van Mourik, Hilda; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Stortenbeker, Niek; Angenent, Gerco C; Bemer, Marian
Small Auxin-Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes encode growth regulators that induce cell elongation. Arabidopsis contains more than 70 SAUR genes, of which the growth-promoting function has been unveiled in seedlings, while their role in other tissues remained largely unknown. Here, we focus on the regulatory regions of Arabidopsis SAUR genes, to predict the processes in which they play a role, and understand the dynamics of plant growth. In this study, we characterized in detail the entire SAUR10-clade: SAUR8, SAUR9, SAUR10, SAUR12, SAUR16, SAUR50, SAUR51 and SAUR54. Overexpression analysis revealed that the different proteins fulfil similar functions, while the SAUR expression patterns were highly diverse, showing expression throughout plant development in a variety of tissues. In addition, the response to application of different hormones largely varied between the different genes. These tissue-specific and hormone-specific responses could be linked to transcription factor binding sites using in silico analyses. These analyses also supported the existence of two groups of SAURs in Arabidopsis: Class I genes can be induced by combinatorial action of ARF-BZR-PIF transcription factors, while Class II genes are not regulated by auxin. SAUR10-clade genes generally induce cell-elongation, but exhibit diverse expression patterns and responses to hormones. Our experimental and in silico analyses suggest that transcription factors involved in plant development determine the tissue specific expression of the different SAUR genes, whereas the amplitude of this expression can often be controlled by hormone response transcription factors. This allows the plant to fine tune growth in a variety of tissues in response to internal and external signals.
Mourik, van Hilda; Dijk, van Aalt D.J.; Stortenbeker, Niek; Angenent, Gerco C.; Bemer, Marian
Background: Small Auxin-Upregulated RNA (SAUR) genes encode growth regulators that induce cell elongation. Arabidopsis contains more than 70 SAUR genes, of which the growth-promoting function has been unveiled in seedlings, while their role in other tissues remained largely unknown. Here, we
Zhang, Na; Huang, Xing; Bao, Yaning; Wang, Bo; Zeng, Hongxia; Cheng, Weishun; Tang, Mi; Li, Yuhua; Ren, Jian; Sun, Yuhong
The early auxin responsive SAUR family is an important gene family in auxin signal transduction. We here present the first report of a genome-wide identification of SAUR genes in watermelon genome. We successfully identified 65 ClaSAURs and provide a genomic framework for future study on these genes. Phylogenetic result revealed a Cucurbitaceae-specific SAUR subfamily and contribute to understanding of the evolutionary pattern of SAUR genes in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrates the existed expression of 11 randomly selected SAUR genes in watermelon tissues. ClaSAUR36 was highly expressed in fruit, for which further study might bring a new prospective for watermelon fruit development. Moreover, correlation analysis revealed the similar expression profiles of SAUR genes between watermelon and Arabidopsis during shoot organogenesis. This work gives us a new support for the conserved auxin machinery in plants.
Full Text Available Small auxin-upregulated RNAs (SAURs are genes regulated by auxin and environmental factors. In this study, we identified a SAUR gene in wheat, TaSAUR75. Under salt stress, TaSAUR75 is downregulated in wheat roots. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSAUR75 was localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of TaSAUR75 increased drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Transgenic lines showed higher root length and survival rate and higher expression of some stress-responsive genes than control plants under salt and drought stress. Less H2O2 accumulated in transgenic lines than in control plants under drought stress. Our findings reveal a positive regulatory role of the auxin-responsive gene TaSAUR75 in plant responses to drought and salt stress and provide a candidate gene for improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in crop breeding.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...
Gabderakhmanova, T. S.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Frid, S. E.; Tarasenko, A. B.
This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed.
Gabderakhmanova, T S; Frid, S E; Tarasenko, A B; Kiseleva, S V
This paper is devoted to calculation of yearly energy production, demanded area and capital costs for first Russian 5 MW grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) plant in Altay Republic that is named Kosh-Agach. Simple linear calculation model, involving average solar radiation and temperature data, grid-tie inverter power-efficiency dependence and PV modules parameters is proposed. Monthly and yearly energy production, equipment costs and demanded area for PV plant are estimated for mono-, polycrystalline and amorphous modules. Calculation includes three types of initial radiation and temperature data—average day for every month from NASA SSE, average radiation and temperature for each day of the year from NASA POWER and typical meteorology year generated from average data for every month. The peculiarities for each type of initial data and their influence on results are discussed. (paper)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...
Jia, Dongjie; Shen, Fei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Xu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai
Many efforts have been made to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to facilitate practical marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plants. In the present study, we identified four genome-wide major QTLs responsible for apple fruit acidity by MapQTL and BSA-seq analyses using two independent pedigree-based populations. Candidate genes were screened in major QTL regions, and three functional gene markers, including a non-synonymous A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding region of MdPP2CH, a 36-bp insertion in the promoter of MdSAUR37, and a previously reported SNP in MdALMTII, were validated to influence the malate content of apple fruits. In addition, MdPP2CH inactivated three vacuolar H + -ATPases (MdVHA-A3, MdVHA-B2 and MdVHA-D2) and one aluminium-activated malate transporter (MdALMTII) via dephosphorylation and negatively influenced fruit malate accumulation. The dephosphotase activity of MdPP2CH was suppressed by MdSAUR37, which implied a higher hierarchy of genetic interaction. Therefore, the MdSAUR37/MdPP2CH/MdALMTII chain cascaded hierarchical epistatic genetic effects to precisely determine apple fruit malate content. An A/G SNP (-1010) on MdMYB44 promoter region from a major QTL (qtl08.1) was closely associated with fruit malate content. The predicted phenotype values (PPVs) were estimated using the tentative genotype values of the gene markers, and the PPVs were significantly correlated with the observed phenotype values. Our findings provide an insight into plant genome-based selection in apples and will aid in conducting research to understand the physiological fundamentals of quantitative genetics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Dinosaurios saurópodos de la Formación Los Llanos (Cretácico, La Rioja, Argentina): ocurrencia, caracterización sistemática y tafonómica, bioestratigrafía, análisis paleoambientales y sus implicancias geológico-regionales
Hechenleitner, Esteban Martín
Los saurópodos titanosaurios fueron dinosaurios saurísquios que habitaron todos los continentes, entre el Jurásico Tardío y el Cretácico. Fueron cuadrúpedos amniotas caracterizados típicamente por poseer cuello y cola largos y cabeza proporcionalmente pequeña. Si bien sus restos óseos han sido hallados en todos los continentes, sólo se conocen sitios de nidificación en Asia, Europa, África y Sudamérica. Durante el Cretácico Tardío los Titanosauria experimentaron una gran radiación sudamerican...
Bemer, Marian; Mourik, van Hilda; Muiño, Jose M.; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Angenent, Gerco C.
MADS-domain transcription factors are well known for their roles in plant development and regulate sets of downstream genes that have been uncovered by high-throughput analyses. A considerable number of these targets are predicted to function in hormone responses or responses to environmental
Mobilisation of heavy metals and arsenic by acid mine drainage in polluted sites of the Ag-Pb-Zn deposit near Wiesloch; Mobilisierbarkeit von Schwermetallen und Arsen durch saure Grubenabwaesser in Bergbaualtlasten der Ag-Pb-Zn-Lagerstaette in Wiesloch
2000 years of small scale Ag-Pb-Zn mining has created a legacy of potentially hazardous waste material in Wiesloch. The objective of our study is to investigate the processes to identify the that might lead to a mobilisation of heavy metals and arsenic and their fate at this specific site. The objective of this study is: a) to examine in more detail the chemical and mineralogical composition of ore, dressing and slag material and b) to compare the heavy metal release potential to toxic elements of primary ore versus processing material if subjected to weathering. Three depth profiles due to drilling-operations retrieved mineralogical, chemical and physical data. The three most important pollutants are primary ore, dressing residue and slag. Apart from a chemical characterisation of these materials in order to establish the heavy metal and arsenic content field and laboratory experiments simulated worst case weathering conditions. Elution experiments demonstrated that heavy metal release is very much pH-dependent. The highest release potential was observed in flotation material from the dressing residue whereas primary ore and slag material released 10 times fewer heavy metals and arsenic. (orig.)
Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.
The use of (35)S-labeled calmodulin (CaM) to screen a corn root cDNA expression library has led to the isolation of a CaM-binding protein, encoded by a cDNA with sequence similarity to small auxin up RNAs (SAURs), a class of early auxin-responsive genes. The cDNA designated as ZmSAUR1 (Zea mays SAURs) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by CaM affinity chromatography. The CaM binding assay revealed that the recombinant protein binds to CaM in a calcium-dependent manner. Deletion analysis revealed that the CaM binding site was located at the NH(2)-terminal domain. A synthetic peptide of amino acids 20-45, corresponding to the potential CaM binding region, was used for calcium-dependent mobility shift assays. The synthetic peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of calcium. The CaM affinity assay indicated that ZmSAUR1 binds to CaM with high affinity (K(d) approximately 15 nM) in a calcium-dependent manner. Comparison of the NH(2)-terminal portions of all of the characterized SAURs revealed that they all contain a stretch of the basic alpha-amphiphilic helix similar to the CaM binding region of ZmSAUR1. CaM binds to the two synthetic peptides from the NH(2)-terminal regions of Arabidopsis SAUR-AC1 and soybean 10A5, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon for all SAURs. Northern analysis was carried out using the total RNA isolated from auxin-treated corn coleoptile segments. ZmSAUR1 gene expression began within 10 min, increased rapidly between 10 and 60 min, and peaked around 60 min after 10 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid treatment. These results indicate that ZmSAUR1 is an early auxin-responsive gene. The CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride inhibited the auxin-induced cell elongation but not the auxin-induced expression of ZmSAUR1. This suggests that calcium/CaM do not regulate ZmSAUR1 at the transcriptional level. CaM binding to ZmSAUR1 in a calcium
This short contribution on a vast topic is intended to . stimulate debate and further discussion, especially in the. KOSH area (Klerksdorp, Orkney, Stilfontein,. Hartebeesfontein). It is important briefly to reflect on the nature of the society we come from, where we are now, and where we want to go as a united medical profession ...
Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes are important gene families in auxin ... In this study, we used Arabidopsis sequences as query to search against mulberry, hemp ...... T. J. 1989 Transcription, organization, and sequence of an auxin-.
You, Sheng-Jie; Tsai, Yung-Pin; Huang, Ru-Yi
To understand the toxic effect of heavy metals on the nitrification mechanisms of activated sludge, this study identified the specific ammonia utilization rate (SAUR) inhibited by Pb, Ni and/or Cd shock loadings. Seven different heavy metal combinations (Pb, Ni, Cd, Pb + Ni, Ni + Cd, Pb + Cd, and Pb + Ni + Cd) with seven different heavy metal concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 40 ppm, respectively) were examined by batch experiments, where the activated sludge was taken from either sequencing batch reactor (SBR) or anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A 2 O) processes. The experimental results showed the SAUR inhibition rate was Ni > Cd > Pb. No significant inhibition in the nitrification reaction of the activated sludge was observed even when as much as 40 ppm Pb was added. In addition, no synergistic effect was found when different heavy metals were simultaneously added in different concentrations, and the overall inhibition effect depended on the heavy metal with the highest toxicity. Further, first order kinetic reaction could model the behavior of SAUR inhibition on activated sludge when adding heavy metals, and the SAUR inhibition formula was derived as SAUR=(SAUR max -SAUR min )xe -r i c +SAUR min . On the other hand, the heavy metal adsorption ability in both the activated sludge system was Pb = Cd > Ni. The specific adsorption capacity of activated sludge on heavy metal increased as the heavy metal concentration increased or the mixed liquid volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) decreased. The batch experiments also showed the heavy metal adsorption capacity of the SBR sludge was larger than the A 2 O sludge. Finally, the most predominant bacteria in the phylogenetic trees of SBR and A 2 O activated sludges were proteobacteria, which contributed to 42.1% and 42.8% of the total clones.
As an introduction to a number of researches of his own the author wishes to give the following data: „Veen” has two meanings in Dutch: 1. in a petrographic sense (peat) Von Büllow’s definition was accepted: „Torf” ist zu deflnieren als ein meist dunkles, kohlenstoffreiches und ± saures Gemenge
... and high temperature-responsive genes. Moreover, comparison of qRT-PCR data and previous RNA-Seqdata suggested the reliability of our work. In this study, we first report the identification of SAUR genes in Urticales plants.These results will provide a foundation for their function validation in Urticales plant growth and ...
Luchka, L. M.
Full Text Available The works by archimandrites Havriil (V. F. Rozanov and Feodosiy (O. G. Makarevsky, historians A. O. Skalkovsky, D. I. Yavornitsky and V. O. Bidnov were the first documents on the history of the monastery (Novomoskovsk, Dnipropetrovsk Region. The monastery suffered from raids, fires, epidemics and robberies. The monastic archives were largely lost in the military operations. A lot of original documents didnʼt survive. The epidemic of 1750 did a great damage. The paper archive, infected things and monastery items were burned. The archive consisted of clerical documents, volumes of ancient laws, manuscripts and correspondence. The archive contained some other documents of great importance. They are so-called Universals, 11 statements with seals of Zaporizhian Sich Kosh (Leader and priorsʼ complaints. The monastery archive contained manuscripts by the last Kosh Otaman (leader − P. Kalnyshevsky. The archive included documents of state and local authorities and supreme church governing boards – reports, orders, decrees, warrants referring to the monastery property, inventories of monastery household items. A certain percentage of documents was correspondence among priors referring to internal discipline and economic life of the monastery. The names of famous visitors of the monastery are known: archimandrites Havriil and Feodosiy, A. O. Skalkovsky, A. P. Chirkov, P. M. Sochinskiy, V. D. Mashukov, D. I. Yavornitsky and V. O. Bidnov. They worked with documents and left published articles, essays and reviews. Except manuscripts the monastery had printed editions. The monastery library kept 150 liturgical books of Kyiv and Moscow publishing of the 17th − 18th centuries. Six printed books from Samara Desert-Nicholas Monastery are kept in Dnipropetrovsk National Historical Museum. The library collection of the 19th century was quite big. The research of the archive and the library of the monastery give an opportunity to highlight some of the unknown
Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.
Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Borazjani, Roya; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Jones, Lyndon; Willcox, Mark D P
The aim of the study is to determine the adhesion of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria onto conventional hydrogel (CH) and silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lens materials with and without lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin coating. Four lens types (three SH-balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, and senofilcon A; one CH-etafilcon A) were coated with lysozyme, lactoferrin, or albumin (uncoated lenses acted as controls) and then incubated in Staphylococcus aureus (Saur 31) or either of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Paer 6294 and 6206) for 24 h at 37 °C. The total counts of the adhered bacteria were determined using the H-thymidine method and viable counts by counting the number of colony-forming units on agar media. All three strains adhered significantly lower to uncoated etafilcon A lenses compared with uncoated SH lenses (p 0.05). Lactoferrin coating on lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p lenses showed significantly higher total counts (p lenses. Albumin coating of lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of all three strains (p lenses does not possess antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strains, whereas lactoferrin possess an antibacterial effect against strains of P. aeruginosa.
Manoj Roy. V.
Full Text Available The establishment of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in 1985 has been a milestone in the growth of higher education in India. A very special feature of the University is that a composite of several instructional methods in practice are aimed at giving effective support to distance learners. Self-instructional print materials are the mainstay of the courseware. Besides this, at the support centres, the learners attend a few face-to-face counselling sessions and get access to audio-video materials stocked in the library. Gyandarshan and Gyanvani, the educational television and radio channels broadcast programmes with academic content. The curriculum-based audio-video programmes developed by the University are supplementary in nature. This blending of traditional printed self-learning materials with electronic courseware is a conscious decision of the University which is intended to enhance the quality and effectiveness of learning. Over the years, audio and video cassettes have made way for digital compact discs. Resultant development in information and communication technology heralded virtual campus initiatives of IGNOU, conspicuous among them being the creation of eGyanKosh, the digital repository of the learning materials of IGNOU. Nevertheless, majority of the academic programmes are not being provided audio video supports. The paper analyses the application of electronic media in IGNOU’s course delivery platform.
McGrath, Melissa; Hendrix, A.
A large set of ultraviolet images of Ganymede have been acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope over the last 15 years. These images have been used almost exclusively to study Ganymede’s stunning auroral emissions (Feldman et al. 2000; Eviatar et al. 2001; McGrath et al. 2004; Saur et al. 2011; McGrath et al. 2013), and even the most basic information about Ganymede’s UV albedo has yet to be gleaned from these data. We will present a first-cut analysis of both disk-averaged and spatially-resolved UV albedos of Ganymede, with focus on the spatially-resolved Lyman-alpha albedo, which has never been considered previously for this satellite. Ganymede's visibly bright regions are known to be rich in water ice, while the visibly dark regions seem to be more carbonaceous (Carlson et al., 1996). At Lyman-alpha, these two species should also have very different albedo values. References Carlson, R. and 39 co-authors, Near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites: Results from Galileo’s initial orbit, Science, 274, 385-388, 1996. Eviatar, A., D. F. Strobel, B. C. Wolven, P. D. Feldman, M. A. McGrath, and D. J. Williams, Excitation of the Ganymede ultraviolet aurora, Astrophys. J, 555, 1013-1019, 2001. Feldman, P. D., M. A. McGrath, D. F. Strobel, H. W. Moos, K. D. Retherford, and B. C. Wolven, HST/STIS imaging of ultraviolet aurora on Ganymede, Astrophys. J, 535, 1085-1090, 2000. McGrath M. A., Lellouch E., Strobel D. F., Feldman P. D., Johnson R. E., Satellite Atmospheres, Chapter 19 in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. F. Bagenal, T. Dowling, W. McKinnon, Cambridge University Press, 2004. McGrath M. A., Jia, Xianzhe; Retherford, Kurt; Feldman, Paul D.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Saur, Joachim, Aurora on Ganymede, J. Geophys. Res., doi: 10.1002/jgra.50122, 2013. Saur, J., S. Duling, S., L. Roth, P. D. Feldman, D. F. Strobel, K. D. Retherford, M. A. McGrath, A. Wennmacher, American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting
Our preliminary data suggests that recovery of naming is dynamic and may have different time courses in different individuals. Further, brain reorganization during language recovery may not proceed in three phases as proposed by Saur and colleagues. This finding is in line with the recent work from our lab, which examined recovery of language within the first two months after a stroke (Jarso et al., 2014. To further understand the processes involved in naming recovery, we are analyzing DTI and resting state fMRI data. It is hoped that the results from the multimodality imaging data will serve as the basis for targeted brain-based interventions for aphasia, which require an understanding of the anatomy of language networks, as well as the extent and timing of how these networks reorganize after injury.
Prieto, G.; Tuckart, W. R.
The objective of the present work is to characterize the wear behavior of a cryogenically treated low-carbon AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, by means of ball-on-disk tribological tests. Wear tests were performed under a range of applied normal loads and in two different environments, namely a petrolatum bath and an argon atmosphere. Wear tracks were analyzed by both optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to evaluate wear volume, track geometry, surface features and the tribolayers generated after testing. This paper is an extension of the work originally reported in the VIII Iberian Conference of Tribology (Prieto and Tuckart, in: Ballest Jiménez, Rodríguez Espinosa, Serrano Saurín, Pardilla Arias, Olivares Bermúdez (eds) VIII Iberian conference of tribology, Cartagena, 2015). In this study, it has been experimentally demonstrated that cryogenically treated specimens showed a wear resistance improvement ranging from 35 to 90% compared to conventionally treated ones.
Full Text Available One of the women issues that has been struggled for by women is equivalence in every sector includes the equivalence in religion sector: prayer. In this case,somewomen—one of them is Amina Wadud—started to introduce and even demonstrated her opinion that women can be theimam of prayers at the open place with various jama’ah from men to women, and it is sah. Although this opinion was not new, because far before that, al-Muzani, Abu Saur and In Jarir at-Tabari had made a fatwato permit that. But the fuqaha tended to forbid and oppose it. This article tried to describe that khilafiyah, complete with the ulama and the arguments as the bases.
Jorge O. Calvo
Full Text Available A unique site at the northern area of Patagonia (Neuquén, Argentina reveals a terrestrial ecosystem preserved in a detail never reported before in a Late Cretaceous deposit. An extraordinary diversity and abundance of fossils was found concentrated in a 0.5 m horizon in the same quarry, including a new titanosaur sauropod, Futalognkosaurus dukei n.gen., n.sp, which is the most complete giant dinosaur known so far. Several plant leaves, showing a predominance of angiosperms over gymnosperms that likely constituted the diet of F. dukei were found too. Other dinosaurs (sauropods, theropods, ornithopods, crocodylomorphs, pterosaurs, and fishes were also discovered, allowing a partial reconstruction of this Gondwanan continental ecosystem.Um depósito fóssil na região norte da Patagônia (Neuquén, Argentina revela um ecossistema nunca antes registrado a este nível de detalhes em depósitos do Cretáceo Superior. Uma diversidade e abundância extraordinária de fósseis encontra-se concentrada em uma camada de 0,5 m no mesmo sítio, incluindo um novo saurópodo titanossaurídeo, Futalognkosaurus dukei n. gen, n. sp., que é o mais completo dinossauro gigante encontrado até a presente data. Foram descobertas váriasfolhas de plantas indicando a predominância de angiospermas sobre gimnospermas que possivelmente formavam a base da dieta de F. dukei. Outros dinossauros (saurópodes, terópodes, ornitópodes, crocodilomorfos, pterossauros e peixes foram também encontrados possibilitando a reconstrução parcialdeste ecossistema continental do Gondwana.
Sanz Pérez, E.
Full Text Available Within the ichnological study of the surroundings of San Pedro Manrique (Soria, Spain, the new site at Valdelavilla, located in unit IV-b of the Huérteles Formation, has yielded dinosaur and pterosaur tracks. The main feature of this site is that it contains a great variety of dinosaur tracks, as regards their type (theropods, omithopods, sauropods their size (from 70 cm to 6 cm, and the way these tracemakers walked (digitigrade, plantigrade. Like many other place at Oncala Group, theropod tracks are abundant, and at a lesser degree, sauropod tracks are also present There is no conclusive evidence of omithopods tracks.Dentro del estudio icnológico que se realiza en los alrededores de San Pedro Manrique (Soria, España el nuevo yacimiento de Valdelavilla, enclavado en la unidad IV-b de la Aloformación Huérteles, ha proporcionado, hasta el momento, huellas de dinosaurios y de pterosaurios. La principal característica del mismo estriba en contener una gran variedad de icnitas de dinosaurios, tanto por su tipo (terópodos, omitópodos, saurópodos, como por su tamaño (desde 70 cm hasta 8 cm y forma de caminar (digitígrados, plantígrados. Como en muchos otros lugares del Grupo Oncala, abundan las huellas de terópodos y en menor proporción las de saurópodos, no presentándose claramente las de omitópodos.
Sanz, J. L.
aspectos de la historia evolutiva del grupo y, dada la posición de la Península Ibérica, para la interpretación de la distribución de muchos de sus componentes. El registro ibérico cuenta con representantes de casi todos los grandes grupos de dinosaurios: ornitópodos, tireóforos, terópodos y saurópodos, que están bien representados, sobre todo en el tránsito Jurásico-Cretácico (Kimmeridgiense-Berriasiewe, en parte del Cretácico Inferior (Barremiense-Aptiense y en el final del Cretácico Superior (Campaniense-Maastrichtiense. El conjunto de ornitisquios está compuesto por tireóforos, de los que se han identificado dos estegosaurios (Dacentrurus y Stegosaurus y tres anquilosaurios (Dracopelta, Polacanthus y Struthiosaurus y ornitópodos: hipsilofodóntidos, iguanodontia basales (Rhabdodon; driosáuridos, camptosáuridos (Draconyx y Camptosaurus, iguanodontoideos (Iguanodon y hadrosáuridos(Pararhabdodon. Además existe un gran número de formas de asignación dudosa o aún por describir. El registro de saurópodos está fundamentalmente compuesto por formas cercanas al nodo Neosauropoda (Lourinhasaurus, Dinheirosaurus, Galveosaurus y Losillasaurus y titanosauriformes (Aragosaurus, Lusotitan y Lirainosaurus, además de una serie de formas nuevas en fase de descripción, como los saurópodos de Riodeva (Teruel, Peñarroya de Tastavins (Teruel y Morella (Castellón. El conjunto de géneros de terópodos ibéricos está constituido por el ceratosaurio Ceratosaurus, el espinosauroide Torvosaurus, los carnosaurios Lourinhanosaurus y Allosaurus, el tiranosauroide Aviatyrannis, el ornitomimosaurio Pelecanimimus, y los terópodos avianos Iberomesornis, Concornis, Eoalulavis y Noguerornis. Sin embargo, la diversidad de terópodos es mucho mayor, como muestra la abundante colección de morfotipos dentarios identificados.
Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Zhang, Di; Jielili, Reyaniguli; Xiang, Peng; Li, Hao; Wu, Chu; You, Jun; Liu, Jie; Ke, Qiang
Adakitic intrusions are supposed to have a close genetic and spatial relationship to porphyry Cu deposits. However, the genesis of adakitic intrusions is still under dispute. Here, we describe newly discovered intrusive complex rocks, which are composed of ore-bearing, layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic and adakitic rocks in Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China. These Jiamate Complex intrusions have diagnostic petrologic, geochronologic and geochemical signatures that indicate they were all generated from the same oxidized precursor magma source. Additionally, these layered rocks underwent the same fractional crystallization process as the ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the adjacent Kalaxiangar Porphyry Cu Belt (KPCB) in an oceanic island arc (OIA) setting. The rocks studied for this paper include layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic intrusive rocks that contain: (1) gradual contact changes between lithological units of mafic and intermediate rocks, (2) geochemical signatures that are the same as those found in oceanic island arc (OIA) rocks, (3) typical adakitic geochemistry, and (4) similar characteristics and apparent fractional crystallization relationships of ultra-basic to basic rocks to those in the nearby Beitashan Formation and to ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the KPCB. They also display similar zircon U-Pb and zircon Hf model ages.The Jiamate Complex intrusions contain intergrowths of magnetite and layered gabbro, and the intermediate-acidic intrusions of the Complex display typical adakitic affinities. Moreover, in conjunction with previously published geochronological and geochemistry data of the mafic rocks in the Beitashan Formation and in the KPCB area, additional data generated for the Jiamate Complex intrusions rocks indicate that they were formed from fractional crystallization processes. The Jiamate Complex intrusions most likely were derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge that was underplated at the root of the Saur oceanic island arc (Saur OIA). The
Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen G.; Zhang, Di; Jielili, Reyaniguli; Xiang, Peng; Li, Hao; Wu, Chu; You, Jun; Liu, Jie; Ke, Qiang
Adakitic intrusions are supposed to have a close genetic and spatial relationship to porphyry Cu deposits. However, the genesis of adakitic intrusions is still under dispute. Here, we describe newly discovered intrusive complex rocks, which are composed of ore-bearing, layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic and adakitic rocks in Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China. These Jiamate Complex intrusions have diagnostic petrologic, geochronologic and geochemical signatures that indicate they were all generated from the same oxidized precursor magma source. Additionally, these layered rocks underwent the same fractional crystallization process as the ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the adjacent Kalaxiangar Porphyry Cu Belt (KPCB) in an oceanic island arc (OIA) setting. The rocks studied for this paper include layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic intrusive rocks that contain: (1) gradual contact changes between lithological units of mafic and intermediate rocks, (2) geochemical signatures that are the same as those found in oceanic island arc (OIA) rocks, (3) typical adakitic geochemistry, and (4) similar characteristics and apparent fractional crystallization relationships of ultra-basic to basic rocks to those in the nearby Beitashan Formation and to ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the KPCB. They also display similar zircon U-Pb and zircon Hf model ages. The Jiamate Complex intrusions contain intergrowths of magnetite and layered gabbro, and the intermediate-acidic intrusions of the Complex display typical adakitic affinities. Moreover, in conjunction with previously published geochronological and geochemistry data of the mafic rocks in the Beitashan Formation and in the KPCB area, additional data generated for the Jiamate Complex intrusions rocks indicate that they were formed from fractional crystallization processes. The Jiamate Complex intrusions most likely were derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge that was underplated at the root of the Saur oceanic island arc (Saur OIA
Nadiya V. Babkova
Full Text Available Here are considered the historical roots of formation and genesis of bunchuks as a part of the whole kleinod complex of Kosh Otamans and Hetmans of the Ukrainian Cossacks. Turkic lexeme «bunchuk» over time has transformed into modern term that is common in Ukrainian culture. Traditionally, the first recorded case of bunchuks’ use by military is associated with the name of the Arab Caliph Abu Bakr and his military battles on the territory of Syria in the 7th century. During the active cross-cultural contacts in the early 13th century, firstly bunchuks became known among the Mongols and later among the Turks. Early Ottomans used them not only as a military sign, but also as a ranking marker of the court official, status present, which raised the social status of a person. From Turks bunchuks were taken by the representatives of the Commonwealth of Poland and at the beginning gave them a meaning of the important symbol of Quarter Army Hetman military power and later, from the middle of the XVII century, of the Polish king. Historical tradition linked the use of bunchuks by Ukrainian Cossacks with the military reforms of Polish monarch Stefan Batory. But modern scientists, studying military history of the Cossacks in the first quarter of the XVII century and using the materials of Polish archives denied this statement and stressed the attention of the Turkish-Tatar vector. For Zaporozhian Cossacks bunchuks were among the attributes of legitimacy or legality of certain actions. In the external design dominated red and black color schemes. National Symbols of early modern Ukrainian state in the middle of the 17th – 18th c., which basis was formed of the attributes of power Zaporozhian Cossacks, recorded bunchuks as personal banners of Hetmans. In order to make the distinction from Zaporozhian Cossacks, Hetmans started using white bunchuks. Historical records kept information about these signs is in the arsenal of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Petro
Morris, David L; Cho, Kae Won; Rui, Liangyou
SH2B1 is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of energy and glucose metabolism in both rodents and humans. Genetic deletion of SH2B1 in mice results in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the SH2B1 loci and chromosomal deletions of the SH2B1 loci associate with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. In cultured cells, SH2B1 promotes leptin and insulin signaling by binding via its SH2 domain to phosphorylated tyrosines in Janus kinase 2 and the insulin receptor, respectively. Here we generated three lines of mice to analyze the role of the SH2 domain of SH2B1 in the central nervous system. Transgenic mice expressing wild-type, SH2 domain-defective (R555E), or SH2 domain-alone (DeltaN503) forms of SH2B1 specifically in neurons were crossed with SH2B1 knockout mice to generate KO/SH2B1, KO/R555E, or KO/DeltaN503 compound mutant mice. R555E had a replacement of Arg(555) with Glu within the SH2 domain. DeltaN503 contained an intact SH2 domain but lacked amino acids 1-503. Neuron-specific expression of recombinant SH2B1, but not R555E or DeltaN503, corrected hyperphagia, obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in SH2B1 null mice. Neuron-specific expression of R555E in wild-type mice promoted obesity and insulin resistance. These results indicate that in addition to the SH2 domain, N-terminal regions of neuronal SH2B1 are also required for the maintenance of normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Additionally, mutations in the SH2 domain of SH2B1 may increase the susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes in a dominant-negative manner.
Full Text Available Auxin plays a crucial role in the diverse cellular and developmental responses of plants across their lifespan. Plants can quickly sense and respond to changes in auxin levels, and these responses involve several major classes of auxin-responsive genes, including the Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA family, the auxin response factor (ARF family, small auxin upregulated RNA (SAUR, and the auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3 family. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins comprising several highly conserved domains that are encoded by the auxin early response gene family. These proteins have specific domains that interact with ARFs and inhibit the transcription of genes activated by ARFs. Molecular studies have revealed that Aux/IAA family members can form diverse dimers with ARFs to regulate genes in various ways. Functional analyses of Aux/IAA family members have indicated that they have various roles in plant development, such as root development, shoot growth, and fruit ripening. In this review, recently discovered details regarding the molecular characteristics, regulation, and protein–protein interactions of the Aux/IAA proteins are discussed. These details provide new insights into the molecular basis of the Aux/IAA protein functions in plant developmental processes.
Inglezakis, V J; Malamis, S; Omirkhan, A; Nauruzbayeva, J; Makhtayeva, Z; Seidakhmetov, T; Kudarova, A
In this work, the inhibitory effect of cyanide, phenol and 4-nitrophenol on the activated sludge process was investigated. The inhibition of the aerobic oxidation of organic matter, nitrification and denitrification were examined in batch reactors by measuring the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR), the specific ammonium uptake rate (sAUR) and the specific nitrogen uptake rate (sNUR) respectively. The tested cyanide, phenol and 4-nitrophenol concentrations were 0.2-1.7 mg/L, 4.8-73.1 mg/L and 8.2-73.0 mg/L respectively. Cyanide was highly toxic as it significantly (>50%) inhibited the activity of autotrophic biomass, heterotrophic biomass under aerobic conditions and denitrifiers even at relatively low concentrations (1.0-1.7 mgCN - /L). The determination of the half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) confirmed this, since for cyanide IC 50 values were very low for the examined bioprocesses (25 mg/L) for the tested bioprocesses since appreciable concentrations were required to accomplish significant inhibition. The autotrophic bacteria were more sensitive to phenol than the aerobic heterotrophs. The denitrifiers were found to be very resistant to phenol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Based on the results Antimicrobial Resistance in Indonesia: prevalence and prevention-study (AMRIN-study, the Ministry of Health of Indonesia in 2005 began a program antibiotic resistance control (PPRA in some government hospitals, and is currently developing to all government teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Aim: The core activities of the PPRA are to implement standardized surveillance emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the surveillance of antibiotic use in terms of quantity and quality. Method: Our research in the years 2003 showed the proportion of antibiotic use 84% of patients in a hospital. The use of inappropriate antibiotics was very high, 42% no indication. Result: In 2012 the results ofsurveillance showed decline ofinappropriate use of antibiotic, but prevalence extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL-producing K.pneumoniae (58%, and E.coli (52% and methicillin-resistant S.aures (MRSA (24% were increasing. Conclusion: It was needed to implement the most appropriate programs to prevent the growth and development ofbacteria resistant to antibiotics.
Distribution of heavy metals in a wood culture water catchment area under the influence of acid deposition as shown by the example of the Soese trough (Western Harz region); Verteilung von Schwermetallen in einem forstlich genutzten Wassereinzugsgebiet unter dem Einfluss saurer Deposition am Beispiel der Soesemulde (Westharz)
Andreae, H. [ed.
This thesis deals with the distribution and turnover of heavy metals in partial terrestrial ecosystems of the water catchment area of the Soese storage dam in the Western Harz region, a forested area affected by acid deposition. The metals investigated are cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. The work distinguishes three spatial areas: Regional heavy metal pollution is characterized via the establishment of nine deposition measuring sites (recent pollutant stress) in the field or under spruce stands and via cadastre-oriented surveying of element contents and accumulations in humus ground covers and mineral soils (historical pollutant stress). In-soil heavy metal turnovers are documented in five representative sites via investigation of the soil solution (years of measurement 1989-1991). In three sites, heavy metal turnovers are quantified via flow balances for the terrestrial ecosystem and the soil zone free of roots. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Verteilung und dem Umsatz von Schwermetallen in terrestrischen Teiloekosystemen des bewaldeten, durch saure Deposition beeinflussten Wassereinzugsgebiets der Soese-Talsperre im Westharz. Untersucht werden die Metalle Cadmium, Chrom, Kobalt, Kupfer, Nickel, Blei und Zink. In der Arbeit werden drei raeumliche Ebenen unterschieden: Die regionale Belastung wird ueber die Einrichtung von neun Depositionsmessstellen [rezente Belastung] im Freiland bzw. unter Fichtenbestaenden sowie ueber eine katasterorientierte Erfassung von Element-Gehalten und -Vorraeten in Humusauflagen und Mineralboeden [historische Belastung] charakterisiert. Die bodeninternen Umsaetze der Schwermetalle werden an fuenf repraesentativen Standorten anhand der Untersuchung der Bodenloesung dokumentiert (Messjahre 1989-1991). An drei Standorten werden die Schwermetall-Umsaetze ueber Flussbilanzen fuer das terrestrische Oekosystem und die undurchwurzelte Bodenzone quantifiziert. (orig.)
Rajesh, M K; Fayas, T P; Naganeeswaran, S; Rachana, K E; Bhavyashree, U; Sajini, K K; Karun, Anitha
Production and supply of quality planting material is significant to coconut cultivation but is one of the major constraints in coconut productivity. Rapid multiplication of coconut through in vitro techniques, therefore, is of paramount importance. Although somatic embryogenesis in coconut is a promising technique that will allow for the mass production of high quality palms, coconut is highly recalcitrant to in vitro culture. In order to overcome the bottlenecks in coconut somatic embryogenesis and to develop a repeatable protocol, it is imperative to understand, identify, and characterize molecular events involved in coconut somatic embryogenesis pathway. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of coconut embryogenic calli, derived from plumular explants of West Coast Tall cultivar, was undertaken on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. After de novo transcriptome assembly and functional annotation, we have obtained 40,367 transcripts which showed significant BLASTx matches with similarity greater than 40 % and E value of ≤10(-5). Fourteen genes known to be involved in somatic embryogenesis were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of these 14 genes were carried in six developmental stages. The result showed that CLV was upregulated in the initial stage of callogenesis. Transcripts GLP, GST, PKL, WUS, and WRKY were expressed more in somatic embryo stage. The expression of SERK, MAPK, AP2, SAUR, ECP, AGP, LEA, and ANT were higher in the embryogenic callus stage compared to initial culture and somatic embryo stages. This study provides the first insights into the gene expression patterns during somatic embryogenesis in coconut.
Bertrand A. R. V.
Full Text Available Ces journées d'études étaient consacrées aux problèmes impliqués par l'exploration et l'exploitation des milieux extrêmes. On n'a pas cherché à approfondir la notion de milieu extrême mais à en étudier trois principaux : l'espace, les grands fonds marins, les enceintes soumises à de forts rayonnements nucléaires, à travers quatre thèmes de problèmes communs : la robotique, la sécurité, les matériaux et l'intervention humaine. Cette réunion a mis en évidence : - le dilemme constitué par la nécessité d'assurer d'une part la sécurité de la population par l'emploi de techniques fiables donc éprouvées et d'autre part le progrès scientifique dont les techniques nouvelles peuvent être fiables sans être encore éprouvées ; - l'emploi généralisé de la robotique (soudage sous-marin profond, engin submersible non habité à intelligence artificielle. . . ; - la création de matériaux nouveaux (composites à matrice métallique, fibres optique en verre chloré, lubrifiant opérant sous vide. . . - la mise au point de méthodes nouvelles pour l'analyse probabiliste des risques. This conference concentrated on the problems raised by the exploration and productive use of extreme environments. No effort was made to define the concept of an extreme environnent, but three specific ones were considered: space, great sea depths, enclosures subjected Io intense nuclear radiation. There were four topics covering problems encountered in such environments: robotics, safety, materials and human intervention. This meeting brought out the following points: - The dilemma brought on by the need to ensure part of the safety of the population by using reliable, hence proven, techniques at the saure time as scientific progress in which new techniques may be reliable without yet being proven. - The generalized use of robotics (deep subsea welding, unmanned submersible with artificial intelligence, etc. . - The creation of new materials
Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have
Le souffre thiophénique dans les pétroles et les extraits de roche. Analyse par spectrométrie de masse et chromatographie en phase gazeuse Mass-Spectrometry and Gas-Chromatography Analysis of Thiophene Sulfur in Oil and Rock Extracts
Full Text Available On étudie par spectrométrie de masse à haute résolution la répartition du soufre thiophénique par coupe de distillation et par nombre de carbone dans la fraction > C10 d'un pétrole brut. Parallèlement on chromatographie à l'aide d'un détecteur sélectif à photométrie de flamme les diverses fractions thiophéniques. L'examen des chromatogrammes permet de déterminer les zones dé réponse et l'allure générale des différentes coupes thiophéniques. Les applications sont variées : on vérifie le bien-fondé de l'utilisation d'un spectromètre de masse à basse résolution pour les analyses en routine d'huiles brutes et on peut, par la connaissance des différents profils de type thiophénique prévoir des analogies ou des différences au sein d'huiles brutes et d'extraits de roche d'un même bassin pétrolier, ce qui limite le nombre d'échantillons à analyser en détail. High-resolution mass spectrometry is used to analyze the distribution of thiophenic sulfur per distillation cut and per carbon number in the > C10 fraction of a crude oil. At the same time, a selective flame-photometry sensor is used to chromatograph the different thiophenic fractions. An analysis of the chromatograms serves to determine the response zones and the general aspect of the different thiophenic cuts. There are various applications of this process. The validity of using a low-resolution mass spectrometer is checked for routine crude-cil analyses. By determining the different profiles of the thiophenic type, similarities or differences can be predicted in the crude cils and rock extracts from the saure cil basin. This limits the number of samples having to be analyzed in detail.
Zhang, Chen; Santosh, M.; Liu, Luofu; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Dongdong
The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) evolved through a long-lived orogeny involving multiple episodes of subduction and accretion marking a major phase of continental growth during the Paleozoic. The northern part of the Western Junggar region (NW Junggar) offers a window into these processes, particularly to constrain the timing of closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Here we report geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic data from K-feldspar granites and adakitic rocks from the NW Junggar region. Zircon U-Pb ages suggest that the granites were emplaced during Early Silurian to the Early Carboniferous (434-328 Ma). The granites show geochemical characteristics similar to those of A-type granites, with high SiO2 (71.13-76.72 wt%), Na2O + K2O (8.00-9.59 wt%), and Al2O3 (12.28-14.08 wt%), but depleted Sr, Nb, Ta and Eu. They display moderate to high positive εNd(t) and εHf(t) values (4.26-8.21 and 7.69-14.60, respectively) and young Nd and Hf model ages (T2DM-Nd = 489-740 Ma and T2DM-Hf = 471-845 Ma), suggesting magma derivation through partial melting of lower crust in the Boshchekul-Chingiz and Zharma-Saur arcs. The adakites are characterized by high Sr content (406.5-751.6 ppm), and low Y (13.8-16.4 ppm) and Yb (1.5-1.8 ppm) content, yielding relatively high Sr/Y ratios (25.38-49.41) similar to those of modern adakites. They have high positive εNd(t) and εHf(t) values (7.85-8.25 and 13.23-15.97, respectively) and young Nd and Hf model ages (T2DM-Nd = 429-535 Ma and T2DM-Hf = 355-550 Ma), indicating that their source magmas were likely derived from partial melting of the oceanic crust beneath the Boshchekul-Chingiz arc. The petrogenesis and distribution of the A-type granites and adakites, as well as the tectonic architecture of the region, suggest that a ridge subduction event might have occurred during the Early Silurian to Early Carboniferous. In combination with previous studies in the Chinese Altai, we suggest a two-sided ridge subduction model for the
Druege, Uwe; Franken, Philipp; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R
Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene, and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism, and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs, and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF-, and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, and signaling via ERFs and early accumulation of
Full Text Available Adventitious root (AR formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context. Integrating new findings on cuttings of other plant species and general models on plant hormone networks, a model on the regulation and function of auxin, ethylene and jasmonate in AR formation of cuttings is presented. PAT and cutting off from the basipetal auxin drain are considered as initial principles generating early accumulation of IAA in the rooting zone. This is expected to trigger a self-regulatory process of auxin canalization and maximization to responding target cells, there inducing the program of AR formation. Regulation of auxin homeostasis via auxin influx and efflux carriers, GH3 proteins and peroxidases, of flavonoid metabolism and of auxin signaling via AUX/IAA proteins, TOPLESS, ARFs and SAUR-like proteins are postulated as key processes determining the different phases of AR formation. NO and H2O2 mediate auxin signaling via the cGMP and MAPK cascades. Transcription factors of the GRAS-, AP2/ERF- and WOX-families link auxin signaling to cell fate specification. Cyclin-mediated governing of the cell cycle, modifications of sugar metabolism and microtubule and cell wall remodeling are considered as important implementation processes of auxin function. Induced by the initial wounding and other abiotic stress factors, up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling via ERFs and early
David W Gow
Full Text Available The relationship between BOLD activation and processing in recovering aphasics is complex. Patterns of shifting upregulation of perilesional and contralesional task-related BOLD response have been widely observed in patients during subacute and chronic phases of recovery (c.f. Saur et al., 2006. However, a number of studies have found a relatively weak relationship between these changes and performance in language tasks (e.g. Heiss et al., 1999; Cornelissen et al., 2003. In this work, we explore the evolving relationship between activation and effective connectivity in a patient with aphasia. The patient, a 53 year old left handed woman, presented with frequent phonemic paraphasias and word-finding difficulty following a patchy right-hemispheric ischemic stroke affecting the temporo-parietal region, basal ganglia, and portions of occipital cortex. These results suggest she showed right hemisphere linguistic dominance premorbidly. Screening using the PAL (Caplan& Bub, 1990 revealed deficits in phoneme discrimination and auditory word-picture matching with preserved auditory lexical decision. She was tested twice on a go/no-go auditory word picture matching task one month post-onset, and again six months later while simultaneous MEG and EEG data were acquired. She achieved 59% accuracy at the initial testing, and 85% accuracy on retest. Source space reconstructions of activity between 100-400 msec after the onset of the spoken word (before the visual probe stimulus showed strong perilesional activation with moderate activation of left hemisphere language areas. When tested 6 months later perilesional activation was significantly reduced, but left hemisphere activation was stronger. Kalman-filter enabled Granger analyses (Gow & Caplan, 2012 of the same MR-constrained MEG/EEG data showed little evidence of interaction or either intra- or interhemispheric interactions between activated regions at one month post onset. At seven months, the network
Buscalioni, A. D.
Full Text Available The study of a great part of the material found during the excavation work carried out by a team of the Â«Institut de Paleontología de SabadellÂ» and other paleontologists of the universities of Madrid and Bellaterra, in the basin of Tremp (Maastrichtiense in 1984 and 1985 has made possible the recognition of: 1.Âº A large sized Crocodilian, attributable to an adult animal of the Alligatoridae family, comparable to Crocodilus affluvelensis. 2.Â° Dinosaur remains atributed to three difIerent families: Atlantosauridae (represented by a large sized Sauropod, probably Hypselosaurus; Iguanodontidae (afI. Rhabdodon, medium sized Omithopod; and Hadrosauridae (Ortbomerus, small sized. 3.Â° Dinosaur's footprints, not very well preserved, medium and large sized, attributable to biped Omithopod. The fauna remains were always found unconnected, scattered all over large areas and with no signs of depredation. The sort of materials found reveal a certain transport which caused a selective action over the remains. Later, the efIects of the orogenic processes suffered by this area in the Tertiary period would combine with this transport.El estudio de gran parte del material hallado en los trabajos de excavación realizados por un equipo del Â«Institut de Paleontología de SabadellÂ» y otros paleontólogos de las Universidades de Madrid y Bellaterra, en la cuenca de Tremp (Maastrichtiense, durante los años 1984 y 1985, ha permitido reconocer: 1.Âº Un crocodílido de gran talla, atribuible a un animal adulto de la familia Alligatoridae, comparable a Crocodilus affluvelensis. 2.Â° Restos de dinosaurios que se han atribuido a tres familias: Atlantosauridae (representada por un saurópodo de gran talla, probablemente Hypselosaurus; Iguanodontidae (afI. Rhabdodon, ornitópodo de talla media, y Hadrosauridae (Ortbomerus, de talla pequeña. 3.Â° Icnitas de dinosaurios, bastante mal conservadas, de tamaño medio y grande, atribuibles a omit
Santafé, J. V.
/maximal transversal distal femoral width of 0.77. The Aragosaurus taxonomic status is proposed within the family Camarasauridae (sensu Steel, 1970. The Ornithopoda described in this paper mainly belong to the family Hypsilophodontidae, except an isolated tooth identified as Ornithopoda indet. A proximal fragment of a left femur is identified as cf. Valdosaurus sp. Hypsilopbodon foxii has been identified based on a left femur and an ilium.El objetivo principal del presente trabajo ha sido completar el estudio de la fauna de dinosaurios del sinclinal de Galve, de edad mayoritariamente barremiense inferior, aunque el yacimiento de Las Zabacheras puede tener una edad Hauteriviense y el Pelejón Hauteriviense-Barremiense inferior. Los Terópodos están pobremente representados, describiéndose tres centros vertebrales que son identificados como Theropoda indet. Cuatro formas diferentes de Saurópodos han sido identificadas en los diferentes yacimientos de Galve. Tres de ellas (cf. Astrodon sp.; Camarasauridae indet., forma A; Camarasauridae indet., forma B tan sólo mediante piezas dentarias aisladas. El Saurópodo de Las Zabacheras (Lapparent, 1960; Sanz, 1982 ha sido propuesto como un nuevo taxon, Aragosaurus ischiaticus n. gen. et n. sp. Dicho material consta de diversos restos apendiculares y pélvicos estudiados por Lapparent y depositados en el Museo de la Diputación de Teruel y nuevos elementos consistentes en diversas vértebras caudales, chevrones, escápula, isquion, fémur y restos autopodiales. Las apomorfias más relevantes que definen al nuevo taxon son su relación estilopodial (longitud húmero/fémur de 0,82, el gran desarrollo relativo dorso-ventral del contorno de contacto con el pubis del proceso pubiano del isquion y la aparición de neuroapáfisis Â«mazudasÂ» en las primeras vértebras caudales. El enclave taxonómico de Aragosaurus se propone dentro de la familia Camarasauridae (sensu Steel, 1970. Los Ornitópodos descritos en este trabajo pertenecen a la
The Altaids are an orogenic collage of Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic rocks located in the center of Eurasia. This collage consists of only three oroclinally bent Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic magmatic arcs (Kipchak, Tuva-Mongol, and Mugodzhar-Rudny Altai), separated by sutures of their former backarc basins, which were stitched by new generations of overlapping magmatic arcs. In addition, the Altaids host accreted fragments of the Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic oceanic island chains and Neoproterozoic to Cenozoic plume-related magmatic rocks superimposed on the accreted fragments. All these assemblages host important, many world-class, Late Proterozoic to Early Mesozoic gold, copper-molybdenum, lead-zinc, nickel and other deposits of various types. In the Late Proterozoic, during breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, the Kipchak and Tuva-Mongol magmatic arcs were rifted off Eastern Europe-Siberia and Laurentia to produce oceanic backarc basins. In the Late Ordovician, the Siberian craton began its clockwise rotation with respect to Eastern Europe and this coincides with the beginning of formation of the Mugodzhar-Rudny Altai arc behind the Kipchak arc. These earlier arcs produced mostly Cu-Pb-Zn VMS deposits, although some important intrusion-related orogenic Au deposits formed during arc-arc collision events in the Middle Cambrian and Late Ordovician. The clockwise rotation of Siberia continued through the Paleozoic until the Early Permian producing several episodes of oroclinal bending, strike-slip duplication and reorganization of the magmatic arcs to produce the overlapping Kazakh-Mongol and Zharma-Saur-Valerianov-Beltau-Kurama arcs that welded the extinct Kipchak and Tuva-Mongol arcs. This resulted in amalgamation of the western portion of the Altaid orogenic collage in the Late Paleozoic. Its eastern portion amalgamated only in the early Mesozoic and was overlapped by the Transbaikal magmatic arc, which developed in response to subduction of the oceanic crust
Fessenbecker, A.; Rossrucker, T.; Korff, J.
. Den letzteren kommt dabei die mengenmaessig groessere Bedeutung zu. Die grosse Vielfalt der Esterchemie und die dabei auftretenden Unterschiede in den Eigenschaften, wie z.B. Oxidationsstabilitaet, Hydrolysestabilitaet, Korrosionsschutz- und Verschleissschutzeigenschaften, machen eine differenzierte Betrachtung u.a. auch der Additivierung notwendig. Diese werden anhand von Standardschmierstofftests beleuchtet. Um die grosse Vielfalt der Ester auf ein ueberschaubares Mass zu reduzieren, wird eine Einteilung in drei Klassen vorgenommen: - Ungesaettigte, native Ester (Rapsoel, Sonnenblumenoel etc.) - ungesaettigte, synthetische Ester (TMP-Oleate etc.) - gesaettigte, synthetische Ester (Dicarbonsaeureester etc.). Testergebnisse von verschiedenen, z.T. gut biologisch abbaubren Additiven in typischen Vertretern der oben genannten Esterklassen werden einander gegenuebergestellt und das z.T. sehr unterschiedliche Ansprechverhalten in den jeweiligen Grundfluessigkeiten diskutiert. Es wird versucht, verschiedene Zusammenhaenge von Additivierung und technischen Eigenschaften, wie z.B. Beeinflussung der Hydrolysestabilitaet von Estern durch die Auswahl der Additive, zu beleuchten. Saure oder stark alkalische Additive wirken als Katalysatoren fuer die Zerstoerung der Ester und sollten gemieden werden. Moeglichkeiten zur Verbesserung der Hydrolyseeigenschaften werden anhand von Tests nach ASTM-D 2619 (`Coca-Cola-Test`) und ASTM-D 943 (`TOST-Test`) durch ein Hydrolyseschutzadditiv aufgezeigt. Das Oxidationsverhalten von Estern mit unterschiedlichem Saettigungsgrad macht eine Optimierung der Antioxidantien fuer ein gegebenes Grundoelsystem notwendig. Dies wird anhand von Versuchsergebnissen mit standardisierten Schmierstoffoxidationstests veranschaulicht. (orig.)
Full Text Available Zink (Zn ist eine essentielles Spurenelement. Es spielt eine wichtige Rolle in zahlreichen metabolischen Prozessen und wird auch für das normale Knochenwachstum benötigt. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Effekt von Zn auf a die Aktivität der alkalischen Phosphatase (ALP in Serum und Knochen, b das Serum-Osteocalcin, c die Tartrat-resistente saure Phosphatase (TRAP im Knochen, sowie d den Protein-Gehalt des Knochens darzustellen. Erwachsene weibliche Swiss-Webster-Mäuse erhielten entweder eine Zn-freie Diät, oder eine Diät, welche einen normalen, oder einen 2-, 3-, 4-, oder 5-fach höheren Zn-Gehalt als die Normal-Diät hatte. Die Diät wurde für 2, 4, oder 6 Wochen verabreicht. Es zeigte sich eine positive Korrelation zwischen der Menge des mit der Nahrung aufgenommenen Zn und der Serum-ALP (4 und 6 Wochen, p 0,001, der tibialen ALP (2, 4 und 6 Wochen, p 0,03, sowie dem tibialen Protein (2,4 und 6 Wochen p 0.001; weiters zeigte sich eine negative Korrelation zwischen Zn und tibialer TRAP (2, 4 und 6 Wochen, p 0,001. Kovarianzanalysen zeigten überdies, daß die Aktivität der Serum-ALP, der tibialen ALP und der tibialen TRAP, sowie die Menge des tibialen Proteins sowohl durch die Zn-Dosis (p 0,005, als auch die Dauer der Therapie (p 0,03 beeinflußbar sind. Zn zeigte auch einen signifikanten Einfluß auf den Serum-Osteocalcin-Spiegel (p 0,03 bei 3 x höher Zn-Menge als in der Normaldiät. In einer ergänzenden Studie zeigte sich auch, daß Zn zu einem dosisabhängigen Anstieg der ALP und des Proteins, und zu einem signifikanten Abfall der TRAP in murinen osteoblastenähnlichen MC3T3-E1 Zellen führt. Insgesamt kann aus den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Studie geschlossen werden, daß eine schrittweise Erhöhung des Zn-Gehaltes der Nahrung zu einem entsprechenden Anstieg der ALP-Aktivität von Serum und Knochen führt. Da in dieser Studie klar gezeigt werden konnte, daß Zn auch zu einem Abfall der TRAP-Aktivität in
sur les Techniques d Exploitation du Pétrole. The goal of this project is to make use of the destructive power of cavitation in deep drilling using the pumping capacities now available on drilling sites. This goal requires the development of a technique capable of causing erosive cavitation with sigma = 2. 5 (with sigma being defined as the ratio of the pressure downstream from the cavitating device to the pressure drop in the saure device. Since cavitation erosion depends to a great extent on pressure and temperature conditions, test methods had to be devised to simulate downhole drilling conditions for drilling at great depth. The test bench (70 MPa, 120°C is described in this paper, along with several tests concerning the destruction of rocks by jetting.
Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong
.5-8.5) and εHf(t) (10.2-16.8) values, as well as young isotopic model ages. These Devonian-Carboniferous intermediate-felsic volcanics are interpreted as the products of partial melting of a juvenile lower crust with some contributions from mantle components in an evolved island arc setting from immature to mature island arc. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of arc volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. In combination with previous work, we propose that the northern Junggar area comprises three arc-basin belts from south to north: the Darbut-Luliang-Karamaili, Wulungu-Yemaquan, and Saur-Fuhai-Dulate. Such tectonic subdivisions are consistent with the regional gravity and magnetic anomaly data. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the Junggar Basin is likely underlain by juvenile continental crust rather than ancient Precambrian basement, and also implies that the CAOB was built by amalgamation of multiple linear arcs and accretionary complexes.
Within the meeting of the Project Management Juelich (Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (Wuerzburg, Federal Republic of Germany) between 30th June and 2nd July, 2009, in Wuerzburg the following lectures were held: (1) Optically switchable layers with tungsten oxide (Andreas Georg); (2) Functional coatings for application on outer surfaces of glazings (Hansjoerg Weis); (3) Functional coatings and application (Thomas Hofmann); (4) Thermal insulation in the 21st century: Vacuum-insulation panel and vacuum-isolation glasses (Ulrich Heinemann, Helmut Weinlaeder, Hans-Peter Ebert); (5) Textile composites using thermal insulation composites as an example (Alexandra Saur, Jan Beringer, Andreas Holm, Klaus Sedlbauer); (6) Design of membranes for the enhancement of the energy efficiency in buildings (Jochen Manara et al.); (7) Design of membranes for the energetic sanitation of buildings (Werner Lang et al.); (8) Total energetic analysis of complex HLK systems for buildings (Wolfgang Richter); (9) Review on hybrid aeration systems (Dirk Mueller et al.); (10) IEA SHC-Task 38 (Operating Agent) - Energy efficient cooling and dehumidification (ECOS) (Hans-Martin Henning, Alexander Morgenstern, Constanze Bongs); (11) Air quality controlled aeration of building (Jens Knissel, Marc Grossklos); (12) Development of a solar driven refrigerating absorber / heat pump with a ice storage (Thomas Brendel, Marco Zetzsche, Hans Mueller-Steinhagen); (13) Heat pumps field test 'WP efficiency' - interim results (Marek Miara); (14) ECBCS Annex 49 Low Exergy Systems for High-Performance Buildings and Communities (Dietrich Schmidt, Marlen Schurig); (15) Aquifer storage for the heat supply and cold supply of buildings (Sefan Kranz et al.); (16) Evaluation and optimization of operation of systems for the seasonal heat storage and cold storage in the foundations of office buildings (Herdis Kipry, Franziska Bockelmann, M. Norbert Fisch
Helder de Paula
Full Text Available Freqüentemente, fósseis de vertebrados são encontrados como partes de esqueletos erodidos superficialmente. Em vários casos, os ossos estão demasiadamente danificados para suportar os estresses decorrentes das etapas de coleta e transporte. Não é incomum o fato de fósseis nesta situação serem deixados no campo ou mesmo serem perdidos devido a sua fragilidade. Aqui, descrevemos um simples procedimento que pode ser utilizado no campo para recobrir fósseis danificados. Aplicamos este procedimento com grande sucesso no fêmur de um dinossauro saurópoda coletado no sítio Confusão (município de Tesouro, uma localidade recentemente descoberta no estado do Mato Grosso. O material é preservado numa matriz conglometrática correlacionável com o Grupo Bauru. O fêmur (MN 6813-V possui aproximadamente 110 cm de largura e tinha a metade distal parcialmente exposta devido as periódicas enchentes do rio Confusão. Ele possui uma Saliên cia lateral bem desenvolvida a qual é considerada como uma característica titanossauriforme. A porção distal, incluindo a articulação, estava preservada principalmente como uma impressão na rocha, juntamente com alguns fragmentos da parte mais cortical do osso. Esta porção do fêmur estava demasiadamente friável para ser coletada como uma peça única. Após uma limpeza geral da superficie, recobrimos as porções mais frágeis da parte distal do fêmur (incluindo as impressões com diversas camadas finas de resina de poliéster que foram gentilmente aplicadas com um pincel. Usamos 0,75% de metil etil cetona (MEK como catalisador para a resina de poliéster e esperamos até que cada camada de resina secasse lentamente. Na seqüência, uma camada mais espessa de resina com gaze foi utilizada para fazer esta região mais resistente e forte o bastante para se manter por si só. As demais partes do processo de coleta seguiram os procedimentos tradicionais incluindo o uso de uma jaqueta de gesso. Entre os
Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao
The Char ophiolite belt is located in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a world largest accretionary orogen, which has evolved during more than 800 Ma. The Char belt formed during Kazakhstan - Siberia collision. It has been known for hosting fragments of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous oceanic crust, MORB, OPB and OIB, of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Safonova et al., 2012). The Char is surrounded by two Paleozoic island-arc terranes: Zharma-Saur in the west and Rudny Altai in the east, however, until recent times, no island-arc units have been found within it. We were the first to find island-arc units as tectonic sheets occurring adjacent to those consisting of oceanic rocks. In places, island-arc andesites cut oceanic basalts. The Char volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of a probable suprasubduction origin are basalt, microgabbro, dolerite, andesite, tonalite and dacite. The mafic to andesitic volcanics possessing low TiO2 (0.85 wt.%av.) and show MgO vs. major elements crystallization trends suggesting two magma series: tholeiitic and calc-alkaline. The tholeiitic varieties are less enriched in incompatible elements then the calc-alkaline ones. Two samples are high-Mg and low-Ti andesibasalts similar to boninites. The rocks possess moderately LREE enriched rare-earth element patterns and are characterized by negative Nb anomalies present on the multi-element spectra (Nb/Lapm = 0.14-0.47; Nb/Thpm = 0.7-1.6).The distribution of rare-earth elements (La/Smn = 0.8-2.3, Gd/Ybn = 0.7-1.9) and the results of geochemical modeling in the Nb-Yb system suggest high degrees of melting of a depleted harzburgite-bearing mantle source at spinel facies depths. Fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, plagioclase and opaque minerals also affected the final composition of the volcanic rocks. Clinopyroxene monomineral thermometry indicates crystallization of melts at 1020-1180°C. Melt inclusion composition based numerical calculations show that primary melts were derived at 1350
Orlando N. Grillo
Full Text Available Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.Dados lacunares são um problema comum na paleontologia. Eles dificultam a reconstrução acurada de táxons extintos e limitam a inclusão de alguns táxons em estudos comparativose biomecânicos. Particularmente, estimar a posição de vértebras em séries incompletas tem sido feito com base em métodos não empíricos que não permitem estimar corretamente as partes ausentes. Neste trabalho apresentamos uma metodologia que permite estimar a posição de sequências médias preservadas de vértebras caudais no dinossauro saurísquio Staurikosaurus pricei, com base no comprimento e altura dos centros das vértebras anteriores e posteriores preservadas. Equações de regressão foram usadas para estimar essas dimensões para as vértebras médias e, consequentemente, para posicionar as sequências médias preservadas e para estimar o tamanho das
Balaceanu J. C.
et sables bitumineux, implique leurs transformations sous forme fluide en gaz naturel synthétique ou en pétroles de synthèse par action de l'hydrogène. Certains parlent donc de l'avènement rapide de " la civilisation à l'hydrogène " à juste titre, semble-t-il,... à moins qu'une évolution du prix du pétrole, dont le coût technique ne représente que quelques pour-cent du prix réel, remette en question, tout au moins économiquement et pour quelques décennies seulement, l'effort d'investissements industriels, techniques et scientifiques gigantesque qu'implique, en particulier dans le domaine nucléaire, la mise en eeuvre de ce nouveau combustible. The oil crisis and the ensuing upheaval in the economic classification of primary energy sources are adding their cumulative effects to the general growing awareness of environmental problems, thus promoting the industrial implementation of scientific and technical innovations that were not supposed to make a breakthrough for several decades. The development of nuclear electric power has now become on economic necessity. So that this form of power can be used for oil purposes, an intermediary chemical energy must be found for storing and controlling the power output. Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis appears to be such on intermediary fuel that should be available with in a reasonable length of time, if pollution constraints are token into consideration. Nuclear heat raises exactly the saure problems, a fortiori. If such heat fis thermally dissociated from liquid water by stages, fit can theoretically serve to produce hydrogen with quite satisfactory yields. But the practical and technological problems involved in operating a series of chemical and separating transformations involving particularly reactive compounds are extremely difficult, and a complete inventory has not yet even been made of them. Hydrogen, as a new polyvalent fuel for a perpetual gas industry, appears aiso to benefit from new
Ugletveit, F.; Aaltonen, H.
/harmonization of communication protocols, information content and data formats. This platform should be flexible enough to serve all states irrespective of technological development and infrastructure and need to be adopted as or harmonized with national communication procedures. This requires development of international standards and adopted of these by the respective states. To efficiently share the global resources between states in response to an emergency, all states should operate an the saure standardised platform. This means that resources in the widest sense need to be standardized/harmonized to a high degree so that the assistance offered, without any friction or time delay, fits into the system of the assisted country. Resources could then in principle be provided from anywhere in the world depending an availability. This requires development of international standards an resources and the adoption of these by the respective states. lt is recognized that it is the responsibility of acceding States to ensure proper implementation of the Assistance and Early Notification Conventions. lt is further recognized that states through the development of a consistent, coherent and sustainable joint programme for improved and more efficient international response to nuclear and radiological emergencies, could achieve a cheaper and more efficient response. In most countries this would probably in the longer perspective be the most cost efficient way of improving their national emergency response. This however requires that states are willing to contribute to the development of the necessary standardized platforms and that they are willing to adopt these platforms also for their national response system. Are we willing to do this? (author)
Full Text Available - Matthias Stiefel, W.F. Wertheim, Matthias Stiefel, Rejoinder to Duller’s review in BKI 142-I, with comments by H.J. Duller., W.F. Wertheim (eds. - K.A. Adelaar, James T. Collins, The historical relationship of the languages of central Maluku, Indonesia, Pacific Linguistics Series D, No. 47, 1983. - J.G. de Casparis, Antoinette M. Barrett Jones, Early tenth-century Java from the inscriptions. A study of economic, social and administrative conditions in the first quarter of the century, Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde No. 107, Dordrecht/Cinnaminson 1984. XI + 204 pp. - P.J. Drooglever, L. de Jong, Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in de Tweede Wereldoorlog, deel 11a, Nederlands-Indië I, eerste en tweede helft, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden 1984, 1199 pp., kaarten, foto’s. - David T. Hill, Julie Southwood, Indonesia: Law, propaganda and terror, with foreword by W.F. Wertheim, Zed press, 1983, 272 pp., Patrick Flanagan (eds. - V.J.H. Houben, C.Ch. van den Haspel, Overwicht in overleg. Hervormingen van justitie, grondgebruik en bestuur in de Vorstenlanden op Java 1880-1930, VKI 111, Dordrecht: Foris publications, 1985. - Maarten Kuitenbrouwer, J. van Goor, Imperialisme in de marge. De afronding van Nederlands-Indië, Utrecht 1985. - Harry A. Poeze, Hansje Galesloot, De Nederlandse vakbondsperiodieken van het IISG; Systematisch overzicht. Amsterdam: Stichting Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis, 1985, xiv + 241 pp., Tom van der Meer (eds. - Harry A. Poeze, Frits G.P. Jacquet, Sources of the history of Asia and Oceania in the Netherlands. Part II: Sources 1796-1949. München etc.: Saur, 1983, 547 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Mies Campfens, De Nederlandse archieven van het Internationaal Instituut voor sociale geschiedenis te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Van Gennep, 1984, 294 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Henk Hondius, Inventaris van het archief van de Sociaal-Democratische arbeiders partij (SDAP 1894-1946. Amsterdam
. To keep pace with increasing worldwide needs of hydrocarbons, exploration has steadily been extended to all sedimentary basins capable of containing oil or natural gas. Considering the promising hydrocarbon potential of seabeds, the search for new fields has been extended to sedimentary basins at sea - initially right near the coast, then on continental shelves (at depths of less than 200 m of water, and now farther offshore at water depths of several thousand meters. Since 1960, this expansion of offshore activities has been based on the development of many original techniques to face up to the novelty and complexity of the problems to be solved. At the saure time, the development of offshore activities and, now, the conquest of difficult and deep offshore areas have led to the implementation of safety specifications and vert' strict regulations so as to guarantee effective protection of installations, persons and other users of the sea, and to avert any danger of possible pollution. If all current offshore activities are considered within the world energy context, the following two questions can be asked: (1 Is the cost of offshore marine operations becoming prohibitive? (2 Does the energy situation justify the conquest of deeper and deeper seas? It would be useless as of now to pretend to give a precise and categorical answer to all such questions. Nevertheless, an economic analysis of offshore activities, being cons-cious of passed experience, and the extrapolating of the trends observed already constitute extremely useful bases for making an assessment.
dentes de Sauropodomorphapodem ser sugeridos cristais paralelos, mas não estruturas colunaresdefinidas. As amostras de esmalte destes dentes não permitiram me-lhor refinamento das imagens quanto às estruturas cristalinas. Emcrocodilomorfos o esmalte apresenta uma delimitação característica decristais paralelos bem marcada. As microanálises de raios-x não possi-bilitaram diferenciar quimicamente terópodes e saurópodes, mas defi-niram uma assinatura química para cada localidade de coleta de dentesdentro das unidades geológicas estudadas. O estudo da estruturamorfológica e morfométrica de dentes isolados de dinossauros Theropodae Sauropodomorpha, segundo a metodologia aplicada nesta tese, nãopermite identificações taxonômicas seguras. A distinção entre dentesde Theropoda, Sauropodomorpha e Crocodylomorpha zifodontes podeser sugerida através de estudos da microanálise do esmalte, entretantoa metodologia merece maior desenvolvimento e aprimoramento con-forme exista uma maior disponibilidade de material para a realizaçãodos cortes histológicos no esmalte. 130Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 27 / 2004Autora: Elizabete Pedrão Ferreira Orientadores: João Graciano Mendonça Filho e Marília da Silva Pares Regali Título: Palinoestratigrafia e caracterização de paleoambientes daseção paleocênica-eocênica da bacia de Sergipe No de páginas: 253 Resumo: O intervalo Paleoceno-Eoceno, objeto de intensa investigaçãomultidiciplinar ao longo dos últimos 20 anos, particularmente em regiõesde latitudes médias e altas, foi palco de grandes mudançaspaleoclimáticas e paleoceanográficas. Para o estudo dos eventos quecaracterizam essas mudanças em uma bacia atlântica (latitude baixa,selecionou-se a seção de idade paleocênica-eocênica da FormaçãoCalumbi, da sub-bacia de Sergipe. Esta é composta predominantemen-te por siliciclásticos e calcários subordinados, com até 1000 m de es-pessura. O estudo palinológico realizado na se