    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  6. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

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    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  7. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

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    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

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    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  9. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

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    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  10. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Berry skin development in Norton grape: distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis.

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    Ali, Mohammad B; Howard, Susanne; Chen, Shangwu; Wang, Yechun; Yu, Oliver; Kovacs, Laszlo G; Qiu, Wenping

    2011-01-10

    The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR) genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon. Transcriptional patterns of MYB5A and

  12. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

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    Yu Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet

  13. Impact of Plasmopara viticola infection of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on wine composition and flavor.

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    Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Deliere, Laurent; Crachereau, Jean Christophe; Davidou, Ludivine; Sauris, Pierre; Guilbault, Pascal; Darriet, Philippe

    2018-01-15

    This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. We show that the organoleptic impact of P. viticola is more pronounced in Merlot wines compared to Cabernet Sauvignon ones. The highest levels of 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (75.3ng/L) were found in old Merlot wines made with 20% infected berries, suggesting the incidence of berry quality on the ability of a wine to age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

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    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  15. Persistence of imidacloprid on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.

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    Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Jyot, Gagan; Singh, Baljeet; Battu, Raminderjit Singh; Singh, Balwinder; Aulakh, Pushpinder Singh

    2009-02-01

    Residues of imidacloprid were estimated in grape leaves, grape berries and soil following four applications of Confidor 200SL at 400 and 800 mL ha(-1) using 1,000 L water. The average initial deposits of imidacloprid on grape leaves were found to be 10.01 and 16.97 mg kg(-1) at single and double dosages, respectively. These residues of imidacloprid dissipated to be the extract of 98.8% and 97.0%, respectively, at single and double dosages in 15 days, with half-life period of 2.35 and 2.97 days. Residues of imidacloprid in grape berries at harvest time were observed to below determination limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) at single dose and 0.06 mg kg(-1) at double dose. However, acceptable daily intake (ADI) of imidacloprid is 0.06 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), which means an adult of 60 kg and a child of 10 kg can safely tolerate intake of 3,600 and 600 microg imidacloprid, respectively, without any appreciable risk to their life. Assuming consumption of 200 g grape berries contaminated at 0.06 mg kg(-1), it will lead to an intake of only 12 microg of imidacloprid, which is quite safe for a child as well as for an adult. Hence, the use of imidacloprid on grape crop seems to be toxicologically acceptable.

  16. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

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    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  17. Simple rain-shelter cultivation prolongs accumulation period of anthocyanins in wine grape berries.

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    Li, Xiao-Xi; He, Fei; Wang, Jun; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-17

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  18. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

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    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  19. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

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    Geana, Elisabeta I.; Dinca, Oana R.; Ionete, Roxana E.; Artem, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans-resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine. PMID:27904334

  20. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

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    Elisabeta I. Geana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine.

  1. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators.

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    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  2. Fermentation-Guided Natural Products Isolation of a Grape Berry Triacylglyceride that Enhances Ethyl Ester Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Blackford

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented. Non-targeted SPME-GCMS analyses of the wines showed that several medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters were more abundant in wines made by fermenting model musts spiked with certain fractions. Further fractionation of the non-polar fractions and fermentation of model must after addition of these fractions led to the identification of a mixture of polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that, when added to fermenting model must, increase the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters in wines. Dosage-response fermentation studies with commercially-available trilinolein revealed that the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters can be increased by the addition of this triacylglyceride to model musts. This work suggests that grape triacylglycerides can enhance the production of fermentation-derived ethyl esters and show that this fractionation method is effective in segregating precursors or factors involved in altering the concentration of fermentation volatiles.

  3. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  4. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  5. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    .... The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids...

  6. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  8. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  9. Stimulation of the grape berry expansion by ethylene and effects on related gene transcripts, over the ripening phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christian; Tira-Umphon, Arak; Terrier, Nancy; Zouine, Mohamed; Severac, Dany; Roustan, Jean-Paul

    2008-11-01

    Grape is considered as a non-climacteric fruit, the maturation of which is independent of ethylene. However, previous work had shown that ethylene is capable of affecting the physiological processes during maturation of grape berries. Experiments were designed to screen the gene pool affected by ethylene at the ripening inception in Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The results showed that only 73 of 14 562 genes of microarray slides were significantly modulated by a 24-h ethylene treatment (4 microl l(-1)), performed 8 weeks after flowering. The study then focused on accumulation of several mRNAs affected by ethylene in relation to the berry size. Indeed, we observed that ethylene application at véraison led to a berry diameter increase. This increase is mainly because of sap intake and cell wall modifications, enabling cell elongation. This was related to changes in the expression pattern of many genes, classified in two groups: (1) 'water exchange' genes: various aquaporins (AQUA) and (2) 'cell wall structure' genes: polygalacturonases, xyloglucan endotransglucosylases (XTH), pectin methyl esterases, cellulose synthases and expansins. The expression patterns were followed either along berry development or in three berry tissues (peel, pulp and seeds). Ethylene stimulates the accumulation of most gene transcripts in 1 h, and in several parts of the berry, this stimulation may last for 24 h in some cases. One XTH and one AQUA seem to be good candidates to explain the ethylene-induced berry expansion. This work brings more clues about the ethylene involvement in the development and ripening of grape berries.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  11. Characterization of mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate transporters from grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Ana; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Bitetto, Maria; Laera, Valentina Liliana; Pimentel, Catarina; Francisco, Rita; Passarinho, José; Chaves, Maria M; Agrimi, Gennaro

    2013-03-01

    Grape berries (Vitis vinifera L fruit) exhibit a double-sigmoid pattern of development that results from two successive periods of vacuolar swelling during which the nature of accumulated solutes changes significantly. Throughout the first period, called green or herbaceous stage, berries accumulate high levels of organic acids, mainly malate and tartrate. At the cellular level fruit acidity comprises both metabolism and vacuolar storage. Malic acid compartmentation is critical for optimal functioning of cytosolic enzymes. Therefore, the identification and characterization of the carriers involved in malate transport across sub-cellular compartments is of great importance. The decrease in acid content during grape berry ripening has been mainly associated to mitochondrial malate oxidation. However, no Vitis vinifera mitochondrial carrier involved in malate transport has been reported to date. Here we describe the identification of three V. vinifera mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate carriers (VvDTC1-3) putatively involved in mitochondrial malate, citrate and other di/tricarboxylates transport. The three VvDTCs are very similar, sharing a percentage of identical residues of at least 83 %. Expression analysis of the encoding VvDTC genes in grape berries shows that they are differentially regulated exhibiting a developmental pattern of expression. The simultaneous high expression of both VvDTC2 and VvDTC3 in grape berry mesocarp close to the onset of ripening suggests that these carriers might be involved in the transport of malate into mitochondria.

  12. Grape berry yeast communities: influence of fungicide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Vesna; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2013-02-15

    The yeast communities colonising grape berry surfaces were evaluated for the influence of fungicide treatments in an organic vineyard (copper/sulphur-based products) and a conventional vineyard (commonly used fungicides). Analysis of yeast abundance and diversity was carried out on grape berries and juice during fermentation, using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Yeast abundance was as generally reported for mature grapes and it was slight higher from grapes treated with conventional fungicides. Initial grape samples showed less yeast species diversity in the organic vineyard compared with the conventional one. In both vineyards, the dominant yeast were Candida zemplinina and Hanseniaspora uvarum (>50%), respectively, typical species that colonise surfaces of mature grape berries. Metschnikowia pulcherrima was widely found in the conventional samples while it was only occasionally found in organic ones. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only at the end of natural fermentation (conducted in sterile condition), with lower levels in the organic samples. S. cerevisiae strains showed less intraspecies diversity in the organic samples (two genotypes), in comparison with the conventional samples (six genotypes). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L. berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs. Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  14. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  15. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m). The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire le...

  16. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  17. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  19. Gene expression analyses in individual grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries during ripening initiation reveal that pigmentation intensity is a valid indicator of developmental staging within the cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steven T; Peng, Fred Y; Nayar, Tarun; Reid, Karen E; Schlosser, James

    2008-10-01

    Asynchronous ripening of individual grape berries within clusters can lead to inconsistent organoleptic characteristics for wine making. Ripening initiation in grape berries is non-climacteric and not well understood at the molecular level. Evidence is lacking for a single master switch controlling this process, such as the established role for ethylene in climacteric fruit ripening. We used Affymetrix microarray analyses of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries sampled from two clusters at 50% ripening initiation. By delineating four developmental stages of ripening initiation, we demonstrate that pigmentation is a statistically significant indicator of transcriptional state during ripening initiation. We report on clustered gene expression patterns which were mined for genes annotated with signal transduction functions in order to advance regulatory network modeling of ripening initiation in grape berries. Abscisic acid has previously been demonstrated to be an important signaling component regulating ripening initiation in grapevine. We demonstrate via real-time RT-PCR analyses that up-regulation of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid gene family member, VvNCED2, in grape seed and pericarp and a putative ortholog to a reported abscisic acid receptor, VvGCR2, are correlated with ripening initiation. Our results suggest a role for these genes in abscisic acid signaling during ripening initiation.

  20. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  1. Impact of Bacillus cereus NRKT on grape ripe rot disease through resveratrol synthesis in berry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takanori; Aoki, Yoshinao; Ishiai, Shiho; Otoguro, Misa; Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-01-01

    Vine growers are faced with the difficult problem of how to control grape ripe rot disease in vineyards because of fear of accumulation of pesticide residues on grape berries near harvest. Biological control is an alternative non-hazardous technique to control the diseases. Application of resveratrol-synthesis-promoting bacterium, Bacillus cereus strain NRKT, reduced the incidence of grape ripe rot disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in a vineyard. The application of NRKT to berry bunches upregulated the gene expression of stilbene synthase, a key enzyme for resveratrol synthesis in berry skins, thereby promoting resveratrol synthesis in berry skins. The potential use of NRKT in vineyards is expected to contribute to the increase in resveratrol content in berry skins, thereby protecting grape berries against fungal diseases. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The ripening disorder berry shrivel affects anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism in Zweigelt grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Martinez, Sara Crespo; Eitle, Markus W; Warth, Benedikt; Andre, Christelle M; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Forneck, Astrid

    2017-10-26

    Timescale analyses suggest the berry shrivel (BS) disorder is induced before veraison with strong effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis, and minor effects on sugar transport and metabolism. Berry shrivel (BS)-affected grapes have low sugar contents, high acidity, less anthocyanins and flaccid berries. To date no pathogenic causes are known, and studies to elucidate the molecular basis leading to symptom induction and development are limited. Here we present a study on pre-symptomatic as well as symptomatic BS berries to characterize early metabolic changes, with focus on anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugars metabolism. Healthy and BS berries from six sampling time points were used (BBCH79-BBCH89). Our objectives are (1) to search for the beginning of BS-related physiological processes; (2) to search for key enzymes and sugar transporters involved in BS induction and development and (3) to understand the consequences on polyphenol biosynthesis. We employed high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology for sugar and polyphenol analyses, respectively. Additionally we conducted expression analyses (qPCR) of key genes and enzymatic activity assays. Our results show that BS-related processes start before veraison, as determined by slightly reduced hexose contents and reduced expression levels of a vacuolar invertase (VviGIN1), two monosaccharide transporters (VviTMT2, VviTMT3) and the anthocyanin biosynthesis (VviUFGT, VviMYBA1/2) genes. Lower amounts of delphinidin and cyanidin glycosidic forms were determined, while caftaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and (+)-catechin were increased in BS berries. Although not all results were conclusive, especially for the sugar metabolism, our data provide important knowledge to improve the understanding of the highly complex berry shrivel ripening disorder.

  3. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  4. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm: e61642

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lijun Wang; Man Xu; Chunyan Liu; Junfang Wang; Huifen Xi; Benhong Wu; Wayne Loescher; Wei Duan; Peige Fan; Shaohua Li

    2013-01-01

    .... Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3...

  5. Deconvoluting effects of vine and soil properties on grape berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerihun, Ayalsew; McClymont, Lexie; Lanyon, Dean; Goodwin, Ian; Gibberd, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition is influenced by several factors including grapevine and soil properties and their interactions. Understanding how these factors interact to determine berry composition is integral to producing berries with desired composition. Here we used extensive spatio-temporal data to identify significant vine and soil features that influence Shiraz berry composition. The concentrations of berry flavonoids (anthocyanins, tannin and total phenolics), total soluble solids and pH were typically negatively associated with canopy, crop and berry size factors whereas titratable acidity was positively associated. The strengths of the associations, however, were generally greater with the crop and berry size factors than with the canopy size factor. The analyses also resolved separate influences of berry and crop size on berry composition. Soil properties had significant influences on berry composition; however, when influences of soil factors on vine-attributes were accounted for, the apparent effects of soil factors on berry composition were largely non-existent. At each site, variations in berry composition were more strongly associated with crop and berry size than with canopy size factors. Apparent influences of soil properties on berry composition are indirect, being mediated via their effects on vine attributes (canopy, crop and berry sizes). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Influence of maceration temperature in red wine vinification on extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2007-04-01

    The extraction of phenolics from berry skins and seeds of the grape, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, during red wine maceration and the influence of different temperature conditions (cold soak and/or heating at the end of maceration) were examined. Phenolics contained mainly in berry skins, viz., anthocyanin, flavonol, and epigallocatechin units within proanthocyanidins, were extracted during the early stage of maceration, whereas those in seeds, viz., gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers, and epicatechin-gallate units within proanthocyanidins, were gradually extracted. In addition to their localization, the molecular size and composition of the proanthocyanidins possibly influenced the kinetics of their extraction. Cold soak reduced the extraction of phenolics from the seeds. Heating at the end of maceration decreased the concentration of proanthocyanidins. Thus, modification of the temperature condition during maceration affected the progress of the concentration of phenolics, resulting in an alteration of their make-up in the finished wine.

  7. Melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grape berries modifies phenolic components and antioxidant activity of grapes and wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive investigation was conducted to determine the effects of exogenous melatonin treatment of pre-veraison grapes on phenolic components and antioxidants of grape berries and wine. The results showed an increase in the concentration of cyanin-3-O-glucoside, peonidin derivatives, and two flavanols [namely (+-catechins and (−-epicatechins] of grapes, as well as flavonols in both grapes and wine due to the application of melatonin. These compounds are derivatives of the catalysate of flavonoid 3’-hydroxylase (F3’H in the flavonoid synthesis pathway of plants. It can be inferred that melatonin increased the activity of F3’H or expression of VvF3’H during grape berry maturation. In addition, two melatonin treatments of pre-veraison grape berries reduced the DPPH radical-scavenging ability and copper ion-reducing power of grapes and wine, whereas one melatonin treatment just reduced those in wine. This study will provide a practical strategy to change the phenolic composition of grapes and wine.

  8. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  9. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  10. Multiomics in grape berry skin revealed specific induction of the stilbene synthetic pathway by ultraviolet-C irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suzuki, Mami; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Goto, Susumu; Suzuki, Makoto; Jasinski, Michal; Martinoia, Enrico; Otagaki, Shungo; Matsumoto, Shogo; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    ...) light and pathogens. In this study, we looked at the transcriptome and metabolome in grape berry skin after UV-C irradiation, which demonstrated the effectiveness of omics approaches to clarify important traits of grape...

  11. Persistence of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape leaves, grape berries and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Arora, Parshotam Kumar; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, Raminderjit Singh

    2010-03-01

    Following four foliar applications of Nativo 75 WG (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%) on grapes @ 175 and 350 g/ha, resulting in active applications of trifloxystrobin @ 43.75 and 87.5 g a.i./ha and that of tebuconazole @ 87.5 and 175 g a.i./ha, the average initial deposits of trifloxystrobin were observed to be 7.76 and 15.53 mg/kg, respectively, at single and double the application rates. These residue levels dissipated to >85% after 10 days of its application at both the dosages. Similarly, the average initial deposits of tebuconazole were observed to be 13.84 and 26.55 mg/kg at single and double the application rate, respectively. These residue levels dissipated to >90% after 10 days of application at both the dosages. The half-life (t(1/2)) periods of trifloxystrobin on grape leaves were observed to be 2.92 and 3.48 days at single and double application rates, respectively, whereas these values were 2.68 and 3.96 days for tebuconazole. Ripe grape berries and soil samples collected at harvest which happened to be 34 days after the last application, did not show the presence of residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole at their determination limit of 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.

  12. Enzyme activities and gene expression of starch metabolism provide insights into grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Chaobo; Wu, Weimin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development. The results indicated that starch granules in grape berry were located at the chloroplast in the sub-epidermal tissues, acting as the temporary reserves of photosynthetic products to meet the needs for berry development, and relatively high starch contents could be detected at véraison stage. Moreover, both ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27) and sucrose phosphate synthase (EC 2.3.1.14) involved in starch synthesis displayed elevated gene expression and enzymes activities in the sub-epidermal tissue, while α- and β-amylases involved in its degradation were highly transcribed and active in the central flesh, explaining the absence of starch in this last tissue. Change in the gene expression and activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, β-amylase and sucrose phosphate synthase revealed that they were regulated by the circadian rhythms in the fruitlets compared with those in the leaves. Both the morphological, enzymological and transcriptional data in this study provide advanced understandings on the function of starch during berry development and ripening that are so important for berry quality. This study will further facilitate our understanding of the sugar metabolism in grape berry as well as in other plant species.

  13. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  14. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  15. Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Grape Berries in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Gubler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Injured and non-injured grape berries were inoculated with spore suspension of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium aleophilum under field (intact berries and laboratory (detached berries conditions. In one test, berries were injured by pricking the skin with a syringe needle to a depth of approximately 1.5 mm. Brown to purple lesions appeared 5 to 7 days after inoculation in both the injured intact and detached berries. Lesions on these berries were larger when inoculated earlier in the season indicating that young, immature berries are more susceptible to infection than mature berries. In another test, berries were injured by rubbing the skin with carborundum dust using a cotton-tipped applicator. Esca-like lesions developed in 4 to 5 days after inoculation of detached but not intact berries. Occasional infection of non-injured berries occurred which appeared as small dots to pin-head size lesions around the lenticels. Scanning electron microscopy observations of these lesions showed abundant hyphal growth on the surface with apparent penetration through lenticels; however, fungal structures were not detected with certainty beneath the lenticels or intact cuticle. In both tests, the fungi were re-isolated from the advancing margin of the lesions.

  16. Brix, pH and anthocyanin content determination in whole Port wine grape berries by hyperspectral imaging and neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Armando M.; Franco, Camilo; Mendes-Ferreira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of measuring pH, sugars, and anthocyanin content of whole grape berries. The spectrum of each sample, composed of six whole grape berries, was collected using hyperspectral imaging in reflectance mode from 380 to 1028 nm. The spectra were converted to enological par...

  17. Influence of grape maturity and maceration length on color, polyphenolic composition, and polysaccharide content of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mariona; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; González, Elena; Esteruelas, Mireia; Fort, Francesca; Canals, Joan Miquel; Zamora, Fernando

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper was to study how maturity and maceration length affect color, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and sensorial quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo wines at three stages of grape ripening. Ripeness increased color extractability, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharide concentrations. Moreover, the proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the percentage of prodelphinidins also increased with maturity, whereas the percentage of galloylation decreased. In general, wines from riper grapes contain higher proportions of skin proanthocyanidins. Color and anthocyanin concentration decreased when the maceration was longer, whereas polysaccharide and proanthocyanidin concentrations did the opposite. It was also detected that the mDP and the percentage of prodelphinidins decreased when the maceration was extended, whereas the percentage of galloylation increased. These data seem to indicate that proanthocyanidin extraction from seeds is clearly increased throughout the maceration time.

  18. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape Berry in Response to Root Restriction during Developmental Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Leng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Root restriction improved berry quality by being involved in diverse aspects of grapevine life. However, the molecular mechanism driving this process is not understood very well. In this study, the ‘Summer Black’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca under root restriction was investigated, which showed an increase of total soluble solids (TSS, color index of red grapes (CIRG value, anthocyanins accumulation, total phenolics and total procyanidins contents during berry development compared with those in control berries. The transcriptomic changes induced by root restriction in ‘Summer Black’ grape over the course of berry development were analyzed by RNA-Seq method. A total of 29,971 genes were generated in ‘Summer Black’ grape berry during development, among which, 1606 genes were significantly responded to root restriction. Furthermore, 1264, 313, 141, 246 and 19 sequences were significantly changed at S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 sample points, respectively. The gene (VIT_04s0023g02290 predicted as a salicylate O-methyltransferase was differentially expressed in all developmental stages. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment showed that response to organic nitrogen, response to endogenous stimulus, flavonoid metabolic process, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process and cell wall macromolecule metabolic process were the main significant differential categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed plant–pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and glucosinolate biosynthesis were the main significant differential pathways. The results of the present study provided a genetic base for the understanding of grape berry fruit quality improvement under root restriction.

  19. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.

  20. Color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape treated with abscisic acid in different ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Yukari Yamamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of (S-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA application at different ripening stages, in increasing phenolic compounds and color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca. The evaluated treatments were: control, without S-ABA application; 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days before veraison (DBV + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 days after first application (DAFA; 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied at veraison (V + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 DAFA; and 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days after veraison (DAV + 400 mg L-1S-ABA at 35 DAFA. There was no difference among treatments regarding the physical characteristics of berries and clusters, as well as total polyphenols in berry and juice. However, there was an increase in total anthocyanins in berry and juice with S-ABA application. Colorimetric variables indicated the increase in color of berry treated with S-ABA. Juices produced from grapes treated with S-ABA were more appreciated by tasters. The treatments with 400 mg L-1S-ABA applied 7 days before, during, or 7 days after veraison, combined with an additional application 35 days after the first one, increment total anthocyanin concentration and color of berry and juice of 'Isabel' grape, with better juice acceptance, without affecting total polyphenol concentration.

  1. Characterization of oil obtained from grape seeds collected during berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuela; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Alvarruiz, Andrés; Fernández, Enrique; Pardo, Jose E

    2009-04-08

    The surpluses of the wine industry that originate from wine production in the European countries must be reduced. Green harvesting, consisting in collecting the grapes when they are still green, could contribute to the reduction of the yield of vineyards. The green grapes are not suitable for wine production, but they can be used for seed oil extraction. Grape seed oil is a linoleic acid rich oil that has been suggested as an alternative to traditional vegetable edible oils. In this work, grape samples were collected at different stages during berry development for seed oil extraction. The grapes collected at a very early stage showed a very low oil extraction yield compared with that of the samples collected at later stages. The oil from the grapes collected at an early stage had considerably higher sterols content and had a significantly different fatty acid composition compared with those of the oil extracted from grapes collected at later stages. However, the oil samples from grapes collected before veraison did not show significant differences with samples collected after veraison as regards oil extraction yield, fatty acids composition, and total sterol content and composition. Our data suggest that grapes collected from green harvesting near veraison could be suitable for seed oil extraction, with characteristics similar to those of the oil extracted from the seeds of mature grapes.

  2. Water limitation and rootstock genotype interact to alter grape berry metabolism through transcriptome reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeja, Mariam; Nicolas, Philippe; Kappel, Christian; Dai, Zhan Wu; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Peccoux, Anthony; Lafontaine, Magali; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine is a perennial crop often cultivated by grafting a scion cultivar on a suitable rootstock. Rootstocks influence scions, particularly with regard to water uptake and vigor. Therefore, one of the possibilities to adapt viticulture to the extended drought stress periods is to select rootstocks conferring increased tolerance to drought. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the ability of rootstock/scion combination to influence grape berry metabolism under drought stress are still poorly understood. The transcriptomic changes induced by drought stress in grape berries (cv. Pinot noir) from vines grafted on either 110R (drought-tolerant) or 125AA (drought-sensitive) rootstock were compared. The experiments were conducted in the vineyard for two years and two grape berry developmental stages (50% and 100% veraison). The genome-wide microarray approach showed that water stress strongly impacts gene expression in the berries, through ontology categories that cover cell wall metabolism, primary and secondary metabolism, signaling, stress, and hormones, and that some of these effects strongly depend on the rootstock genotype. Indeed, under drought stress, berries from vines grafted on 110R displayed a different transcriptional response compared to 125AA-concerning genes related to jasmonate (JA), phenylpropanoid metabolism, and pathogenesis-related proteins. The data also suggest a link between JA and secondary metabolism in water-stressed berries. Overall, genes related to secondary metabolism and JA are more induced and/or less repressed by drought stress in the berries grafted on the drought-sensitive rootstock 125AA. These rootstock-dependent gene expression changes are relevant for berry composition and sensory properties. PMID:26504567

  3. Grape Berry Colonization and Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea by Indigenous Vineyard Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis bunch rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important disease of grape berries, especially during transportation and storage. Biological control is a potential means of postharvest management of Botrytis bunch rot. The study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that antagonistic yeast...

  4. Grape berry bacterial microbiota: impact of the ripening process and the farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Guilherme; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Lauga, Béatrice; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Soulas, Guy; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2012-08-17

    Wine grapes are a primary source of microbial communities that play a prominent role in the quality of grapes prior to harvesting, as well as in the winemaking process. This study investigated the dynamics and diversity of the epiphytic bacteria on the grape berry surface during maturation. The quantitative and qualitative effects of conventional and organic farming systems on this microbial community were investigated, using both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches. Analyses of grape berry bacterial microbiota revealed changes in the size and structure of the population during the berry ripening process, with levels rising gradually and reaching their highest value when the berries were over ripe. As the season progressed to maturity, Gram-negative bacterial communities (mostly Pseudomonas spp.) declined whereas Gram-positive communities (mostly Micrococcus spp.) increased. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of cultured isolates were analysed and over 44 species were identified from 21 genera in the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. Copper concentrations originating from phytosanitary treatments varied according to the vineyard and farming system. A negative correlation between copper concentrations and cell densities provided clear evidence that copper inhibited bacterial communities. The bacterial community structure was analysed by targeting the 16S rRNA genes, using PCR-DGGE on cultivable populations and T-RFLP on whole communities in cell suspension. The results suggest that the farming system has a clear impact on the bacterial community structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  6. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana Margarida; Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia

    2015-05-21

    Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  7. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  8. Proanthocyanidin Synthesis and Expression of Genes Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase in Developing Grape Berries and Grapevine Leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jochen Bogs; Mark O. Downey; John S. Harvey; Anthony R. Ashton; Gregory J. Tanner; Simon P. Robinson

    2005-01-01

    .... We measured PA content and expression of genes encoding ANR, LAR, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase in grape berries during development and in grapevine leaves, which accumulated PA throughout leaf expansion...

  9. Kaolin foliar application has a stimulatory effect on phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways in grape berries

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    Artur Conde

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought, elevated air temperature and high evaporative demand are increasingly frequent during summer in grape growing areas like the Mediterranean basin, limiting grapevine productivity and berry quality. The foliar exogenous application of kaolin, a radiation-reflecting inert mineral, has proven effective in mitigating the negative impacts of these abiotic stresses in grapevine and other fruit crops, however, little is known about its influence on the composition of the grape berry and on key molecular mechanisms and metabolic pathways notably important for grape berry quality parameters. Here, we performed a thorough molecular and biochemical analysis to assess how foliar application of kaolin influences major secondary metabolism pathways associated with berry quality-traits, leading to biosynthesis of phenolics and anthocyanins, with a focus on the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid (both flavonol- and anthocyanin-biosynthetic and stilbenoid pathways. In grape berries from different ripening stages, targeted transcriptional analysis by qPCR revealed that several genes involved in these pathways – VvPAL1, VvC4H1, VvSTSs, VvCHS1, VvFLS1, VvDFR, and VvUFGT - were more expressed in response to the foliar kaolin treatment, particularly in the latter maturation phases. In agreement, enzymatic activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, flavonol synthase (FLS and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT were about 2-fold higher in mature or fully mature berries from kaolin-treated plants, suggesting regulation also at a transcriptional level. The expression of the glutathione S-transferase VvGST4, and of the tonoplast anthocyanin transporters VvMATE1 and VvABCC1 were also all significantly increased at véraison and in mature berries, thus, when anthocyanins start to accumulate in the vacuole, in agreement with previously observed higher total concentrations of phenolics and anthocyanins in berries from kaolin-treated plants, especially

  10. An in vivo Experimental System to Study Sugar Phloem Unloading in Ripening Grape Berries During Water Deficiency Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, ZHEN‐PING; DELOIRE, ALAIN; CARBONNEAU, ALAIN; FEDERSPIEL, BRIGITTE; LOPEZ, FRANÇOIS

    2003-01-01

    An in vivo experimental system—called the ‘berry‐cup’ technique—was developed to study sugar phloem unloading and the accumulation of sugar in ripening grape berries. The berry‐cup system consists of a single peeled grape berry immersed in a buffer solution in a cup prepared from a polypropylene syringe. A small cross‐incision (2 mm in length) is made on the stylar remnant of a berry during its ripening phase, the skin of the berry then being easily peeled off, exposing the dorsal vascular bundles without damaging either these or the pulp tissue of the berry. The sites of sugar phloem unloading are thus made directly accessible and may be regulated by the buffer solution. In addition, the unloaded photoassimilates are easily transported into the buffer solution in the berry‐cup. With the berry‐cup technique, it takes 60 min to purge the sugar already present in the apoplast, after which the amount of sugar in the buffer solution is a direct measure of the sugar unloading from the grape berry phloem. The optimum times for sampling were 20 or 30 min, depending on the type of experiment. Sugar phloem unloading was significantly inhibited by the inclusion of either 7·5 mm NaF or 2·5 mm PCMB in the buffer solution. This study indicates that sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries is via the apoplastic network and that the process requires the input of energy. The system was shown to be an appropriate experimental system with which to study sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries, and was applied successfully to the study of berry sugar unloaded from grapevines subjected to water stress. The results showed that water deficiency inhibits sugar unloading in grape berries. PMID:12907466

  11. Nebulized water cooling of the canopy affects leaf temperature, berry composition and wine quality of Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciello, Pericle; Mencarelli, Fabio; Palliotti, Alberto; Ceccantoni, Brunella; Thibon, Cécile; Darriet, Philippe; Pasquini, Massimiliano; Bellincontro, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The present paper details a new technique based on spraying nebulized water on vine canopy to counteract the negative impact of the current wave of hot summers with temperatures above 30 °C, which usually determine negative effects on vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The automatized spraying system was able to maintain air temperature at below 30 °C (the threshold temperature to start spraying) for all of August 2013, when in the canopy of uncooled vines the temperature was as high as 36 °C. The maintenance of temperature below 30 °C reduced leaf stress linked to high temperature and irradiance regimes as highlighted by the decrease of H2 O2 content and catalase activity in the leaves. A higher amount of total polyphenols and organic acids and lower sugars characterized the grapes of cooled vines. Wine from these grapes had a higher content of some volatile thiols like 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexylacetate (3SHA), and lower content of 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP). Under conditions of high temperature and irradiance regimes, water nebulization on the vine canopy can represent a valid solution to reduce and/or avoid oxidative stress and associated effects in the leaves, ensure a regular berry ripening and maintain high wine quality. The consumption of water during nebulization was acceptable, being 180 L ha(-1) min(-1) , which lasted an average of about 1 min to reduce the temperature below the threshold value of 30 °C. A total of 85-90 hL (from 0.8 to 0.9 mm) of water per hectare per day was required. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. COLONIZATION OF GRAPE BERRIES BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE GENUS ALTERNARIA AND THEIR OCCURRENCE IN THE STUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Mašková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the mycobiota occurring on the grapes originating from Slovak wine-growing regions. The main focus was to discover the presence of the representatives of the genus Alternaria on/in grape berries and in the stum.Using the direct method of placing grape berries on the culture medium was analyzed their total and endogenous (after superficial sterilization mycobiota. Plate dilution method was used for stum mycobiota determination. Alternaria spp. colonized grapeson the surface and inside with anisolation frequency (Fr of 100%. Moreover, 100% of the stum samples were positive for the presence of this genus. Their relative density (RD was 44.9% (unsterilized grapes, 57.9% (sterilized grapes and 6.35% (stum. In all the areas analysed we recorded 4 species-groups: A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria and A. tenuissima. With the highest Fr and RD occurredA. tenuissima species-group, followed by A. alternata and A. arborescens species-groups. All of them are potential producers of mycotoxins as alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, tenuazonic acid, altertoxin I, II and III.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE PEDICEL DETACHING AND CRUSHING FORCES OF GRAPE BERRIES TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL MECHANICAL HARVESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carrara

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting of grapes is an important operation in order to contain the operating costs of the viticultural farms. One of the limits of the mechanical harvesting of grapes is represented by the production of juice that is mostly due to the energetic action of the shakers that knocks against the grape clusters to allow the detachment of the berries. As a consequence, under the same structural conditions of the plants, the production of grape juice depends on the physical-mechanical characteristics of the berry and particularly on its breaking strength and on its detachment from the pedicel. In this paper the strength of the berry to the compression force is evaluated through the measurement of the crushing force and the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel measuring its detaching force. The study was performed on two variety of grapes very widespread in Sicily: Catarratto comune and Nero d’Avola. The research showed that the evaluation of the breaking strength of the berry and its pedicel detachment resistance, correlated with the sugar content, allows to find out the optimal mechanical harvesting time in order to obtain a low production of grape juice and, then, wines of quality from mechanically harvested grapes.

  14. Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ryan J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Bobek, Gabriele; Price, William S

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content. In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content. This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and

  15. Optimisation of techniques for quantification of Botrytis cinerea in grape berries and receptacles by quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to Botrytis cinerea infection of grape berries have identified limitations to current techniques. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two grinding methods, two grape or...

  16. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ascorbate metabolism and the developmental demand for tartaric and oxalic acids in ripening grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soole Kathleen L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fresh fruits are well accepted as a good source of the dietary antioxidant ascorbic acid (Asc, Vitamin C. However, fruits such as grapes do not accumulate exceptionally high quantities of Asc. Grapes, unlike most other cultivated fruits do however use Asc as a precursor for the synthesis of both oxalic (OA and tartaric acids (TA. TA is a commercially important product in the wine industry and due to its acidifying effect on crushed juice it can influence the organoleptic properties of the wine. Despite the interest in Asc accumulation in fruits, little is known about the mechanisms whereby Asc concentration is regulated. The purpose of this study was to gain insights into Asc metabolism in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera c.v. Shiraz. and thus ascertain whether the developmental demand for TA and OA synthesis influences Asc accumulation in the berry. Results We provide evidence for developmentally differentiated up-regulation of Asc biosynthetic pathways and subsequent fluctuations in Asc, TA and OA accumulation. Rapid accumulation of Asc and a low Asc to dehydroascorbate (DHA ratio in young berries was co-ordinated with up-regulation of three of the primary Asc biosynthetic (Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway genes. Immature berries synthesised Asc in-situ from the primary pathway precursors D-mannose and L-galactose. Immature berries also accumulated TA in early berry development in co-ordination with up-regulation of a TA biosynthetic gene. In contrast, ripe berries have up-regulated expression of the alternative Asc biosynthetic pathway gene D-galacturonic acid reductase with only residual expression of Smirnoff-Wheeler Asc biosynthetic pathway genes and of the TA biosynthetic gene. The ripening phase was further associated with up-regulation of Asc recycling genes, a secondary phase of increased accumulation of Asc and an increase in the Asc to DHA ratio. Conclusion We demonstrate strong developmental regulation of Asc biosynthetic

  18. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.): e0151276

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu Liu; Jinlu Li; Yuping Tian; Mingan Liao; Zhenwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

      Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries...

  19. Colonization of grapes berries by Alternaria sp. and their ability to produce mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research focused on identify the Alternaria species from grapes (surface sterilized berries and non-surface sterilized berries of Slovak origin and characterize their toxinogenic potential in in vitro conditions. We analyzed 47 samples of grapes, harvested in years 2011, 2012 and 2013 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species, the method of direct plating berries and surface-sterilized berries (using 1 % freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar was used. For each analysis was used 50 berries. Only undamaged berries have been used for analysis. The cultivation was carried at 25 ±1°C, for 5 to 7 days in dark. After incubation, the colonies of Alternaria were transferred on PCA - potato-carrot agar and CYA - Czapek-yeast extract agar and cultured for 7 days at room temperature and natural light. A total 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from grapes berries: Alternaria alternata (1369 isolates, Alternaria arborescens (734 isolates, Alternaria infectoria (143 isolates, and Alternaria tenuissima (3579 isolates. According to European Union legislation mycotoxins produced by species genus Alternaria are not monitored in foods and food commodities. Mycotoxins such as alternariol and alternariol monomethylether are mutagenic and genotoxic in various in vitro systems. Selected strains were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins in in vitro conditions by TLC method. The ability to produce altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol in in vitro conditions was detected in isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria arborescens and Alternaria tenuissima species-groups. Isolates of Alternaria alternata species-group (44 tested isolates were able to produce altenuene (24 isolates, alternariol monomethyleter (42 isolates

  20. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  1. Extraction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Phenolics in Sauvignon Blanc as Affected by Grape Harvesting and Processing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Jaspers, Marlene; Hodge, Simon; Grose, Claire; Trought, Mike

    2017-07-12

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the two main groups of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins found in wine that cause protein haze formation. Previous studies have found that phenolics are also involved in protein haze formation. In this study, Sauvignon Blanc grapes were harvested and processed in two vintages (2011 and 2012) by three different treatments: (1) hand harvesting with whole bunch press (H-WB); (2) hand harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (H-DC-3); and (3) machine harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (M-DC-3). The juices were collected at three pressure levels (0.4 MPa, 0.8 MPa and 1.6 MPa), some juices were fermented in 750 mL of wine bottles to determine the bentonite requirement for the resulting wines. Results showed juices of M-DC-3 had significantly lower concentration of proteins, including PR proteins, compared to those of H-DC-3, likely due to the greater juice yield of M-DC-3 and interactions between proteins and phenolics. Juices from the 0.8-1.6 MPa pressure and resultant wines had the highest concentration of phenolics but the lowest concentration of TLPs. This supported the view that TLPs are released at low pressure as they are mainly present in grape pulp but additional extraction of phenolics largely present in skin occurs at higher pressing pressure. Wine protein stability tests showed a positive linear correlation between bentonite requirement and the concentration of chitinases, indicating the possibility of predicting bentonite requirement by quantification of chitinases. This study contributes to an improved understanding of extraction of haze-forming PR proteins and phenolics that can influence bentonite requirement for protein stabilization.

  2. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esteso, María José; Vilella-Antón, María Teresa; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Valero, María Luz; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2013-10-24

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7 mm-to-15 mm) and onset of ripening (15 mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up new lines to decipher the

  4. Sugar uptake by the grape berry: A note on the absorption pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriedemann, P E

    1969-06-01

    (3)H-glucose was fed to excised Sultana grape berries via their pedicels for up to 5 hours. Autoradigraphy showed that the label was distributed throughout the fruit within 1 hour. Microautoradiography of tissue sections taken at a number of points showed that within the pedicel the walls of cortical cells had become heavily labelled, suggesting that the cortical cell walls offered a diffusion pathway for the solutes entering the vascular system from the external aqueous solution. Transport along the pedicel was confined to the central vascular tissue with little radioactivity occurring in the cortical cells. Within the pericarp, the vascular bundles and walls of nearby parenchyma cells had become heavily labelled, indicating that the labelled solute was present within the vicinity of cell walls. The general pattern of (3)H-glucose accumulation by excised berries was similar to the deposition pattern of (24)C-labelled photosynthate within attached fruit.

  5. Tillage Reduces Survival of Grape Berry Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), via Burial Rather Than Mechanical Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Jason M; Isaacs, Rufus; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is a key pest of vineyards in eastern North America that overwinters as pupae in leaf litter on the vineyard floor. This presents an opportunity for tillage to disturb and bury the pupae, providing a potential nonchemical approach to control of this pest. Using a Lilleston-style rotary cultivator, we determined the distribution of pupae within the soil profile after single tillage passes, measured the type and severity of damage inflicted on pupae, and investigated how these effects on pupae influenced their survival. Survivorship of pupae recovered from the vineyard immediately after tillage and held until emergence was not significantly different from those recovered from an untilled control area, indicating little effect of mechanical damage on this pest. However, a single pass of the tillage implement buried three-quarters of pupae under at least 1 cm of soil. A laboratory experiment to recreate these conditions resulted in significant increase in mortality when pupae were buried in more than 1 cm of sand. We conclude that 1) interference with adult emergence of diapausing pupae via burial is the primary mechanism by which tillage controls grape berry moth, and 2) efforts to optimize the impact of tillage on grape berry moth populations should focus on maximizing the number of pupae buried. We discuss the potential integration of tillage into different vineyard management systems to enhance pest management. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-term impact of deficit irrigation on the physical quality of berries in 'Crimson Seedless' table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa, Maria R; de la Rosa, Jose M; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Dodd, Ian C; Domingo, Rafael; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    In table grapes, berry firmness influences consumer acceptance so it is important to avoid berry shattering and dehydration during their post-harvest life. Since studies of irrigation effects on table grape quality are comparatively rare, sensory evaluation aimed to identify high-quality berries obtained under different deficit irrigation treatments. A 3-year study examined the effects of deficit irrigation strategies on some physical quality attributes at harvest, after 28 days of cold storage at 0 °C and after an additional shelf-life period of 3 days at 15 °C. Control vines were irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (110% of crop evapo-transpiration), while both regulated deficit irrigation treatment (RDI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD) treatments applied 35% less water post-veraison. The null irrigation treatment (NI) only received natural precipitation (72% less water than control vines). Total yield and physical quality at harvest were not significantly affected by RDI or PRD. Only severe deficit (NI) decreased berry size, and this treatment had the most dehydrated berries and the worst sensory scores post-harvest. After cold storage, increased berry shattering of the PRD treatment was correlated with lower leaf xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentration at the time of harvest. Overall quality, especially stem browning, determined the shelf-life, and longer storage duration tended to diminish treatment differences. Only NI clusters showed lower quality than their irrigated counterparts. Neither RDI nor PRD had any noticeable effect on berry quality at the end of cold storage and shelf-life, with the slight differences detected between these treatments related to stem browning and dehydration. Sensory results were similar in RDI and PRD, which provided grapes that were more acceptable to consumers than the control. Thus, it is possible to decrease irrigation of table grapes without adversely affecting the physical quality of the berries. © 2014

  7. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  8. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  9. Tannin Composition of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot Grapes from the Bordeaux Area for Different Vintages (2006 to 2009 and Comparison to Tannin Profile of Five 2009 Vintage Mediterranean Grapes Varieties

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    Kleopatra Chira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009. The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise. The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009 revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  10. Transcriptome analysis during ripening of table grape berry cv. Thompson Seedless.

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    Iván Balic

    Full Text Available Ripening is one of the key processes associated with the development of major organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This process has been extensively characterized in climacteric fruit, in contrast with non-climacteric fruit such as grape, where the process is less understood. With the aim of studying changes in gene expression during ripening of non-climacteric fruit, an Illumina based RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed on four developmental stages, between veraison and harvest, on table grapes berries cv Thompson Seedless. Functional analysis showed a transcriptional increase in genes related with degradation processes of chlorophyll, lipids, macromolecules recycling and nucleosomes organization; accompanied by a decrease in genes related with chloroplasts integrity and amino acid synthesis pathways. It was possible to identify several processes described during leaf senescence, particularly close to harvest. Before this point, the results suggest a high transcriptional activity associated with the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and cell wall metabolism, which can be related to growth of berries and firmness loss characteristic to this stage of development. This high metabolic activity could be associated with an increase in the transcription of genes related with glycolysis and respiration, unexpected for a non-climacteric fruit ripening.

  11. Mould and yeast flora in fresh berries, grapes and citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Katsoudas, Eugenia

    2005-11-15

    Fresh fruits are prone to fungal contamination in the field, during harvest, transport, marketing, and with the consumer. It is important to identify fungal contaminants in fresh fruits because some moulds can grow and produce mycotoxins on these commodities while certain yeasts and moulds can cause infections or allergies. In this study, 251 fresh fruit samples including several varieties of grapes, strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, and various citrus fruits were surface-disinfected, incubated at room temperature for up to 14 days without supplemental media, and subsequently examined for mould and yeast growth. The level of contamination (percent of contaminated items/sample) varied depending on the type of fruit. All raspberry and blackberry samples were contaminated at levels ranging from 33% to 100%, whereas 95% of the blueberry samples supported mould growth at levels between 10% and 100% of the tested berries, and 97% of strawberry samples showed fungal growth on 33-100% of tested berries. The most common moulds isolated from these commodities were Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus (in strawberries), Alternaria, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium followed by yeasts, Trichoderma and Aureobasidium. Thirty-five percent of the grape samples tested were contaminated and supported fungal growth; the levels of contamination ranged from 9% to 80%. The most common fungi spoiling grapes were Alternaria, B. cinerea and Cladosporium. Eighty-three percent of the citrus fruit samples showed fungal growth at levels ranging from 25% to 100% of tested fruits. The most common fungi in citrus fruits were Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium and yeasts. Less common were Trichoderma, Geotrichum and Rhizopus.

  12. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  13. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolino, Alberto; Nobuta, Kan; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-05-12

    Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was approximately 49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not

  14. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

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    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Grant R; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Tillett, Richard L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Pezzotti, Mario

    2014-12-19

    Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berry color and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of this ripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages of ripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays. The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were a large number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abiotic stress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that there were statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved in ethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimal fruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade of ERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene, senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcript abundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin. A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berries revealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involving chemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcript abundance of genes involved in

  16. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom

  17. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study of ripening among berries of the grape cluster reveals an altered transcriptional programme and enhanced ripening rate in delayed berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthu, Satyanarayana; O'Neil, Shawn T; Di, Yanming; Ansarolia, Mitra; Megraw, Molly; Deluc, Laurent G

    2014-11-01

    Transcriptional studies in relation to fruit ripening generally aim to identify the transcriptional states associated with physiological ripening stages and the transcriptional changes between stages within the ripening programme. In non-climacteric fruits such as grape, all ripening-related genes involved in this programme have not been identified, mainly due to the lack of mutants for comparative transcriptomic studies. A feature in grape cluster ripening (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir), where all berries do not initiate the ripening at the same time, was exploited to study their shifted ripening programmes in parallel. Berries that showed marked ripening state differences in a véraison-stage cluster (ripening onset) ultimately reached similar ripeness states toward maturity, indicating the flexibility of the ripening programme. The expression variance between these véraison-stage berry classes, where 11% of the genes were found to be differentially expressed, was reduced significantly toward maturity, resulting in the synchronization of their transcriptional states. Defined quantitative expression changes (transcriptional distances) not only existed between the véraison transitional stages, but also between the véraison to maturity stages, regardless of the berry class. It was observed that lagging berries complete their transcriptional programme in a shorter time through altered gene expressions and ripening-related hormone dynamics, and enhance the rate of physiological ripening progression. Finally, the reduction in expression variance of genes can identify new genes directly associated with ripening and also assess the relevance of gene activity to the phase of the ripening programme. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

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    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  20. Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid accumulation in 'Chardonnay' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Nan; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2017-07-29

    Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Fifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages. The rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as "microbial terroir." The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  2. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

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    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  3. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L..

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    Xu Liu

    Full Text Available Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.. The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  4. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  5. 1H NMR and chemometrics to characterize mature grape berries in four wine-growing areas in Bordeaux, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Giuliano E; Gaudillere, Jean-Pierre; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Lavialle, Olivier; Maucourt, Mickael; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Rolin, Dominique

    2005-08-10

    The biochemical composition of grape berries depends on the cultivar genome and is influenced by environmental conditions and growing practices, which vary according to origin and "terroir" (French word accounting for the factors of climate, soil, and cultural practices on grape and wine quality). The components currently measured to determine the potential quality of grapes for wine-making at harvest are sugars, acidity, pH, and total phenolics, referred to as "classic analysis". The aim of this work was to establish metabolic profiles using both conventional physicochemical analyses and 1H NMR spectrometry of the skin and pulp of mature berry extracts in order in four appellations situated in different locations in southern-western France (Bordeaux). Principal component analysis was applied to the physiochemical and 1H NMR data to investigate the variability of the grape composition and to characterize groups of samples. A significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulps or skins in relation to their terroir was observed. Physicochemical analyses were more discriminant than 1H NMR data, but NMR spectroscopy allowed metabolic finger-printings using identified metabolites and some still nonattributed resonances.

  6. Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D. M.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Mallikarjunan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made wi...

  7. Experimental study of physical and rheological properties of grape juice using different temperatures and concentrations. Part I: Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castilhos, Maurício Bonatto Machado; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; de Carvalho, Gisandro Reis; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R 2 =0.99957 and relative error=7.77%). The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior (n<1). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations. The flow activation energy ranged from 28.87 (45.0Brix) to 38.05KJ/mol (37.0Brix) with a R 2 =0.9798 for both cases. Density and specific heat were influenced by both temperature and concentration; however, thermal conductivity was only influenced by concentration. The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates will be useful as wine chaptalization agent in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impedance of the Grape Berry Cuticle as a Novel Phenotypic Trait to Estimate Resistance to Botrytis Cinerea

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    Katja Herzog

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Warm and moist weather conditions during berry ripening provoke Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea causing notable bunch rot on susceptible grapevines with the effect of reduced yield and wine quality. Resistance donors of genetic loci to increase B. cinerea resistance are widely unknown. Promising traits of resistance are represented by physical features like the thickness and permeability of the grape berry cuticle. Sensor-based phenotyping methods or genetic markers are rare for such traits. In the present study, the simple-to-handle I-sensor was developed. The sensor enables the fast and reliable measurement of electrical impedance of the grape berry cuticles and its epicuticular waxes (CW. Statistical experiments revealed highly significant correlations between relative impedance of CW and the resistance of grapevines to B. cinerea. Thus, the relative impedance Zrel of CW was identified as the most important phenotypic factor with regard to the prediction of grapevine resistance to B. cinerea. An ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed a R2McFadden of 0.37 and confirmed the application of Zrel of CW for the prediction of bunch infection and in this way as novel phenotyping trait. Applying the I-sensor, a preliminary QTL region was identified indicating that the novel phenotypic trait is as well a valuable tool for genetic analyses.

  9. Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-González, Luis; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pastenes, Claudio

    2016-08-01

    ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of biogenic amine and polyphenol profiles of grape berries and wines obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices.

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    Tassoni, Annalisa; Tango, Nunzio; Ferri, Maura

    2013-08-15

    The bio-active compounds present in food and beverages have a high potential influence on the future health of humans. The levels of biogenic amines, anthocyanins, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were measured in white (Pignoletto) and red (Sangiovese) grape berries and wines from the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) obtained following conventional, organic and biodynamic agricultural and oenological practices. No significant difference was shown among the samples coming from different agricultural and winemaking practices. Principal Component Analysis was also performed. Biogenic amine amounts were higher in red than in white berries, while in the wines an opposite trend was observed, with histamine, tyramine and putrescine being the most abundant in Pignoletto wines. Red grapes and wines were richer in anthocyanins and showed higher antioxidant activity than white ones. The total level of polyphenols was similar in red and white berries, but with different metabolite profiles depending on the grape variety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variable responses of two VlMYBA gene promoters to ABA and ACC in Kyoho grape berries.

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    Zhai, Xiawan; Zhang, Yushu; Kai, Wenbin; Liang, Bin; Jiang, Li; Du, Yangwei; Wang, Juan; Sun, Yufei; Leng, Ping

    2017-04-01

    The VlMYBA subfamily of transcription factors has been known to be the functional regulators in anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes. In this study, the expressions of the VlMYBA1-2 and VlMYBA 2 genes, and the responses of the VlMYBA1-2/2 promoters to ABA and ACC treatments in Kyoho grape berries are examined through quantitative real-time PCR analysis and the transient expression assay. The results show that the expressions of VlMYBA1-2/2 increase dramatically after véraison and reach their highest levels when the berries are nearly fully ripe. Exogenous ABA promotes the expressions of VlMYBA1-2/2, whereas the ACC treatment increases the expression of VlMYBA2, however, it has no effect on VlMYBA1-2. The ABA treatment has a faster and stronger effect on berry pigmentation than ACC does. The VlMYBA1-2 promoter sequence contains two ABA response elements (ABRE) but no ethylene response element (ERE), whereas the VlMYBA2 promoter sequence contains two ABRE and one ERE in the upstream region of the start codon. The VlMYBA2 promoter can be activated by both ABA (more effective) and ACC, whereas the VlMYBA1-2 promoter can be activated by ABA only. In sum, ABA can promote the coloring of Kyoho grape by the promotion of VlMYBA1-2/2 transcriptions via activating the response of their promoters to ABA, whereas ethylene only regulates VlMYBA2 through the response activation of its promoter to ACC which partially enhances the coloring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of trap design on upwind flight behavior and capture of female grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a kairomone lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Linn, Charles E; Zhang, Aijun; Teal, Peter E A; Knight, Alan L; Roelofs, Wendell L; Loeb, Gregory M

    2013-02-01

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure have successfully been used for monitoring female grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but low capture rates as well as difficulty in servicing these traps makes them unsuitable for commercial use. We compared the performance of different trap designs in a flight tunnel and in a vineyard by using a 7-component synthetic kairomone blend, with a focus on trap visual cues. In flight tunnel experiments, a clear delta trap performed better than other traps. When we tested clear delta, green delta, or clear wing traps baited with a cut grape shoot, >50% of female grape berry moths made complete upwind flights. However, the clear delta trap was the only design that resulted in female moths entering the trap. Similar results were observed when females were tested with different traps (clear delta, green delta, white delta, clear wing, or green wing traps) baited with the kairomone lure. Adding a visual pattern that mimicked grape shoots to the outside surface of the clear delta trap resulted in 66% of the females that made upwind flights entering the trap. However, the positive effect of adding a visual pattern to the trap was not observed in a vineyard setting, where clear delta traps with or without a visual pattern caught similar numbers of females. Still, the number of male and female grape berry moths captured in clear delta traps with or without a visual pattern was not significantly different from the number of male and female grape berry moths captured in panel traps, suggesting that the use of these delta traps could be a less cumbersome alternative to oil-coated panel traps for monitoring female grape berry moth.

  13. In-depth glycoproteomic characterisation of grape berry vacuolar invertase using a combination of mass spectrometry-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovasse, Agnès; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Marchal, Richard; Jégou, Sandrine; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Vacuolar invertase is a key enzyme of sugar metabolism in grape berries. A full characterisation of this highly N-glycosylated protein is required to help understand its biological and biochemical significance in grapes. We have developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomic approach wherein deglycosylated peptides are analysed by LC-MS/MS, while intact glycopeptides are characterised using a dedicated MS method to determine the attachment sites and micro-heterogeneity. For grape invertase, in parallel with deglycosylated peptides analysis, different enzymatic digestions were performed and glycopeptide detection was improved by enrichment method, nanoLC-MS and oxonium glycan ions. This MS-based glycoproteomic approach demonstrates that vacuolar invertase is glycosylated at all twelve potential N-glycosylation sites. Glycosylation is heterogeneous, with twelve glycoforms identified at six of the sites. The identification of several types of N-glycans is a major result to correlate with the surface and foaming properties of wine, the solubility, allergenicity, and protease resistance of wine proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flavonoid Interaction with a Chitinase from Grape Berry Skin: Protein Identification and Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity

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    Antonio Filippi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an antibody raised against a peptide sequence of rat bilitranslocase (anti-peptide Ab was tested on microsomal proteins obtained from red grape berry skin. Previously, this antibody had demonstrated to recognize plant membrane proteins associated with flavonoid binding and transport. Immuno-proteomic assays identified a number of proteins reacting with this particular antibody, suggesting that the flavonoid binding and interaction may be extended not only to carriers of these molecules, but also to enzymes with very different functions. One of these proteins is a pathogenesis-related (PR class IV chitinase, whose in vitro chitinolytic activity was modulated by two of the most representative flavonoids of grape, quercetin and catechin, as assessed by both spectrophotometric and fluorimetric assays in grape microsomes and commercial enzyme preparations. The effect of these flavonoids on the catalysis and its kinetic parameters was also evaluated, evidencing that they determine a hormetic dose-dependent response. These results highlight the importance of flavonoids not only as antioxidants or antimicrobial effectors, but also as modulators of plant growth and stress response. Implications of the present suggestion are here discussed in the light of environment and pesticide-reduction concerns.

  15. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno Physico-chemical composition of wine grapes berries in summer and winter growing seasons

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    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.This work aimed to evaluate some ripening parameters of cultivars Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc submitted to the double-pruning management in Cordislândia, in the coffee region of the south of Minas Gerais State. Grapevines were cultivated in two different growing seasons, spring-summer from August to January and autumn-winter from January to July. Quality parameters such as berry transversal and longitudinal diameters, acidity, tartaric and malic acids, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, glucose, fructose and sucrose were evaluated. All cultivars showed higher pH, soluble solids

  16. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

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    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  17. Abscisic acid, sucrose, and auxin coordinately regulate berry ripening process of the Fujiminori grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Xie, Zhenqiang; Wang, Chen; Shangguan, Lingfei; Qian, Ning; Cui, Mengjie; Liu, Zhongjie; Zheng, Ting; Wang, Mengqi; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of abscisic acid (ABA), sucrose, and auxin on grape fruit development and to assess the mechanism of these three factors on the grape fruit ripening process. Different concentrations of ABA, sucrose, and auxin were used to treat the grape fruit, and the ripening-related indices, such as physiological and molecular level parameters, were analyzed. The activity of BG protein activity was analyzed during the fruit development. Sucrose, ABA, and auxin influenced the grape fruit sugar accumulation in different ways, as well as the volatile compounds, anthocyanin content, and fruit firmness. ABA and sucrose induced, but auxin blocked, the ripening-related gene expression levels, such as softening genes PE, PG, PL, and CELL, anthocyanin genes DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT, and aroma genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. ABA, sucrose, and glucose induced the fruit dry weight accumulation, and auxin mainly enhanced fruit dry weight through seed weight accumulation. In the early development of grape, starch was the main energy storage; in the later, it was glucose and fructose. Sucrose metabolism pathway-related gene expression levels were significant for glucose and fructose accumulation. BG protein activity was important in the regulation of grape ABA content levels. ABA plays a core role in the grape fruit development; sucrose functions in fruit development through two pathways: one was ABA dependent, the other ABA independent. Auxin blocked ABA accumulation to regulate the fruit development process.

  18. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

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    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  19. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

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    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  20. Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Networks in the Grape Berry Illustrate That it Takes More Than Flavonoids to Fight Against Ultraviolet Radiation.

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    José Tomás Matus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly challenged by environmental fluctuations. In response, they have developed a wide range of morphological and biochemical adaptations committed to ameliorate the effects of abiotic stress. When exposed to higher solar radiation levels, plants activate the synthesis of a large set of enzymes and secondary metabolites as part of a complex sunscreen and antioxidant defense mechanism. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. has become a widely-used system for studying adaptive responses to this type of stress since changes in berry composition, positively influenced by increased ultraviolet (UV radiation levels, improve the quality of wines subsequently produced. Despite the fact that most of the attention has been directed towards the synthesis of flavonoids, recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have shown that stilbenoids and isoprenoids (e.g. terpenes and carotenoids are also an important part of the grape UV-response machinery. This minireview focuses on the latest findings referring to the metabolic responses of grapes to UV radiation and proposes a model for its transcriptional control. Depending on the berry developmental stage and the type of radiation (i.e. irradiance level, exposure length, increased UV levels activate different metabolic pathways through the activity of master regulators belonging to the basic Leucine Zipper Domain (bZIP and R2R3-MYB transcription factor families. This transcriptional control is influenced by the interaction of other environmental factors such as light, temperature or soil water availability. In grapevine, phenylpropanoids are part of, but are not the whole story, in the fight against radiation damage.

  1. Influence of the farming system on the epiphytic yeasts and yeast-like fungi colonizing grape berries during the ripening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Guilherme; Vallance, Jessica; Mercier, Anne; Albertin, Warren; Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Rey, Patrice; Lonvaud, Aline; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2014-05-02

    Grape berries are colonized by a wide array of epiphytic microorganisms such as yeast and filamentous fungi. This microbiota plays a major role in crop health and also interferes with the winemaking process. In this study, culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to investigate the dynamics and diversity of the yeast and yeast-like microorganisms on the grape berry surface during maturation and the influence of cropping systems in this microflora. The results showed a significant impact of both the farming system and the maturity stage on the epiphytic yeast and yeast-like community. A quantitative approach based on counting cultivable populations indicated an increase in the yeast and yeast-like population during the grape ripening process, reaching a maximum when the berries became overripe. The cultivable yeast and yeast-like population also varied significantly depending on the farming system. Microorganism counts were significantly higher for organically- than conventionally-farmed grapes. The yeast and yeast-like community structures were analysed by culture independent methods, using CE-SSCP. The results revealed changes in the genetic structure of the yeast and yeast-like community throughout the ripening process, as well as the impact of the farming system. Copper-based fungicide treatments were revealed as the main factor responsible for the differences in microbial population densities between samples of different farming systems. The results showed a negative correlation between copper levels and yeast and yeast-like populations, providing evidence that copper inhibited this epiphytic community. Taken together, our results showed that shifts in the microbial community were related to changes in the composition of the grape-berry surface, particularly sugar exudation and the occurrence of copper residues from pesticide treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of the farming system and vine variety on yeast communities associated with grape berries.

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    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Arroyo, Teresa; Serrano, Ana; Tello, Javier; Aporta, Irene; Vélez, María Dolores; Valero, Eva

    2011-01-31

    Wine production in most countries is based on the use of commercial strains leading to the colonisation of the wineries by these strains with the consequent reduction of autochthonous biodiversity. This implies that wine styles could therefore become standardised. The vineyard could be an important source of native yeasts of oenological interest. For this reason the objective of this study was to compare two agronomic conditions with the aim of preserving yeast biodiversity in the vineyard. A three year sampling plan was designed to evaluate the influence of different agronomic parameters on the biodiversity of fermentative grape yeasts. Thus two vineyards, one organic and one conventional, with three different grape varieties (Shiraz, Grenache and Barbera) were chosen. In total, 27 samples were collected from both vineyards. Of these, 1080 colonies were isolated and a total of 9 species were identified. The strains identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were genotyped by microsatellite analysis obtaining nine different electrophoretic patterns. Classical ecology indexes were used to obtain the richness (S), the biodiversity (H') and the dominance (D) of the species studied. The results indicated a clear influence on grape associated yeast diversity of the phytosanitary treatment used in the vineyard. This is the first time that classical ecology indexes have been used to study the ecology of the spontaneous fermentation of grape musts and the species Candida sorbosa and Pichia toletana have been described in vineyards of the Madrid winegrowing region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Potassium application to table grape clusters after veraison increases soluble solids by enhancing berry water loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium salt solutions were applied twice to clusters of several table grapes cultivars, after the onset of veraison and three weeks later. Potassium bicarbonate, potassium sorbate, and glycine-complexed potassium, a commercial fertilizer product, increased soluble solids content consistently, whi...

  4. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Impact of reduced atmospheric CO2 and varied potassium supply on carbohydrate and potassium distribution in grapevine and grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Zelmari A; Walker, Rob R; Deloire, Alain J; Barril, Célia; Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-11-01

    To assess the robustness of the apparent sugar-potassium relationship during ripening of grape berries, a controlled-environment study was conducted on Shiraz vines involving ambient and reduced (by 34%) atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and standard and increased (by 67%) soil potassium applications from prior to the onset of ripening. The leaf net photoassimilation rate was decreased by 35% in the reduced CO2 treatment. The reduction in CO2 delayed the onset of ripening, but at harvest the sugar content of the berry pericarp was similar to that of plants grown in ambient conditions. The potassium content of the berry pericarp in the reduced CO2 treatment was however higher than for the ambient CO2. Berry potassium, sugar and water content were strongly correlated, regardless of treatments, alluding to a ternary link during ripening. Root starch content was lower under reduced CO2 conditions, and therefore likely acted as a source of carbohydrates during berry ripening. Root carbohydrate reserve replenishment could also have been moderated under reduced CO2 at the expense of berry ripening. Given that root potassium concentration was less in the vines grown in the low CO2 atmosphere, these results point toward whole-plant fine-tuning of carbohydrate and potassium partitioning aimed at optimising fruit ripening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinctive symptoms differentiate four common types of berry shrivel disorder in grape

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnow, Mark N.; Matthews, Mark A.; Smith, Rhonda J; Benz, Jason; Weber, Ed; Shackel, Ken A

    2010-01-01

    There are several causes of shriveled fruit in vineyards, including sunburn, dehydration, bunchstem necrosis (BSN), and a recently described sugar accumulation disorder (SAD). Due to the similarities in fruit appearance these disorders are often confused with one another, but they can easily be distinguished by the location and/or composition of the shriveled fruit and by the condition of the rachis. Sunburn is typically exhibited only on berries that are exposed to direct sunlight, and BSN...

  7. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

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    Sweetman Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest. Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the

  8. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Crystal; Wong, Darren Cj; Ford, Christopher M; Drew, Damian P

    2012-12-11

    Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12 differentially expressed

  9. Organ-specific transcription of putative flavonol synthase genes of grapevine and effects of plant hormones and shading on flavonol biosynthesis in grape berry skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akiko; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Aramaki, Isao; Hashizume, Katsumi

    2006-03-01

    In order to investigate the control mechanism of flavonol biosynthesis of grapevine, we obtained five genomic sequences (FLS1 to FLS5) of putative flavonol synthase genes from Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The mRNA of five FLSs accumulated in flower buds and flowers, while the mRNA of FLS2, FLS4, and FLS5 accumulated in small berry skins and then decreased toward veraison. At the ripening stage, the mRNA of only FLS4 and FLS5 accumulated again. This change in mRNA accumulation did not contradict the flavonol accumulation in the berry skins. Shading of the berries completely inhibited the increase in flavonol content and mRNA accumulation of FLS4, but did not affect the mRNA accumulation of FLS5. The effects of light and plant hormones on flavonol accumulation were different from those on anthocyanin accumulation. Thus flavonol biosynthesis appears to be under a different control system from that of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  10. Effects of severity of post-flowering leaf removal on berry growth and composition of three red Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown under semiarid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotseridis, Yorgos; Georgiadou, Afroditi; Tikos, Panagiotis; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Koundouras, Stefanos

    2012-06-13

    The effects of the severity of post-flowering leaf removal on the growth and phenolic composition of berry skin and seeds were studied in three Vitis vinifera L. genotypes over two consecutive seasons, 2007 and 2008. The study was conducted in a commercial vertical shoot positioned (VSP)-trained nonirrigated vineyard of northern Greece, planted with cultivars Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Sangiovese. Three different severities of leaf removal in the fruit zone were applied manually at berry set: nondefoliated (ND), removal of the lateral shoots of the first six basal nodes (LR), and full removal of the total leaf area (main leaves and lateral shoots) of the first six basal nodes (FR). Grape samples were obtained at commercial harvest. Leaf removal decreased yield per vine and cluster weight in Merlot and Sangiovese. Cluster compactness was reduced with the severity of defoliation only in Merlot, due to a decrease in berry number per cluster; berry fresh weight was unaffected in both cultivars. On the contrary, in Cabernet Sauvignon, yield was unaffected but berry size was restrained by leaf removal. Skin and seed mass followed variations in berry mass (except for seed mass in Sangiovese). Fruit zone leaf removal did not affect must soluble solids and increased titratable acidity only in Merlot. Defoliation increased skin anthocyanins in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon in the order FR > LR > ND but significantly reduced seed flavan-3-ols mainly as a result of the reduction in catechin and epicatechin amount. For these varieties, FR had lower seed flavan-3-ols than ND in both varieties, whereas LR had intermediate values. However, in Sangiovese, the highest seed phenolic content was recorded in LR. The results showed that post-flowering leaf removal improved the overall berry composition in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon but had limited effect in Sangiovese.

  11. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

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    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  12. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  13. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc The acidity in the vinification of Isabella, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Franc red grapes

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliados a evolução da acidez titulável, pH, ácido tartárico e potássio imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva, na descuba e após a fermentação alcoólica, a fermentação malolática e a estabilização tartárica, totalizando análises em cinco fases da vinificação. Os resultados mostraram uma evolução diferente da acidez, avaliados através do pH, da acidez titulável, do ácido tartárico e do potássio, na vinificação em tinto da uva Isabel em relação à Cabernet Sauvignon e à Cabernet Franc, nas fases compreendidas entre o esmagamento da uva e a descuba. O vinho Isabel se caracterizou por apresentar teores mais elevados de acidez titulável e ácido tartárico e mais baixos de potássio e pH, em relação aos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc.The acidity is an important sensory characteristic of the wine, and influences stability and collor. The insolubility of tartaric acid in the vinification by salt forms can change the titratable acidity and the pH of wines. This work evaluated the acidity evolution during the vinification of Isabella, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Cabernet Franc varieties in the Serra Gaucha region. The wines were elaborated by the microvinification process in the 1995 vintage. The evolution of titratable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, and potassium were analyzed in five phases of winemaking: immediately after crushing, after

  14. The Grapevine VvPMEI1 Gene Encodes a Novel Functional Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor Associated to Grape Berry Development.

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    Vincenzo Lionetti

    Full Text Available Pectin is secreted in a highly methylesterified form and partially de-methylesterified in the cell wall by pectin methylesterases (PMEs. PME activity is expressed during plant growth, development and stress responses. PME activity is controlled at the post-transcriptional level by proteins named PME inhibitors (PMEIs. We have identified, expressed and characterized VvPMEI1, a functional PME inhibitor of Vitis vinifera. VvPMEI1 typically affects the activity of plant PMEs and is inactive against microbial PMEs. The kinetics of PMEI-PME interaction, studied by surface plasmon resonance, indicates that the inhibitor strongly interacts with PME at apoplastic pH while the stability of the complex is reduced by increasing the pH. The analysis of VvPMEI1 expression in different grapevine tissues and during grape fruit development suggests that this inhibitor controls PME activity mainly during the earlier phase of berry development. A proteomic analysis performed at this stage indicates a PME isoform as possible target of VvPMEI1.

  15. Effect of climate on the quality and berry coloration of red globe grape variety with cold storage ability in Eğirdir/Isparta

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    Gargin Seckin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional climatic conditions can have a dramatic effect on the degree and rate of natural grape coloration and quality parameters. In this study it was aimed to evaluate effect of the climate for Red Globe variety cultivated in Lakes Region which is in Eğirdir town of Isparta city in Turkey. Red Globe grape variety was evaluated for quality and especially for berry skin coloration and cold storage ability. Study was done between 2013–2015. Vineyard was designed according to randomized block design with three replicates. Rational pergola system was used. Excellent berry coloration for Red Globe grape variety was determined and average quality parameters yield per vine (7.0–9.8 kg, soluble sugar content %16.–17.6 titratable acidity (4.2–4.4 g/lt, single berry weight (9.0–10.2 g, and phenological observations were done. Yield and other quality parameters were evaluated well in this period. Grapes were stored in cold storage (NA conditions with SO2 and without SO2 pads after harvest. Quality changes were determined in storage period by 1 month interval, it was carried out with weight loses, fruit skin color, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, sensual evaluations, microbiological and shelf life analyzes. It was evaluated that with SO2 pads Red Globe variety can be stored commercially up to 90–100 days. It was determined that climate of the region had a good positive effect on the excellent coloration and quality parameters and cold storage performance of the Red Globe.

  16. Long-term in vitro culture of grape berries and its application to assess the effects of sugar supply on anthocyanin accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhan Wu; Meddar, Messaoud; Renaud, Christel; Merlin, Isabelle; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Grape berry development and ripening are under complex regulation by the nutrients, hormones, and environment cues sensed by the berry. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying these types of regulation are poorly understood. A simplified but realistic model system that enables fruit growth conditions to be modulated easily will facilitate the deciphering of these mechanisms. Here, an in vitro culture system of intact detached grape berries was developed by coupling the production of greenhouse fruiting-cuttings and in vitro organ culture techniques. 13C and 15N labelling experiments showed that this system enables the intact detached berries actively to absorb and utilize carbon and nitrogen from the culture medium. It was further used to study the effects of sugars on anthocyanin accumulation. A sucrose concentration >2% could induce anthocyanin synthesis in the absence of additional exogenous abscisic acid. The higher the sucrose concentration, the earlier was the induction of anthocyanin accumulation. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose increased anthocyanin accumulation, with glucose and fructose being more effective than sucrose. This increase was not due to an increase in its precursor level, since the phenylalanine content was decreased by a high sugar supply. Instead, genome-wide transcriptome analysis suggests that the sugar-induced enhancement of anthocyanin accumulation results from altered expression of regulatory and structural genes (especially UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase), together with massive reprogramming in signalling transduction pathways. This in vitro system may serve to study the response of berry composition to nutrient factors and hormones, and their interaction with environmental factors (e.g. light and temperature), which can all be finely tuned and controlled. PMID:24477640

  17. The diversity of yeasts associated with grapes and musts of the Strekov winegrowing region, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemcová, Kornélia; Breierová, Emília; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Many different yeast species have been isolated from grapes and musts worldwide. The diversity and frequency of yeasts depend on a number of factors such as the grape variety, the physical damage of the grapes, the weather conditions and the chemical composition of must. A total of 366 isolates were associated with the three grape cultivars: Blue Frankish, Green Veltliner and Sauvignon blanc over four consecutive years. Yeast cultures were isolated from the grapes and from the fermenting musts after the first and seventh days. The ascomycetous yeasts of the genera Aureobasidium, Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Saccharomycopsis together with basidiomycetous yeasts of the genera Cryptococcus, Dioszegia, Filobasidium, Rhodotorula and Sporidiobolus were associated with the three grape varieties. Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii and Sporidiobolus pararoseus were found on the berries in significant amounts. P. kluyveri and P. kudriavzevii were more associated with the damaged grapes, whereas Sp. pararoseus with intact ones. H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima were present on both types of grapes almost equally. The yeast composition and quantitative representation of yeast species varied over the grape varieties and the years examined. Although the basidiomycetous species formed a significant proportion of the yeast population in some individual grape variety/year combinations, the ascomycetous species were dominant.

  18. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

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    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  20. Grape

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    ... this effect. Dark skin patches on the face (melasma). Early research suggests that taking grape seed extract ... infections, headache, and muscular problems. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about ...

  1. The effects of bud load and regulated deficit irrigation on sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Razakı table grape berries

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    Tangolar Semih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the effects of increased bud load and irrigation applications on berry quality of the Razakı table grape. Two Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI having different irrigation levels (RDI-I and RDI-II based on the growth stages, in addition to a non-irrigated control treatment together with two different bud load practices (K-normal and 2K-two-fold buds of the normal were examined for their effects on quality attributes such as sugar and organic acids contents, phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of the berries. The non-irrigated vines had highest sugar level (198.86 g/kg in the first year (2013 of the experiment whilst the sugar content of the berries was increased with irrigation (RDI-II in 2014. However the highest organic acid (7.10 g/kg was recorded from the RDI-II treatment in 2013 whereas those of from non-irrigated vines were highest (7.81 g/kg in 2014. Considering the sugar and organic acid content of the berries, bud load effects were not significant. The total phenolic acids were higher under non-irrigated and 2K bud load conditions. Antioxidant activity of berries was increased with RDI-I irrigation and 2K practices in the first year (2013 although no significant effect was recorded in the second year of the experiment. In all applications, glucose among the sugars, tartaric acid among the organic acids, catechin and epicatechin among the phenolic compounds were detected to be higher compared to other components in berries.

  2. Loss of anthocyanins and modification of the anthocyanin profiles in grape berries of Malbec and Bonarda grown under high temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosas, Inés; Ponce, María Teresa; Malovini, Emiliano; Deis, Leonor; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Cavagnaro, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Malbec and Bonarda are the two most widely cultivated grape varieties in Argentina, and their derived red wines are recognized worldwide, being their intense color a major quality trait. The temperature during fruit ripening conditions berries color intensity. In the main viticulture region of Malbec and Bonarda a 2-3°C increase in temperature has been predicted for the upcoming years as consequence of the global climate change. In the present study, this predicted temperature raise was simulated under field-crop conditions, and its effect on anthocyanin pigmentation in berries of Malbec and Bonarda was monitored by HPLC analysis throughout the ripening process, in two growing seasons. Additionally, expression levels of regulatory (MYBA1 and MYB4) and structural (UFGT and Vv3AT) anthocyanin genes were monitored in Malbec berry skins. Although cultivar-dependent time-course variation was observed for total anthocyanin content, in general, the berries of both cultivars grown under high temperature (HT) conditions had significantly lower total anthocyanins (∼28-41% reduction), and a higher proportion of acylated anthocyanins, than their respective controls. Expression of MYBA1 and UFGT, but not MYB4, was correlated with anthocyanin pigmentation at half ripening and harvest, whereas overexpression of the acyltransferase gene Vv3AT was associated with higher anthocyanin acylation in HT berries. These results suggest that color development and pigment modifications in Malbec berries under HT are regulated at transcriptional level by MYBA1, UFGT, and Vv3AT genes. These data contribute to the general understanding on the effect of high temperatures on anthocyanin biochemistry and genetic regulation, and may have direct implications in the production of high-quality wines from Malbec and Bonarda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the maturation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná

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    Gener Augusto Penso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The edaphoclimatic conditions in Southwest Parana differ from those in traditional wine-growing regions and have a major influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the grapes. Studies of grape maturation under these conditions may enable us to time the supply of raw materials for the elaboration of differentiated wines. This study aimed to quantify the ripening components of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, and Sangiovese grapes grown in Dois Vizinhos, PR, during the harvest seasons of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The grapevines were performed according to the espalier system and grafted on rootstock R110 (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Merlot’ and Paulsen 1103 (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Sangiovese’. The ripening of the grapes was monitored every ten days from the beginning of ripening (verasion until harvest. The following variables were evaluated: mass and diameter of berries, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TTA, total sugars, estimated alcohol content, anthocyanins, and flavanols. Sangiovese berries showed the greatest weight and diameter in the two years. The TSS was higher in the second year of evaluation for Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes. The pH decreased from the first year to the second for all cultivars. There were no significant differences in ATT among the cultivars. A higher content of flavanols was observed during the first growing season of study than during the second. Tempranillo grapes showed the highest concentration of anthocyanins during both growing seasons. Not all cultivars had enough acidity to permit wine stability and guard time. None of the cultivars required the chaptalization of must, presenting good potential of alcohol production.

  4. (1)H NMR foodomics reveals that the biodynamic and the organic cultivation managements produce different grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, Gianfranco; Trimigno, Alessia; Tessarin, Paola; Donnini, Silvia; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Capozzi, Francesco

    2016-12-15

    The increasing demand for natural foods and beverages, i.e. prepared by excluding synthetic chemicals along the whole production chain, has boosted the adoption of organic and biodynamic cultivation methods which are based on protocols avoiding use of synthetic pesticides. This trend is striking in viticulture, since wine production is largely shaped by the varying drinking attitudes of environment-friendly consumers. Using (1)H NMR, the compositions of grape berries, collected at harvest in 2009 and 2011, in experimental plots cultivated either with biodynamic or organic methods, were compared. Although the analysis provides a comprehensive metabolic profile of berries, the resulting distinctive pattern consists of a few molecules. Lower content of sugars, coumaric and caffeic acids, as well as higher amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were observed in biodynamic grapes. The (1)H NMR foodomics approach evidenced a diverse fruit metabolome that could be associated to a different physiological response of plants to the agronomic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avaliação da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of the cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the manufacture of red wine

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Sauvignon, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Brasil em 1921, mas foi somente a partir de 1980 que houve incremento de seu plantio na Serra Gaúcha. É uma cultivar destinada à elaboração de vinho tinto de guarda ou jovem. Devido a sua importância, conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para a elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1992. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Sauvignon tem cacho de tamanho médio de 149.3g/L e baga pequena de 1.40g. O mosto possui bom teor de açúcar e acidez titulável de 120meq/L, adequada para a produção de vinho tinto, o qual se caracteriza por apresentar teores elevados de álcoois superiores. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Cabernet Sauvignon se caracteriza pela cor vermelha relativamente intensa e com reflexos violáceos acentuados; pelo aroma típico que lembra pimentão-verde, que é sua característica varietal; e pelo corpo, estrutura e boa distinguibilidade.The Cabernet Sauvignon grape was developed in Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in Brazil in 1921, but its cultivation in the viticultural region of Serra Gaúcha only grew since 1980. It is used in the manufacture of aged or young red wines. Due to its importance, this work was carried out to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1992. The results showed that clusters of Cabernet Sauvignon are of medium size (149.3g and its berries are small (1.40g. The must have good sugar content with adequate titratable acidity (120meqL-1. The wine is characterized by high concentrations of higher alcohols; its predominant aroma is of bell pepper, which is a varietal characteristic. It has a

  6. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of

  7. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that

  8. Mechanical behavior of 'Niagara Rosada' grape berry detachment Comportamento mecânico do destacamento de bagos de uva 'Niagara Rosada'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 'Niagara Rosada' grape is the main Brazilian table grape belonging to the Labrusca family. It develops medium, cylindrical and compact bunches with berries presenting a pinkish skin and a foxy flavor that is valued in the Brazilian market. These berries are tender and have a pedicel-berry connection provided by the vascular bundles and surrounding skin. This cultivar is very susceptible to berry drop mainly caused by vibration and senescence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the temporal mechanical behavior of the pedicel-berry detachment, using resistance indexes extracted from traction force-deformation curves. Test results showed two different detachment types. In the first one, which exhibited higher average resistance, a considerable portion of the vascular bundle came out attached to the pedicel and in the second type; the vascular bundle was retained inside the berry. The proposed indexes based on maximum detachment force, force at 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.2 mm, and maximum force to corresponding deformation ratio did not discriminate the senescence of the berry.A uva Niagara Rosada é a principal uva de mesa brasileira, da família das Labruscas, possui cachos médios cilíndricos e compactos, coloração rosada e sabor denominado Foxy muito apreciado pelo consumidor brasileiro. Os frutos são delicados, a junção do pedicelo com o bago é feita pela casca e por feixes vasculares. Essa cultivar é muito suscetível à degrana causada, principalmente, pela vibração e pelo envelhecimento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento mecânico da junção pedicelo-bago e sua variação temporal, utilizando-se de índices de resistência ao destacamento, extraídos das curvas força-deslocamento, obtidos em ensaios de tração de uvas. Os ensaios revelaram dois tipos de destacamento: um em que porção considerável do pincel (feixes vasculares saiu preso ao pedicelo, e outro, em que o pincel ficou no interior do bago

  9. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.

  10. Comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir and Japanese indigenous V. vinifera L. cv. Koshu grape berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Arita

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices. C22:6n3 and C24:0 contents in Koshu skins were two and three times higher than those in Pinot Noir skins. C24:0 content in Koshu juices was also higher than that in Pinot Noir juices. Forty-nine lipid components (six digalactosyldiacylglycerols, one monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, 10 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines, and 20 triglycerides were detected in Pinot Noir and Koshu skins. Strong peaks were observed for MGDG 36:6, DGDG 36:6, PC 34:2, PC 36:5, TG 54:6, TG 54:7, and TG 54:8 in Koshu skins. The contents of 36 of the 49 lipid components were significantly higher in Pinot Noir skins than Koshu skins. Pinot Noir skins contained more lipids whose alkyl chains have more than 18 carbons than Koshu skins. Further analysis of both lipid profiles revealed that the number of double bonds in a fatty acid molecule in Pinot Noir skins and juices was significantly larger than that in Koshu skins and juices. A strong relationship exists between the heat requirement of grapevine cultivars and the level of fatty acid desaturation. C18-fatty acids were the major components in Koshu and Pinot Noir berries. The expression levels of C18-fatty acid desaturases regulated the accumulation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids in berry skins. The loss of C18:3 in Koshu berries at the end of ripening was observed. Koshu might

  11. Comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir and Japanese indigenous V. vinifera L. cv. Koshu grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Kayo; Honma, Taro; Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices. C22:6n3 and C24:0 contents in Koshu skins were two and three times higher than those in Pinot Noir skins. C24:0 content in Koshu juices was also higher than that in Pinot Noir juices. Forty-nine lipid components (six digalactosyldiacylglycerols, one monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, 10 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines, and 20 triglycerides) were detected in Pinot Noir and Koshu skins. Strong peaks were observed for MGDG 36:6, DGDG 36:6, PC 34:2, PC 36:5, TG 54:6, TG 54:7, and TG 54:8 in Koshu skins. The contents of 36 of the 49 lipid components were significantly higher in Pinot Noir skins than Koshu skins. Pinot Noir skins contained more lipids whose alkyl chains have more than 18 carbons than Koshu skins. Further analysis of both lipid profiles revealed that the number of double bonds in a fatty acid molecule in Pinot Noir skins and juices was significantly larger than that in Koshu skins and juices. A strong relationship exists between the heat requirement of grapevine cultivars and the level of fatty acid desaturation. C18-fatty acids were the major components in Koshu and Pinot Noir berries. The expression levels of C18-fatty acid desaturases regulated the accumulation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids in berry skins. The loss of C18:3 in Koshu berries at the end of ripening was observed. Koshu might effectively convert

  12. 7 CFR 51.905 - Dried berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.905 Dried berries. Dried berries means berries which are dry and shriveled to the extent that practically no moisture is present... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dried berries. 51.905 Section 51.905 Agriculture...

  13. Shiraz wines made from grape berries (Vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher; Nicholson, Emily L; Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Bastian, Susan E P; Harvey, Katie E; Huang, An-Cheng; Taylor, Dennis K; Boss, Paul K

    2015-03-04

    Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.

  14. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pilati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes, underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2, a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2

  15. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Stefania; Bagagli, Giorgia; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Brazzale, Daniele; Castorina, Giulia; Simoni, Laura; Tonelli, Chiara; Guella, Graziano; Engelen, Kristof; Galbiati, Massimo; Moser, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes) characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes), underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2), a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2-independent manner. This

  16. Impact of soil texture and water availability on the hydraulic control of plant and grape-berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara Tramontini; Cornelis van Leeuwen; Jean-Christophe Domec; Agnès Destrac-Irvine; Cyril Basteau; Marco Vitali; Olaf Mosbach-Schulz; Claudio Lovisolo

    2013-01-01

    All components of the soil-plant-atmosphere (s-p-a) continuum are known to control berry quality in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) via ecophysiological interactions between water uptake by roots and water loss by leaves. The scope of the present work was to explore how the main hydraulic components of grapevine influence fruit quality through changes...

  17. Multi-Omics and Integrated Network Analyses Reveal New Insights into the Systems Relationships between Metabolites, Structural Genes, and Transcriptional Regulators in Developing Grape Berries (Vitis vinifera L. Exposed to Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Savoi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are one of the major fruit crops and they are cultivated in many dry environments. This study comprehensively characterizes the metabolic response of grape berries exposed to water deficit at different developmental stages. Increases of proline, branched-chain amino acids, phenylpropanoids, anthocyanins, and free volatile organic compounds have been previously observed in grape berries exposed to water deficit. Integrating RNA-sequencing analysis of the transcriptome with large-scale analysis of central and specialized metabolites, we reveal that these increases occur via a coordinated regulation of key structural pathway genes. Water deficit-induced up-regulation of flavonoid genes is also coordinated with the down-regulation of many stilbene synthases and a consistent decrease in stilbenoid concentration. Water deficit activated both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signal transduction pathways by modulating the expression of several transcription factors. Gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses showed that water deficit-responsive transcription factors such as bZIPs, AP2/ERFs, MYBs, and NACs are implicated in the regulation of stress-responsive metabolites. Enrichment of known and novel cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of several ripening-specific/water deficit-induced modules further affirms the involvement of a transcription factor cross-talk in the berry response to water deficit. Together, our integrated approaches show that water deficit-regulated gene modules are strongly linked to key fruit-quality metabolites and multiple signal transduction pathways may be critical to achieve a balance between the regulation of the stress-response and the berry ripening program. This study constitutes an invaluable resource for future discoveries and comparative studies, in grapes and other fruits, centered on reproductive tissue metabolism under abiotic stress.

  18. Effect of pH on the copigmentation of anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon grape extracts with organic acids Efeito do pH na copigmentação de antocianinas do extrato de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon com ácidos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cony Gauche

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins show low-stability when exposed to different food processing conditions. Copigmentation is one of the main reactions contributing to the in vivo color responsible to the stability of anthocyanins. In the aim of holding the red color, copigmentation effect of organic acids (caffeic, ferulic, gallic and tannic acids combined with anthocyanins in crude Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract at pH values (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 3.3, 3.5, 3.7, 4.0, 4.5 was evaluated in this research. The maximum copigmentation effect, revealed by the hyperchromic and bathochromic shifts in anthocyanin maximum absorbance wavelength, was obtained at pH 3.3 with every acid used. Anthocyanin stability was followed by measuring the loss of color, thus it was possible to determine the protecting effects of these copigments. Tannic acid was the best copigment in our model system, giving half-life time of 2,585 h. We are suggesting the formation of pyranoanthocyanins by the reactions of anthocyanins with caffeic and ferulic acid, these substances could be avoiding the observation of the copigmentation effect. Addition of organic acids could improve the anthocyanin stability; though, more studies are needed to justify the lack of copigmenting effect observed with the caffeic and ferulic acids.Antocianinas apresentam baixa estabilidade frente aos fatores que afetam o processamento de alimentos. A copigmentação é uma das principais reações responsáveis pela estabilidade da coloração de antocianinas in vivo. Com objetivo de manter a coloração vermelha, a copigmentação das antocianinas do extrato bruto de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. com ácidos orgânicos (ácidos caféico, ferrúlico, gálico e tânico em diferentes valores de pH (1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 3,3; 3,5; 3,7; 4,0; 4,5 foi avaliada neste estudo. O efeito máximo de copigmentação, revelado pelos deslocamentos hipercrômico e batocrômico, foi obtido em pH 3,3 para todos os

  19. Dissecting the Variations of Ripening Progression and Flavonoid Metabolism in Grape Berries Grown under Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kai Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A double cropping system has been commercially adopted in southern China, where there is abundant sunshine and heat resources. In this viticulture system, the first growing season normally starts as a summer cropping cycle; then, the vine is pruned and forced, resulting in a second crop in winter. Due to climate differences between the summer and winter growing seasons, grape ripening progression and flavonoid metabolism vary greatly. Here, the metabolites and transcriptome of flavonoid pathways were analyzed in grapes grown under two growing seasons at different stages. Notably, the winter cropping cycle strongly increased flavonoid levels by several times in comparison to summer grapes, while the summer season took a major toll on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation, since the winter cropping greatly triggered the expression of upstream genes in the flavonoid pathway in a coordinated expression pattern. Moreover, the ratio of VviF3′5′Hs (flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase to VviF3′Hs (flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase transcript levels correlated remarkably well with the ratio of 3′5′-substituted to 3′-substituted flavonoids, which was presumed to control the flux of intermediates into different flavonoid branches. On the other hand, the phenological phase also varied greatly in the two crops. Compared to summer cropping, winter growing season accelerated the duration from budburst to veraison, therefore advancing the onset of ripening, but also prolonging the duration of ripening progression due to the purposes to harvest high-quality grapes. The differential expression pattern of hormone-related genes between the two cropping cycles might explain this phenomenon.

  20. Dissecting the Variations of Ripening Progression and Flavonoid Metabolism in Grape Berries Grown under Double Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Kai; Bai, Xian-Jin; Cao, Mu-Ming; Cheng, Guo; Cao, Xiong-Jun; Guo, Rong-Rong; Wang, Yu; He, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Hui; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A double cropping system has been commercially adopted in southern China, where there is abundant sunshine and heat resources. In this viticulture system, the first growing season normally starts as a summer cropping cycle; then, the vine is pruned and forced, resulting in a second crop in winter. Due to climate differences between the summer and winter growing seasons, grape ripening progression and flavonoid metabolism vary greatly. Here, the metabolites and transcriptome of flavonoid pathways were analyzed in grapes grown under two growing seasons at different stages. Notably, the winter cropping cycle strongly increased flavonoid levels by several times in comparison to summer grapes, while the summer season took a major toll on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation, since the winter cropping greatly triggered the expression of upstream genes in the flavonoid pathway in a coordinated expression pattern. Moreover, the ratio of VviF3′5′Hs (flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase) to VviF3′Hs (flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase) transcript levels correlated remarkably well with the ratio of 3′5′-substituted to 3′-substituted flavonoids, which was presumed to control the flux of intermediates into different flavonoid branches. On the other hand, the phenological phase also varied greatly in the two crops. Compared to summer cropping, winter growing season accelerated the duration from budburst to veraison, therefore advancing the onset of ripening, but also prolonging the duration of ripening progression due to the purposes to harvest high-quality grapes. The differential expression pattern of hormone-related genes between the two cropping cycles might explain this phenomenon. PMID:29176986

  1. Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed extracts of cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2017-07-01

    Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Perrot

    Full Text Available Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1 capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2 predict the sugar (resp. the acidity concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg. FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.

  3. A Decision Support System Coupling Fuzzy Logic and Probabilistic Graphical Approaches for the Agri-Food Industry: Prediction of Grape Berry Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Nathalie; Baudrit, Cédric; Brousset, Jean Marie; Abbal, Philippe; Guillemin, Hervé; Perret, Bruno; Goulet, Etienne; Guerin, Laurence; Barbeau, Gérard; Picque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Agri-food is one of the most important sectors of the industry and a major contributor to the global warming potential in Europe. Sustainability issues pose a huge challenge for this sector. In this context, a big issue is to be able to predict the multiscale dynamics of those systems using computing science. A robust predictive mathematical tool is implemented for this sector and applied to the wine industry being easily able to be generalized to other applications. Grape berry maturation relies on complex and coupled physicochemical and biochemical reactions which are climate dependent. Moreover one experiment represents one year and the climate variability could not be covered exclusively by the experiments. Consequently, harvest mostly relies on expert predictions. A big challenge for the wine industry is nevertheless to be able to anticipate the reactions for sustainability purposes. We propose to implement a decision support system so called FGRAPEDBN able to (1) capitalize the heterogeneous fragmented knowledge available including data and expertise and (2) predict the sugar (resp. the acidity) concentrations with a relevant RMSE of 7 g/l (resp. 0.44 g/l and 0.11 g/kg). FGRAPEDBN is based on a coupling between a probabilistic graphical approach and a fuzzy expert system.

  4. Vine Nitrogen Status Does Not Have a Direct Impact on 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Grape Berries and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwi, Pierre; Habran, Aude; Guillaumie, Sabine; Thibon, Cécile; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Gomes, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Darriet, Philippe; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2015-11-11

    Methoxypyrazines (MP) constitute a large family of compounds that contribute to the vegetative varietal aroma of many grapevine varieties and wines. The berry content in 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), a major MP reminiscent of green-pepper aroma, can be influenced by environmental factors or cultural practices such as water status or mineral nutrition. To date, no study has investigated a possible direct effect of nitrogen (N) on IBMP synthesis without possible interference from water status and vigor variations. In this study, only vine nitrogen status was significantly different among treatments. Water status was controlled during the season, and vine vigor was similar among treatments. IBMP level was maximal at bunch closure and decreased during the season. There was no significant effect of nitrogen nutrition on this metabolite. Moreover, the expression profiles of VvOMT3 and VvOMT4, key genes in the IBMP biosynthetic pathway, were similar between treatments. This result indicates that when an effect of N on IBMP was found in previous studies, it was likely mediated through the modification of bunch-zone microclimate, induced by the higher vigor of high N-status vines.

  5. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced in a subtropical climate for red winemaking. The experimental area was located in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in a pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning held in late winter during four crops (2003, 2004

  7. Efeito do ácido tartárico nos valores de potássio, acidez titulável e pH durante a vinificação de uvas Cabernet Sauvignon Effect of tartaric acid upon potassium, total acidity and pH, during the vinification of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2008-11-01

    H values are usually made from grapes with high potassium values and can bring serious problems to the wine. This high potassium comes, usually, from mistakes with the vines management. While the right management has being tried, in the vineyard, and aiming to find a fast solution for the problem inside the winery a pilot scale fermentation was made with Cabernet Sauvignon. The must was submitted to three different treatments with tartaric acid: zero, 1gL-1 and 2gL-1,all in duplicate. The pattern of fermentation was the normal SO2, pectinolitic enzymes and yeasts addition to the musts; skins and seeds were removed from the must after 10 days of fermentation and malolactic fermentation occurred spontaneously. Potassium (by flame spectrometry, total acidity (by titulometry and pH (by pH meter were analyzed in the musts during fermentation and in the wines; skins and lees were digested previously the analysis. Values found, in the wines, for potassium (gL-1, total acidity (g% and pH were respectively: samples from zero tartaric acid 1,98, 0.61, 3,68; from 1gL-1:1,72, 0.70 e 3,63; from 2gL-1:1,41, 0,73 e 3,50. Values found in the skins and lees with the same treatments were, respectively: 24,91 and 69.30, 21,85 and 75.11, 16,20 and 85.38g kg-1 of the Dry Matter. The effect of tartaric acid addition was noted mainly in the lees (69.3, 75.11 and 85.38, in which the potassium found showed a close relationship with the acid added in the must. It should be noted, though, that this addition is just for the moment because the real correction should be made in the vineyard, as it is now.

  8. Phenolic Compounds from the Fermentation of Cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Berovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale fermentation of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from the Slovenian coastal region was performed in Bücher-Vaslin roto tank vinificators. Six different areas, Prade, Kortina, Škocijan, Ankaran, Labor and Hrvatini, were selected for this study to investigate total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins and colour density, as well as pH, titratable acidity, sugar content and ethanol. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be in generally higher concentrations (up to 4240 mg/L in Cabernet Sauvignon. Prolongation of the fermentation phase with Merlot gave even reduced concentrations of anthocyanins, a phenomenon which was not observed in Cabernet Sauvignon. The highest concentration of anthocyanins was found in Merlot from the Kortina location (735 mg/L, and in Cabernet Sauvignon from the Labor location (998 mg/L. The highest concentration of tannins (1828 mg/L was found in the grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon from the Ankaran location, while in Merlot 1280 mg/L was detected in a sample from the Prade area. The tone of colour and its intensity reached full maturity in Cabernet Sauvignon. Merlot from the Kortina location reached the highest colour density of 1.57, while in a sample of Cabernet Sauvignon from Hrvatini colour density was 2.89. Only small differences were detected in colour quality between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  9. Field-Grown Grapevine Berries Use Carotenoids and the Associated Xanthophyll Cycles to Acclimate to UV Exposure Differentially in High and Low Light (Shade) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Chandré; Young, Philip R.; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans A.; Vivier, Melané A.

    2016-01-01

    Light quantity and quality modulate grapevine development and influence berry metabolic processes. Here we studied light as an information signal for developing and ripening grape berries. A Vitis vinifera Sauvignon Blanc field experiment was used to identify the impacts of UVB on core metabolic processes in the berries under both high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates. The primary objective was therefore to identify UVB-specific responses on berry processes and metabolites and distinguish them from those responses elicited by variations in light incidence. Canopy manipulation at the bunch zone via early leaf removal, combined with UVB-excluding acrylic sheets installed over the bunch zones resulted in four bunch microclimates: (1) HL (control); (2) LL (control); (3) HL with UVB attenuation and (4) LL with UVB attenuation. Metabolite profiles of three berry developmental stages showed predictable changes to known UV-responsive compound classes in a typical UV acclimation (versus UV damage) response. Interestingly, the berries employed carotenoids and the associated xanthophyll cycles to acclimate to UV exposure and the berry responses differed between HL and LL conditions, particularly in the developmental stages where berries are still photosynthetically active. The developmental stage of the berries was an important factor to consider in interpreting the data. The green berries responded to the different exposure and/or UVB attenuation signals with metabolites that indicate that the berries actively managed its metabolism in relation to the exposure levels, displaying metabolic plasticity in the photosynthesis-related metabolites. Core processes such as photosynthesis, photo-inhibition and acclimation were maintained by differentially modulating metabolites under the four treatments. Ripe berries also responded metabolically to the light quality and quantity, but mostly formed compounds (volatiles and polyphenols) that have direct antioxidant and/or

  10. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Koenig, Helmut [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Weinforschung; Wagner, Andreas [Weingut Wagner, Essenheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  12. Characterisation of seed oils from different grape cultivars grown in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xin; Zhu, Minghui; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Jinhong; Chen, Ziye; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-01-01

    To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian?grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars (Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88?77.12?%), sterols (227.99?338.83?mg/100?g oil) and tocotri...

  13. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  14. Phenol profiles and antioxidant properties of white skinned grapes and their coloured genotypes during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Shengyang Niu; Fengge Hao; Haizhen Mo; Jianfu Jiang; Hua Wang; Chonghuai Liu; Xiucai Fan; Ying Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments that exhibit a wide range of protective effects with potential benefits for human health related to their antioxidant activities. Grape berries are rich anthocyanins, and these compounds have considerable influence on wine quality. However, these pigments are known to only be present in coloured grape berries. In the present study, we investigated three distinctive grapes, in which only a few reports of mutant strains on the skin colour of the grape berry wer...

  15. Malbec grape (Vitis vinifera L.) responses to the environment: Berry phenolics as influenced by solar UV-B, water deficit and sprayed abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Berli, Federico J; Fontana, Ariel; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude vineyards receive elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) levels so producing high quality berries for winemaking because of induction in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Water deficit (D) after veraison, is a commonly used tool to regulate berry polyphenols concentration in red wine cultivars. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the acclimation to environmental factors/signals (including UV-B and D). The aim of the present study was to evaluate independent and interactive effects of high-altitude solar UV-B, moderate water deficit and ABA applications on Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec berries. The experiment was conducted during two growing seasons with two treatments of UV-B (+UV-B and -UV-B), watering (+D and -D) and ABA (+ABA and -ABA), in a factorial design. Berry fresh weight, sugar content, fruit yield, phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant capacity (ORAC) were analyzed at harvest. Previous incidence of high UV-B prevented deleterious effects of water deficit, i.e. berry weight reduction and diminution of sugar accumulation. High UV-B increased total phenols (mainly astilbin, quercetin and kaempferol) and ORAC, irrespectively of the combination with other factors. Fruit yield was reduced by combining water deficit and high UV-B or water deficit and ABA. Two applications of ABA were enough to induced biochemical changes increasing total anthocyanins, especially those with higher antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Crescimento de bagas de cultivares de uvas apirênicas tratadas com CPPU e GA3 Increase of the cultivars berry apirenic growth of seedless grapes treated with CPPU and GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtemir Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de uvas apirênicas (Vitis vinifera L., via de regra, possuem bagas de tamanhos reduzidos, necessitando de ajustes no manejo para a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos, sendo a aplicação de reguladores de crescimento um dos tratamentos mais eficazes. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos do forchlorfenuron (CPPU: 0 e 10 mgL-1 combinado ao ácido giberélico (GA3: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgL-1 durante o primeiro ciclo de produção das cultivares Centennial Seedless, Flame Seedless e Thompson Seedless. As características avaliadas foram o comprimento, diâmetro e peso de bagas. Para a 'Centennial Seedless', maiores comprimentos, diâmetro e peso de bagas foram obtidos com 100 mgL-1 de GA3; e a concentração de 100 mgL-1 de GA3 adicionada a 10 mgL-1 de CPPU foi a mais responsiva para a 'Flame Seedless' e 'Thompson Seedless', observando-se atrasos na maturação, em termos de sólidos solúveis totais, para todas as cultivares.The Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L., have always decrease in berry size, requiring managements to increase cluster quality. The spray with growth regulators is one of most effective the treatment to enlarge berry size. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of Forchlorfenuron (CPPU: 0 e 10mgL-1 associated with Giberelic acid (GA3: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mgL-1 during the first cycle of production of the cultivars Centennial Seedless, Flame Seedless and Thompson Seedless. The appraised characteristics were length, diameter and weight of berries. For Centennial Seedless, larger lengths, diameter and weight of berries were obtained with 100 mL-1 of GA3; and the concentration of 100 mL-1 of GA3 added to 10 mL-1 of CPPU was the most responsive for Flame and Thompson Seedless, being observed delays in maturation, in terms of total soluble solids, for all cultivars.

  18. Grape hexokinases are involved in the expression regulation of sucrose synthase- and cell wall invertase-encoding genes by glucose and ABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Qin; Zheng, Li-Li; Lin, Hao; Yu, Fei; Sun, Li-Hui; Li, Li-Mei

    2017-05-01

    Hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) is a multifunctional protein that both is involved in catalyzing the first step of glycolysis and plays an important role in sugar signaling. However, the supporting genetic evidence on hexokinases (CsHXKs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries has been lacking. Here, to investigate the role of CsHXK isoforms as glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA) sensors, we cloned two hexokinase isozymes, CsHXK1 and CsHXK2 with highly conserved genomic structure of nine exons and eight introns. We also found adenosine phosphate binding, substrate recognition and connection sites in their putative proteins. During grape berry development, the expression profiles of two CsHXK isoforms, sucrose synthases (SuSys) and cell wall invertase (CWINV) genes increased concomitantly with high levels of endogenous Glc and ABA. Furthermore, we showed that in wild type grape berry calli (WT), glucose repressed the expression levels of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and cell wall invertase (CWINV) genes, while ABA increased their expression levels. ABA could not only effectively improve the expression levels of SuSy and CWINV, but also block the repression induced by glucose on the expression of both genes. However, after silencing CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 in grape calli, SuSy and CWINV expression were enhanced, and the expressions of the two genes are insensitive in response to Glc treatment. Interestingly, exogenous ABA alone could not or less increase SuSy and CWINV expression in silencing CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 grape calli compared to WT. Meantime, ABA could not block the repression induced by glucose on the expression of SuSy and CWINV in CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 mutants. Therefore, Glc signal transduction depends on the regulation of CsHXK1 or CsHXK2. ABA signal was also disturbed by CsHXK1 or CsHXK2 silencing. The present results provide new insights into the regulatory role of Glc and ABA on the enzymes related to sugar metabolism in grape berry.

  19. Sequestration of auxin by the indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3-1 in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) and the proposed role of auxin conjugation during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2010-08-01

    In fleshy fruit, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, decline towards the onset of ripening. The application of auxins to immature fruit can delay the ripening processes. However, the mechanisms by which the decrease in endogenous IAA concentrations and the maintenance of low auxin levels in maturing fruit are achieved remain elusive. The transcript of a GH3 gene (GH3-1), encoding for an IAA-amido synthetase which conjugates IAA to amino acids, was detected in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). GH3-1 expression increased at the onset of ripening (veraison), suggesting that it might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of low IAA concentrations in ripening berries. Furthermore, this grapevine GH3 gene, responded positively to the combined application of abscisic acid and sucrose and to ethylene, linking it to the control of ripening processes. Levels of IAA-aspartic acid (IAA-Asp), an in vitro product of recombinant GH3-1, rose after veraison and remained high during the following weeks of the ripening phase when levels of free IAA were low. A similar pattern of changes in free IAA and IAA-Asp levels was detected in developing tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), where low concentrations of IAA and an increase in IAA-Asp concentrations coincided with the onset of ripening in this climacteric fruit. Since IAA-Asp might be involved in IAA degradation, the GH3 catalysed formation of this conjugate at, and after, the onset of ripening could represent a common IAA inactivation mechanism in climacteric and non-climacteric fruit which enables ripening.

  20. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  1. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, António; Eiras-Dias, José; Castellarin, Simone D.; Gerós, Hernâni

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile. PMID:24030720

  2. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  3. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  4. Complexity and Dynamics of the Winemaking Bacterial Communities in Berries, Musts, and Wines from Apulian Grape Cultivars through Time and Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Marzano

    Full Text Available Currently, there is very little information available regarding the microbiome associated with the wine production chain. Here, we used an amplicon sequencing approach based on high-throughput sequencing (HTS to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the bacterial community associated with the production of three Apulian red wines, from grape to final product. The relationships among grape variety, the microbial community, and fermentation was investigated. Moreover, the winery microbiota was evaluated compared to the autochthonous species in vineyards that persist until the end of the winemaking process. The analysis highlighted the remarkable dynamics within the microbial communities during fermentation. A common microbial core shared among the examined wine varieties was observed, and the unique taxonomic signature of each wine appellation was revealed. New species belonging to the genus Halomonas were also reported. This study demonstrates the potential of this metagenomic approach, supported by optimized protocols, for identifying the biodiversity of the wine supply chain. The developed experimental pipeline offers new prospects for other research fields in which a comprehensive view of microbial community complexity and dynamics is desirable.

  5. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors...

  6. Natural yeast flora of different varieties of grapes used for wine making in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Pradnya; Mane, Sarika; Kulkarni, Girish; Shaikh, Shamim; Ghormade, Vandana; Nerkar, Devidas P; Shouche, Yogesh; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2009-12-01

    The natural Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast flora present on the grape berries significantly affect wine production. Six grape varieties, Bangalore blue, Zinfandel, Cabernet, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc and Shiraz are being used in India for wine making. The yeast diversity was studied on the basis of morphological, colony, physiological characteristics and 5.8S-ITS sequencing of rDNA of the isolates. Eleven different species belonging to seven genera were identified as: Candida azyma, Candida quercitrusa, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora viniae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygoascus steatolyticus. H. guilliermondii was the predominant species while S. cerevisiae was observed occasionally in the six vine varieties. For the first time, C. azyma was isolated from Bangalore blue and Cabernet varieties grown in different localities. This association may be attributed to the change in cropping pattern from sugarcane to viticulture in the vine growing regions and the known association of C. azyma with sugarcane phylloplane. Further analysis of the indigenous strains and the qualitative and quantitative changes in the flora during fermentation will be useful to understand wine quality and to design preservation strategies to control wine spoilage.

  7. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such...

  9. Characterisation of seed oils from different grape cultivars grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Zhu, Minghui; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Jinhong; Chen, Ziye; Li, Jingming; Ni, Yuanying

    2016-07-01

    To explore the potential of the large amount of grape pomace in wineries of China, oils of three Eurasian grape cultivars (Chardonnay, Merlot and Carbernet Sauvignon) and two Chinese traditional grape cultivars ( Vitis amurensis and Vitis davidii ), were characterised. The results showed seed oil properties differ for various grape varities. Grape seed oils were demonstrated to be good sources of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.88-77.12 %), sterols (227.99-338.83 mg/100 g oil) and tocotrienols (320.08-679.24 mg/kg oil). Seed oil of V. amurensis exhibited the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acid, total tocotrienols, total tocols and DPPH· scavenging capacity. Seed oil of Carbernet Sauvignon had the highest contents of squalene, total sterols, total tocopherols and total phenolics. Principal component analysis five grape cultivars differentiated on the basis of bioactive components content and antioxidant properties.

  10. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity. Fresh berries and berry extracts possess high concentrations of phenolic compounds, i.e. phenolic acid, stilbenoids, flavonoids and lignans. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of current knowledge of the anti-platelet activity of berries, which form an integral part of the human diet. It describes the effects of phenolic compounds present in a number of berries, i.e. black chokeberries - aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberries (Vaccinium sect. Oxycoccus), sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) and grapes (Vitis), as well as various commercial products from berries (i.e. juices), on platelets and underlying mechanisms. Studies show that the effects of berries on platelet activity are dependent on not only the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the berries or the class of phenolic compounds, but also the types of berry and the form (fresh berry, juice or medicinal product). Different results indicate that berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, but the development of well-controlled clinical studies with berries is encouraged.

  11. Reguladores vegetais influenciando número e tamanho de células das bagas da uva 'Niagara Rosada' Plant regulators influencing number and size of berry cells of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina Yuriko Ide Vieira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido giberélico, thidiazuron e quinmerac na anatomia das bagas de uvas cultivar 'Niagara Rosada', provenientes de vinhedo localizado em Dourados - MS. Realizaram-se três experimentos. No primeiro ensaio, utilizaram-se soluções aquosas de ácido giberélico (AG3 0; 15; 30; 45; 60; 75 e 90 mg.l-1, aplicadas no florescimento e repetidas aos 14 dias após (E1E2 e, no outro tratamento, o mesmo composto e doses aplicados uma única vez aos 14 dias após o florescimento (E2; no segundo experimento, thidiazuron (TDZ 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 30 mg.l-1, aplicados quatro dias antes da antese e repetidos aos seis dias após o florescimento (E1E2; e no outro tratamento, o mesmo composto e doses aplicados uma única vez aos seis dias após o florescimento (E2; e, no terceiro, quinmerac 0; 10; 20; 30; 40; 50 e 60 mg.l-1, aplicados no florescimento e repetidos aos 14 dias após (E1E2, e, no outro tratamento, o mesmo composto e doses aplicados uma única vez, 14 dias após o florescimento (E2. As variáveis avaliadas foram: número e dimensões das células das bagas. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que duas aplicações de ácido giberélico, thidiazuron e quinmerac promoveram a divisão celular, enquanto a expansão celular foi observada com uma única aplicação de thidiazuron e quinmerac.The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the gibberellic acid, thidiazuron and quinmerac on grape berries anatomy of grapevine 'Niagara Rosada', in a vineyard located in Dourados - MS. Three trials were carried out. In the first trial, it was used gibberellic acid (AG3 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 mg.l-1, applied in the bloom and repeated 14 days later (E1E2 and in the other treatment, the same compound and doses applied only once, 14 days after the bloom (E2; in the second experiment, thidiazuron (TDZ 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg.l-1, applied four days before antesis and repeated six days

  12. Aplicação de nitrogênio em videiras na Campanha Gaúcha: produtividade e características químicas do mosto da uva Application of nitrogen in grapevines in the campaign of the Rio Grande do Sul: productivity and chemical characteristics of the grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de N na videira, em geral, causa grande impacto na produção e nas características químicas da uva e do seu mosto e, conseqüentemente, no vinho. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N na produção de uva e nas características químicas desejáveis do mosto. O experimento foi conduzido na safra 2004/05 em vinhedo comercial de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, na Empresa Pernod Ricard Brasil/Almadén, em Santana do Livramento, RS, sobre Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arênico. Os tratamentos constaram da aplicação de 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 e 85kg ha-1 de N. Na maturação, a uva foi colhida e avaliada a produção por planta, por hectare, o comprimento e a largura de cachos, e o peso de 100 bagas. Foram coletadas bagas de uva, sendo uma parte amassada e, no mosto, foram determinados os sólidos solúveis totais, o pH, a acidez total, o ácido tartárico, o ácido málico, os polifenóis totais, as antocianas e o N amoniacal. As bagas restantes foram trituradas e analisado o total de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Os resultados mostraram que a aplicação de N em viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon não afetou a produção de uva e os componentes de rendimento. Além disso, a aplicação de doses crescentes de N em viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, de forma destacada, aumentou, no mosto, os valores de acidez total e N amoniacal e diminuiu os valores de antocianas e, na baga de uva, aumentou a porcentagem do total de N e K.The N fertilization in vines, in general, causes great impact in the yield and in chemistries characteristics of the grape and your must, consequently of the wine. The experiment was carried out in 2004/05, to evaluate the effect of the N fertilization in the grape yield and in chemistries characteristics of the must of Cabernet Sauvignon vines, at Sandy Typic Hapludalf soil in Southern Brazil, Santana do Livramento. The treatments were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 85kg ha-1 N. In the maturation, the grape was collection

  13. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine, and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice, we used plate-dilution method and DRBC as medium. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus isolates were inoculated on the identification media. Representatives of the genus Aspergillus were isolated from 13 samples berries, 7 samples of surface-sterilized berries, 4 samples of damaged berries and 9 samples of grape juice. Overall, representatives of aspergilli were detected in 90% of samples (75 isolates. In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of ochratoxin A belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Isolates, potential producers of ochratoxin A (Aspergillus niger aggregate and Aspergillus westerdijkiae, were after their identification inoculated on YES medium (Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar and after 14 days of incubation at 25±1°C, in the dark, we tested them for their ability to produce ochratoxin A using thin layer chromatography. Out of the 16 isolates from isolated potential producers of ochratoxin A none of the isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested produced ochratoxin A. The isolate of Aspergillus westerdijkiae (1, isolated from the surface-sterilized berries, produced ochratoxin A.

  14. Table grapes suffer water loss, stem browning during cooling delays

    OpenAIRE

    Crisosto, Carlos H.; Smilanick, Joe L.; Dokoozlian, Nick

    2001-01-01

    The water loss in table grapes that occurs during postharvest handling can lead to stem browning, berry shatter, and wilting and shriveling of the fruit. Critical grape cluster water-loss threshold values for stem browning were determined for Perlette, Thompson Seedless, Flame Seedless, Fantasy Seedless and Redglobe table grape cultivars. Fantasy Seedless and Redglobe withstood higher levels of stem water loss than Perlette, Flame Seedless and Thompson Seedless before expressing moderate to s...

  15. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking. The vin......Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... at the berry cell wall polymer level and occurred within the experimental vineyard block. Furthemore, all enzyme treatments reduced cell wall variation via depectination. Interestingly, cell wall esterification levels were unaffected by enzyme treatments. This study provides clear evidence that enzymes can...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  16. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its Potential Impact to Wine Grapes During Harvest in Two Cool Climate Wine Grape Production Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, C; Walton, V; Dalton, D; Anfora, G; Grassi, A; Maistri, S; Mazzoni, V

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a global pest attacking various berry crops. D. suzukii lays eggs in damaged and in intact wine grape berries of the most soft-skinned varieties. Here, we describe the relative host utilization of different wine grape cultivars grown in Northern Italy and Oregon. Assessments of host berry utilization were performed in both field and laboratory settings. Results were correlated to physiological changes occurring during grape berry development starting at véraison and concluding during harvest. We found that oviposition increased with an increase in sugar content and a decrease of acidity levels. Oviposition increased with a decrease of penetration force. Penetration force, as a measure of skin hardness, is a critical component of host selection among the D. suzukii-exposed cultivars. We demonstrated that incised berries are more favorable for D. suzukii oviposition and as a nutrient substrate. Increased presence on wine grapes, as indicated by egg laying and increased longevity, was observed for flies that were exposed to incised berries as opposed to fully intact berries. D. suzukii flies can be found feeding on damaged wine grapes during the harvest period, especially when the skins of berries are negatively impacted due to cracking, disease, hail injury, and bird damage. Such an increase of feeding and oviposition may increase the likelihood of spoilage bacteria vectoring due to D. suzukii. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  18. Efeitos do CPPU e do ácido giberélico nas características morfológicas dos cachos e bagos da uva 'Vênus' = Effects of CPPU ando giberelic acid in morfologic caracteres of cluster and berry 'Vênus' grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziram-se por dois anos experimentos com reguladores de crescimento, em vinhedo do cultivar Vênus. Em 2001, o CPPU foi aplicado nas doses 0; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0 e e 17,5mg L-1, enquanto o GA3 a: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 e 150mg L-1. Em 2002, o CPPU foi aplicado a 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90mg.L-1, e o GA3 nas doses , 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180mg.L-1. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados por imersão dos cachos em solução aquosa. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com sete tratamentos e seis repetições. Para cada cacho foram avaliadas a massa fresca do cacho, engaço e bagos, comprimento e largura dos bagos e número de bagos. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos tanto com CPPU como o GA3 aumentaram de modo linear a massa fresca,comprimento e largura dos bagos. With the objective of studying the effects of CPPU and GA3 on the clusters and berries characteristics of ‘Venus’ grapes, two trials were carried out over two seasons. In 2001, CPPU was applied at 0, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15.0 and 17.5mg L-1, and the following doses of GA3 were used: 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150mg L-1. In 2002, CPPU was applied at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90mg.L-1; and the following doses of GA3 were used: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180mg L-1. The growth regulators were applied by dipping clusters into aqueous solutions. For all trials the experimental design was randomized complete block, with 7 treatments and 6 replications. For each cluster were evaluated: weight of cluster, rachis and berries, length and width of berries and number of berries. In the two years of studying, both CPPU and GA3 treatments linearly increased weight, length and width of berries.

  19. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  20. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  1. Sunlight Modulates Fruit Metabolic Profile and Shapes the Spatial Pattern of Compound Accumulation within the Grape Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Walbaum, Natasha; Agam, Nurit; Fait, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality. Filtering SI lowered the surface temperature of exposed fruits and increased the uniformity of irradiance and temperature in the cluster zone. SI affected the overall levels and patterns of accumulation of sugars, organic acids, amino acids and phenylpropanoids, across the grape cluster. Increased exposure to sunlight was associated with lower accumulation levels of malate, aspartate, and maleate but with higher levels of valine, leucine, and serine, in addition to the stress-related proline and GABA. Flavan-3-ols metabolites showed a negative response to SI, whereas flavonols were highly induced. The overall levels of anthocyanins decreased with increased sunlight exposure; however, a hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the members of this family were grouped into three distinct accumulation patterns, with malvidin anthocyanins and cyanidin-glucoside showing contrasting trends. The flavonol-glucosides, quercetin and kaempferol, exhibited a logarithmic response to SI, leading to improved cluster uniformity under high-light conditions. Comparing the within-cluster variability of metabolite accumulation highlighted the stability of sugars, flavan-3-ols, and cinnamic acid metabolites to SI, in contrast to the plasticity of flavonols. A correlation-based network analysis revealed that extended exposure to SI modified metabolic coordination, increasing the number of negative

  2. Changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking of Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kovačević Ganić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking and maturation processes of wines made from Vitis vinifera cv Sauvignon grapes from Slavonia region (vintage 2008. Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA. Samples used in this study were obtained during production of Sauvignon wines in three different ways in order to produce quality wine (QW, quality press wine (QPW and macerated wines (MW. The QPW corresponds to the first fraction obtained by direct pressing pomace, while the QW is the free run wine. The MW was obtained by grape mash cryomaceration. Putrescine and tryptamine were the most prevalent amines, followed by histamine, cadaverine and tyramine. The macerated wine posses higher content of biogenic amines than press and free run wines. In all analysed wines the content of biogenic amines tends to increase during winemaking and maturation and the main increase was detected during the malolactic fermentation. The detected content of histamine and tyramine were below the content considered to have an adverse effect on human health.

  3. Phenolic Content of Blends of Tempranillo with Graciano or Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Produced in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Monagas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Graciano (GRA, Spanish valuable variety of limited production in Mediterranean countries vs. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS, world-wide known French variety on the phenolic content [total polyphenols (TP, total anthocyanins (TA, catechins (CAT and proanthocyanidins (PRO] of Tempranillo wines (TEM-BASE, a largely cultivated Spanish variety was studied in blends prepared with 25 and 10 % of each variety after 4, 6, 9, 16.5 and 23 months of bottle ageing. Significant differences among wines (blends and base wine according to the »blend« factor were observed for CAT and TA. Besides, although the evolution trend during wine ageing of different families of phenolic compounds studied was similar in the blends and base wine, different blends presented a faster anthocyanin disappearance kinetics than the base wine, probably due to their higher CAT content, which may favour the progress of certain anthocyanin condensation reactions during ageing in the bottle. This effect was slightly more pronounced in the TEM-GRA blends than in the TEM-CS ones. A further study of the phenolic composition of the monovarietal wines used for blending, as well as of the grapes (skins and seeds from which these wines were elaborated, revealed that the blending effect on CAT could be associated with higher concentration of these compounds in Graciano and Cabernet Sauvignon grape seeds in comparison with Tempranillo. Finally, the findings of this work scientifically confirm that, in terms of the phenolic content, Graciano wines possess properties similar to Cabernet Sauvignon for blending with Tempranillo.

  4. New table grapes in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atak A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Table grape consumption is increasing day by day all around the world. New varieties are derived from breeding programs in different countries around the world. Breeding programs in particular are shaped in accordance with the demands of consumers. Especially in recent years, the demands increased for cultivars of table grapes with large berry and maturation at different times, in Turkey as well as in the world market. Also, new cultivars which are tolerant to fungal diseases, late-season and can be stored for a long time had much demand in recent years. For this purpose, new table grapes with these characteristics have been developed by Yalova Atatürk from Central Horticultural Research Institute. Especially in the last few years, the numbers of new cultivars of a total of 12 varieties have been registered. Atak 77, Pembe 77, İsmetbey, Arifbey, Samancı çekirdeksizi, and Yalova Beyazıtable grapes cultivars have been registered in the last few years among the new cultivars. Each one of them is different from the standard cultivars and has been registered with superior properties. Most of these cultivars need less pesticide application in high humidity areas and can be grown successfully. These new cultivars were tested in different ecology and determined suitable regions. These new table grape varieties started to be grown in different part of Turkey nowadays.

  5. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four norisoprenoids were detected in grape samples. The highest concentrations of total monoterpenoids, total sesquiterpenes, and total norisoprenoids in grapes were all observed at pre-veraison. Terpenes derived from the same biosynthetic pathway had a similar production pattern during berry development. Terpenes in grapes at harvest might not necessarily be synthesised at post-veraison, since the compounds or their precursors may already exist in grapes at pre-veraison, with the veraison to harvest period functioning to convert these precursors into final products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

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    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  7. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  8. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss of rachis cell viability is associated with ripening disorders in grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Geoffrey E.; Bondada, Bhaskar R.; Keller, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Rachises of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) clusters that appeared healthy or displayed symptoms of the ripening disorders berry shrivel (BS) or bunch-stem necrosis (BSN) were treated with the cellular viability stain fluorescein diacetate and examined by confocal microscopy. Clusters with BS and BSN symptoms experienced a decrease of cell viability throughout the rachis, and their berries contained 70–80% less sugar than healthy berries. The xylem-mobile dye basic fuchsin, infiltrated via the cut ...

  10. Phenol profiles and antioxidant properties of white skinned grapes and their coloured genotypes during growth

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    Shengyang Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that exhibit a wide range of protective effects with potential benefits for human health related to their antioxidant activities. Grape berries are rich anthocyanins, and these compounds have considerable influence on wine quality. However, these pigments are known to only be present in coloured grape berries. In the present study, we investigated three distinctive grapes, in which only a few reports of mutant strains on the skin colour of the grape berry were reported. Anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic profiles of grape berry skin, pulp, and seeds at different growth stages were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Meanwhile, grape antioxidant properties were evaluated at growth stages, including the early stage, veraison, and mature stage. The results showed that some anthocyanins contents, such as malvidin 3-O-glucoside, are significantly different between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes, with high content in coloured but not in white skin grapes. However, other anthocyanins, such as delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, showed no significant differences between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes. Moreover, non-anthocyanin phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties, except cultivars Pinot Blanc and Pinot Noir, showed no significant differences between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes at any growth stage, including the pulp and seeds. However, significant differences were noted between different cultivars, for example, white-ciputao and Pinot Noir, Pinot Blanc and Muscat Rouge, and coloured-ciputao and Muscat Blanc, showing that the antioxidant capacity was not always in correlation with skin colour of grape berries.

  11. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri em diferentes estruturas vegetativas de cultivares de videira Biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in different vegetative structures of grape cultivars

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    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia e a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri, em folhas de videira das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália e Isabel, em bagas de uva 'Itália' e em raízes da 'Isabel' e dos porta-enxertos 101-14 e IAC-572. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: duração e viabilidade dos estágios de ovo e ninfa; e fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos. Em raízes do porta-enxerto IAC-572, a cochonilha não completou o ciclo biológico. Em bagas de uva 'Itália', o inseto completou a fase de ninfa, porém os adultos foram inférteis. Em folhas das diferentes cultivares, a duração média do período de ovo a adulto dos machos foi de 24,63 dias, com viabilidade de 32%, enquanto as fêmeas duraram 32 dias com viabilidade de 56%. Em raízes, a duração do ciclo biológico de fêmeas e machos foi de 32,45 e 29,50 dias, respectivamente. Em folhas, a fecundidade foi de 67,27, 66,09 e 53,33 ovos por fêmea, nas cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Isabel e Itália, respectivamente. Nas raízes foram obtidos 30,4 e 70,0 ovos por fêmea, no porta-enxerto 101-14 e na cultivar Isabel, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study the biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in leaves of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália and Isabel, in berries of 'Itália', in roots of 'Isabel' and 101-14 and IAC-572 rootstocks. The following parameters were evaluated: duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages; and fertility and longevity of the adults. On berries of 'Itália', the insect completed the nymph phase, however the adults were infertile. On roots of the rootstock IAC-572, citrus mealybug was unable to develop. On leaves of the grape cultivars, the period of egg to adult males was 24.63 days, with viability of 32%, while females lasted 32 days with viability of 56%. On roots, the duration of the cycle of females and males was 32.45 and 29.50 days, respectively. For females

  12. Within-Vineyard, Within-Vine, and Within-Bunch Variability of the Rotundone Concentration in Berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Barlow, Snow; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2015-05-06

    This study characterizes the environmental factors driving rotundone concentrations in grape berries by quantifying rotundone variability and correlating it with viticultural parameters. Dissection of the vineyard into distinct zones (on the basis of vigor, electrical soil conductivity, and slope), vine into orientations to sun (shaded/unshaded), and grape bunches into sectors (upper and lower and front and back) shows the influence of vine vigor, sunlight, and temperature. Occurrence of the highest rotundone concentration was observed in shaded bunch sectors and vines and from higher vigor vines in the southern-facing areas of the vineyard. The highest concentration of rotundone is consistently found at the top and in shaded sectors of bunches, and this correlates to lower grape surface temperatures. Modeling showed that berry temperature exceeding 25 °C negatively affects the rotundone concentration in Shiraz. Both natural and artificial shading modulated the grape surface and air temperature at the bunch zone and increased the rotundone concentration, without affecting other grape berry quality parameters. Thus, temperature and possibly sunlight interception are the main determinants of rotundone in grape berries. Vineyard topography, vine vigor, vine row, and grape bunch orientation influence the level of berry shading and can, therefore, adjust bunch surface and zone temperatures and influence the berry rotundone concentration.

  13. The effect of linoleic acid on the Sauvignon blanc fermentation by different wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesca; Pinu, Farhana R; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Greenwood, David R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2016-08-01

    The level of linoleic acid in the Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juice affects the development of different aroma compounds during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, including key varietal thiols such as 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). However, it is still unknown if linoleic acid would affect in a similar way other commonly used S. cerevisiae wine strains. Here we investigated the effect of grape juice linoleic acid on the development of aroma compounds and other metabolites of SB wines using different wine yeast strains: EC1118, AWRI796 and VIN13. Linoleic acid clearly affected the levels of acetylated aroma compounds, several amino acids, and antioxidant molecules, independent of yeast strain, but the production of 3MH was affected by linoleic acid in a strain-specific manner. Moreover, the supplementation of deuterium-labelled 3MH also affected the production of varietal thiols in a strain-specific way. Linoleic acid reduced the acetylation process probably by inhibiting an acetyltransferase, an effect that was independent of the yeast strain. However, regulation of the 3MH biosynthesis is strain-specific, which suggests a mindful consideration not only towards the wine yeast but also to the linoleic acid concentration in the grape juice in order to obtain the desired wine aroma characteristics. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Influence of choice of yeasts on volatile fermentation-derived compounds, colour and phenolics composition in Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez Rojas, Inmaculada; Smith, Paul A; Bartowsky, Eveline J

    2012-12-01

    Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

  15. Grape microbiome as a reliable and persistent signature of field origin and environmental conditions in Cannonau wine production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valerio Mezzasalma; Anna Sandionigi; Ilaria Bruni; Antonia Bruno; Gianni Lovicu; Maurizio Casiraghi; Massimo Labra

    2017-01-01

    .... To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries...

  16. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

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    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  17. Free radical scavenging activity and anthocyanin profile of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga; Radovanović, Aleksandra

    2010-06-10

    The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD) method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2;-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)). The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r(2) = 0.9619). The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r(2) = 0.95594), the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.9728) and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.8873) of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  18. Evaluation of Tannins and Anthocyanins in Marquette, Frontenac, and St. Croix Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars

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    Somchai Rice

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold-hardy grape cultivars have become popular in northern regions. Wines from these cultivars are low in tannins and lighter in color compared to Vitis vinifera. The northern regions are striving to enhance desired ″full body″ and red color qualities in the wine produced from cold-hardy grapes. The objective of this study was to compare tannin and pigment content in skins and seeds of three cold-hardy red grape cultivars, at two time points, from two locations, using the Adams-Harbertson (A-H assay. The A-H assay is based on protein precipitation and spectrophotometry. Total tannin concentrations detected in Frontenac, Marquette, and St. Croix berries, ranged from 0.29 to 0.66 mg/berry catechin equivalents (CE. Bitter seed tannins were most abundant in Marquette berries (0.54 ± 0.66 mg/berry CE. Softer skin tannins were most abundant in St. Croix berries (0.24 ± 0.19 mg/berry CE. Monomeric anthocyanins contributed to over 60% of the total color at pH 4.9 and were highest in St. Croix skins (74.21% of the total color at pH 4.9. Varying amounts of short polymeric pigments and long polymeric pigments were present in grape skins, indicating that pigmented tannins had already formed by harvest. This is the first evaluation of tannins and pigments in Frontenac, Marquette, and St. Croix berries.

  19. Influence of Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Must

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    Jan Mavri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of wine fermentation temperature and the amount of carbon dioxide present represent parameters that can be easily monitored and controlled. The influence of variation of the process temperature and the fluxes of additional inlet gaseous carbon dioxide in Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon grape must on the accumulation of biomass and production of metabolites was studied. All experiments with temperature and redox potential control on-line were performed in a 10-litre laboratory stirred tank reactor. Metabolites of Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation comprising higher alcohols (1-propanol, 2-butanol, isoamyl alcohol, as well as reducing sugars, were measured off-line by gas and high pressure liquid chromatography.

  20. Efeitos do thidiazuron e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos e bagos da uva de mesa 'Vênus' na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo Effects of thidiazuron and gibberellic acid on cluster and berry characteristics of 'Vênus' table grape in the Northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de reguladores de crescimento está amplamente difundido no cultivo da videira para a melhoria da qualidade das uvas (Vitis vinifera L., visando principalmente ao aumento em tamanho e ao pegamento dos bagos, à descompactação dos cachos e à eliminação de sementes. Nesse contexto, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo do cultivar Vênus localizado em Urânia-SP, região noroeste de São Paulo, por dois ciclos consecutivos. Para os tratamentos, utilizam-se thidiazuron a 5 ou 10 mg.L-1 e ácido giberélico a 30 mg.L-1, combinados ou não. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: comprimento, largura e massa dos cachos e bagos; massa dos engaços; número de bagos; número de sementes-traço; e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável e relação SST/ATT do mosto. As aplicações de ácido giberélico aumentaram a massa, o comprimento, a largura e o número dos bagos, e reduziram o número de sementes-traço de uvas 'Vênus'. A associação de thidiazuron com ácido giberélico potencializou o efeito desse regulador de crescimento no aumento do pegamento dos frutos e na redução do número de sementes-traço. Aplicações de thidiazuron a 10 mg.L-1, associado ou não ao ácido giberélico, atrasaram a maturação da uva, diminuindo o teor de sólidos solúveis totais e a relação SST/ATT e reduziram a acidez total titulável do mosto. Aplicações de reguladores de crescimento também aumentaram a massa dos cachos e dos engaços.The use of growth regulators is widely diffused in vine crops to improve grapes quality (Vitis vinifera L., aiming mainly the increase of fruit size and set, loosening clusters, and elimination of seeds. In this context, a trial was carried out in a vineyard located at Urânia-SP, Northwestern São Paulo State, during two seasons. It was used thidiazuron at 5 or 10mg.L-1 and gibberellic acid at 30mg.L-1, combined or not. The following variables were evaluated: weight, length and width of

  1. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  2. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 1. EFFECT ON THE YIELD COMPONENTS OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPEVINE

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    ALBERTO MIELE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and environment can induce different responses to the grapevine physiology. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rootstock effect on the yield components of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapevine grown in the Serra Gaúcha viticultural region. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, with 15 treatments, three replicates and ten vines per plot. The results show that all variables evaluated were significantly affected by the year and the rootstock. The CS/Solferino was among other combinations influenced by the year and had higher significant yield/ vine. Indeed, it was higher than that CS/Rupestris du Lot, CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/3309 C, CS/5BB K, CS/161- 49 C, CS/1103 P. and CS/Isabel. The number of clusters/bud, per burst bud and per vine and the weight of clusters were affected by the rootstock as well. Pruning weight/vine, yield/pruning weight, leaf area/vine, leaf area index and leaf area/fresh fruit weight are variables related to the physiology of grapevine which were also affected by the rootstock. In general, rootstocks had adapted well to the environment where the experiment was carried out, giving vigor and high yield to Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine, which means that they may be used by grape growers in this region. However, the choice of the right rootstock depends on various aspects, such as those related to the soil characteristics, climate conditions, grape varieties, and even clones, and production purposes.

  3. Aplicação de bioestimulante nas características ampelométricas da infrutescência da videira 'Tieta' Effect of plant growth regulators application on the cluster and berry morphological characteristics of 'Tieta' grapes

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    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio foi conduzido em 2003, em vinhedo de 'Tieta'. O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito de bioestimulante nas características dos cachos de uva. Foi aplicado o produto Stimulate® que contém em sua fórmula 0,09g L-1 de cinetina (citocinina, 0,05g L-1 de ácido giberélico (giberelina e 0,05mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (auxina. Os tratamentos consistiram na imersão dos cachos, 15 dias após o florescimento, em solução aquosa de 0,5% do adjuvante Natura'l Óleo, acrescidos de 5 doses de Stimulate®: 0; 28; 56; 84 e 112 ml L-1. Analisaram-se o comprimento, a largura e o peso dos cachos, bagos e engaço e o diâmetro do pedicelo. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Concluiu-se que a maior massa fresca dos cachos foi obtida em função do aumento do número de bagos fixados na ráquis e da massa do engaço. O Stimulate® associado ao Natura'l Óleo provocou o aparecimento de manchas marrons nos bagos e depreciando na qualidade, diminuiu o tamanho dos bagos e atrasou a maturação dos frutos.The trial was carried out in 2003 in a vineyard of 'Tieta'. The objective was to evaluat the effects of plant growth regulator application on the cluster characteristics. The growth regulator used was the Stimulate witch consists in a mix of 0.09g L-1 of kinetin (cytokinin, 0.05g L-1 gibberellic acid (gibberellin e 0.05mg L-1 of indolbutiric acid (auxin. The treatments consisted of the cluster dipping, fifteen days after bloom, in an aqueous solution containing 0.5% of the surfactant Natura'l Óleo, added five dosis of Stimulate®: 0, 28, 56, 84 e 112ml L-1. The width, length and mass of clusters, berries and rachis, and pedicel diameter were evaluated. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks. The results showed that the mass of the cluster occurred by the increased of the number of berries per cluster and the mass of the rachis. The Stimulate® associated to the Natura'l Oil produced brown

  4. Early detection of gray mold in grape using conventional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botrytis cinerea affects grape quality and yield, and can be difficult to manage due in part to non-symptomatic, quiescent infection in berry development. The aim of this study was to develop a dual system for the detection, isolation and quantification of B. cinerea. After three days of samples replication on the modified ...

  5. Produção e qualidade da videira 'Superior Seedless' sob restrição hídrica na fase de maturação Production and quality of 'Superior Seedless' grapes under irrigation restrictions during berry maturation

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    Lígia Borges Marinho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das condições de deficit hídrico, na fase de maturação da uva, sobre a produção e qualidade da uva 'Superior Seedless' entre julho e novembro de 2007. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial (3x3 + 1: três épocas de alteração da aplicação das lâminas de irrigação (21, 13 e 5 dias antes da colheita; três lâminas de irrigação (100, 50 e 0% da evapotranspiração da cultura; e um tratamento controle (manejo de irrigação adotado pelo produtor. As épocas de irrigação e as lâminas de irrigação utilizadas influenciaram a firmeza das bagas e a acidez titulável. A interrupção da irrigação, aos 13 ou 21 dias antes da colheita, resultou em produtividade, qualidade de frutos e eficiência do uso da água semelhante às obtidas pelo produtor, assim, pode ser adotada para economia da água de irrigação na Região do Submédio do Vale do São Francisco.The objective this work was to evaluate the effect of water deficit conditions, during the maturation phase of grapes, on the production and quality of the 'Superior Seedless', between July and November of 2007. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design, with four replicates, in a (3x 3 + 1 factorial arrangement: three times of alteration of the irrigation depths (21, 13 e 5 days before harvest; three irrigation depths (100, 50 e 0% of crop evapotranspiration; and a control treatment, which was the producer's irrigation management scheme. Irrigation timing and depth influenced berry firmness and titrable acidity. The management with cut-off irrigation depths at 13 or 21 days before harvesting and the control had the same yield, grape quality and water use efficiency, and may be adopted to save water for irrigation in the São Francisco Valley region.

  6. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  7. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  8. Recent advances and uses of grape flavonoids as nutraceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-21

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  9. Patterns of genomic and phenomic diversity in wine and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migicovsky, Zoë; Sawler, Jason; Gardner, Kyle M; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Prins, Bernard H; Schwaninger, Heidi R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Buckler, Edward S; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Brown, Patrick J; Myles, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most economically and culturally important crops worldwide, and they have been bred for both winemaking and fresh consumption. Here we evaluate patterns of diversity across 33 phenotypes collected over a 17-year period from 580 table and wine grape accessions that belong to one of the world's largest grape gene banks, the grape germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture. We find that phenological events throughout the growing season are correlated, and quantify the marked difference in size between table and wine grapes. By pairing publicly available historical phenotype data with genome-wide polymorphism data, we identify large effect loci controlling traits that have been targeted during domestication and breeding, including hermaphroditism, lighter skin pigmentation and muscat aroma. Breeding for larger berries in table grapes was traditionally concentrated in geographic regions where Islam predominates and alcohol was prohibited, whereas wine grapes retained the ancestral smaller size that is more desirable for winemaking in predominantly Christian regions. We uncover a novel locus with a suggestive association with berry size that harbors a signature of positive selection for larger berries. Our results suggest that religious rules concerning alcohol consumption have had a marked impact on patterns of phenomic and genomic diversity in grapes.

  10. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  11. TRAMINER BLACK - NEWEST WINE AROMATHIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Maltabar L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Newest breeding aromatic grape variety with colored pulp and juice is Traminer black bred in Athens Viticulture Institute (Greece) P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and L.Maltabar in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian (Odessian) black varieties (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon) with the European Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the group of Western European varieties. Length of production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth shoots is st...

  12. Cultivar specific metabolic changes in grapevines berry skins in relation to deficit irrigation and hydraulic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Degu, Asfaw; Cramer, Grant R; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Deficit irrigation techniques are widely used in commercial vineyards. Nevertheless, varieties respond differently to water availability, prompting the need to elucidate the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the interactions between genotypes and their environment. In the present study, the variability in berry metabolism under deficit irrigation was investigated in the field on Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), known for their hydraulic variability. Berry skin metabolite profiling of the two cultivars was performed by parallel GC-MS and LC-MS at four development stages. Under similar irrigation, the cultivars differed in stomata regulation. In response to water deficit, CS exhibited lessened loss in berry weight and milder metabolic alteration of berry-skin primary metabolites, as compared with Shiraz. The metabolic stress responses were shown to depend on berry phenology. Characteristic metabolic changes included a decrease in amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates from veraison onward. In contrast, water deficit induced the accumulation of stress-related metabolites such as: proline, beta-alanine, raffinose, nicotinate and ascorbate, to a greater extent in Shiraz. Polyphenol metabolism in response to water stress also underwent significant changes, unique to each cultivar. Results suggest a link between the vine hydraulics and water-deficit driven changes in the berry skin metabolism, with significant consequences on the metabolic composition of the fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc wines from D.O.Ca Rioja (Spain) aged in different French oak wood barrels: Chemical and aroma quality aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, María Pilar; Avizcuri, José Miguel; Culleré, Laura; Balda, Pedro; Antón, Elena C; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2016-11-01

    This study discusses chemical data corresponding to the analysis of twenty-one wood-extractable aromatic compounds in twenty-four different barrels varying in the toasting level at three sampling times: at the end of the alcoholic fermentation and after 5 and 12months of aging. Twelve barrels contained monovarietal Chardonnay wine while the other twelve barrels contained Sauvignon blanc wine. The levels of nearly all the analyzed compounds increased with the aging time, with the exception of vinylphenols and methyl vanillate, which decreased. These latter compounds had significantly higher levels in the Chardonnay wines than in the Sauvignon blanc. Furfural, guaiacol and vanillin derivatives increased with the toasting level. ANOVA study showed significant interactions between the toasting level and aging time as well as between the variety and aging time, which revealed significant differences in the levels of the compounds studied in the wines dependent on the toasting level, variety and aging time. Quality perception based exclusively on orthonasal aroma stimuli was evaluated by a panel of Spanish wine professionals in 12-month aged wines belonging to both grape varieties. Experts from D.O.Ca Rioja aroma did not share a common aroma quality concept for aged Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc wines. Considering the cluster formed by the majority of experts (76%) for the Chardonnay and cluster 1 (56%) for Sauvignon blanc, quality scores were negatively correlated with the concentration level of 4-vinylphenol and positively with the concentration level of (E)-isoeugenol. The opposite was observed for cluster 2 (44%) identified for Sauvignon blanc wines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  15. Thermotolerance responses in ripening berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv Muscat Hamburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Santa María, Eva; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Royo, Carolina; Lijavetzky, Diego; Bravo, Gema; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Antolín, M Carmen; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2013-07-01

    Berry organoleptic properties are highly influenced by ripening environmental conditions. In this study, we used grapevine fruiting cuttings to follow berry ripening under different controlled conditions of temperature and irradiation intensity. Berries ripened at higher temperatures showed reduced anthocyanin accumulation and hastened ripening, leading to a characteristic drop in malic acid and total acidity. The GrapeGen GeneChip® combined with a newly developed GrapeGen 12Xv1 MapMan version were utilized for the functional analysis of berry transcriptomic differences after 2 week treatments from veraison onset. These analyses revealed the establishment of a thermotolerance response in berries under high temperatures marked by the induction of heat shock protein (HSP) chaperones and the repression of transmembrane transporter-encoding transcripts. The thermotolerance response was coincident with up-regulation of ERF subfamily transcription factors and increased ABA levels, suggesting their participation in the maintenance of the acclimation response. Lower expression of amino acid transporter-encoding transcripts at high temperature correlated with balanced amino acid content, suggesting a transcriptional compensation of temperature effects on protein and membrane stability to allow for completion of berry ripening. In contrast, the lower accumulation of anthocyanins and higher malate metabolization measured under high temperature might partly result from imbalance in the expression and function of their specific transmembrane transporters and expression changes in genes involved in their metabolic pathways. These results open up new views to improve our understanding of berry ripening under high temperatures.

  16. LC-MS based methods for phytosterols determination in oenological matrices. Targeted metabolomic study of Rioja grape varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Millán Martín, Laura

    2016-01-01

    221 p.+ anexos For years, grape berries and red wine have been a subject of investigation with respect to their chemical composition. Several active components from grape skin and seeds were shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Likewise, regular and moderate wine consumption, particularly red wine, has been associated with health benefits.Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are a family of interest among grapevine and grape-derived products....

  17. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M S; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits.

  18. Ethephon as a potential abscission agent for table grapes: effects on pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality and residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eFerrara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but dropper-harvest abscission was much lower (49% in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruit were slightly darker than non-treated fruit, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits.

  19. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  20. Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa

    2013-10-15

    Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (cv. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  2. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anthocyanin yield and skin softening during maceration, as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Simone; Marengo, Fabio; Guidoni, Silvia; Rolle, Luca; Hunter, Jacobus J

    2015-05-01

    Anthocyanin and mechanical properties were evaluated on Shiraz grapes, picked from both sides of North-South and East-West vineyard row orientations at two harvest dates. Wines were made from each combination. The evaluation and evolution of crushed skin mechanical properties during maceration-fermentation, as also affected by grape ripeness, are shown for the first time. No significant differences in anthocyanin content were found in the grapes between the two vineyard row orientations. However, a significant decrease in anthocyanins and berry skin break force (also referred as skin hardness or strength) was found between the two harvest dates. During maceration, a reduction in the crushed berry skin break force of more than 15% occurred. The intact berries and macerated skins showed similarity in skin break energy values. The anthocyanin profile of the grapes and of the wines prominently displayed malvidin forms, changed mainly by the ripeness level of the grapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A physical map of the heterozygous grapevine 'Cabernet Sauvignon' allows mapping candidate genes for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrin Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome physical maps facilitate genome sequencing, sequence assembly, mapping of candidate genes, and the design of targeted genetic markers. An automated protocol was used to construct a Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map. The quality of the result was addressed with regard to the effect of high heterozygosity on the accuracy of contig assembly. Its usefulness for the genome-wide mapping of genes for disease resistance, which is an important trait for grapevine, was then assessed. Results The physical map included 29,727 BAC clones assembled into 1,770 contigs, spanning 715,684 kbp, and corresponding to 1.5-fold the genome size. Map inflation was due to high heterozygosity, which caused either the separation of allelic BACs in two different contigs, or local mis-assembly in contigs containing BACs from the two haplotypes. Genetic markers anchored 395 contigs or 255,476 kbp to chromosomes. The fully automated assembly and anchorage procedures were validated by BAC-by-BAC blast of the end sequences against the grape genome sequence, unveiling 7.3% of chimerical contigs. The distribution across the physical map of candidate genes for non-host and host resistance, and for defence signalling pathways was then studied. NBS-LRR and RLK genes for host resistance were found in 424 contigs, 133 of them (32% were assigned to chromosomes, on which they are mostly organised in clusters. Non-host and defence signalling genes were found in 99 contigs dispersed without a discernable pattern across the genome. Conclusion Despite some limitations that interfere with the correct assembly of heterozygous clones into contigs, the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' physical map is a useful and reliable intermediary step between a genetic map and the genome sequence. This tool was successfully exploited for a quick mapping of complex families of genes, and it strengthened previous clues of co-localisation of major NBS-LRR clusters and

  5. Características dos cachos e bagas de uvas ‘Centennial Seedless’ tratadas com thidiazuron e ácido giberélico / Characteristics of clusters and berries of ‘Centennial Seedless’ table grapes treated with thidiazuron and giberellic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Rodrigues Macedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos das doses de ácido giberélico (AG3 e do thidiazuron (TDZ nas características dos cachos e bagas da uva ‘Centennial Seedless’, um experimento foi realizado em um vinhedo comercial em São Miguel Arcanjo (SP. Os tratamentos consistiram de AG3 nas doses de 0 e 5 mg L-1 associados às doses de 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1 de TDZ, sendo estes reguladores vegetais aplicados aos 15 dias após o pleno florescimento, via pulverização direta nos cachos. Foram avaliadas as variáveis diâmetro do pedicelo, índice de esbagoamento, massa, comprimento e largura dos cachos, bagas e engaços; teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, acidez titulável e relação SS/AT do mosto. A dose de 8 mg L-1 de TDZ associada a 5 mg L-1 de AG3, resultou em maiores médias de massa, comprimento e largura dos cachos, sendo que esta interação não alterou o pH, a relação SS/AT e o índice de esbagoamento dos cachos. O TDZ promoveu aumentos lineares sobre a massa e largura das bagas e reduziu os teores de sólidos solúveis, sendo que do ponto de vista agronômico a dose de 8 mg L-1, apresentou-se mais promissora para uso comercial.Abstract With the objective of evaluating the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and thidiazuron (TDZ on the physicochemical characteristics of ‘Centennial Seedless’ table grapes a trial was carried out in a commercial vineyard located in São Miguel Arcanjo (SP, Brazil. The treatments consisted of GA3 on the doses at 0 and 5 mg L-1 associated to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1 of thidiazuron, applied 15 days after full bloom, sprayed directly to the clusters. The following variables were evaluated: pedicel diameter, drop index, weight, length and width of clusters, berries and rachis; soluble solutes content, pH, titratable acidity and ratio SS/TA of the juice. The dose at 8 mg L-1 of TDZ associated to 5 mg L-1 of AG3 resulted in the highest means of cluster weight, length and width, this interaction did not

  6. The emerging contribution of social wasps to grape rot disease ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne A. Madden

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape sour (bunch rot is a polymicrobial disease of vineyards that causes millions of dollars in lost revenue per year due to decreased quality of grapes and resultant wine. The disease is associated with damaged berries infected with a community of acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi that results in rotting berries with high amounts of undesirable volatile acidity. Many insect species cause the initial grape berry damage that can lead to this disease, but most studies have focused on the role of fruit flies in facilitating symptoms and vectoring the microorganisms of this disease complex. Like fruit flies, social wasps are abundant in vineyards where they feed on ripe berries and cause significant damage, while also dispersing yeasts involved in wine fermentation. Despite this, their possible role in disease facilitation and dispersal of grape rots has not been explored. We tested the hypothesis that the paper wasp Polistes dominulus could facilitate grape sour rot in the absence of other insect vectors. Using marker gene sequencing we characterized the bacterial and fungal community of wild-caught adults. We used a sterilized foraging arena to determine if these wasps transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. We then tested if wasps harboring their native microbial community, or those inoculated with sour rot, had an effect on grape sour rot incidence and severity using a laboratory foraging arena. We found that all wasps harbor some portion of the sour rot microbial community and that they have the ability to transfer viable microorganisms when foraging. Foraging by inoculated and uninoculated wasps led to an increase in berry rot disease symptom severity and incidence. Our results indicate that paper wasps can facilitate sour rot diseases in the absence of other vectors and that the mechanism of this facilitation may include both increasing host susceptibility and transmitting these microbial communities to the grapes

  7. Modeling cold curing of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J H; Meyer, M M; Yeo, K-H; Kirkpatrick, B C

    2011-12-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) of Vitis vinifera grapevines is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen with a wide plant host range. Exposure of X. fastidiosa-infected plant tissue to cold temperatures has been shown to be effective at eliminating the pathogen from some plant hosts such as grapevines. This "cold curing" phenomenon suggests itself as a potential method for disease management and perhaps control. We investigated cold therapy of PD-affected 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine. In the fall, inoculated plants and controls of each cultivar were transported to each of four field sites in California (Foresthill, McLaughlin, Hopland, and Davis) that differed in the magnitude of cold winter temperatures. A model for progression of the elimination of plant disease in relation to temperature was conceptualized to be a temperature-duration effect, where temperatures below a particular threshold kill X. fastidiosa with increasing efficacy as the temperature decreases to some value Pinot Noir and T(0) = 6°C, N(100) = 302 h, N(10) = 170 h, and K(x) = 0.41 for Cabernet Sauvignon. With the parameter estimates optimized by model calibration, the simulation model was effective at predicting cold curing in four locations during the experiment, although there were some differences between Hopland for Pinot Noir and Davis for Cabernet Sauvignon. Using historical temperature data, the model accurately predicted the known severity of PD in other grape-growing regions of California, suggesting that it may have utility in assessing the relative risk of developing PD in proposed new vineyard sites.

  8. Yeast genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism affect the production of volatile thiols from Sauvignon Blanc musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Michael J; Gardner, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), and 3-mercaptohexyl-acetate (3MHA), reminiscent of grapefruit and passion fruit respectively, are critical varietal aroma compounds in Sauvignon Blanc (SB) wines. These aromatic thiols are not present in the grape juice but are synthesized and released by the yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Single deletion mutants of 67 candidate genes in a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for their thiol production after fermentation of SB grape juice. None of the deletions abolished production of the two volatile thiols. However, deletion of 17 genes caused increases or decreases in production by as much as twofold. These 17 genes, mostly related to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in yeast, may act by altering the regulation of the pathway(s) of thiol production or altering substrate supply. Deleting subsets of these genes in a wine yeast strain gave similar results to the laboratory strain for sulfur pathway genes but showed strain differences for genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of two nitrogen sources, urea and di-ammonium phosphate, as well as two sulfur compounds, cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine, increased 3MH and 3MHA concentrations in the final wines. Collectively these results suggest that sulfur and nitrogen metabolism are important in regulating the synthesis of 3MH and 3MHA during yeast fermentation of grape juice.

  9. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging for the noninvasive assessment of anthocyanins in whole grape (Vitis vinifera L.) bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Traversi, Maria Laura; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) bunches from the Sangiovese cultivar was measured nondestructively by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging using two excitation light bands at 550 and 650 nm in sequence. The pixel intensity in the derived logarithm of the fluorescence excitation ratio image was directly related, by an exponential function (r2 = 0.93), to the anthocyanin concentration of berry extracts. The method will be useful for the assessment of the heterogeneity of anthocyanin accumulation in berries that is known to depend on physiologic and climatic factors. It can also represent a new, rapid and noninvasive technique for the assessment of grape ripening and the appropriate time of harvest.

  10. Double maturation raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Denis; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-11-01

    Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L(-1) ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Berry ripening: recently heard through the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nathalie; Guan, Le; Dai, Zhan Wu; Wu, Ben-Hong; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Gomès, Eric; Li, Shao-Hua; Godoy, Francisca; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Delrot, Serge

    2014-08-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a non-climacteric fruit species used as table fruit, dried raisins, and for vinification (wines) and distillation (liquors). In recent years, our knowledge of the molecular basis of ripening regulation has improved. Water status, light conditions, and temperature may hasten, delay, or enhance ripening. Hormones seem to play a central role, as their concentrations change prior to and during ripening and in response to several environmental cues. The review summarizes recent data related to the molecular and hormonal control of grape berry development and ripening, with special emphasis on secondary metabolism and its response to the environment, and pinpoints some experimental limitations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evaluating the Polyphenol Profile in Three Segregating Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hernández-Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the characteristics of the anthocyanin and flavonol composition and content in grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera varieties Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, Monastrell × Syrah, and Monastrell × Barbera, in order to acquire information for future breeding programs. The anthocyanin and flavonol compositions of twenty-seven hybrids bearing red grapes and 15 hybrids bearing white grapes from Monastrell × Syrah, 32 red and 6 white from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, and 13 red from Monastrell × Barbera have been studied. Among the intraspecific crosses, plants with grapes presenting very high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols were found, indicating a transgressive segregation for this character, and this could lead to highly colored wines with an increased benefits for human health. As regards the qualitative composition of anthocyanins and flavonols, the hydroxylation pattern of the hybrids that also may influence wine color hue and stability presented intermediate values to those of the parentals, indicating that values higher than that showed by the best parental in this respect will be difficult to obtain. The results presented here can be helpful to acquire information for future breeding efforts, aimed at improving fruit quality through the effects of flavonoids.

  13. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antio......BACKGROUND: During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate...... their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. RESULTS: FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc......' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all...

  14. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  15. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Fernández-Escudero, J.A. [Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon, Rueda (Spain); Barajas, E. [ITACYL, Valladolid (Spain); Medrano, G. [Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  16. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y......) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R 2 = 0.96, P skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o......-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K m of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid....

  17. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  18. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  19. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content and colour of the Slovak cabernet sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time, they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Grapes and wine are a significant source of antioxidants in human nutrition. One of the most important group occuring in grapes and wines are polyphenols. Many of phenolic compounds have been reported to have multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant and antiradical activity. Therefore, it is important to know the content of polyphenols and their antioxidant effects in foods and beverages. Twenty-eight Cabernet Sauvignon wine samples, originated from different Slovak vineyard regions, were analyzed using spectrophotometry for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. Determined values of antioxidant activity in observed wines were within the interval 69.0 - 84.2% inhibition of DPPH (average value was 78.8% inhibition of DPPH and total polyphenol content ranged from 1,218 to 3,444 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 2,424 mg gallic acid.L-1. Determined total anthocyanin contents were from 68.6 to 430.7 mg.L-1 (average content was 220.6 mg.L-1 and values of wine colour density ranged from 0.756 to 2.782 (average value was 1.399. The statistical evaluation of the obtained results did not confirm any linear correlations between total polyphenol content, resp. total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The correlations between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, resp. the content of total anthocyanins and wine colour density were strong. The results confirmed very strong correlations between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant

  20. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  1. Genetic transformation of major wine grape cultivars of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iocco, P; Franks, T; Thomas, M R

    2001-04-01

    We have developed an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for a number of important grapevine cultivars used in wine production. Transgenic plants were obtained for the seven cultivars: Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc and Muscat Gordo Blanco. Embryogenic callus was initiated from anther filaments and genotypic differences were observed for initiation and subsequent proliferation with Chardonnay responding most favourably to culture conditions. The transformation system allowed the recovery of germinating transgenic embryos 10-12 weeks after Agrobacterium inoculation and plants within 18 weeks. Examination of the expression patterns of the green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the CAMV35S promoter in leaf tissue of transgenic plants showed that for up to 35% of plants the pattern was not uniform. The successful transformation of a genetically diverse group of wine grape cultivars indicates that the transformation system may have general application to an even wider range of Vitis vinifera cultivars.

  2. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These odorants are associated with “fruity'' and ''ripe fruit'' odor descriptors. Wine from flat land with higher OAVs of ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate seems to have more intense fruity aromas (pineapple, pear and banana), with floral notes. Keywords: Cabernet Sauvignon wines, volatiles, terrains, Loess Plateau region, ...

  3. Effect of terrains on the volatiles of Cabernet Sauvignon wines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... from flat land with higher OAVs of ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate seems to have more intense fruity aromas (pineapple, pear and banana), with floral notes. Key words: Cabernet Sauvignon wines, volatiles, terrains, Loess Plateau region, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), gas ...

  4. Comportamento vegetativo e produtivo de videiras 'Cabernet sauvignon' cultivadas sob cobertura plástica Vegetative growth and yield of 'Cabernet sauvignon' grapevine under overhead plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cobertura plástica no cultivo de videira encontra-se em expansão no Rio Grande do Sul, por ser uma alternativa que visa a proteger as plantas da precipitação pluvial e do granizo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os impactos de uma cobertura plástica translúcida e impermeável sobre a fenologia, o crescimento (de ramos, folhas, cachos e bagas e a produtividade em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L., com cinco anos de idade, conduzidas em sistema 'Y', sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento, conduzido no município de Caxias do Sul-RS, seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, tendo os tratamentos sem e com cobertura plástica, com quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. As alterações microclimáticas impostas pela cobertura plástica não foram expressivas para alterar a fenologia da videira. As plantas cultivadas sob cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores valores de comprimento e massa fresca de ramos e de área, e massa seca foliar em comparação às plantas descobertas. O peso e o diâmetro de bagas foram superiores nas videiras cobertas apenas no início do ciclo e não diferiram próximo da colheita. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram afetadas pela cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica interferiu no crescimento vegetativo das plantas, mas não afetou a produção.There is an increasing adoption of overhead plastic covering for grapevines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, to protect the plants from rain and hail storms. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of overhead plastic covering with a translucent and water-proof plastic film on phenological, growth (of branch, leaves, clusters, and berries, and yield attributes of five years old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. on Paulsen 1103 rootstock raised as 'Y' management system. The experiment was carried out in Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, and followed a

  5. Anthocyanin composition and extractability in berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aglianico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Michele; De Nisco, Mauro; Bolognese, Adele; Nuzzo, Vitale; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Santi, Luca; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Novellino, Ettore

    2011-12-01

    The present article reports the anthocyanin content in the berry skin and wine of the Italian red grape cultivar Aglianico (clone VCR11 grafted onto 1103 Paulsen), one of the most ancient vines and famous for its deep-red colour. Anthocyanins were extracted from frozen berry skin in an acidified methanol solution. The extraction mixtures, monitored for 120 h, were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The extraction from berry skin of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin appeared to be a time-independent process, whereas the concentration of peonidin increased linearly with time. Peonidin-O-acetyl-glucoside was transferred from skin more slowly than petunidin-O-acetyl-glucoside and malvidin-O-acetyl-glucoside. The anthocyanin composition of the resulting wine showed that the total anthocyanin content was about one-tenth of the corresponding berry skin content. The ratio acetyl/coumaroyl anthocyanins in the wine was sharply higher than the value in berry skin (0.85 and 0.10, respectively), indicating an enrichment of acetyl derivatives in the wine. Levels of single anthocyanins in wine were not always correlated with those detected in grapes, as they were affected by winemaking. The high values of some anthocyanins in Aglianico wine could ameliorate its quality, increasing the chromatic properties, aging stability and product acceptance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39 °S 71.17 °W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the effects of ABA treatments on ripening Vitis vinifera berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribaldi, Marzia; Gény, Laurence; Delrot, Serge; Schubert, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The control of ripening of the non-climacteric grapevine fruit is still a matter of debate, but several lines of evidence point to an important role for the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The effects of ABA treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon berries before and at véraison were studied using a 2-DE proteomic approach. Proteins from whole deseeded berries (before véraison) and berry flesh and skin (at véraison) treated with 0.76 mM ABA and collected 24 h after treatment were separated and analysed. A total of 60 protein spots showed significant variations between treated and control berries, and 40 proteins, mainly related to general metabolism and cell defence, were identified by LC MS/MS. Our results show that ABA acts mainly through the regulation of mostly the same proteins which are involved in the ripening process, and that several of these changes share common elements with the ABA-induced responses in vegetative tissues.

  8. Comparative analysis of techniques for detection of quiescent Botrytis cinerea in grapes by quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to quiescent Botrytis cinerea infections of grape berries identified some specific limitations. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two tissue-grinding methods, two gra...

  9. A wireless and portable electronic nose to differentiate musts of different ripeness degree and grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-04-13

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry-The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties-Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  10. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  11. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  12. Phenolic profile and free radical-scavenging activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different geographical origins from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Souquet, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    The phenolic profile, determined by the relative proportions of different phenolic compounds, is characteristic for each grape variety and its corresponding wine. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic and hydroxycinnamate acid, flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents and free radical-scavenging activity of single-cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) wines from selected Balkan vineyard regions by spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection. The contents of phenolic compounds varied depending on the agroclimatic factors and oenological practices of the vineyard region. The antioxidant activity of wine samples was estimated by their ability to scavenge the stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). All wines showed high DPPH-scavenging activity (70.03-83.53%, mean 73.76%). Significant correlations between catechin (R(2) = 0.8504) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.8488) concentrations and DPPH-scavenging ability of the wines were found. The concentrations of the main components catechin and quercetin can be used as biochemical markers for the authentication of red grape cultivars and their corresponding single-cultivar wines. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  13. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  15. Influence of grape density and harvest date on changes in phenolic composition, phenol extractability indices, and instrumental texture properties during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Segade, Susana Río; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Cagnasso, Enzo; Marengo, Fabio; Gerbi, Vincenzo

    2011-08-24

    Changes in the phenolic composition, phenol extractability indices, and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. In this work, these changes were studied in Nebbiolo grapes harvested during five consecutive weeks and then separated according to three density classes. The changes observed in chemical and mechanical parameters through the ripening process are more related to berry density than harvest date. Therefore, the winemaker has to select the flotation density according to the objective quality properties of the wine to be elaborated. On the other hand, the stiffer grapes were associated with a higher accumulation of proanthocyanidins. The harder grapes provided the higher concentration and extractability of flavanols reactive to vanillin, whereas the thicker ones facilitated the extraction of proanthocyanidins.

  16. Loss of rachis cell viability is associated with ripening disorders in grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey E; Bondada, Bhaskar R; Keller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Rachises of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) clusters that appeared healthy or displayed symptoms of the ripening disorders berry shrivel (BS) or bunch-stem necrosis (BSN) were treated with the cellular viability stain fluorescein diacetate and examined by confocal microscopy. Clusters with BS and BSN symptoms experienced a decrease of cell viability throughout the rachis, and their berries contained 70-80% less sugar than healthy berries. The xylem-mobile dye basic fuchsin, infiltrated via the cut base of shoots with one healthy and one BS cluster, moved to all berries on the healthy cluster but generally failed to move into the peduncle of the BS cluster. Peduncle girdling did not interrupt dye movement in the xylem, but stopped solute accumulation in berries and led to berry shrinkage. In contrast, surgically destroying the peduncle xylem at the onset of ripening did not affect berry growth and solute accumulation. These results indicate that cessation of sugar and water accumulation in BS and BSN is associated with phloem death in the rachis. Although xylem flow to the berries may also cease, a functional xylem connection to the shoot may not be required for normal ripening, while water loss from berries by transpiration and xylem efflux may explain the characteristic berry shrinkage that is associated with these ripening disorders. The similarity of internal tissue breakdown in BS and BSN rachises and the correlation observed here between the proportion of shrinking berries on a cluster and the severity of rachis necrosis suggest that there may be a gradual transition between the two ripening disorders. Seeds from healthy and BS clusters showed no differences in colour, morphology, weight, viability, and ability to germinate, which indicates that the disorder may not appear until seeds are mature.

  17. The peripheral xylem of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries. 2. Anatomy and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, David S; Rost, Thomas L; Matthews, Mark A; Shackel, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the substantial reductions in xylemic water flow occurring at veraison are due to physical disruption (breaking) of the xylem as a result of renewed berry growth. In a companion paper, evidence was presented that the vast majority of xylem tracheary elements remained intact despite the growth of the berry, and it was proposed that existing tracheary elements stretch to accommodate growth and that additional elements may also differentiate after veraison. Measurements of the intergyre distance of tracheary elements in macerated tissue were used to test for stretching, and the numbers of tracheary elements per vascular bundle and of branch points of the peripheral xylem network were analysed to test for continued differentiation from 18 to 120 d after anthesis in Chardonnay berries. The distance between the epidermis and the vasculature increased substantially from pre- to post-veraison, potentially increasing the amount of skin available for analysis of compounds important for winemaking. Tracheary elements continued to differentiate within the existing vascular bundles throughout berry development. Additional vascular bundles also appeared until after veraison, thereby increasing the complexity of the peripheral vascular network. The results also confirmed that tracheary elements stretched by approximately 20%, but this was not as much as that predicted based on the growth of the vascular diameter (40%). These results complete a comprehensive evaluation of grape berry peripheral xylem during its development and show that tracheary development continues further into berry maturation than previously thought.

  18. Effect of harvest time on table grape quality during on-vine storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Francesca; Pati, Sandra; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Colelli, Giancarlo

    2016-01-15

    Postponing the harvest of grapes is a common practice in southern Italy, in order to delay harvest up to Christmas and make higher income from their sale. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of harvest time (over almost 3 months) on the quality of table grapes (cv. Italia). The experiment was repeated for two years (2010 and 2011). In 2010, grapes were harvested starting from 8 October and after 11, 27 and 48 days. In 2011, five harvest times were compared over a period of 56 days. Respiration rate, firmness, colour, sensory attributes, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenols and antioxidant activity were measured. In addition, in the second year, volatile compounds were evaluated. For both years, harvest time influenced most parameters, which indicated that metabolic changes took place in the plants. In 2010, harvest time influenced respiration rate, cluster and berry appearance scores, colour attributes, crunchiness, pH, TA, total phenol content and antioxidant activity. In 2011, harvest time influenced respiration rate, colour attributes, most sensory attributes, TSS and TA. Generally, late harvested grapes showed higher firmness, berry appearance score, sweetness, fruity taste, overall sensory evaluation score and TSS. Regarding volatile compounds, terpene content decreased during ripening, while C6 compounds showed a nonlinear trend. The results showed that table grape sensory quality could be increased by delaying harvest up to a certain time of the season, while excessive delay could reduce final grape quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Environmental factors affect the activity of biocontrol agents against ochratoxigenic Aspergillus carbonarius on wine grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Curtis, F; de Felice, D V; Ianiri, G; De Cicco, V; Castoria, R

    2012-09-17

    The influence of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the activity of three biocontrol agents-the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima LS16 and two strains of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans LS30 and AU34-2-against infection by A. carbonarius and ochratoxin A (OTA) accumulation in wine grape berries was investigated in lab-scale experiments. The presence of wounds on grape skin dramatically favored infection of berries by A. carbonarius strain A1102, since unwounded berries showed very low levels of infection at all conditions of RH and temperature tested. Artificially wounded berries pre-treated with the biocontrol agents were inoculated with the ochratoxigenic A. carbonarius strain A1102 and were incubated for 5 days at two levels of RH (60% and 100%) and three different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 °C). The three biocontrol agents were able to prevent infections at 60% RH and 20 °C. At 60% RH and 25 °C only strain AU34-2 achieved some protection on day 5, whereas at 30 °C a limited biocontrol efficacy was evident only up to day 2. At 100% RH, LS16, LS30 and AU34-2 showed effective protection of grape berries at 20 °C until the 5th day of incubation. The three biocontrol agents achieved significant protection at higher temperatures only until the 2nd day after the beginning of the experiment: all three strains at 25 °C, and only strain LS16 at 30 °C. After 5 days, the three biocontrol agents were able to significantly reduce the level of OTA in berries at all the conditions tested. This occurred even when protection from infection was not significant, except at 30 °C and 100% of RH for all the three strains, and at 25 °C and 100% of RH for strain LS16. The biocontrol agents displayed a higher rate of colonization on grape berries at 20 and 25 °C than at 30 °C. The higher value of RH (100%) appeared to increase the rate of colonization, in particular at 20 and 25 °C. Taken together, our results emphasize the significant influence of

  20. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  1. Changes in sugar content and related enzyme activities in table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in response to foliar selenium fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaimeng; Liang, Yinli; An, Xiaojuan; Kong, Fanchao; Gao, Dekai; Yin, Hongfei

    2017-09-01

    Spraying selenium (Se) fertilizer is an effective method for Se-enriched fruit production. Sugar content in fruit is the major factor determining berry quality. However, changes in sugar metabolism in response to Se fertilizer are unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to identify the effects of Se fertilizer on sugar metabolism and related enzyme activities of grape berries. Additionally, production of leaves with and without Se fertilizer was also investigated. Acid invertase (AI) activity, total soluble sugar and Se content in berries, and photosynthetic rate in leaves produced under Se fertilizer treatments were higher than that of control. Glucose and fructose were the primary sugars in berries, with a trace of sucrose. In both berries and leaves, neutral invertase activity was lower than AI, there was no significant difference in neutral invertase, sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase between Se fertilizer-treated and control. In berries, AI showed a significant positive correlation with glucose and fructose; also Se content was significantly correlated with sugar content. AI played an important role in the process of sugar accumulation in berries; high AI activity in berries and photosynthetic rate in leaves could explain the mechanism by which Se fertilizer affected sugar accumulation in berries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilli Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried out at grower vineyards of İsparta, Turkey surroundings where “Siyah Gemre” is grown wide spread, between 2001 and 2003. Clonal nominees were selected by using counting the cluster and shoot at the end of the project. After that, the clonal collection vineyard was established with spacing 3.0 m × 1.65 m in 2004. Twelve vines of each clonal nominees were grafted onto 110R rootstock. In the study the values of yield, number of cluster, weight of cluster, 100 berry weight, index of maturity, sensory analysis, weight of pruning and bud productivity were evaluated between 2007–2012. At the end of this study, according to the values of total point, five clone nominees were selected and among their 3, 19, 24 numbered clones were chosen in terms of total sensory analysis score, yield and stability, cluster and berry properties respectively.

  3. Injuries caused by frankliniella spp. (thysanoptera: thripidae on seedless grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Nunes Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thrips of the genus Frankliniella cause significant reduction on grape production. Little is known about its decision making approach in integrated pest management and information on thrips injuries to the vine is scarce, hindering the control of this pest. This study aimed to determine the species of thrips and injuries that cause damage to berries in seedless grapes clusters. The trial was conducted in an area cultivated with Vitis vinifera L., variety Thompson Seedless, using a randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of artificial infestation (zero, two, four and eight thrips per inflorescence, and treatment determined by the monitoring system of the grower. Each replication consisted of three plants with 10 inflorescences, which were artificially infested with thrips and covered with nonwoven fabric bags. During the cluster thinning, pre-harvest cleaning and harvest, the numbers of injuried berries and the berries with injuries were evaluated. The thrips species identified were: Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom, Frankliniella brevicaulis Hood, Frankliniella gemina Bagnall, Frankliniella gardeniae Moulton, and Frankliniella sp. A positive and significant correlation was observed between the number of injuries per fruit and the level of thrips infestation, obtained by the equation y = 2.55 + 48.54x (F= 59.98; P= 0.0001; r²= 0.51. The results suggest that the presence of a whitish halo around a small scar on fruit is associated with the presence of adult Frankliniella spp.

  4. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Alejandra; Espinoza, Carmen; Armijo, Grace; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Poblete, Evelyn; Meyer-Regueiro, Carlos; Arce, Anibal; Parada, Francisca; Santibáñez, Claudia; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I), lag (II), and ripening (III), in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation) and biotic (fungi and viruses) stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support agronomical

  5. The Influence of Genotype and Environment on Small RNA Profiles in Grapevine Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim Pinto, Daniela Lopes; Brancadoro, Lucio; Dal Santo, Silvia; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Pezzotti, Mario; Meyers, Blake C.; Pè, Mario E.; Mica, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries. We also investigated the presence of known and novel miRNAs and analyzed their accumulation profile. The results showed that the distribution of small RNA-producing loci is variable between the two cultivars, and that the level of variation depends on the vineyard. Differently, the profile of miRNA accumulation mainly depends on the developmental stage. The vineyard in Riccione maximizes the differences between the varieties, promoting the production of more than 1000 specific small RNA loci and modulating their expression depending on the cultivar and the maturation stage. In total, 89 known vvi-miRNAs and 33 novel vvi-miRNA candidates were identified in our samples, many of them showing the accumulation profile modulated by at least one of the factors studied. The in silico prediction of miRNA targets suggests their involvement in berry development and in secondary metabolites accumulation such as anthocyanins and polyphenols. PMID:27761135

  6. The Influence of Genotype and Environment on small RNAs profile in Grapevine Berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lopes Paim Pinto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries. We also investigated the presence of known and novel miRNAs and analyzed their accumulation profile. The results showed that the distribution of small RNA-producing loci is variable between the two cultivars, and that the level of variation depends on the vineyard. Differently, the profile of miRNA accumulation mainly depends on the developmental stage. The vineyard in Riccione maximizes the differences between the varieties, promoting the production of more than one thousand specific small RNA loci and modulating their expression depending on the cultivar and the maturation stage. In total, 89 known vvi-miRNAs and 33 novel vvi-miRNA candidates were identified in our samples, many of them showing the accumulation profile modulated by at least one of the factors studied. The in silico prediction of miRNA targets suggests their involvement in berry development and in secondary metabolites accumulation such as anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  7. The Influence of Genotype and Environment on Small RNA Profiles in Grapevine Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim Pinto, Daniela Lopes; Brancadoro, Lucio; Dal Santo, Silvia; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Pezzotti, Mario; Meyers, Blake C; Pè, Mario E; Mica, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction between the genetic composition and the environment is crucial for modern viticulture. We approached this issue by focusing on the small RNA transcriptome in grapevine berries of the two varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese, growing in adjacent vineyards in three different environments. Four different developmental stages were studied and a total of 48 libraries of small RNAs were produced and sequenced. Using a proximity-based pipeline, we determined the general landscape of small RNAs accumulation in grapevine berries. We also investigated the presence of known and novel miRNAs and analyzed their accumulation profile. The results showed that the distribution of small RNA-producing loci is variable between the two cultivars, and that the level of variation depends on the vineyard. Differently, the profile of miRNA accumulation mainly depends on the developmental stage. The vineyard in Riccione maximizes the differences between the varieties, promoting the production of more than 1000 specific small RNA loci and modulating their expression depending on the cultivar and the maturation stage. In total, 89 known vvi-miRNAs and 33 novel vvi-miRNA candidates were identified in our samples, many of them showing the accumulation profile modulated by at least one of the factors studied. The in silico prediction of miRNA targets suggests their involvement in berry development and in secondary metabolites accumulation such as anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  8. Multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) activity and wine grape phenology: implications for pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, T L; Burkness, E C; Koch, R L; Hutchison, W D

    2009-12-01

    We determined the phenology of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), adults in relation to the phenology of wine grapes (Frontenac and Marechal Foch) in Minnesota and Wisconsin vineyards to establish a management window for H. axyridis infestations in wine grapes. In addition, we also assessed the flight activity of H. axyridis in an agricultural landscape. The phenology of berry development and ripening was determined by recording berry size and sugar content of randomly selected berries. The phenology of H. axyridis was determined by tracking its flight activity with yellow sticky cards in vineyards and with a blacklight trap in an agricultural landscape. Berry development and ripening showed three distinct growth periods or phases. The end of growth period I averaged 9 July (Frontenac) and 11 July (Marechal Foch). Veraison, which marks the end of growth period II, averaged 25 July (Frontenac) and 3 August (Marechal Foch). Harvest, the third growth period averaged 18 September for Frontenac and 17 September for Marechal Foch. A major peak of H. axyridis captures occurred between veraison and harvest (i.e., the grape susceptible stage). A similar peak in the summer was observed in the agricultural landscape approximately 10 d before the major peak in the vineyards.

  9. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and one unidentified genus Mycelium sterillium without creation fruiting bodies. The most frequent were genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The most frequent Aspergillus species was Aspergillus section Nigri (100 % and Penicillium species was Penicillium chrysogenum (50 %. The largest number of isolates belonged to Alternaria (275 isolates, Cladosporium (114 isolates and Penicillium (92 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 42 %, 19.6 % and 15.8 %, respectively. The selected isolates – Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, G1 and cyclopiazonic acid producing ability. Out of 11 strains 54 % produced at least one mycotoxin. In our research ochratoxigenic microfungi (some species of Aspergillus section Nigri were found in grape samples but without production of OTA.

  10. Grape microbiome as a reliable and persistent signature of field origin and environmental conditions in Cannonau wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Sandionigi, Anna; Bruni, Ilaria; Bruno, Antonia; Lovicu, Gianni; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Labra, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy) where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments. Results suggested that microbiomes of berries collected at four different localities share a core composition characterized by Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Bacillales, and Rhodospirillales. However, any area seems to enrich berries microbiome with peculiar microbial traits. For example, berries belonging to the biodynamic vineyards of Mamoiada were rich in Bacillales typical of manure (i.e. Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, and Sporosarcina), whereas in the Santadi locality, berries showed soil bacteria such as Pasteurellales and Bacteroidales as well as Rhodospirillales and Lactobacillales which are commonly involved in wine fermentation. In the case of fungi, the most abundant taxa were Dothioraceae, Pleosporaceae, and Saccharomycodaceae, and although the proportion of these families varied among localities, they occurred ubiquitously in all vineyards. During vinification processes performed at the same wine cellar under controlled conditions and without using any yeast starter, more than 50% of bacteria groups of berries reached musts, and each locality had its own private bacteria signature, even if Saccharomyces cerevisiae represented the most abundant fungal species. This work suggests that natural berries microbiome could be influenced by pedoclimatic and anthropologic conditions (e.g., farming management), and the fruits' microorganisms persist during the fermentation process. For these reasons, a reliable wine genotyping should

  11. Grape microbiome as a reliable and persistent signature of field origin and environmental conditions in Cannonau wine production.

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    Valerio Mezzasalma

    Full Text Available Grape berries harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the vineyard environment, many of which are recognized for their role in the must fermentation process shaping wine quality. To better clarify the contribution of the microbiome of grape fruits during wine fermentation, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify bacterial and fungi communities associated with berries and musts of Cannonau. This is the most important cultivar-wine of Sardinia (Italy where most vineyards are cultivated without phytochemical treatments. Results suggested that microbiomes of berries collected at four different localities share a core composition characterized by Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Bacillales, and Rhodospirillales. However, any area seems to enrich berries microbiome with peculiar microbial traits. For example, berries belonging to the biodynamic vineyards of Mamoiada were rich in Bacillales typical of manure (i.e. Lysinibacillus, Bacillus, and Sporosarcina, whereas in the Santadi locality, berries showed soil bacteria such as Pasteurellales and Bacteroidales as well as Rhodospirillales and Lactobacillales which are commonly involved in wine fermentation. In the case of fungi, the most abundant taxa were Dothioraceae, Pleosporaceae, and Saccharomycodaceae, and although the proportion of these families varied among localities, they occurred ubiquitously in all vineyards. During vinification processes performed at the same wine cellar under controlled conditions and without using any yeast starter, more than 50% of bacteria groups of berries reached musts, and each locality had its own private bacteria signature, even if Saccharomyces cerevisiae represented the most abundant fungal species. This work suggests that natural berries microbiome could be influenced by pedoclimatic and anthropologic conditions (e.g., farming management, and the fruits' microorganisms persist during the fermentation process. For these reasons, a reliable wine

  12. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Magee, James B; Dewey, Jim; Ballington, James R

    2004-07-28

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10 species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry), and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884 ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  13. 'Fortified' wines volatile composition: Effect of different postharvest dehydration conditions of wine grapes cv. Malvasia moscata (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcan, Delia Elena; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Río Segade, Susana; Raimondi, Stefano; Bertolino, Marta; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Pop, Nastasia; Rolle, Luca

    2017-03-15

    The impact of postharvest dehydration on the volatile composition of Malvasia moscata grapes and fortified wines produced from them was assessed. The ripeness effect of fresh grapes on volatile compounds of dehydrated grapes was evaluated for the first time in this study. Fresh grape berries were densimetrically sorted, and more represented density classes were selected. Dehydration of riper berries (20.5 °Brix) led to volatile profiles richer in terpenes, particularly linalool and geraniol. The effect of dehydration rate on the volatile composition of dehydrated grapes and fortified wines was also evaluated. Fast dehydration grapes were richer in total free terpenes, and the resulting wines contained greater amounts of volatile compounds. The predominant compounds were free esters, but linalool, rose oxide, citronellol and geraniol can also contribute to wine aroma, particularly for fast dehydration. β-Damascenone can be an active odorant, although its contribution was greater in wines made from slow dehydrated grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

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    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  15. Analysis of Grape Polyamines from Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) Infected Vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report comparing the free polyamine content of 'Pinot noir' grapes from vines infected with Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV) -2 or -3, with samples taken from healthy vines. Berries were collected from three different rootstock/scion combinations, and all samples were ...

  16. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

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    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  17. Following the compositional changes of fresh grape skin cell walls during the fermentation process in the presence and absence of maceration enzymes.

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    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Trygg, Johan; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-03-18

    Cell wall profiling technologies were used to follow compositional changes that occurred in the skins of grape berries (from two different ripeness levels) during fermentation and enzyme maceration. Multivariate data analysis showed that the fermentation process yielded cell walls enriched in hemicellulose components because pectin was solubilized (and removed) with a reduction as well as exposure of cell wall proteins usually embedded within the cell wall structure. The addition of enzymes caused even more depectination, and the enzymes unravelled the cell walls enabling better access to, and extraction of, all cell wall polymers. Overripe grapes had cell walls that were extensively hydrolyzed and depolymerized, probably by natural grape-tissue-ripening enzymes, and this enhanced the impact that the maceration enzymes had on the cell wall monosaccharide profile. The combination of the techniques that were used is an effective direct measurement of the hydrolysis actions of maceration enzymes on the cell walls of grape berry skin.

  18. Effect of different winter pruning systems on grapes produced

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    Claudio Caprara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these trials was to evaluate possible effects on properties of grapes, particularly the physical and mechanical features, depending on the winter pruning system. The following pruning techniques were carried out: manual pruning (m; mechanical pruning (M; mechanical pre-pruning and subsequent manual finishing (Mm; mechanical pre-pruning and contemporary fast manual finishing, using a wagon facility with two operators equipped with pneumatic scissors (Mw. The trials were carried out on Sangiovese trained to spurred cordon. During the trials were measured: time and cost of pruning, quality of pruning and the vegetative-productive response of vines. During grape harvesting a consolidated analytical method of texture analysis was applied to evaluate the physical parameters of grapevine cultivar: pedicel detachment, skin perforation, skin thickness, grape features as hardness, cohesiveness, springiness. Analysis of working time showed that the manual pruning (m determined a greater commitment of time, while the mechanized pruning (M presented a time reduction of 95%. The two mechanized pruning associated with manual finishing reduced the time of 21% (Mm and 69% (Mw. The lowering cost is less evident but important anyway. Regarding the quality of pruning, the increase in the level of mechanization has produced an increase of spurs and buds density. It was also detected a higher percentage of damaged spurs and in wrong position. The increasing of mechanization levels of pruning also has produced smaller and sparser bunches with smaller berries. The study of mechanical properties of berries showed significant differences in the mechanical behaviours of the different pruning tests. The mechanized pruning presented higher values for the pedicel detachment, skin perforation and cohesiveness, while it gave lower values for thickness of skin and springiness. The results showed that mechanical pruning can modify properties of the berries which

  19. NMR metabolic fingerprinting and chemometrics driven authentication of Greek grape marc spirits.

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    Fotakis, Charalambos; Zervou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    NMR metabolomics was used to investigate 57 Greek spirits of four indigenous and four international varieties from Macedonia (tsipouro) and Crete (tsikoudia) to establish their authenticity. The metabolic profile of Romeiko, Malvasia, Xinomavro, Sangiovese and Nebbiolo varieties was assessed for the first time. The WET1D sequence was used to improve sensitivity and unveil minor metabolites. PCA was applied to delineate the provenance of samples and associate metabolites with distinct varietal characteristics, such as the acidity of Sangiovese, the overripe grapes harvesting of Romeiko, the intense body of Cabernet Sauvignon, the light body of Xinomavro and the glutamic acid for Malvasia. The migration of Cabernet Sauvignon from north Greece to Crete was framed. Monitoring multi-varietal spirits introduced 2-vinylethanol as a marker for yeast selection. OPLS-DA was applied to samples from the same vineyard, thus highlighting genotypic markers. Consequently, the findings address the concepts of typicity and traceability in grape marc spirits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Linking microbial community on grapes from two Portuguese wine regions to the biogenic amines production in musts

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    Calisto Rita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine-associated microbiota influences wine organoleptic properties. Spoilage due to undesired microorganisms and biogenic amines (BAs presence are two main constrains that must be seriously considered. In wine, BAs can originate from the grape berries or can be produced during fermentation, ageing or storage. This work aimed to understand if the high BAs levels observed in musts can have its origin in the microbial community present on grapes. The following methodologies were done: bacterial and fungal grapes communities' isolation, BAs quantification in grapes and musts and molecular amplification of the genes related to BAs production. For comparative purposes, microbial communities from grapes and musts from Douro (low BAs levels in musts and Alentejo (high BAs levels in musts were used. Higher number and diversity of bacteria were observed in Alentejo grapes comparatively to Douro ones. Filamentous fungi were predominant when compared with yeasts and the diversity was higher in Alentejo. BAs levels mainly due to putrescin were about ten times higher in grapes and musts from Alentejo. As bacteria isolated from Alentejo grapes showed a great BAs-production potential, namely putrescin, our results suggest a bacterial grape origin for the high putrescine levels found in fresh musts of this region.

  1. Biocontrol of Grey Mould Disease on Grape Caused by Botrytis cinerea with Autochthonous Wine Yeasts

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    Peter Raspor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol activities of different yeast species and strains isolated from grape/must/wine environments have been compared to those of commercially available antagonistic yeast species of Candida oleophila. A total of 591 yeast isolates were tested in a preliminary screening on agar to select isolates showing inhibitory effect against Botrytis cinerea, the plant pathogen causing grey mould disease on grape. Yeast species Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Pichia guilliermondii showed, on average, higher biocontrol activity than commercially used yeast Candida oleophila. Furthermore, these three species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is potentially interesting biocontrol agent against grey mould of grapes, were selected for their inhibitory effects and assayed in vitro on different solid synthetic media for their antagonistic capacity towards B. cinerea. The results indicate that the composition of the medium had an impact on the biocontrol activity of yeast species and strains, as Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the highest antagonistic activity against B. cinerea when tested on media with increased concentrations of glucose. The antagonistic activity of selected yeast strains was finally determined on wounded and sound grape berries of cultivars Rebula and Chardonnay for their ability to inhibit infection by B. cinerea moulds. Results suggest that antagonist yeasts with the potential to control B. cinerea on grape can be found among the microflora associated with the berries.

  2. Grape and environmental mycoflora monitoring in old, traditionally cultivated vineyards on Mount Etna, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Cinzia; Bella, Patrizia; Tessitori, Matilde; Catara, Vittoria; La Rosa, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Grape contamination by several fungal species occurs during a vineyard's preharvest and harvest. Agronomic management and microclimatic conditions can affect fungi occurrence and epidemiology, thus explaining qualitative differences in mycoflora composition, including the presence of phytopathogenic or mycotoxigenic fungi. In this study a two-year grape, air and soil mycoflora monitoring programme was undertaken in vineyards on Mount Etna (eastern Sicily, Italy). The mycoflora composition was investigated at pea berry and veraison phenological phases from air and soil and at ripening from sample grapes. Mycoflora in air and soil varied according to the phenological stage. In the air samples, penicillia were dominant over aspergilli at the pea berry phase, but their ratio was inverted at early veraison. Black aspergilli (BA) were isolated from the vine environment and grape samples, where BA were represented mainly by Aspergillus niger aggregate, which showed no or low ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Aspergillus carbonarius was either not identified or identified at low frequency, although most of the isolates produced OTA. Monitoring focused on the environmental mycoflora composition and highlighted the good health profile of various Sicilian autochthonous grape cultivars. In addition, data suggest that the lower relative humidity occurring at the highest altitudes reduces BA incidence. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Grape Seed Extract

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    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  4. Characterization of maturity and quality of Brazilian apirenic grapes in the São Francisco river Valley

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    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and correlate maturity and quality of the first varieties of Brazilian seedless grapes 'BRS Clara', 'BRS Linda', 'BRS Morena', and 'Advanced Selection 8' compared with the American variety 'Crimson Seedless' in compliance with the Brazilian Normative/2002 and export standards Advanced Selection 8' is dark reddish, has large clusters, and is a very large ellipsoid berry; 'BRS Morena' is black with medium sized clusters and large berry shaped as ellipsoid to globoid; 'BRS Linda' is light green and has large sized clusters; 'Crimson' is pink and has small clusters with berries varying from medium to large sizes and ellipsoid shaped; and 'BRS Clara' is green yellowish has medium sized clusters and small berry of elongated ellipsoid shape. All varieties evaluated meet the standard for domestic market established as berry size minimum diameter 12 mm. 'BRS Clara' does not meet the export requirements of diameter. Berries of the red grapes 'BRS Morena' and 'Crimson Seedless' are firmer. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids meet the official standards. Larger clusters are less acidic and present higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratios implying that they are the sweetest type when ripe.

  5. Influence of manganese fertilizer on efficiency of grapes on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic

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    Batukaev A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the studies, there has been obtained new information about the manganese influence on productivity of grape plantations, on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic. Manganese fertilizing of 4 kg active ingredient per 1 ha, against the background of nitrogen 90 kg, phosphorus 90 kg and potassium 90 kg/ha, made it into a phase of grape sap flow, which contributes to higher yields, increase of the sugar content of the berries and a significant decrease in juice acidity, in comparison with other options.

  6. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

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    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  7. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE

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    Chunxiao eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The terroir characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons.

  8. Optimization of simultaneous flavanol, phenolic acid, and anthocyanin extraction from grapes using an experimental design: application to the characterization of champagne grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mané, C; Souquet, J M; Ollé, D; Verriés, C; Véran, F; Mazerolles, G; Cheynier, V; Fulcrand, H

    2007-09-05

    Optimization of polyphenol extraction from grape skin, seed, and pulp was performed on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir, by response surface methodology using a Doehlert design. An acidified mixture of acetone/water/methanol was the best solvent for simultaneous extraction of major polyphenol groups from all berry parts, while optimum extraction times and solid-to-liquid ratios varied according to the part. The determined composition from the model agreed with independent experimental results. Analysis of the three Champagne grape varieties showed that proanthocyanidins were the major phenolic compounds in each part (60-93%). The total berry proanthocyanidin content was highest in Pinot Meunier (11 g kg(-1)) and lowest in Chardonnay (5 g kg(-1)), but Pinot Meunier pulp contained lower amounts of proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids (210 and 127 mg kg(-1) berry, respectively) than that of the other two varieties. The berry anthocyanin content was equivalent in both Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier (632 and 602 mg kg(-1), respectively).

  9. Exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide Interacts with Light to Regulate Anthocyanin and Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Yali Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs are crucial factors that affect the quality of grapes and the making of wine, which were stimulated by various stimuli and environment factors (sugar, hormones, light, and temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR and light on the mechanism of anthocyanins and PAs accumulation in grape berries. Grape clusters were sprayed with EBR (0.4 mg/L under light and darkness conditions (EBR + L, EBR + D, or sprayed with deionized water under light and darkness conditions as controls (L, D, at the onset of veraison. A large amount of anthocyanins accumulated in the grape skins and was measured under EBR + L and L treatments, whereas EBR + D and D treatments severely suppressed anthocyanin accumulation. This indicated that EBR treatment could produce overlay effects under light, in comparison to that in dark. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that EBR application up-regulated the expression of genes (VvCHI1, VvCHS2, VvCHS3, VvDFR, VvLDOX, VvMYBA1 under light conditions. Under darkness conditions, only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to EBR. Furthermore, we also analyzed the expression levels of the BR-regulated transcription factor VvBZR1 (Brassinazole-resistant 1 and light-regulated transcription factor VvHY5 (Elongated hypocotyl 5. Our results suggested that EBR and light had synergistic effects on the expression of genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway.

  10. The grapevine VviPrx31 peroxidase as a candidate gene involved in anthocyanin degradation in ripening berries under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Nooshin; Pastore, Chiara; Cellini, Antonio; Allegro, Gianluca; Valentini, Gabriele; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; D'Incà, Erica; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2016-05-01

    Anthocyanin levels decline in some red grape berry varieties ripened under high-temperature conditions, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Here we studied the effects of two different temperature regimes, representing actual Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.) viticulture regions, on the accumulation of mRNAs and enzymes controlling berry skin anthocyanins. Potted uniform plants of Sangiovese were kept from veraison to harvest, in two plastic greenhouses with different temperature conditions. The low temperature (LT) conditions featured average and maximum daily air temperatures of 20 and 29 °C, respectively, whereas the corresponding high temperature (HT) conditions were 22 and 36 °C, respectively. The anthocyanin concentration at harvest was much lower in HT berries than LT berries although their profile was similar under both conditions. Under HT conditions, the biosynthesis of anthocyanins was suppressed at both the transcriptional and enzymatic levels, but peroxidase activity was higher. This suggests that the low anthocyanin content of HT berries reflects the combined impact of reduced biosynthesis and increased degradation, particularly the direct role of peroxidases in anthocyanin catabolism. Overexpression of VviPrx31 decreased anthocyanin contents in Petunia hybrida petals under heat stress condition. These data suggest that high temperature can stimulate peroxidase activity thus anthocyanin degradation in ripening grape berries.

  11. Impact of cover crops in vineyard on the aroma compounds of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Mei; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hua

    2011-07-15

    This study compared the influence of different cover crops with clean tillage on wine aroma compounds of 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. White clover, alfalfa, and tall fescue were used in the vineyard and compared with clean tillage. Aroma compounds of wine were analysed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Wines made from grapes grown with various cover crops had higher levels of aroma compounds. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, phenylethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, linalool, citronellol, β-damascenone, α-ionone, and 5-amyl-dihydro-2(3H)-furan were the impact odorants of sample wines. Wines from cover crop also had higher contents of these impact odorants than the control. For different cover crops, alfalfa sward yielded the highest levels, followed by the tall fescue treatment. According to the data analysis of aroma compounds and sensory assess, permanent cover crop may have the potential to improve wine quality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Bacterial diversity of Grenache and Carignan grape surface from different vineyards at Priorat wine region (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Maria del Carmen; Franquès, Judit; Araque, Isabel; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert

    2016-02-16

    Epiphytic bacteria on grape berries play a critical role in grape health and quality, which decisively influence the winemaking process. Despite their importance, the bacteria related with grape berry surface remain understudied and most previous work has been based on culture-dependent methods, which offer a limited view of the actual diversity. Herein, we used high-throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial diversity on the surface from two grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, and compared them across five vineyards included within the Priorat region (Spain). We could detect up to 14 bacterial phyla with Firmicutes (37.6% Bacillales and 14% Lactobacillales), Proteobacteria (16.8% Pseudomonadales and 11.6% Enterobacteriales) and Actinobacteria (3.4% Actinomycetales) being the most abundant. Bacterial community was different at each vineyard being grape varietal, geographical situation and orientation related with changes in bacterial populations. The most abundant bacterial taxa and those driving differences between the vineyards and grape varietals were identified. This study indicates that bacterial community heterogeneities can be influenced by geographic factors like orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physico-chemical Properties of Serendipity Berry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the physico-chemical properties of serendipity berry. Physico-chemical properties of the serendipity berries were analyzed. The total number of berries in a bunch of fruit ranged from 45 to 98. This depends on the size of the bunch. The results revealed the dry matter, moisture, soluble solids and vitamin ...

  15. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of two rootstocks (SO4 and 1103P) on grape quality and berry chemical composition was studied in a factorial experiment, in field grown grapevines of cv. ... On the contrary, T4 and T5 irrigation treatments increased total acidity, pH and juice yield of samples compared to the effects of T1, T2 and T3 irrigation ...

  16. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

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    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  17. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of methyl jasmonate on the aroma of Sangiovese grapes and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Claudio; Matarese, Fabiola; Cuzzola, Angela

    2018-03-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was applied in a vineyard on leaves and grape clusters of cv Sangiovese to test its ability to stimulate the production of aromas and identify the main genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways switched on by the elicitor. MeJA application led to a delay in grape technological maturity and a significant increase in the concentration of several berry aroma classes (about twice the total aroma: from around 3 to 6μg/g of berry). Of these, monoterpenes showed the most significant increase. An analysis of the expression of terpenoid biosynthesis genes confirmed that the MeJA application activated the related biosynthetic pathway. The expression of all the TPS genes analyzedwas higher in samples treated with MeJA. Also the wines produced by microvinification of Sangiovese treated and untreated grapes showed a rise in the aroma concentration as in berries, with an important impact on longevity and sensorial characters of wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brotação e produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Pinot Noir' submetidas a diferentes concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada Shoot growth and production of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir grapevines sprayed with different concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Arduino Bettio Marodin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de frio invernal na videira produz efeitos adversos, como o atraso e desuniformidade de brotação das gemas, dificuldades de manejo fitossanitário, produção escalonada e de baixa qualidade. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Garibaldi, na região da Encosta Superior do Nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, com 640 metros de altitude, com objetivo de testar concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada de 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5% nas cultivares viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon e Pinot Noir. Os melhores resultados para brotação de gemas de vara foram de 1,75 e 2,0 % em 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Pinot Noir', respectivamente. Concentrações superiores a 1,5 % ocasionaram uniformidade de brotação, independentemente do ano. A maior produtividade foi obtida com cianamida.hidrogenada 2,0% nas duas cultivares, com elevação média de cinco ton/ha. Houve maior fertilidade nas gemas de vara do que em esporão. Os aspectos qualitativos das uvas não foram afetados pela cianamida hidrogenada, com exceção do peso médio dos cachos na 'Pinot Noir', na safra de 2004.The lack of chilling for grapevines produces adverse effects such as the delay and unevenness of budburst; difficulties for phytosanitary procedures, extension of the harvesting period and low fruit quality. The work was carried out close to Garibaldi, at an altitude of 640 meters in the region of "Encosta Superior" Northern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this work was to test concentrations of hydrogen Cyanamid varying from 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 ; 2,0 and 2.5% sprayed onto Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir cultivars. The best shoot growth results were obtained from sprays of 1.75% and 2.0% in Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir, respectively. Concentrations beyond to 1.5% promoted shoot growth uniformity, independent of the year. The highest productivity was obtained with 2.0% hydrogen Cyanamid in both cultivars, with an average increase of 5 ton/ha. There

  20. Tiamina e riboflavina: evolução com a maturação de Cabernet Sauvignon e comportamento durante a fermentação com diferentes níveis de anidrido sulfuroso adicionado Thiamine and riboflavin: evolution during ripening of Cabernet Sauvignon and during fermentation with different levels of so2 added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das vitaminas,tiamina (vitamina B1 e riboflavina (vitamina B2,durante a maturação de Vitis vinifera cultivar Cabemet Sauvignon e durante a fermentação do mosto, usando diferentes quantidades de SO2. Os valores mínimos encontrados para tiamina e riboflavina foram respectivamente (ug/100nd: 7,67 e 6,85 com 5,5 °Brix e os máximos foram, respectivamente, 19,35 (na colheita e 15,75 com 12,8 °Brix. A tiamina foi quase totalmente consumida antes da fermentação inicial, aparecendo novamente ao final da mesma. A riboflavina, ao contrário aumentou durante a fermentação. Ambas as vitaminas aumentaram durante a maturação de Cabemet Sauvignon, estando a tiamina presente em maior quantidade. O aumento das quantidades de SO2 adicionado ao mosto, afetou a tiamina numa proporção direta, mas não teve nenhum efeito sobre a riboflavina. A tiamina diminuiu durante a fermentação, ao mesmo tempo em que ocorreu um aumento da riboflavina.The aim of the work was to follow the behaviour of both vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, during ripening of Vitis vinifera Cabemet Sauvignon and during fermentation of the must using different amounts of SO2. Minimum values for thiamine and riboflavin were, respectivelly, (ug/100ml: 7.67 and 6.85 at 5.5 °Brix and the maximum values were, respectivelly, 19.35 (at harvest and 15.75 at 12.87 °Brix. Thiamine was almost completelly consumed before the start of fermentation showing up again at the end of the process; riboflavin, on the contrary, increased during fermentation. Both vitamins increased during ripening of Cabemet Sauvignon but -in grapes- the amount of thiamine was greater than riboflavin. Fermentation procedures, as increasing levels of SO2, affected thiamine in a direct proportion but did not have any effect upon riboflavin. Thiamine decreased during fermentation and riboflavin increased.

  1. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  2. The synthesis and accumulation of resveratrol are associated with veraison and abscisic acid concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin

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    Junfang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis, i.e. 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity. Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 d pre-veraison,veraison or 7 d post-veraison, thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 d pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  3. Characterization and quantification of grape variety by means of shikimic acid concentration and protein fingerprint in still white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabreyrie, David; Chauvet, Serge; Guyon, François; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Antinelli, Jean-François; Medina, Bernard

    2008-08-27

    Protein profiles, obtained by high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) on white wines previously dialyzed, combined with shikimic acid concentration and multivariate analysis, were used for the determination of grape variety composition of a still white wine. Six varieties were studied through monovarietal wines elaborated in the laboratory: Chardonnay (24 samples), Chenin (24), Petit Manseng (7), Sauvignon (37), Semillon (24), and Ugni Blanc (9). Homemade mixtures were elaborated from authentic monovarietal wines according to a Plackett-Burman sampling plan. After protein peak area normalization, a matrix was elaborated containing protein results of wines (mixtures and monovarietal). Partial least-squares processing was applied to this matrix allowing the elaboration of a model that provided a varietal quantification precision of around 20% for most of the grape varieties studied. The model was applied to commercial samples from various geographical origins, providing encouraging results for control purposes.

  4. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

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    António M. Jordão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challenge in oenology, as it is also the study of the role of chemosensory factors in alcohol intake and consumer preferences. Several technical and scientific advances have occurred in recent years, such as identification of receptors and other important molecules involved in the transduction mechanisms of flavor. In addition, consumers know that wines with high alcohol content can causes a gustatory disequilibrium affecting wine sensory perceptions leading to unbalanced wines. Hence, the object of this review is to enhance the knowledge on wine grape sugar composition, the alcohol perception on a sensorial level, as well as several technological practices that can be applied to reduce the wine alcohol content.

  6. Fungal Endophytes as a Metabolic Fine-Tuning Regulator for Wine Grape.

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    Ming-Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available Endophytes proved to exert multiple effects on host plants, including growth promotion, stress resistance. However, whether endophytes have a role in metabolites shaping of grape has not been fully understood. Eight endophytic fungal strains which originally isolated from grapevines were re-inoculated to field-grown grapevines in this study, and their effects on both leaves and berries of grapevines at maturity stage were assessed, with special focused on secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities. High-density inoculation of all these endophytic fungal strains modified the physio-chemical status of grapevine to different degrees. Fungal inoculations promoted the content of reducing sugar (RS, total flavonoids (TF, total phenols (TPh, trans-resveratrol (Res and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, in both leaves and berries of grapevine. Inoculation of endophytic fungal strains, CXB-11 (Nigrospora sp. and CXC-13 (Fusarium sp. conferred greater promotion effects in grape metabolic re-shaping, compared to other used fungal strains. Additionally, inoculation of different strains of fungal endophytes led to establish different metabolites patterns of wine grape. The work implies the possibility of using endophytic fungi as fine-tuning regulator to shape the quality and character of wine grape.

  7. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening

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    Martinez- Zapater José M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses. Results Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36 and in two seasons (2007 and 2008 were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38. Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism

  8. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Silva, Marta S; Ali, Kashif; Sousa, Lisete; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young H; Grimplet, Jerome; Martinez-Zapater, José M; Verpoorte, Robert; Pais, Maria S

    2011-11-02

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36) and in two seasons (2007 and 2008) were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold) between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38). Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism as well as secondary metabolism. These

  9. Improvement berry color skin profile by exogenous cyanocobalamin treatment of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapevines

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    A.A. Lo'ay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of cyanocobalamin (B12 treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9 mM B12 on Vitis vinifera L. ‘Crimson seedless’ which conducted during two seasons 2014 and 2015. The study aims to regenerate berry color during growth and preserve it during shelf-life at room temperature for four days. The results showed that B12 treatments were significantly effective in reducing weight loss. Berry shatter, rachis browning index, while it preserved another quality parameter high such as berry firmness, separation force, total phenol content (TPC, total sugar content (TSC, total anthocyanin content (TAC, B-Carotene, ascorbic acid (AA and color hue angle during shelf-life for four days. The previous results were significantly observed with B12 at 9 mM compared to control and other B12 concentrations. However, total solid content (SSC%, titratable acidity (TA%, and SSC/TA ratio were significantly affected by B12 at 9 mM up to end the shelf-life period. In contrast, the lowest values of total chlorophyll (Chlab content during shelf-life compared with other B12 concentrations. Therefore, cyanocobalamin (B12 is an effective vitamin for improving or generating berry color at harvest time and maintaining cluster quality of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapes during shelf-life (marketing.

  10. Prospect on Ionomic Signatures for the Classification of Grapevine Berries According to Their Geographical Origin

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    Youry Pii

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The determination of food geographical origin has been an important subject of study over the past decade, with an increasing number of analytical techniques being developed to determine the provenance of agricultural products. Agricultural soils can differ for the composition and the relative quantities of mineral nutrients and trace elements whose bioavailability depends on soil properties. Therefore, the ionome of fruits, vegetables and derived products can reflect the mineral composition of the growth substrate. Multi-elemental analysis has been successfully applied to trace the provenance of wines from different countries or different wine-producing regions. However, winemaking process and environmental and cultural conditions may affect a geographical fingerprint. In this article, we discuss the possibility of applying ionomics in wines classification on a local scale and also by exploiting grape berry analyses. In this regard, we present the ionomic profile of grapevine berries grown within an area of approximately 300 km2 and the subsequent application of chemometric methods for the assignment of their geographical origin. The best discrimination was obtained by using a dataset composed only of rare earth elements. Considering the experiences reported in the literature and our results, we concluded that sample representativeness and the application of a preliminary Principal Component Analysis, as pattern recognition techniques, might represent two necessary starting points for the geographical determination of the geographical origin of grape berries; therefore, on the basis of these observations we also include some recommendations to be considered for future application of these techniques for grape and wines classification.

  11. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  12. Behaviour of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grapes under semi-arid tropical climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, Ashok K; Deepa, M; Jagadish, G K; Prakash, G S; Kumar, Sampath

    2010-08-01

    A mixture of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole is excellent in controlling both powdery and downy mildew of grapes. The objective of the present work was to study the behaviour of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grape berries and soil following treatment with Nativo 75 WG, a formulation containing both fungicides (trifloxystrobin 250 + tebuconazole 500 g kg(-1)). This study was carried out for planned registration of this mixture for use on grapes in India. Initial residue deposits of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on grapes were below their maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.5 and 2 mg kg(-1), respectively, when Nativo 75 WG was applied at the recommended dose of 175 g product ha(-1). The residues dissipated gradually to 0.02 and 0.05 mg kg(-1) by 30 days, and were below the quantifiable limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (60 days after the last treatment). Trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole dissipated at a pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 36 and 34 days, respectively, from the recommended treatment dose. The acid metabolite of trifloxystrobin, CGA 321 113, was not detected in grape berries at any point in time. Soil at harvest was free of any pesticide residues. Residue levels of both trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole were below MRLs when grapes were harvested 30 days after the last of four applications of 175 g product ha(-1) (trifloxystrobin 44 g AI ha(-1), tebuconazole 88 g AI ha(-1)) under the semi-arid tropical climatic conditions of India. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Overwintering of vineyard yeasts: survival of interacting yeast communities in grapes mummified on vines

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    Matthias eSipiczki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of grape must into wine involves the development and succession of yeast populations differing in species composition. The initial population is formed by vineyard strains which are washed into the must from the crushed grapes and then completed with yeasts coming from the cellar environment. As the origin and natural habitat of the vineyard yeasts are not fully understood, this study addresses the possibility that grape yeasts can be preserved in berries left behind on vines at harvest until the spring of the next year. These berries become mummified during the winter on the vines. To investigate whether yeasts can survive in these overwintering grapes, mummified berries were collected in 16 localities in the Tokaj wine region (Hungary-Slovakia in early March. The collected berries were rehydrated to recover viable yeasts by plating samples onto agar plates. For the detection of minority species which would not be detected by direct plating, an enrichment step repressing the propagation of alcohol-sensitive yeasts was also included in the process. The morphological, physiological and molecular analysis identified 13 basidiomycetous and 23 ascomycetous species including fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance among the 3879 isolates. The presence of viable strains of these species demonstrates that the grapes mummified on the vine can serve as a safe reservoir of yeasts, and may contribute to the maintenance of grape-colonizing yeast populations in the vineyard over years, parallel with other vectors and habitats. All basidiomycetous species were known phylloplane yeasts. Three Hanseniaspora species and pigmented Metschnikowia strains were the most frequent ascomycetes. Other fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance were detected only in the enrichment cultures. Saccharomyces (S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum were recovered from 13 % of the samples. No Candida zemplinina was found. The isolates with Aureobasidium

  14. Characterization of epiphytic bacterial communities from grapes, leaves, bark and soil of grapevine plants grown, and their relations.

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    Guilherme Martins

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in plant health and crop quality, the diversity of epiphytic bacteria on grape berries and other plant parts, like leaves and bark, remains poorly described, as does the role of telluric bacteria in plant colonization. In this study, we compare the bacterial community size and structure in vineyard soils, as well as on grapevine bark, leaves and berries. Analyses of culturable bacteria revealed differences in the size and structure of the populations in each ecosystem. The highest bacteria population counts and the greatest diversity of genera were found in soil samples, followed by bark, grapes and leaves. The identification of isolates revealed that some genera - Pseudomonas, Curtobacterium, and Bacillus - were present in all ecosystems, but in different amounts, while others were ecosystem-specific. About 50% of the genera were common to soil and bark, but absent from leaves and grapes. The opposite was also observed: grape and leaf samples presented 50% of genera in common that were absent from trunk and soil. The bacterial community structure analyzed by T-RFLP indicated similarities between the profiles of leaves and grapes, on the one hand, and bark and soil, on the other, reflecting the number of shared T-RFs. The results suggest an interaction between telluric bacterial communities and the epiphytic bacteria present on the different grapevine parts.

  15. The Influence of Terroir on Phenolic Composition of Red Grapes

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    Victoria Artem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A rich content of phenolic compounds (anthocyans and tannins is a fundamental technological condition for the obtaining of quality red wines - appreciated by increasing numbers of consumers, aware of the benefic health effects brought about by these biologically active compounds. The biosynthesis of phenols and their accumulation in the grape berries during ripening is influenced by a multitude of factors. In this study we focused on terroir and on the biological potential of the authorized red varieties for wines with controlled denomination of origin in four centres of three well-established viticultural regions: the Hills of Dobrogea, the Hills of Moldova, the Hills of Muntenia and Oltenia. The polyphenolic potential of the grapes was evaluated for the crop of 2015 by the standard Glories method, thus obtaining results for the total polyphenolic potential (ApH1, the extractable anthocyans potential (ApH3,2, the percentage of anthocyans extractability (%AE, the maturity of the seeds (MS and total polyphenols (PT. By classifying the freshly harvested grapes on the basis of their phenolic potential using the statistical method of Principal Component Analysis, the studied varieties are clearly differentiated based on the viticultural terroi

  16. Advanced Knowledge of Three Important Classes of Grape Phenolics: Anthocyanins, Stilbenes and Flavonols

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    Luigi Bavaresco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry.

  17. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

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    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  18. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

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    Fanizza Girolamo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant

  19. Grape flavonoids and menopausal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, A L

    2007-12-01

    Grape flavonoids are members of a larger group of plant compounds called polyphenols. Epidemiological evidence relating to the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is high in polyphenols, derived from vegetables and red wine, suggests that dietary polyphenols are of benefit to health and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Overall, the evidence is promising for the benefit of grape flavonoids in the form of red wine, red grape juice and related preparations for cardiovascular risk factors. There are data to suggest a reduction in platelet activation, inflammation and low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improvement of endothelial function with grape flavonoids. The evidence for grape flavonoids and renal function, cognition and cancer is less clear. However, it is important to note that much of this research has been carried out in animal and cell models; relatively little work has been done in humans and specifically on the health of menopausal women. There are no general safety concerns with ingestion of grape products. Obviously, consumption of red wine should be within recommended limits and it should be noted that grape juice has high sugar content. Grape flavonoids are also available as a supplement. In conclusion, it is likely that grape flavonoids do benefit the menopausal women. Further research is needed on the mode and dosage of application to maximize these benefits.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the post harvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'niagara rosada' grapes;Radiacao ultravioleta no controle pos-colheita de Colletotrichum gloeosporides em uva 'niagara rosada'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cia, Patricia; Sanches, Juliana, E-mail: pcia@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Jundiai, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Automacao; Benato, Eliane Aparecida; Valentini, Silvia Regina de Toledo; Anjos, Valeria Delgado de Almeida [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia e Pos-Colheita; Ponzo, Francine Scolfaro [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil); Terra, Maurilo Monteiro [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Ecofisiologia e Biofisica

    2009-07-01

    Most of the post harvest losses of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes are caused by rot and detached berries. Recently, many researches on alternative methods, such as physical treatments, have been carried out in order to control rots and extend the shelf life of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the control of C. gloeosporioides in 'Niagara Rosada' grapes stored at room condition and under refrigeration. Clusters of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes were inoculated with the pathogen and submitted 2 hours later to different doses of UV-C, 0, 1.05, 2.09, 4.18, and 8.35 kJ m{sup -}2, during the periods of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively. Then, the clusters were stored under two conditions: 25 +- 1 deg C / 80 +- 5 % RH for 7 days, and at 1 +- 1 deg C / 90 +- 5 % RH for 16 days followed by storage at 25 +- 1 deg C / 80 +- 5 %RH for 5 more days. The grapes were evaluated for rot incidence, stem browning, color of the berries, percentage of detached berries, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and ratio. It was observed that UV-C radiation was effective in reducing the incidence of C. gloeosporioides on inoculated 'Niagara Rosada' grapes and did not change the physicochemical characteristics of the grapes. (author)

  1. Evaluation of key odorants in sauvignon blanc wines using three different methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkwitz, Frank; Nicolau, Laura; Lund, Cynthia; Beresford, Michelle; Wohlers, Mark; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2012-06-27

    In this study three different approaches were employed to identify key odorants in Sauvignon blanc wines. First, the concentrations of the odorants were compared to their respective aroma detection thresholds. The resulting odor activity values (OAV) were transformed into a normalized and weighted measure that allows the aroma profiles of different wines to be compared and the contribution of a single aroma in a complex mixture to be evaluated. Based on their OAV, 3-mercaptohexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate were the two most important aroma compounds in many Marlborough Sauvignon blanc wines. Due to limitations with the OAV approach, the study was extended to include aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), which revealed that β-damascenone, together with the varietal thiols, esters, and higher alcohols, are key odorants in Sauvignon blanc wines. The final approach undertaken was aroma reconstitution and omission tests using a deodorized wine base and the creation of a model Marlborough Sauvignon blanc. Single compounds and groups of compounds were omitted from the model to study their impact on the sensory properties of the model wine. Reconstitution and omission confirmed that varietal thiols, esters, terpenes, and β-damascenone are all important contributors to Sauvignon blanc aroma. The methoxypyrazines showed an important but relatively low impact in all three of the approaches undertaken in this study.

  2. How are your berries? Perspectives of Alaska's environmental managers on trends in wild berry abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Hupp

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild berries are a valued traditional food in Alaska. Phytochemicals in wild berries may contribute to the prevention of vascular disease, cancer and cognitive decline, making berry consumption important to community health in rural areas. Little was known regarding which species of berries were important to Alaskan communities, the number of species typically picked in communities and whether recent environmental change has affected berry abundance or quality. Objective: To identify species of wild berries that were consumed by people in different ecological regions of Alaska and to determine if perceived berry abundance was changing for some species or in some regions. Design: We asked tribal environmental managers throughout Alaska for their views on which among 12 types of wild berries were important to their communities and whether berry harvests over the past decade were different than in previous years. We received responses from 96 individuals in 73 communities. Results: Berries that were considered very important to communities differed among ecological regions of Alaska. Low-bush blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum and V. caespitosum, cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus and salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis were most frequently identified as very important berries for communities in the boreal, polar and maritime ecoregions, respectively. For 7 of the 12 berries on the survey, a majority of respondents indicated that in the past decade abundance had either declined or become more variable. Conclusions: Our study is an example of how environmental managers and participants in local observer networks can report on the status of wild resources in rural Alaska. Their observations suggest that there have been changes in the productivity of some wild berries in the past decade, resulting in greater uncertainty among communities regarding the security of berry harvests. Monitoring and experimental studies are needed to determine how

  3. Exotic berries as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasekan, Ola

    2014-11-01

    Berries and berry extracts are known to possess properties (i.e., phenolic acids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins) that make them important in disease prevention. Observational studies have shown that many berries may hold promise for public health. However, the long-term impact of berries intake on specific populations and their functionality claims has not been fully tested. In addition, although several biological effects which are based on epidemiological studies have been explained scientifically, the mechanism of their actions is not fully understood. Therefore, this review set out to address the issue of berries intake and their potential functionality. In addition, a glimpse of what the future may hold for the berries was highlighted. Many of the potential health benefits of berries have been associated with their specific chemical and biological properties including their ability to modulate enzymes as well as interact, and bind to proteins. General inspection of the literature suggests that berries, such as cranberries and goji, are efficacious in the treatment of urinary tract infection and seasonal influenza, respectively. Recent study on wild blueberries has shown that they possess protective effect against cardiovascular disease. In addition, other berries have been reported to possess the ability to inhibit cervical cells (HeLa cells), modulate postprandial glucose and insulin responses. However, there is a need to address the issue of safety, efficacy, and interactions of berries intake with other dietary components. Also, more research studies should be focused on the influence of biotechnology on the functionality of berries. http://links.lww.com/COCN/A8.

  4. Effects of Fruit Zone Leaf Removal on the Concentrations of Phenolic and Organic Acids in Istrian Malvasia Grape Juice and Wine

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    Marijan Bubola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids, represented by hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives, are the most abundant phenolic compounds in grape juice and wine of white grapevine cultivars. The effects of fruit zone leaf removal on the concentration of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and organic acids of cv. Istrian Malvasia grape juice and wine are investigated in this study. Fruit zone leaf removal was applied at three different phenological stages: before blooming, at berry set and at veraison. Control treatment without leaf removal was also included. At veraison two intensities of leaf removal were applied. Phenolic and organic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Juice samples from the grapes treated at the stages before blooming and berry set had the lowest concentrations of tartaric acid and the highest concentrations of malic acid, while juices from veraison stage treatments had the lowest concentrations of malic acid and the highest concentrations of tartaric acid. Before blooming treatment significantly lowered the concentration of all hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids in grape juice in comparison with other investigated treatments, which did not affect the concentration of total hydroxycinnamic acids considerably. The concentration of hydroxybenzoic acids in grape juice was lower in veraison treatments in comparison with berry set and control treatments. The concentrations of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic and organic acids in wine followed the same trends as observed in grape juice. It is concluded that the concentration of phenolic and organic acids in grape juice and wine of white grapevine cultivars can be managed with the timing of fruit zone leaf removal according to the desired wine style.

  5. Influence of harvesting technique and maceration process on aroma and phenolic attributes of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2015-09-15

    Sauvignon blanc wines are characterised by their varietal aromas and low phenolic content. Mechanical harvesting has been shown to increase several varietal aromas. Likewise, maceration techniques have produced increases in phenolic content and antioxidant activity, but these can also alter tactile attributes and sensory profiles. Mechanical harvesting and cryogenic maceration were used in combination to produce a Sauvignon blanc wine with increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while showing a similar sensory profile to control wines. Phenolic profiles of the wines showed differences between the harvesting and maceration techniques. Mechanical harvesting contributed to decreases in phenolics through reaction with oxidative radicals. Cryogenic maceration increased phenolics and antioxidant activity. Cryogenic maceration also increased the levels of several varietal aromas, for Sauvignon blanc wines made from both hand-picked and from machine-harvested fruit. Furthermore, cryogenic treatment of hand-picked fruit increased varietal thiols to levels similar to machine-harvested control wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  7. Systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Bernal, Silvia; Rodríguez-Pazos, Laura; Martínez, Francisco Javier García; Ginarte, Manuel; Rodríguez-Granados, María Teresa; Toribio, Jaime

    2011-10-01

    Systemic photosensitivity due to the intake of plants or herbal compounds is a rare phenomenon. Goji berries are widely used as a well-being and anti-aging remedy. In spite of this, only a few adverse reactions and no cases of photosensitivity have been reported to date. A 53-year-old male consulted due to a pruriginous eruption located on sun-exposed areas of 2 weeks of duration. He had been taking Goji berries and infusions of cat's claw herb for 5 and 3 months, respectively. Minimal erythema dose for UVB (MED-UVB) was diminished when the patient was taking these products, and became normal when they were withdrawn. Photoprovocation tests with Goji berries and cat's claw were performed. MED-UVB decreased after the intake of Goji berries, and was normal with cat's claw. We report the first case of systemic photosensitivity due to Goji berries. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Technological approaches to the vinification of Dornfelder grape variety cultivated in Romania

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    Antoce Arina Oana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, Dornfelder is a rare grape variety which started to become popular among some wine producers due to the intense colour of its wines. However, it is mostly used in blends and therefore varietal wines of Dornfelder are not found too often. In this paper we present some technological approaches suitable for the production of varietal wines of Dornfelder, some of them novel for the Romanian wine industry. The experimental samples include a classical red wine made by the usual technol- ogy using freshly harvested grapes (DW = Dornfelder wine and two variants made with dried grapes (DR and DWDR. The DR variant (Dornfelder raisin wine is produced by a straw-wine type technology, by fermenting a must obtained from grapes dried for 7 weeks. The DWDR is a variant obtained by fermenting a mixture of crushed dried grapes and new Dornfelder wine, the ratio of crushed raisins to wine being 1:1 in weight. The wines were analysed both physico-chemically and sensorially. After one year of aging in bottles, the variant DWDR of wine, produced by fermenting dried berries in already finished wine, proved to be the most balanced in taste, with an intense and complex aroma of berries and red fruit, also displaying good aging potential and stability. The variant DR appeared dense and intense, but with a less complex fruity aroma, with a dominant note of blueberries and black currants. Both straw wines are preferable to the classic varietal wine, which is vinous, but lacks structure and displays a dissociated acidity and a simple aromatic profile, with dominant sour cherry, mineral and vegetal notes.

  9. Analysis of acidic endogenous phytohormones in grapes by using online solid-phase extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Na; Meng, Qing-Yan; Liu, Wen-Jie; Lu, Ya-Ling; Ren, Xiao-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormones play important roles in regulating numerous plant physiological and developmental processes, even during the postharvest storage period. In order to determine the functions and changes of gibberellins acid (GA3), indoleacetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), indolebutyric acid (IBA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in grape berries during storage, an ultrasensitive method based on direct injection online solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Grape berries were extracted with cold methanol. After centrifugation, the supernatants were concentrated with a vacuum centrifugal concentrator and injected into an online solid-phase extraction column. After the cleanup procedure, the analytes were determined by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that the linearity of the proposed method was 10-210 µg kg(-1) for ABA, 20-200 µg kg(-1) for IBA, 15-320 µg kg(-1) for IAA, 20-320 µg kg(-1) for GA3 and 3.0-90.0 µg kg(-1) for JA. The limits of detection of the method were 0.71, 2.79, 0.94, 0.39 and 0.57 µg kg(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of endogenous phytohormones in grape berries during the postharvest storage period. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Non-Destructive Optical Monitoring of Grape Maturation by Proximal Sensing

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    Gwendal Latouche

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new, commercial, fluorescence-based optical sensor for plant constituent assessment was recently introduced. This sensor, called the Multiplex® (FORCE-A, Orsay, France, was used to monitor grape maturation by specifically monitoring anthocyanin accumulation. We derived the empirical anthocyanin content calibration curves for Champagne red grape cultivars, and we also propose a general model for the influence of the proportion of red berries, skin anthocyanin content and berry size on Multiplex® indices. The Multiplex® was used on both berry samples in the laboratory and on intact clusters in the vineyard. We found that the inverted and log-transformed far-red fluorescence signal called the FERARI index, although sensitive to sample size and distance, is potentially the most widely applicable. The more robust indices, based on chlorophyll fluorescence excitation ratios, showed three ranges of dependence on anthocyanin content. We found that up to 0.16 mg cm−2, equivalent to approximately 0.6 mg g−1, all indices increase with accumulation of skin anthocyanin content. Excitation ratio-based indices decrease with anthocyanin accumulation beyond 0.27 mg cm−2. We showed that the Multiplex® can be advantageously used in vineyards on intact clusters for the non-destructive assessment of anthocyanin content of vine blocks and can now be tested on other fruits and vegetables based on the same model.

  11. Viticultural and chemical characteristics of Muscat Hamburg preselected clones grown for table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragan; Maletić, Radojka; Popović-Đorđević, Jelena; Pejin, Boris; Ristić, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Clonal selection is one of the tools used for grapevine improvement and therefore is very important for obtaining clones with better characteristics than the variety population. The aim of this study was to select superior grapevines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat Hamburg grown for fresh consumption. The viticultural parameters and fruit composition of 35 selected vines were determined during a 5-year period. The evaluated parameters showed high variability among selected vines. The significant effect of vintage was observed for all descriptors with the exception of the number of seeds per berry and sugar concentration. Additionally, all vines were examined for their tolerance to low temperatures and the results showed 73% and 90% of primary bud injury at -20 and -25 °C, respectively. In relation to berry classification, the percentage of first-class grapes ranged from 60% to 69% for all selected grapevines. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to classify grapevines based on their performance. Fourteen grapevines were identified as the most promising among the 35 vines initially planted, based on high yield, bunch and berry weight, sugar content and percentage of first-grade grapes. Those grapevines were selected for the next phase of the clonal selection. This study highlighted the importance of clonal selection for improvement of the variety population. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. New beverages of lemon juice with elderberry and grape concentrates as a source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Elena; Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2012-06-01

    Considering the health potential of lemon and berry fruits, different functional beverages rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, which demonstrated beneficial effects, were developed. To fulfill this objective, lemon juice was combined with 2 different concentrates, elderberry and grape, in a proportion of 5% (w/v). Bioactive composition (flavonoids and vitamin C) and color stability, as well as the antioxidant capacity of mixtures, during a period of 56 d of storage, were studied. A protective role of anthocyanins on ascorbic acid preservation was noted for both lemon-berry blends, keeping vitamin C stable until the end of the storage. In addition, the new drink combining lemon and elderberry performed better than the grape-lemon mixture in terms of health-promoting phytochemicals content, just as in vitro antioxidant capacity and color characteristics. Beverages made from lemon juice and berries could contribute to develop new drinks with a prolonged preservation of bioactive compounds throughout storage, keeping an attractive color and a high antioxidant activity during long periods of time. The information obtained in the present work is in agreement to the rules of health and safety for juices established by the Directive of European Commission Dir2001/112/CE incorporated to the Spanish law through the RD1050/2003 regulation. Consequently, an improved performance of industrial products would be achieved. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effects and Modes od Action of Canopy Management Practices on Vine Physiology and Berry Composition in Organically-Cultivated cv. Sangiovese (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tessarin, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In organic and biodynamic vineyards, canopy management practices should be carefully and timely modulated, particularly in a context of climate change, for successfully achieving balanced plants, ventilated and exposed berries, elevated grape and wine quality. In 2013 and 2014, characterized by contrasting climatic conditions, the implications of post-veraison (late) or pea-size trimming, post-veraison or pre-harvest late defoliations and shoot-positioning (post-veraison) were assessed agains...

  14. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  15. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  16. The importance of pruning to the quality of wine grape fruits (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under high-altitude tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Ain-Karim Vineyard has been growing different grape varieties for the production of high-altitude tropical wines in the municipality of Sutamarchan, located in the Alto Ricaurte region of Boyaca (Colombia. Pruning is used to limit the number and length of branches, generating a suitable balance between plant vigor and production; thereby, regulating fruit quantity and quality and ensuring reserves for the subsequent production. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three pruning types (short = two buds on two spurs; long = five buds on three spurs and mixed = combination of short and long pruning types on the fruit quality of V. vinifera, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc varieties. To accomplish this, a completely randomized two-factor design was used. Physicochemical variables of fruit quality (fresh cluster weight, water content, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, technical maturity index (TMI, and pH were determined at harvest. The long pruning type presented the highest values for the fresh cluster weight and TSS of the fruits from both varieties and a higher TMI in the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. These results indicate that, under the conditions of the vineyard, long pruning is the most suitable.

  17. Supercritical extraction from vinification residues: fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and phenolic compounds in the oil seeds from different varieties of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, F; Bertussi, R A; Agostini, G; Atti Dos Santos, A C; Rossato, M; Vanderlinde, R

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  18. Antimicrobial Treatments to Preserve Packaged Ready-to-Eat Table Grapes

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    Cristina Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-eat table grapes are a product with severe shelf life problems. Mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and mould proliferation can greatly influence quality decay of berries. Hence, the effects of different dipping treatments on the quality of packaged ready-to-eat table grapes have been successfully assessed. Various antimicrobial compounds (trans-2-hexenal, potassium sorbate, eugenol, cinnamon bark oil and ethanol were used at different concentrations for dipping grape berries prior to packaging. All the samples were packaged in biaxially oriented polypropylene and stored at (4±1 °C. During the storage period, headspace gas composition, spoilage microorganisms, appearance of visible moulds and sensory quality were monitored. The composition of the headspace gas was typical of a non-climacteric fruit, thus demonstrating that the antimicrobial compounds did not affect product respiration rate. For the entire storage period, the bacterial counts did not grow significantly. On the contrary, mould proliferation on the product surface affected sensory properties until provoking product unacceptability. Relevant differences were found between the dipped and undipped samples. In particular, 50 % ethanol or 20 % ethanol combined with potassium sorbate (3 % seemed to be very effective in preventing mould proliferation, thus promoting an increase in shelf life by about 100 %.

  19. Effect of trellising system on grape and wine composition of Syrah vines grown in the cerrado region of Minas Gerais

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    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept that the trellising system affects not only sunlight interception and carbon assimilation, but also the fruitzone microclimate, which has a great impact on fruit composition and consequently on wine quality, the effect of two trellising systems - Vertical Shoot Position (VSP and modified Geneva Double Curtain (GDC - on wine and berry composition of Syrah grapes grown in João Pinheiro, Northeast region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil was investigated. The parameters such as pH, berry size and weight, and seeds total phenolic contents were not affected by the training system. The GDC system produced fruits with the highest Brix and lowest titratable acidity. Berries from the VSP system presented lower anthocyanin concentration than those from the GDC system. Similar results were found for the total phenolic content of the skin of grape berries from the VSP system. GDC wines were characterized by high anthocyanin content and red color, resulting in wines with high color intensity. These data suggest that in the tropical region of Minas Gerais state, with high temperature and high sunlight intensity, the trellising system, which protects bunches against excessive radiation, should be chosen.

  20. Volatile Compounds from Grape Skin, Juice and Wine from Five Interspecific Hybrid Grape Cultivars Grown in Québec (Canada) for Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Amélie; Angers, Paul; Ouellet, Étienne; Truchon, Tamara; Pedneault, Karine

    2015-06-15

    Developed from crosses between Vitis vinifera and North American Vitis species, interspecific hybrid grape varieties are becoming economically significant in northern areas, where they are now extensively grown for wine production. However, the varietal differences between interspecific hybrids are not well defined, nor are the relationships between hybrid grape and wine composition, which causes significant drawbacks in the development of viticulture and winemaking of northern wines. In an effort to increase our understanding of interspecific hybrids, we have characterized the free volatile compounds profiles of berries (juice and skin) and wines of five red hybrid varieties (Frontenac, Marquette, Maréchal Foch, Sabrevois and St. Croix) grown in Québec (Canada), using GC-MS(TOF)-SPME. In grapes and wines, significantly higher levels of C6 and other fatty acid degradation products (FADP) were found in Frontenac, Maréchal Foch and Marquette. Terpenes were primarily located in the skin, with Marquette showing the highest level for these compounds. Both the level of terpenes and the level of FADP in grape were strongly correlated with their respective levels in wine, as demonstrated by the redundancy analyses. Nonanal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, β-damascenone, ethyl octanoate and isoamyl acetate showed the highest OAVs in the wines of the studied varieties.

  1. Use of plant growth regulators in the conservation of grapes “Italy” as aids in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa de Almeida Fabiane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators on postharvest fine table grapes “Italy”. The grapes were harvested at a commercial vineyard in the city of Canguçu, RS, Brazil and transported to the UNIPAMPA-Campus Dom Pedrito. The treatments were: distilled water (control; 500 ppb of 1-methylcyclopropene [MCP-1 (12 h at 20 °C]; 10 μM of salicylic acid and; 100 ppm of ethylene. The design was randomized, where each treatment had three replicates, and each replicate consisted of 3 bunches (about 2 kg. The evaluations were performed on the day of harvest (characterization – day zero and at 7 and 14 days of storage at 18 °C controlled. It was evaluated: browning of stems, loss of fresh bunch weight, percentage of abscission of berries, rot incidence, total soluble solids – SS (° Brix, percentage of dehydration of the stem, titratable acidity – AT (% tartaric acid, gluconic acid, “ratio” (SS/TA and density. It was found that the application of 10 mM of salicylic acid in postharvest fine table grapes “Italy” can help a smaller abscission of berries and less dehydration of the stem, which may prolong the shelf life of these grapes.

  2. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

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    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  3. Study of Morphological, Phenological and Variation of Fruit Traits During Berry Growth Phases of QzlouzumGrapevine Cultivar

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    Hamed Doulati Baneh

    2017-02-01

    quantitative traits, TSS (total soluble solids, TA (titrable acidity, pH, berry weight and diameter, seed length and weight from the beginning of the berry formation to harvest time of clusters in 15-day interval were measured. Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that flowers of Qzlouzum are female with reflexed stamens. The results also determined that none of pollens germinated on both liquid and solid media culture. Based on reflexed stamens and none pollen germination, Qzlouzum grape cultivar proves to be male sterile (physiological substance. This cultivar needs 1483 degree days (above 10°C from bud break till ripening. The changes in TA and TSS were reversed. Amount of acid reduced and sugar content increased with time and berry development. Veraision period was approximately started 55 days after full bloom. At this stage, which is also known as berry softening, acid concentration is reduced and the amount of sugar was increased. Acid content and pH of the fruit were opposite together and by reducing the amount of acid, the pH levels increased. Several studies have confirmed that after changing the color of the grape varieties,sugar can often increase. Conversely, acid reduction in berries is the first happensbefore color change in berries. The berry weight and size changes were described as Double Sigmoid Curve. In the first phase, berry diameter and weight increased rapidly and lasted 60 days. In the second phase or delay phase, berry weight and diameter changedvery slowly while seed weight reached themaximum in this stage. After this phase, the third phase which was associated began with veraision, sugar content increased and the amount of aciddecreased. At this stage berry reached its maximum size and weight. Conclusion: Uniform planting of Qzlouzum red grapes is not recommended because of male sterility and suitable pollinizers should be used. Male sterility, without emasculation will be suitable for grape breeding programs. In areas with

  4. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  5. Impact of extended maceration and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines: characterization of proanthocyanidin distribution, anthocyanin extraction, and chromatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Larsen, Richard C; Beaver, Christopher W; Mireles, Maria S; Keller, Markus; Riley, William R; Smithyman, Russell; Harbertson, James F

    2013-07-03

    The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ~73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution.

  6. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  7. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Considine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  8. Fate of three insect growth regulators (IGR) insecticides (flufenoxuron, lufenuron and tebufenozide) in grapes following field application and through the wine-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G

    2011-02-01

    The dissipation of three insecticide flufenoxuron, lufenuron and tebufenozide residues in grapes after field treatments and during the wine-making process was assessed. Residues were determined in grape, must, centrifuged must and wine samples by HPLC-UV after cyclohexane extraction and clean-up on silica-phase cartridges. Vines in vineyards with white and red grapes located in Central Greece were sprayed once with commercial formulations of each insecticide at the recommended doses in experiments carried out in 2004 and repeated in 2006. The insecticide residues in grapes showed slow reduction for a period of 42 days after application following first-order kinetics with dissipation rates ranged from 0.011 to 0.018 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹. However, at the recommended pre-harvest interval (PHI) residues did not exceed 0.27 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹ for flufenoxuron and lufenuron and 0.68 ± 0.07 mg kg⁻¹ for tebufenozide, and they were clearly lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union for grape (2 mg kg⁻¹ for flufenoxuron, 1 mg kg⁻¹ for lufenuron and 3 mg kg⁻¹ for tebufenozide). Grape processing into wine caused an almost complete reduction for flufenoxuron and lufenuron as their residues in wine were below the method LOQs (wines. Mean transfer factors for tebufenozide of 0.45 for white 'Roditis' and 0.34 for red 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were found from grapes into wine for the wines processed without maceration. The wine-making technique (with or without maceration) had the same influence on tebufenozide residues in wine. Of the various clarifying agents studied, charcoal was found to be the only one effective in removing tebufenozide residues from wine.

  9. Transcriptome and metabolite profiling reveals that prolonged drought modulates the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathway in white grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoi, Stefania; Wong, Darren C J; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Miculan, Mara; Bucchetti, Barbara; Peterlunger, Enrico; Fait, Aaron; Mattivi, Fulvio; Castellarin, Simone D

    2016-03-21

    Secondary metabolism contributes to the adaptation of a plant to its environment. In wine grapes, fruit secondary metabolism largely determines wine quality. Climate change is predicted to exacerbate drought events in several viticultural areas, potentially affecting the wine quality. In red grapes, water deficit modulates flavonoid accumulation, leading to major quantitative and compositional changes in the profile of the anthocyanin pigments; in white grapes, the effect of water deficit on secondary metabolism is still largely unknown. In this study we investigated the impact of water deficit on the secondary metabolism of white grapes using a large scale metabolite and transcript profiling approach in a season characterized by prolonged drought. Irrigated grapevines were compared to non-irrigated grapevines that suffered from water deficit from early stages of berry development to harvest. A large effect of water deficit on fruit secondary metabolism was observed. Increased concentrations of phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and tocopherols were detected, while carotenoid and flavonoid accumulations were differentially modulated by water deficit according to the berry developmental stage. The RNA-sequencing analysis carried out on berries collected at three developmental stages-before, at the onset, and at late ripening-indicated that water deficit affected the expression of 4,889 genes. The Gene Ontology category secondary metabolic process was overrepresented within up-regulated genes at all the stages of fruit development considered, and within down-regulated genes before ripening. Eighteen phenylpropanoid, 16 flavonoid, 9 carotenoid, and 16 terpenoid structural genes were modulated by water deficit, indicating the transcriptional regulation of these metabolic pathways in fruit exposed to water deficit. An integrated network and promoter analyses identified a transcriptional regulatory module that encompasses terpenoid genes, transcription factors, and enriched

  10. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM TOKAJ WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a surface mycobiota of grapes and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Three samples of wine grapes Furmint, Lipovina and Yellow muscat were collected in the Tokaj wine region in Viničky during the November harvest in 2012. Seven/eight berries from each sample were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C for 5 - 7 days. After incubation from the samples were isolated following filamentous fungi: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelium sterillium. The most frequent were genera Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The largest number of isolates belonged to Penicillium (368 isolates and Botrytis (334 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 47 % and 43 %, respectively. The selected isolates - Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C and ochratoxin A producing ability. A higher percentage of Penicillium crustosum isolates (79 % were positive for penitrem A and all were positive for roquefortin C. A higher percentage of Penicillium expansum (83 % were positive for patulin, 72 % for citrinin and they were all positive for roquefortin C. All isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum produced roquefortin C. As would be expected, ochratoxin A was not detected from Aspergillus section Nigri.

  11. Determination of carotenoid profiles in grapes, musts, and fortified wines from Douro varieties of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes De Pinho, P; Silva Ferreira, A C; Mendes Pinto, M; Benitez, J G; Hogg, T A

    2001-11-01

    beta-Carotene and six xanthophylls (lutein, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and echinenone) have been identified and semiquantitatively or quantitatively determined in musts and port wines for the first time. An HPLC method was developed and compared with that of one based on thin layer cromatography with scanning densitometry. The most abundant carotenoids present in red grape varieties are beta-carotene and lutein. In wines, significant quantities of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, and neoxanthin were found. This study was done with berries (skin and pulp), musts, and fortified wines. Some experiments were performed to follow carotenoid content from grapes to wines. Although the levels of beta-carotene and lutein found in fortified wines were lower than those found in musts, other xanthophylls, such as neoxanthin, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin, exist in appreciable amounts in young ports.

  12. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the NF-Y gene family in grape (vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Yi; Li, Shaohua; Liang, Zhenchang

    2016-08-11

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factor is composed of three distinct subunits: NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC. Many members of NF-Y family have been reported to be key regulators in plant development, phytohormone signaling and drought tolerance. However, the function of the NF-Y family is less known in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). A total of 34 grape NF-Y genes that distributed unevenly on grape (V. vinifera) chromosomes were identified in this study. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to predict functional similarities between Arabidopsis thaliana and grape NF-Y genes. Comparison of the structures of grape NF-Y genes (VvNF-Ys) revealed their functional conservation and alteration. Furthermore, we investigated the expression profiles of VvNF-Ys in response to various stresses, phytohormone treatments, and in leaves and grape berries with various sugar contents at different developmental stages. The relationship between VvNF-Y transcript levels and sugar content was examined to select candidates for exogenous sugar treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) indicated that many VvNF-Ys responded to different sugar stimuli with variations in transcript abundance. qPCR and publicly available microarray data suggest that VvNF-Ys exhibit distinct expression patterns in different grape organs and developmental stages, and a number of VvNF-Ys may participate in responses to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses, phytohormone treatments and sugar accumulation or metabolism. In this study, we characterized 34 VvNF-Ys based on their distributions on chromosomes, gene structures, phylogenetic relationship with Arabidopsis NF-Y genes, and their expression patterns. The potential roles of VvNF-Ys in sugar accumulation or metabolism were also investigated. Altogether, the data provide significant insights on VvNF-Ys, and lay foundations for further functional studies of NF-Y genes in grape.

  13. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Terroir effects on the reflectance spectra of the canopy of four grape varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducati, Jorge; Bombassaro, Magno; Arruda, Diniz; Bortolotto, Virindiana

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the reflectance spectrum of grape leaves is important to the identification of grape varieties in images of vineyards where several cultivars co-exist. As a non-destructive technique, spectroradiometry delivers reflectance spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios. This work reports results from field measurements of reflectance of four grape varieties in the spectral range 450nm to 2500nm, performed in south Brazil. Three viticultural regions were visited and in vivo measurements of Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay and Italian Riesling were performed. All spectra were normalized to have unit area and were compared. Due to the small noise level, spectral features from each variety were revealed, with intensities of the order of 10-4 to 10-5 with respect to the normalized reflectance range from 0 to 1.These features were present in several, repeated measurements, and so were considered as real. In a preliminary analysis they were attributed to be due to the presence or absence of pigments as anthocyanins in the measured grape leaves, since the experiments used red and white grapes. It is known that such pigments are present not only in berry skins, but also in vacuoles within cells in leaves. This has an impact in leaf texture and so in infrared reflectance [1]. Spectral differences were present in many wavelengths, including around 552, 577, 662, 884, 1059, 1263, 1981, and 2051 nanometers. A statistical discriminant analysis was made to search for terroir effects which introduce differences between regions. Detailed knowledge of the spectral signatures of grape varieties can be relevant to the development of identification algorithms used to classify remote sensing images of viticultural regions where several cultivars are present, and to in-field inspections using radiometers. [1] Da Silva, P.R.; Ducati, J.R. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 30 (2009), pp. 6085-6098.

  15. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  16. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.

    2017-05-13

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  17. Effect of freeze-drying and oven-drying on volatiles and phenolics composition of grape skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres, C; Díaz-Maroto, M C; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I; Pérez-Coello, M S

    2010-02-15

    Grape skins are the part of the fruit with the highest amount of volatile and polyphenolic compounds. Volatile compounds give the fruit and other grape derivatives their flavour. Polyphenolic compounds are responsible for the colour of the fruit, juice and wine, and also act as very important natural antioxidant compounds. Dehydration is a method used to prevent the damage of these compounds over time. Nevertheless, in the case of volatile compounds, removing water can cause compound degradation or the evaporation of such compounds. This work studied two drying methods, freeze-drying and oven-drying, at 60 degrees C, as skin preservation methods. The skins from two grape varieties, Carménère and Cabernet Sauvignon, were dried. Many volatile compounds, which are of interest in the aroma profile, were identified in both varieties as terpenes (linalool, etc.), sesquiterpenes (farnesol), norisoprenoids (vitispirane, etc.), C(6) alcohols (1-hexanol, etc.), etc., and their amount decreased significantly with the oven-drying method, in contrast to the freeze-drying method. Both phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonols, were identified in fresh and dehydrated samples, thus resulting in the freeze-drying method being less aggressive than oven-drying methods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthetic grape volatiles attract mated Lobesia botrana females in laboratory and field bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Ioriatti, Claudio; Lucchi, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    In laboratory experiments, we identified and quantified volatiles emitted by inflorescences and berries of two grape varieties (Trebbiano and Sangiovese) and examined the effects of the volatiles on oviposition by the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana. Compared to Trebbiano, Sangiovese is relatively more susceptible to L. botrana infestations under natural conditions. Chemical and electrophysiological analysis indicated only quantitative differences between the volatiles released by the two varieties. In a dual-choice oviposition bioassay based only on volatile cues, females did not show any preference between the two varieties. The six major components of the odor profiles that were GC-EAD-active to female antennae included: limonene, 4,8-dimethyl-1,(E)-3,7-nonatriene, (+/-)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and methyl salicylate. At the beginning of the berry touch phenological stage, their proportions were about 10:0.6:0.4:0.5:0.9:0.6 in Trebbiano and 10:1:0.4:1.5:0.4:0.3 in Sangiovese. A six-component synthetic lure (with the proportion 10:1:1:1:1:1, which approximated the ratio of components released by both varieties) was used in further laboratory oviposition bioassays. Depending on its dosage, the synthetic lure either attracted or repelled oviposition. L. botrana females laid significantly more eggs in the presence of either the grape bunches or the synthetic lure at the attractive dosage. In a release-capture experiment conducted in a field cage that covered two grapevine rows, the synthetic lure was more attractive than a grape cluster or a blank control, and it stimulated oviposition on the vegetation near the lure. The results indicate that L. botrana uses olfactory cues to select oviposition sites and that an artificial lure, containing the major volatiles released by two grape varieties, may be useful in monitoring female activity in the field.

  19. Purification and functional characterization of protoplasts and intact vacuoles from grape cells

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    Gerós Hernâni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During grape berry ripening, the vacuoles accumulate water, sugars and secondary metabolites, causing great impact in plant productivity and wine quality. However, the molecular basis of these compartmentation processes is still poorly understood. As in many species, the major bottleneck to study these aspects in grapevine is to obtain highly purified vacuoles with a good yield. The present paper describes an isolation method of protoplasts and intact vacuoles from grape berry cells and their functional characterization by transport and cytometric assays. Findings Protoplasts were prepared by enzymatic digestion of grape cells, and vacuoles were released and purified by a Ficoll step gradient centrifugation. The tonoplast stained strongly with the fluorescent dye FM1-43 and most vacuoles maintained an internal acidic pH, as assessed by Neutral Red. Flow cytometry analysis of vacuole samples incubated with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent probe Fluo-4 AM revealed a well-defined sub-population of intact vacuoles. As assessed by the pH-sensitive probe ACMA, intact vacuoles generated and maintained a pH gradient through the activity of V-ATPase and V-PPase and were able to transport Ca2+ via a proton-dependent transport system. Conclusions Highly pure, intact and functional protoplast and vacuole populations from grape cells were obtained with the present method, which revealed to be fast and efficient. The capacity of the vacuole population to sequester protons and accumulate Ca2+ strongly suggests the intactness and physiological integrity of these extremely fragile organelles. Grapevine protoplasts and vacuoles may be used as models for both basic research and biotechnological approaches, such as proteomics, solute uptake and compartmentation, toxicological assessments and breeding programs.

  20. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  1. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

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    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Its Correlation with Phenol and Anthocyanin Contents in Some Grape Cultivars Grown in Fars Province

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    L. Salehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape, having considerable sources of phenolic substances, such as anthocyanin and flonoids, is an important fruit. On the other hand, the amount of these substances and antioxidant activity in fruits of grape cultivars varies in different growing conditions. Antioxidants are the first line of body defense against free radicals and are critical for human health. To determine antioxidant activity, phenol content, anthocyanin, brix, pH and some morphological characteristics (berry fresh weight, number of seeds and berry skin weight of 12 grape (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown in Fars Province, Iran, including Samarghandi, Yaghuti, Rishbaba and Rajabi (Zarghan region, Asali, Siah Shiraz, Rishbaba and Askari (Maymand region and Keshmeshi Bavanat, Askari, Siah Shiraz and Rishbaba (Saadatshahr an experiment was designed and carried out in College of Agriculture, Shiraz University in 2009. The results showed that Siah Shiraz (from Maymand and Saadatshahr had the highest antioxidant activity (75.42 and 70.24%, respectively. Siah Shiraz cultivar (in Maymand had the greatest amount of phenol (174.33 mg/kg and anthocyanin (498.74 mg/kg and Rishbaba and Askari (from Saadatshahr and Asali (from Maymand had the lowest antioxidant activity (15.09, 16.68 and 19.56%, respectively. The lowest amount of phenol (29.56 mg/kg was observed in Rishbaba berries (Saadatshahr region. Keshmeshi cultivar (from Saadatshahr had the lowest amount of anthocyanin (14.94 mg/kg. Also, A high correlation existed between antioxidant activity and anthocyanin (r2 = 0.68 as well as phenol (r2 = 0.49. Based on the results of this research, it was concluded that colored grapes, such as Siah Shiraz, have a lot of antioxidant activity and other than environmental conditions, the genotype is also effective in the amount of these substances.

  3. Effects of early water stress levels on berry set and berry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to find out the effects of water stress levels on berry set and embryo berry development. This study was carried out in Montpellier using by ECOTRON System, SupAgro/INRA, France. Seven years old Merlot / SO4 grafting combination was used as a plant material. Potted grapevines were ...

  4. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  5. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  6. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está o manejo do vinhedo, aliado a ajustes tecnológicos nas etapas de elaboração do vinho. Para tal, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0g hl-1, 10,0g hl-1, 20,0g hl-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, descuba, e após a fermentação malolática. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se análises sensoriais, em relação aos atributos ligados aos perfis olfativos e gustativos, com análise de oito descritores olfativos e nove descritores gustativos, além de um conceito geral. Assim, verificou-se que os taninos enológicos imprimiram algumas diferenças, principalmente no perfil aromático dos vinhos, que apresentaram acréscimo de qualidade quando tratados com os taninos enológicos. Da mesma maneira, houve superioridade olfativa e gustativa nos vinhos que receberam tratamentos com taninos na etapa de maceração.The objective of this research was to study the effect of enological tannins in the sensory composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The study was conducted in Bento Gonçalves, RS, with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, harvest 2004. This is a cultivar that stands out in importance in Brazil for the production of red wines. However, in some crops there are difficulties for a proper maturation, which hampers the development of wines with the sensory profile desired by consumers. Among the strategies to minimize this problem

  7. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  8. Molecular characterization and impacts of a strain of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 causing asymptomatic infection in a wine grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Sudarsana; Alabi, Olufemi J; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2013-10-30

    Grapevine leafroll (GLD) is considered as the most economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in many grapevine-growing regions. GLD produces distinct symptoms in red- and white-berried cultivars. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of an asymptomatic strain of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) and studied its impacts on fruit yield and berry quality attributes in an own-rooted, red-berried wine grape cultivar. The complete genome of GLRaV-2 obtained from a red-berried wine grape cultivar Sangiovese, designated as GLRaV-2-SG, was determined to be 16,474 nucleotides in length. In pairwise comparisons, using complete genome sequences of GLRaV-2 strains available in GenBank, GLRaV-2-SG was more closely related to GLRaV-2-OR1 from Oregon, USA, and GLRaV-2-93/955 from South Africa, and distantly related to GLRaV-2-BD from Italy and GLRaV-2-RG from USA. Fruit yield estimates and berry quality analysis at the time of commercial harvest indicated that GLRaV-2-SG had little impact on fruit yield and total soluble solids, juice pH and total anthocyanins of berry skin. Because so little is known about the effects of asymptomatic virus infections in wine grapes, this study expanded our knowledge of the occurrence and impacts of GLRaV-2 causing asymptomatic infections. Our results indicated that an asymptomatic strain of GLRaV-2 may not cause significant effects to overall fruit yield and berry quality in own-rooted vines, but can affect its host in more subtle ways. Since disease symptoms are not apparent, relying on visual symptoms during disease surveys may result in the escape of asymptomatic strains of GLRaV-2. Thus, it is necessary to use appropriate diagnostic assays for reliable detection of viruses causing asymptomatic infections.

  9. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  10. Insights into the role of the grapevine berry-specific ethylene responsive factor VviERF045.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Leida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During grape ripening, numerous transcriptional and metabolic changes are required in order to obtain colored, sweet, and flavored berries. There is evidence that ethylene, together with other signals, plays an important role in triggering the onset of ripening. Here, we report the functional characterization of a berry-specific Ethylene Responsive Factor (ERF, VviERF045, which is induced just before véraison and peaks at ripening. Phylogenetic analysis revealed it is close to the SHINE clade of ERFs, factors involved in the regulation of wax biosynthesis and cuticle morphology. Transgenic grapevines lines overexpressing VviERF045 were obtained, in vitro propagated, phenotypically characterized, and analyzed for the content of specific classes of metabolites. The effect of VviERF045 was correlated with the level of transgene expression, with high-expressing lines showing stunted growth, discolored and smaller leaves, and a lower level of chlorophylls and carotenoids. One line with intermediate expression, L15, was characterized at the transcriptomic level and showed 573 differentially expressed genes compared to wild type plants. Microscopy and gene expression analyses point towards a major role of VviERF045 in epidermis patterning by acting on waxes and cuticle. They also indicate that VviERF045 affects phenolic secondary metabolism and induces a reaction resembling a plant immune response with modulation of receptor like-kinases and pathogen related genes. These results suggest also a possible role of this transcription factor in berry ripening, likely related to changes in epidermis and cuticle of the berry, cell expansion, a decrease in photosynthetic capacity, and the activation of several defense related genes as well as from the phenylpropanoid metabolism. All these processes occur in the berry during ripening.

  11. Performance of the new seedless grape ‘BRS Isis' grown in subtropical area

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    Ahmed Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Isis' is a new colored seedless table grape tolerant to downy mildew, the main vine disease in subtropical humid areas. This new seedless cultivar is an interspecific hybrid from the crossing of CNPUV 681–29 [Arkansas 1976 X CNPUV 147–3 (‘Niagara Branca' x ‘Venus'] x ‘BRS Linda', and was recently released by Embrapa Grape and Wine, Brazil. The performance of ‘BRS Isis' seedless grape was evaluated in an experimental vineyard in 2016 located in a subtropical area at Marialva city, state of Parana, Brazil. The vines were grafted onto ‘IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock and trained in an overhead trellising system spaced at 2× 5 m. Vines were cane-pruning in late winter of July 2016, and for assessments, 20 representative vines were selected in the area. As ‘BRS Isis' is a very fruitful grape, presenting 4 bunches per shoot, a load adjustment was performed after fruitset removing 50% of bunches per shoot, leaving 2 bunches per shoot, equivalent to a density of 10 bunches.m−2. The duration in days of the main phenological stages from pruning to harvest, and the physicochemical and yield characteristics of ‘BRS Isis' seedless grape were subjected to evaluation. It was determined that the cycle is 144 days. The means of berry and bunch weight was 6.7 ± 1.0 g and 500.0 ± 0.04 g, respectively, and the color index of berries (CIRG was 4.3 ± 1.3. The means of total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and maturity index (TSS/TA observed were 14.2 ± 0.3° Brix, 0.6 ± 0.04% of tartaric acid and 24.1 ± 1.5, respectively, while the yield was 49.0 ± 5.7 tons.ha−1. The yield observed is considered high to keep a sustainable crop over time, thus, in order to obtain grapes of ‘BRS Isis' with regular yield, and possibly, with a higher content of soluble solids, it is desirable to keep only 1 bunch per shoot (5 bunches.m−2 after fruitset.

  12. Antibacterial activity of grape extracts on cagA-positive and -negative Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S; D'Addario, C; Braconi, D; Bernardini, G; Salvini, L; Bonechi, C; Figura, N; Santucci, A; Rossi, C

    2009-11-01

    There is considerable interest in alternative/adjuvant approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori using biologically active compounds, especially antioxidants from plants. In the present work, we tested the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hydro-alcoholic extracts from Colorino, Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon grape cultivars against H. pylori G21 (cagA-negative, cagA-) and 10K, (cagApositive, cagA+) clinical isolates. We determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by incubating strain suspensions in Brucella broth with fetal bovine serum and samples at different concentrations in a final volume of 100 microl in a microaerobic atmosphere. After incubation, subcultures were carried out on Brucella agar plates which were incubated for 3-5 days in a microaerobic environment. The lowest concentration in broth, where the subculture on agar showed complete absence of growth, was considered the MBC.The Colorino extract showed the highest antibacterial activity against G21 strain (MBC=1.35 mg/ml), while Sangiovese and Carbernet MBCs were 4.0 mg/ml ca. H. pylori 10K was only susceptible to Colorino after 48 hours (MBC = 3.57 mg/ml). Resveratrol exhibited the highest antibacterial activity. interestingly, the most pathogenic strain (10K) was less susceptible to both the grape extracts and the isolated compounds. These results suggest that the administration of grape extracts and wine constituents, in addition to antibiotics, might be useful in the treatment of H. pylori infection. Should the reduced susceptibility of 10K strain be extended to all the cagA+ H. pylori isolates, which are endowed with cancer promoter activity, this observation may help explain why the organisms expressing CagA are more closely associated with atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma development.

  13. Development of C13-norisoprenoids, carotenoids and other volatile compounds in Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot noir grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Developmental changes in the carotenoids and volatile compounds of Pinot noir grape berries were investigated in this study from pea size to harvest during 2012. HPLC analysis showed continued decrease of lutein, β-carotene, neochrome a and neoxanthin continued to decrease during berry development, with rapid decrease of lutein and (9'z)-neoxanthin occurred two weeks before véraison. Neochrome b and violaxanthin accumulated at early development and started to decrease two weeks before véraison. Volatile analysis demonstrated that total β-damascenone, TDN and vitispirane all increased dramatically, especially at later stage of ripening, whereas the changes for α-ionone and β-ionone were not obvious. The correlation between carotenoids and C13-norisoprenoids in the grape berries was compound-dependent, suggesting dependency on enzyme activity and specificity. In addition, C6-alcohols accumulated before véraison and decreased towards maturation, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxyprazine decreased with increasing maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficiency of Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) Pamp. essential oil as a mycotoxicant against postharvest mycobiota of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonker, Nivedita; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2015-07-01

    In order to get a potent botanical fungicide for the management of fungal decay of table grapes, an experiment was conducted in which 20 essential oils of higher plants were screened at 0.33 µL mL(-1) against dominant fungi causing decay of table grapes, including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. ochraceus. Furthermore, the minimum inhibitory/fungicidal concentration, fungitoxic spectrum and mycotoxin inhibition activity of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of table grapes, along with organoleptic evaluation, was also carried out by storing 1 kg of grapes in the oil vapour. Artemisia nilagirica oil was found to be most toxic, exhibiting 100% mycelia inhibition of all test fungi. Moreover, 0.29 µL mL(-1) A. nilagirica oil was fungistatic and 0.58 µL mL(-1) was fungicidal for all tested species of Aspergillus. The oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against other grape berry-rotting fungi. Artemisia nilagirica oil completely suppressed the growth and mycotoxin (AFB1 and OTA) secretion of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic strains of Aspergillus at 1.6 µL mL(-1) . During the in vivo experiment, fumigation of 1 kg of table grapes with 200 and 300 µL dosage of A. nilagirica oil enhanced the shelf life for up to 9 days. The oil did not show any phytotoxic effect. Besides, oil application did not substantively change the sensory properties of the fruits. Artemisia nilagirica oil can be used as an alternative botanical fungicide for the control of fruit-rotting fungi of stored grapes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of foliar application of inactivated yeast on the phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Agiorgitiko grapes under different irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogkou C

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Charikleia Kogkou,1 Evangelia Chorti,2 Maria Kyraleou,1 Stamatina Kallithraka,1 Stefanos Koundouras,3 Gerard Logan,1 Ioannis Kanakis,4 Yorgos Kotseridis1 1Laboratory of Enology, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Cooperative Winery of Nemea, Nemea, Greece; 3Laboratory of Viticulture, School of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Fassoulis Grapevine Nurseries, Nemea, Greece Abstract: Recent climate changes have caused the rising of average growing season temperatures leading to the advancement of vine phenological stages and to earlier harvests. This could result in the production of grapes with advanced berry sugar accumulation, but incomplete phenolic ripeness, thereby jeopardizing wine quality. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the application of a new product consisting of yeast derivatives on the phenolic maturity and composition of Agiorgitiko grapes and wines, under contrasting water conditions. The experiment was arranged as a 2×2 factorial design in a commercial vineyard situated in southern Greece, combining foliar spraying with LalVigne® Mature (two applications after veraison and an untreated control and water conditions (deficit irrigation and nonirrigated. Irrigation accelerated berry sugar accumulation, increased berry weight and anthocyanin content, and decreased skin tannin concentration. Spraying with yeast derivatives did not affect phenolic content of berry components, and it had no effect on must attributes. Foliar application of yeast derivatives resulted in a higher phenolic potential of the produced wines, only when combined with irrigation. Keywords: foliar spray, deficit irrigation, phenolic maturity, anthocyanins, tannins

  16. A repellent against the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...

  17. New candidate genes for the fine regulation of the colour of grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Laura; Malacarne, Giulia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Troggio, Michela; Mattivi, Fulvio; Moser, Claudio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, great progress has been made in clarifying the main determinants of anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skin. However, the molecular details of the fine variation among cultivars, which ultimately contributes to wine typicity, are still not completely understood. To shed light on this issue, the grapes of 170 F1 progeny from the cross ‘Syrah’×’Pinot Noir’ were characterized at the mature stage for the content of 15 anthocyanins during four growing seasons. This huge data set was used in combination with a dense genetic map to detect genomic regions controlling the anthocyanin pathway both at key enzymatic points and at particular branches. Genes putatively involved in fine tuning the global regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified by exploring the gene predictions in the QTL (quantitative trait locus) confidence intervals and their expression profile during berry development in offspring with contrasting anthocyanin accumulation. New information on some aspects which had scarcely been investigated so far, such as anthocyanin transport into the vacuole, or completely neglected, such as acylation, is provided. These genes represent a valuable resource in grapevine molecular-based breeding programmes to improve both fruit and wine quality and to tailor wine sensory properties according to consumer demand. PMID:26071528

  18. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  19. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  20. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  1. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  2. Impact of Temperature Anomalies Associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole Events on Wine Grape Maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual grapevine growth and development are intimately linked with growing season weather conditions. Shifts in circulation patterns resulting from atmospheric teleconnections to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events can alter seasonal weather across Australia. Both ENSO and IOD events tend to peak in austral spring, when vine and berry development is especially critical and susceptible to damage. To investigate the impacts of ENSO and IOD events on the Australian wine grape growing sector, historical gridded climate data and annual vineyard grape maturity data from a variety of wine growing regions was collected and analysed. The greatest impacts on grape maturity were found when La Niña and IOD positive events occurred in tandem. During these events, significantly dry and hot conditions persist throughout the wine grape growing season, suggesting that the IOD overrides the ENSO signal. These conditions lead to a rapid, compressed growing season, which can cause logistical complications during harvest and impact grape and wine quality. Warming of equatorial SSTs in the Indian Ocean are likely to enhance the amplitude of IOD positive events, which has serious implications for wine grape production in Australia, highlighting the importance of this research.

  3. Study of polyamines during grape ripening indicate an important role of polyamine catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Bortolloti, Cristina; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tiburcio, Antonio Fernández; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2013-06-01

    Grapevine (Vitis species) is the most economically important fruit crop worldwide. Ripening of non-climacteric fruits such as grapes has been the subject of intense research. Despite this interest, little is known on the role played by polyamines in the onset of ripening of non-climacteric fruits. These growth regulators have been involved in plant development and stress responses. Molecular and biochemical studies were developed in three important Portuguese cultivars (Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional and Aragonês) during the year 2008 and in Trincadeira during 2007 in order to gather insights on the role of polyamines in grape ripening. Microarray and real-time qPCR studies revealed up-regulation of a gene coding for arginine decarboxylase (ADC) during grape ripening in all the varieties. This increase was not accompanied by an increase in free and conjugated polyamines that presented a strong decrease. Putrescine and Spermidine levels were higher at earlier stages of development, while Spermine level remained constant. Berries of Trincadeira cultivar presented the highest content in total free and conjugated polyamines at earlier stages of fruit development in particular in the year 2007. The decrease in polyamines content during grape ripening was accompanied by up-regulation of genes coding for diamine oxidase (CuAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO), together with a significant increase in their enzymatic activity and in the hydrogen peroxide content. These results provide, for the first time, strong evidence of a role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening possibly through interaction with other growth regulators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptional Responses to Pre-flowering Leaf Defoliation in Grapevine Berry from Different Growing Sites, Years, and Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, Sara; Dal Santo, Silvia; Tornielli, Giovanni B; D'Incà, Erica; Filippetti, Ilaria; Pastore, Chiara; Allegro, Gianluca; Silvestroni, Oriana; Lanari, Vania; Pisciotta, Antonino; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Palliotti, Alberto; Tombesi, Sergio; Gatti, Matteo; Poni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Leaf removal is a grapevine canopy management technique widely used to modify the source-sink balance and/or microclimate around berry clusters to optimize fruit composition. In general, the removal of basal leaves before flowering reduces fruit set, hence achieving looser clusters, and improves grape composition since yield is generally curtailed more than proportionally to leaf area itself. Albeit responses to this practice seem quite consistent, overall vine performance is affected by genotype, environmental conditions, and severity of treatment. The physiological responses of grape varieties to defoliation practices have been widely investigated, and just recently a whole genome transcriptomic approach was exploited showing an extensive transcriptome rearrangement in berries defoliated before flowering. Nevertheless, the extent to which these transcriptomic reactions could be manifested by different genotypes and growing environments is entirely unexplored. To highlight general responses to defoliation vs. different locations, we analyzed the transcriptome of cv. Sangiovese berries sampled at four development stages from pre-flowering defoliated vines in two different geographical areas of Italy. We obtained and validated five markers of the early defoliation treatment in Sangiovese, an ATP-binding cassette transporter, an auxin response factor, a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase and an indole-3-acetate beta-glucosyltransferase. Candidate molecular markers were also obtained in another three grapevine genotypes (Nero d'Avola, Ortrugo, and Ciliegiolo), subjected to the same level of selective pre-flowering defoliation (PFD) over two consecutive years in their different areas of cultivation. The flavonol synthase was identified as a marker in the pre-veraison phase, the jasmonate methyltransferase during the transition phase and the abscisic acid receptor PYL4 in the ripening phase. The characterization of transcriptome changes

  5. Transcriptional Responses to Pre-flowering Leaf Defoliation in Grapevine Berry from Different Growing Sites, Years, and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zenoni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaf removal is a grapevine canopy management technique widely used to modify the source–sink balance and/or microclimate around berry clusters to optimize fruit composition. In general, the removal of basal leaves before flowering reduces fruit set, hence achieving looser clusters, and improves grape composition since yield is generally curtailed more than proportionally to leaf area itself. Albeit responses to this practice seem quite consistent, overall vine performance is affected by genotype, environmental conditions, and severity of treatment. The physiological responses of grape varieties to defoliation practices have been widely investigated, and just recently a whole genome transcriptomic approach was exploited showing an extensive transcriptome rearrangement in berries defoliated before flowering. Nevertheless, the extent to which these transcriptomic reactions could be manifested by different genotypes and growing environments is entirely unexplored. To highlight general responses to defoliation vs. different locations, we analyzed the transcriptome of cv. Sangiovese berries sampled at four development stages from pre-flowering defoliated vines in two different geographical areas of Italy. We obtained and validated five markers of the early defoliation treatment in Sangiovese, an ATP-binding cassette transporter, an auxin response factor, a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, a flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase and an indole-3-acetate beta-glucosyltransferase. Candidate molecular markers were also obtained in another three grapevine genotypes (Nero d’Avola, Ortrugo, and Ciliegiolo, subjected to the same level of selective pre-flowering defoliation (PFD over two consecutive years in their different areas of cultivation. The flavonol synthase was identified as a marker in the pre-veraison phase, the jasmonate methyltransferase during the transition phase and the abscisic acid receptor PYL4 in the ripening phase. The characterization of

  6. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berry skin, pulp, and seeds in 13 grapevine varieties grown in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelić, Milica M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Davidović, Sonja M; Todić, Slavica R; Bešlić, Zoran S; Gašić, Uroš M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2016-11-15

    Phenolic profile of 13 grapevine varieties was determined, with respect to three different parts of berries: skin, seed and pulp. Identification and quantification of the phenols was done using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a diode array detector and a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. The most abundant phenols in grape seeds were found to be flavan-3-ols, most of which are gallocatechin gallate and catechin. The skins were characterized mostly by flavonols, i.e. quercetin and myricetin. Characterization of anthocyanins in the berry skin by UHPLC coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole and OrbiTrap mass analyzer revealed a total of twenty derivatives of malvidin, delphinidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and peonidin. To the extent of our knowledge this is the first work that shows the presence of malvidin 3,5-O-dihexoside in the berry skin of 'Merlot', 'Cabernet Franc', 'Shiraz' 'Sangiovese', 'Pinot Noir' and 'Prokupac', untypical for Vitis vinifera Linneo species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fakturatze modulu berri baten garapena WMS aplikazioan

    OpenAIRE

    Viseras Arcos, Leire

    2017-01-01

    WMS (WareHouse Management System) aplikazioaren zabaltzea eta aplikazio horri funtzionalitate gehiago gehitzea izan da proiektu honen helburu nagusia. Aplikazio honek logistikako operadore batek dituen funtzionalitate batzuk ditu.Merkatuan dagoeneko existitzen dira logistika aplikazioak, baina aplikazio honek erabiltzaileei aukera gehiago emango dizkie WMS aplikazioak duen atal berri honekin, Fakturazioarekin zerikusia duten prozesuak automatizatu bai dira.

  8. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Every year a significant amount of organic table grapes is lost during postharvest mainly due to the incidence of decay, stem browning and fast alteration of the taste and aroma. The demand for this fresh product with immaculate appearance and high sensory quality in terms of flavor, is a hard challenge considering the difficulties to conserve them, with alternative safe treatments to the sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is not allowed in organic product. The aim of this experiment was to maintain the quality of organic table grapes and extend their shelf-life for medium and long term, in order to reach new distant promising markets, by using safe methods. The effectiveness of the combination of pretreatment with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, physical means and storage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed by using detached organic table grape berries as alternatives to usual industrial SO2 application. The detached organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" berries were pretreated by: i) dipping in ethanol and potassium bicarbonate; ii) massive CO2 concentrations; iii) ozone (O3) fumigation; whereas, untreated berries were included in the trial as control. Moreover, all the samples were packed in thermo-sealed ALPAK bags with MAP of 2% O2:5% CO2:93% N2 and stored at 0°C for 45 days. Initially and after 15, 30 and 45 days of storage, weight loss, decay incidence, berry/skin firmness, pedicel detachment force, skin color parameters, SSC, pH, titratable acidity and sensory evaluation scores, were monitored. After 45 days of storage, the weight loss was higher in the sample pretreated with massive CO2 concentration at 70 - 90 % and the control. The samples pretreated with CO2 at 70% and O3 at 20 ppm maintained the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel, also the berry and skin firmness were statistically higher in samples pretreated with CO2 at 90 - 70% and O3 at 20 ppm in comparison with the control. The skin color parameters and

  9. Comparative studies on phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacities and carotenoid contents of red goji berry (Lycium barbarum) and black goji berry (Lycium ruthenicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tahidul; Yu, Xiaoming; Badwal, Tanvir Singh; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-24

    The study on phytochemical difference between red and black goji berry is limited. Antioxidant activities and phenolic profiles in terms of total phenol content, total flavonoid contents, condensed tannin content, monomeric anthocyanin content, and total carotenoid content of red goji berry (Lycium barbarum) and black goji berry (L. ruthenicum) were compared using colorimetric assays. All goji berries were rich in phenolics. Black goji berry had the highest phenolic, condensed tannin content and monomeric anthocyanin content. Black goji berry samples possessed higher antioxidant capacities than red goji berry, while the red goji berry had the highest carotenoid content. Goji berries exhibited a positive linear correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. The average value of carotenoid content in red goji berry was 233.04 µg/g. The phenolics and antioxidant capacities are much higher in black goji berry than red goji berry, while carotenoid content is much higher in red than black.

  10. Geographic variation in diapause induction: The grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Timer; Patrick C. Tobin; Michael C. Saunders

    2010-01-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of...

  11. Geospatial variation of grapevine water status, soil water availability, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a spatially heterogeneous premium wine grape vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D. R.; Cosby Hess, S.; Plant, R.; Feihn, O.; Heymann, H.; Ebeler, S.

    2014-11-01

    The geoscience component of terroir in wine grape production continues to be criticized for its quasi-mystical nature, and lack of testable hypotheses. Nonetheless, recent relational investigations are emerging and most involve water availability as captured by available water capacity (AWC, texture) or plant available water (PAW) in the root zone of soil as being a key factor. The second finding emerging may be that the degree of microscale variability in PAW and other soil factors at the vineyard scale renders larger regional characterizations questionable. Cimatic variables like temperature are well mixed, and its influence on wine characteristic is fairly well established. The influence of mesogeology on mesoclimate factors has also been characterized to some extent. To test the hypothesis that vine water status mirrors soil water availability, and controls fruit sensory and chemical properties at the vineyard scale we examined such variables in a iconic, selectively harvested premium winegrape vineyard in the Napa Valley of California during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. Geo-referenced data vines remained as individual study units throughout data gathering and analysis. Cartographic exercises using geographic information systems (GIS) were used to vizualize geospatial variation in soil and vine properties. Highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) emerged for pre-dawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), mid-day leaf water potential (ΨL) and PAW, with berry size, berry weight, pruning weights (canopy size) and soluble solids content (°Brix). Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality had vines with (1) lower leaf water potential (LWP) both pre-dawn and mid-day, (2) smaller berry diameter and weight, (3) lower pruning weights, and (4) higher °Brix. A trained sensory panel found grapes from the more water-stressed vines had significantly sweeter and softer pulp, absence of vegetal character, and browner and crunchier seeds. Metabolomic analysis of the

  12. Regulated deficit irrigation and density of Erythroneura spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This study looked at regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on leafhoppers in the genus Erythroneura (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn, or western grape leafhopper, and Erythroneura variabilis Beamer) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which are serious pests of cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in California. RDI is an irrigation strategy that reduces irrigation during a critical point in the phenology of a cultivated perennial crop, to improve vegetative balance and crop quality. Erythroneura spp. are known to respond negatively to vine water stress, and the second generation ofleafhoppers begins during a potential RDI initiation period, between berry set and veraison (beginning of fruit maturation). In experiments at commercial wine grape vineyards, I imposed deficits of between 25 and 50% of crop full evapotranspiration (ET(c)) between berry set and veraison, with control treatments based on the growers' standard irrigations (typically between 0.8 and 1.0 ET(c)), and then we counted leafhopper nymphs weekly, and leafhopper eggs after the second generation. Results show a consistent reduction of second generation nymphal density with this type of RDI, with average density approximately 50% lower under deficit treatments in all three studies. Deficit irrigation reduced second generation egg density by 54% at one site and by 29.9% at another. These results confirm previous studies regarding the sensitivity of Erythroneura spp. to grapevine water stress, and, in addition, they show that a season-wide irrigation deficit is not necessary for reduction in leafhopper density. Results suggest that lower oviposition at least partly explains the lower nymphal density in the deficit treatments.

  13. Effect of salicylic acid and aloe vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes ( Vitis Vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Peyro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salicylic acid dipping and Aloe vera gel coating on shelf life and post harvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera of the cultivar Shahroudi, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with three factors and three replicates in agricultural faculty of Islamic Azad University in 2014. The treatments were dipping in Salicylic acid (three levels of 0, 1 and 2 mmmol-1 for 15 minutes and coating with Aloe vera gel (four levels of 0, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v and measurement of traits in 1st day, 30th day and 60th day after treatment of berries. The results showed that the interaction effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel application was significant on all of traits except for pH value in a way that the best and the minimum weight loss (0.09g was obtained by application of 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 20% Aloe vera gel in 1st day after treatment. The greatest amount of total soluble solids (428.43 g.100g-1 fruit juice was found in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 60th day. The highest Catalase enzyme activity (0.0013 Ua.mg-1Pro was attained in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 30th day. These results demonstrated that treatment of grape berries by salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel had positive effect on shelf life of table grapes and their postharvest quality

  14. Abscisic acid metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis in grape skin are affected by light emitting diode (LED) irradiation at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Satoru; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Rodyoung, Abhichartbut; Okawa, Katsuya; Ohara, Hitoshi; Sugaya, Sumiko; Terahara, Norihiko; Hirai, Nobuhiro

    2014-06-15

    The effects of blue and red light irradiation at night on abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and anthocyanin synthesis were examined in grape berries. The expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VvUFGT), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VvNCED1), and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (VvCYP707A1) were also investigated. Endogenous ABA, its metabolite phaseic acid (PA), and the expressions of VvNCED1 and VvCYP707A1 were highest in red light-emitting diode (LED)-treated skin. In contrast, anthocyanin concentrations were highest in blue LED-treated skin, followed by red LED treatment. However, the expressions of VlMYBA1-2, VlMYBA2, and VvUFGT did not necessarily coincide with anthocyanin concentrations. The quality of coloring may depend on the amount of malvidin-based anthocyanin, which increased toward harvest in blue and red LED-treated skin, unlike in untreated controls. An increase in sugars was also observed in blue and red LED-treated skin. These results suggest that blue LED irradiation at night may be effective in increasing anthocyanin and sugar concentrations in grape berries. However, there is evidence that another factor may influence anthocyanin concentrations in grape berry skin significantly more than endogenous ABA: ABA concentrations were highest in red LED-treated skin, which had lower anthocyanin concentrations than blue LED-treated skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioactivity of grape chemicals for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) products, grape and grape juice, represent a valuable source of bioactive phytochemicals, synthesized by three secondary metabolic pathways (phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic routes) and stored in different plant tissues. In the last decades, compelling evidence suggested that regular consumption of these products may contribute to reducing the incidence of chronic illnesses, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders and aging, in a context of the Mediterranean dietary tradition. The health benefits arising from grape product intake can be ascribed to the potpourri of biologically active chemicals occurring in grapes. Among them, the recently discovered presence of melatonin adds a new element to the already complex grape chemistry. Melatonin, and its possible synergistic action with the great variety of polyphenols, contributes to further explaining the observed health benefits associated with regular grape product consumption.

  16. Quality and enhancement of bioactive phenolics in cv. Napoleon table grapes exposed to different postharvest gaseous treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Artés, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2003-08-27

    Ten different gaseous treatments were evaluated for their efficacy in the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during 38 days of storage at 0 degrees C followed by 6 days of shelf life at 15 degrees C in air. These storage methods included modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with and without SO(2) or natural fungicides (hexanal and hexenal), two controlled atmospheres (CA), and intermittent and continuous applications of O(3). As a control, air atmosphere during cold storage was used. Most of the treatments applied kept the postharvest quality of the grapes, although the best results were obtained by the use of a MAP with 5 kPa of O(2) plus 15 kPa of CO(2) plus 80 kPa of N(2). The total anthocyanin content at harvest was 170 +/- 19 microg/g of fresh weight (fw) of grapes, which declined in most of the treatments applied and was reflected in the loss of red color. Peonidin 3-glucoside was detected at all sampling times as the major anthocyanin (always >50% from the total content). Treatments applied kept or decreased the total flavonol content from that measured at harvest (17 +/- 1.4 microg/g of fw of berries). However, an increase of up to 2-fold in total stilbenoid content after shelf life for CA and O(3) treatments was observed. At all sampling times for almost every treatment piceid concentration remained unaltered or slightly changed, whereas large increases were observed after shelf life for resveratrol (1.2 +/- 0.6 microg/g of fw of grapes sampled at harvest), even up to 3- and 4-fold for O(3)-treated grapes and 2-fold for CA-treated ones. Therefore, improved techniques for the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during long-term storage seem to maintain or enhance their antioxidant compound content.

  17. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  18. Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography method based on a core-shell column approach for the rapid determination of multiclass polyphenols in grape pomaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Antoniolli, Andrea; Bottini, Rubén

    2016-02-01

    A rapid and economically affordable reverse-phase chromatographic approach based on a core-shell column with high-performance liquid chromatography multi-wavelength detector (HPLC-MWD) is proposed for the quantification and quality control of multiclass polyphenols (PPs). The separation of 20 relevant polyphenols from grape pomace extracts (GPEs) was achieved in less than 12 min by using a Kinetex C18 column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 2.6 μm) with a gradient system of ultrapure water (0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile, a temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The maximum backpressure reached was 327 bar, meaning the developed method is adequate for standard HPLC instruments. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the determination of PPs in GPEs of different red grape varieties. Cabernet Sauvignon GPE showed the highest content of studied PPs (9804.2 μg g(-1)GPE) followed by Bonarda GPE (7302.0 μg g(-1)GPE). Besides the methodological development for a high throughput routine quality control of GPEs, this is the first report of PPs content for Bonarda and Aspirant Bouchet GPE, so the results add knowledge for these grape varieties cultivated in Argentina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  20. Effect of Humic Acid and Ferrous Sulfate Foliar Application on Some Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality of Grape cv. \\"Askari\\"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vatankhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of humic acid as an organic acid derived from humus and other natural resources along with iron could be beneficial to overcoming, at least in part, the nutrients deficiencies in the grapes. In order to evaluate the effects of humic acid and iron on fruit yield and concentration of nutrient elements in the leaf of grape, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design in three replications was done during growing season of 2013- 2014. The treatments included combinations of humic acid (control, 1 and 2 per thousand and ferrous sulfate (control, 1 and 2 per thousand, sprayed in two steps (i.e. before flowering and two weeks after fruit set. The results indicated that treatments significantly increased the grapes fruit yield, e.g. the maximum yield (8.27 kg per plant was obtained when 2 per thousand of iron sulfate was applied. The above treatments significantly affected nitrogen, iron, zinc and copper content of leaves. Foliar application of ferrous sulfate increased leaf iron concentration, i.e. the highest (189.6 mg per kg tissue iron content was observed at the presence of 2 per thousand ferrous sulfate treatment.  Positive correlations were observed between the leaf iron concentration with fruit yield, cluster weight, berry diameter, leaf chlorophyll concentration and TSS of fruit. Hence, foliar application of humic acid and iron sulfate (e.g. each at a two per thousand concentrations in vineyards might be effective in increasing quality and quantity of grapes.

  1. From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandé, Jorge Andres; Stockert, Christine M; Liles, Garrett C; Williams, John N; Smart, David R; Viers, Joshua H

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California's northern San Joaquin Valley. We characterize C stocks in terms of allometric variation between biomass fractions of roots, aboveground wood, canes, leaves and fruits, and then test correlations between easy-to-measure variables such as trunk diameter, pruning weights and harvest weight to vine biomass fractions. Carbon stocks at the vineyard block scale were validated from biomass mounds generated during vineyard removal. Total vine C was estimated at 12.3 Mg C ha-1, of which 8.9 Mg C ha-1 came from perennial vine biomass. Annual biomass was estimated at 1.7 Mg C ha-1 from leaves and canes and 1.7 Mg C ha-1 from fruit. Strong, positive correlations were found between the diameter of the trunk and overall woody C stocks (R2 = 0.85), pruning weights and leaf and fruit C stocks (R2 = 0.93), and between fruit weight and annual C stocks (R2 = 0.96). Vineyard C partitioning obtained in this study provides detailed C storage estimations in order to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of winegrape C. Allometric equations based on simple and practical biomass and biometric measurements could enable winegrape growers to more easily estimate existing and future C stocks by scaling up from berries and vines to vineyard blocks.

  2. From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Andres Morandé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we used destructive sampling to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a vineyard in California’s northern San Joaquin Valley. We characterize C stocks in terms of allometric variation between biomass fractions of roots, aboveground wood, canes, leaves and fruits, and then test correlations between easy-to-measure variables such as trunk diameter, pruning weights and harvest weight to vine biomass fractions. Carbon stocks at the vineyard block scale were validated from biomass mounds generated during vineyard removal. Results Total vine C was estimated at 12.3 Mg C ha−1, of which 8.9 Mg C ha−1 came from perennial vine biomass. Annual biomass was estimated at 1.7 Mg C ha−1 from leaves and canes and 1.7 Mg C ha−1 from fruit. Strong, positive correlations were found between the diameter of the trunk and overall woody C stocks (R2 = 0.85, pruning weights and leaf and fruit C stocks (R2 = 0.93, and between fruit weight and annual C stocks (R2 = 0.96. Conclusions Vineyard C partitioning obtained in this study provides detailed C storage estimations in order to understand the spatial and temporal distribution of winegrape C. Allometric equations based on simple and practical biomass and biometric measurements could enable winegrape growers to more easily estimate existing and future C stocks by scaling up from berries and vines to vineyard blocks.

  3. Phenolic compounds extracted by acidic aqueous ethanol from berries and leaves of different berry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Liimatainen, Jaana; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Lindstedt, Anni; Liu, Pengzhan; Sinkkonen, Jari; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-04-01

    Phenolic compounds of berries and leaves of thirteen various plant species were extracted with aqueous ethanol and analyzed with UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, HPLC-DAD, and NMR. The total content of phenolics was consistently higher in leaves than in berries (25-7856 vs. 28-711mg/100g fresh weight). Sea buckthorn leaves were richest in phenolic compounds (7856mg/100g f.w.) with ellagitannins as the dominant compound class. Sea buckthorn berries contained mostly isorhamnetin glycosides, whereas quercetin glycosides were typically abundant in most samples investigated. Anthocyanins formed the dominating group of phenolics in most dark-colored berries but phenolic acid derivatives were equally abundant in saskatoon and chokeberry berries. Caffeoylquinic acids constituted 80% of the total phenolic content (1664mg/100g f.w.) in bilberry leaves. B-type procyanidins and caffeoylquinic acids were the major phenolic compounds in hawthorn and rowanberry, respectively. Use of leaves of some species with prunasin, tyramine and β-p-arbutin, may be limited in food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Profiling and Quantification of Regioisomeric Caffeoyl Glucoses in Berry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Maria A; Jaiswal, Rakesh; McDougall, Gordon J; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2018-02-07

    On the basis of a recently developed tandem mass spectrometry-based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled, including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currant, black currant, lingonberries, gooseberries, and juices of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranates, were investigated. 1-Caffeoyl glucose was found to be the predominant isomer in the majority of samples, with further profiling revealing the presence of additional hydroxycinnamoyl glucose esters and O-glycosides with p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and sinapoyl substituents. A quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated, and all caffeoyl glucose isomers were quantified for the first time in edible berries.

  5. Berry phenolics and their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, M P; Hopia, A I; Heinonen, M

    2001-08-01

    Phenolic profiles of a total of 26 berry samples, together with 2 apple samples, were analyzed without hydrolysis of glycosides with HPLC. The phenolic contents among different berry genera varied considerably. Anthocyanins were the main phenolic constituents in bilberry, bog-whortleberry, and cranberry, but in cowberries, belonging also to the family Ericaceae genus Vaccinium, flavanols and procyanidins predominated. In the family Rosaceae genus Rubus (cloudberry and red raspberry), the main phenolics found were ellagitannins, and in genus Fragaria (strawberry), ellagitannins were the second largest group after anthocyanins. However, phenolic acids were dominant in rowanberries (genus Sorbus) and anthocyanins in chokeberry (genus Aronia). In the family Grossulariaceae genus Ribes (currants and gooseberry), anthocyanins predominated, as well as in crowberries (family Empetraceae genus Empetrum). In apples, hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic subgroup. Extraction methods for berries and apples were studied to produce phenolic extracts with high antioxidant activity. Evaluation of antioxidant activity was performed by autoxidazing methyl linoleate (40 degrees C, in the dark). The extraction method affected remarkably both the phenolic composition and the antioxidant activity, but with statistical analysis the observed activity could not be well explained with the contents of individual phenolic subgroups.

  6. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  7. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  8. Biocontrol ability and action mechanismof Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina isolated from wine musts against grey mold disease agent Botrytis cinerea on grape and their effects on alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after five days, a concentration of 106 cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glycerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations.The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process

  9. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  10. Assessment of the process of movement of Xylella fastidiosa within susceptible and resistant grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccari, C; Lindow, S E

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the processes contributing to symptoms and resistance to Pierce's disease of grape, we examined the movement and multiplication of a green fluorescent protein-marked strain of Xylella fastidiosa in the stems and petioles of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin Blanc, Roucaneuf, and Tampa grape cultivars that differ in their susceptibility to this disease. X. fastidiosa achieved much lower population sizes and colonized fewer xylem vessels in the stem of resistant cultivars compared with more susceptible cultivars. In contrast, X. fastidiosa achieved similarly high population sizes and colonized a similar proportion of the vessels in petioles of susceptible and resistant cultivars, suggesting that, compared with the stem, X. fastidiosa is relatively unrestricted in its movement and growth within the petiole. There was not a direct relationship between the population size of X. fastidiosa in the stem and the proportion of vessels colonized; a much higher population size of the pathogen was observed in susceptible cultivars than expected based on the proportion of vessels colonized. The high population sizes of X. fastidiosa in stems of susceptible genotypes were associated with both a high number of infected vessels and a much higher extent of colonization of those vessels that become infested than in more resistant cultivars. The formation of large cellular aggregates in vessels is not required for X. fastidiosa to move laterally in the stem to adjacent vessels because most vessels harbored only small assemblages, especially in resistant cultivars such as Roucaneuf, in which some intervessel movement was detected. Resistance to Pierce's disease is apparently not due to inhibitory compounds that circulate in the xylem because they might be expected to operate similarly in all tissues.