Fayad, Mostafa I.; Elbieh, Ahmed; Baig, Mohammed N.; Alruwaili, Selham Alhabib
Objective: Anxiety towards dental procedures are common difficulties that may be experienced by dental patients all over the world. This study focused on evaluating the dental anxiety frequency and its relationship with age, gender, educational level, and past dental visits among patients attending the outpatient clinics of College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A total of 221 patients, aged 21–50 years were selected for the study. A questionnaire comprising the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure the level of dental anxiety. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The mean anxiety score of the 221 patients was 11.39 (SD ± 2.7). Independent t-test showed a significant variation between the age groups with regards to their mean overall anxiety score (P dental visit (P 0.05). Conclusion: Younger patients, female, and patients with previous unpleasant dental experience were associated with increased MDAS score. Clinical Significance: The present study was done for better patient management and proper treatment plan development for dentally anxious patients. PMID:28462178
Aldrees, Abdullah M
To determine the distribution of skeletal and dental malocclusions in a sample of Saudi orthodontic patients. Six hundred and two randomly selected pretreatment orthodontic records were evaluated in this descriptive, retrospective study conducted between June to September 2009 at the Orthodontic Clinic of the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cephalometric analysis using Dolphin software to measure the A point, Nasion, B point (ANB) angle and Wits appraisal was performed to determine the skeletal malocclusion. Angles classification was evaluated to determine the molar relationship using study models. The most common dental malocclusion was Angle Class I followed by the asymmetric molar relationship. The most common skeletal malocclusion using ANB angle was Class I, while the most common skeletal malocclusion using Wits appraisal was Class II. No gender difference was seen in the distribution of the molar relationship and skeletal relationship using both ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The pattern of skeletal and dental malocclusions in Saudi orthodontic patients differs, based on the variability of the methods used to assess the anteroposterior jaw-base relationship.
Al-Refai, Abdel-Nasser M.; Fathalla, Sami E.; Nagamani, Rambhala; Al-Momen, Sami
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was identified in dental plaque, raising the possibility of future gastritis and peptic ulceration. Objective: This trial was to study the association between presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and in the stomachs of patients with gastritis; the effect of oral hygiene and periodontal condition on the stomach. Patients and Methods: Seventy-five Saudi adult dyspeptic patients, together with 60 healthy persons as control. Two samples of dental plaq...
Ghada H. Al-Kharboush
Conclusions: Dental anomalies were common in Saudi subjects with CLP type. This will complicate the health care required for the CL/P subjects. This study was conducted to epidemiologically explore the prevalence of dental anomalies among Saudi Arabian subjects with CLP.
Al-Refai, Abdel-Nasser M; Fathalla, Sami E; Nagamani, Rambhala; Al-Momen, Sami
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was identified in dental plaque, raising the possibility of future gastritis and peptic ulceration. This trial was to study the association between presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and in the stomachs of patients with gastritis; the effect of oral hygiene and periodontal condition on the stomach. Seventy-five Saudi adult dyspeptic patients, together with 60 healthy persons as control. Two samples of dental plaque were taken from gingival crevice of deepest pocket. One sample was kept in Christensen's urea agar and incubated for H. pylori detection by rapid urease test. The second sample was kept in 5% sheep blood agar, chocolate agar and a selective medium to culture the H. pylori. Gastric urease test was done for the same patients. (1) Plaque urease test results showed 89% positive patients. (2) Dental plaque Index:- Mild dental plaque accumulation in 24%, moderate in 41%, while severe accumulation was in 35% of the patients. (3) Gingival Index: Showed mild, moderate and severe gingivitis in 17%, 48% and 35% of patients, respectively. (4) Community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN): Showed gingivitis, mild periodontitis and moderate periodontitis in 50%, 23% and 27% of patients, respectively. (5)Gastric urease results: 87% of patients were positive. (6)All cultured samples results were negative The ability to detect H. pylori in dental plaque samples offers a potential for a noninvasive test for gastric infection and would lend support for oral spread of H. pylori as the princi-pal mode of transmission. However, the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and in the stomach (in gastritis patients) could permit not only a target for therapeutic procedures but also a monitor-ing tool for the efficacy of therapy.
Mohammad Abdul Baseer
Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns.
Only 10.2% of the Saudi dentists were willing to treat HB infected patients. The other dentists (89.8%) were unwilling to provide dental care for HB infected patients. Although 94.5% of the surveyed dentists were vaccinated against HBV, the main reason behind the refusal to treat HB infected patients (92.3%) was the risk of ...
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; AlMasri, Ousamah
This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among undergraduate dental students. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on students' vaccination status as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control was sent to 600 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at P<0.05. The response rate was 85% (512 out of 600). While the vast majority of students (90%) had been vaccinated against hepatitis, only 37.4% have been assessed for anti-HBs. A total of 98.8% and 90.8% reported always wearing gloves and masks, respectively, during dental procedures. The use of protective eyewear was reported by only 29.2%. A significantly higher proportion of sixth-year students showed a positive attitude toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases than other students of lower academic years. Approximately one-third of students reported having one or more occupational injuries while treating their patients. Although the students had good knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control, the compliance and practice levels regarding the same were low. Such findings highlight the necessity of continued infection-control education of Saudi dental students.
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control procedures among undergraduate dental students. Methods: This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on students’ vaccination status as well as knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control was sent to 600 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at <0.05. Results: The response rate was 85% (512 out of 600. While the vast majority of students (90% had been vaccinated against hepatitis, only 37.4% have been assessed for anti-HBs. A total of 98.8% and 90.8% reported always wearing gloves and masks, respectively, during dental procedures. The use of protective eyewear was reported by only 29.2%. A significantly higher proportion of sixth-year students showed a positive attitude toward the treatment of patients with infectious diseases than other students of lower academic years. Approximately one-third of students reported having one or more occupational injuries while treating their patients. Conclusion: Although the students had good knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control, the compliance and practice levels regarding the same were low. Such findings highlight the necessity of continued infection-control education of Saudi dental students.
Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Binassfour, Abdullah Salman; AlHassan, Waleed Khalid; Alhejaily, Rami Ayed; Al Maflehi, Nassr; Jacob, Vimal; Abraham, Nimmi Biju
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate evolving trends in dental post graduate specialty preferences and career aspirations among final year dental students in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among final year dental students from seventeen universities in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire enquired about socio-demographic details and the ranking of three of their best preferences among the lis...
Bahammam, Maha A.; Hassan, Mona H.
Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of an Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and to correlate it with other demographic data. Methods: The original English version of the MDAS was translated into Arabic, and then translated back into English by experienced bilingual professionals. Four hundred and seventy-four patients referred to dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to June ...
Full Text Available Asma M Al-Jobair, Maha A AlSarheed Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: To evaluate Saudi dental students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of an effective dental teacher.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2014 at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all students enrolled in the 2013/2014 academic year. The questionnaire contained 43 items regarding students’ opinions on the qualities and attributes of a good dental teacher. The attributes were grouped into two main categories: performance and personality. Mean and standard deviations were calculated for each item and then for the whole category. Performance and personality were compared between male and female students and between junior and senior students using Mann–Whitney U test.Results: Four hundred and seventy-seven questionnaires were completed, representing a response rate of 79%. Performance attributes were significantly more important than personality attributes to Saudi dental students (P<0.001. Perceptions of performance and personality attributes did not differ between male and female students; however, junior students put more emphasis on personality attributes than senior students.Conclusion: Saudi dental students consider performance attributes more important than personality attributes for their successful learning. Teachers’ educational skills are valued more than the attributes, which do not connect directly to students’ learning process. Keywords: perceptions, dental students, characteristics, dental teacher
Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Binassfour, Abdullah Salman; AlHassan, Waleed Khalid; Alhejaily, Rami Ayed; Al Maflehi, Nassr; Jacob, Vimal; Abraham, Nimmi Biju
The purpose of this study was to investigate evolving trends in dental post graduate specialty preferences and career aspirations among final year dental students in Saudi Arabia. A cross sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among final year dental students from seventeen universities in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire enquired about socio-demographic details and the ranking of three of their best preferences among the list of specialties/general dentistry and career options. They were also enquired about their opinion regarding the total time required to become a dentist and their intention to go for further studies abroad. The questionnaire assessed factors influencing their choices using a 5 point Likert scale ranging from extremely important to not important. Binary logistic regression to examine the combined effect of several independent variables on the likelihood of choosing a dental specialization/general dentistry and career option were analyzed. The overall response rate was 64.6%. Restorative and Aesthetic Dentistry was the most preferred specialty ( n = 98; 17.7%) followed by Endodontics ( n = 78; 14.1%); Prosthodontics ( n = 65; 11.7%) and Orthodontics ( n = 63; 11.4%). The two most preferred careers were 'Civilian dentist in public sector' followed by 'Academic services dentist'. Overall, students reported that the influence of family members in the dental profession, preference for private practice and specific interest in patient population as the most important factors in choosing a specialty/general dentistry. Intellectual content of the specialty was ranked the least important. On the other hand, the most important factors for choosing a career were variety of non-clinical duties, access to child care facilities and research opportunities. The results of this study show the top preferred specialties and career choices which can be a baseline for establishing national policies and for the improvement
Al-Jobair, Asma M; Al-Mutairi, Manal A
Dental students receive theoretical and clinical training in pediatric behavioral guidance techniques at university. Therefore, the content of the educational course and the degree of training in behavioral techniques may have an impact on the students' perceptions and practice of such techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Saudi dental students' perceptions of behavior guidance techniques used in pediatric dentistry, and to assess the changes in their perceptions after 1 academic year of a didactic and clinical educational course. This longitudinal study was carried out once at the beginning and once at the end of the 2013/2014 academic year at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire measuring the perceived acceptability of behavior guidance techniques was completed by 78 fourth-year dental students before and after a pediatric dental course. Acceptability ratings were scored on a 5-point Likert scale and compared and evaluated in relation to demographic data. Paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used for the statistical analyses. Before the course, the highest scores were for reinforcement and desensitizing techniques and the lowest were for aversive and communicative techniques. After the course, statistically significant increases were found in the acceptability of aversive techniques (voice control and hand-over-mouth), all pharmacological techniques, and modeling. Most communicative techniques and clinical situations were also rated as significantly more acceptable. Statistically significant decreases in acceptability ratings were found in promising a toy, and immobilization by staff or a parent. Immobilization using a papoose board, modeling, the presence of parents during the child's treatment, and most communicative techniques were rated as significantly more acceptable by male students than female students. In general, Saudi dental students rated most basic behavior guidance
Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama
Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.
Al-Shehri, Huda A; Al-Taweel, Sara M; Ivanoff, Chris S
To probe dental students' perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. A cross-sectional survey (n=460) was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05). It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8%) think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.
Bahammam, Maha A.; Hassan, Mona H.
Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of an Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and to correlate it with other demographic data. Methods: The original English version of the MDAS was translated into Arabic, and then translated back into English by experienced bilingual professionals. Four hundred and seventy-four patients referred to dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to June 2013 participated in the study. The assessment tool included questions regarding demographic characteristics, frequency of dental visits, the Arabic version of the MDAS, and the patient's rating of their current level of anxiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: The Arabic version of the MDAS had excellent internal consistency and reliability (Alpha coefficients >0.90). The scale was unidimensional, and the percentage of patients with dental anxiety was 48.3% (using a cutoff total score of >15) and with dental phobia was 2.5% (using a cutoff total score of >16). Younger patients, females, and infrequent visitors to the dentist were more anxious than those who were older, male, and frequent visitors. Visual analogue scale scores correlated significantly with individual items on the MDAS questionnaire and total anxiety score, supporting the criterion validity. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the MDAS presented adequate internal consistency reliability, allowing its safe use to assess levels of dental anxiety in Arabic-speaking populations. PMID:25399217
Bahammam, Maha A; Hassan, Mona H
To test the reliability and validity of an Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and to correlate it with other demographic data. The original English version of the MDAS was translated into Arabic, and then translated back into English by experienced bilingual professionals. Four hundred and seventy-four patients referred to dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to June 2013 participated in the study. The assessment tool included questions regarding demographic characteristics, frequency of dental visits, the Arabic version of the MDAS, and the patient's rating of their current level of anxiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The Arabic version of the MDAS had excellent internal consistency and reliability (Alpha coefficients >0.90). The scale was unidimensional, and the percentage of patients with dental anxiety was 48.3% (using a cutoff total score of >15) and with dental phobia was 2.5% (using a cutoff total score of >16). Younger patients, females, and infrequent visitors to the dentist were more anxious than those who were older, male, and frequent visitors. Visual analogue scale scores correlated significantly with individual items on the MDAS questionnaire and total anxiety score, supporting the criterion validity. The Arabic version of the MDAS presented adequate internal consistency reliability, allowing its safe use to assess levels of dental anxiety in Arabic-speaking populations.
Bahammam, Maha A.
Objectives: To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study. The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of anxiety were used to assess the concurrent criterion validity. Results: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.989) for state and trait subscales. Factor analysis indicated unidimensionality of the scale. Correlations between STAI-Y scores and both MDAS and VAS scores indicated strong concurrent criterion validity. Discriminant validity was supported by the findings that higher anxiety levels were present among females as opposed to males, younger individuals as compared to older individuals, and patients who do not visit the dentist unless they have a need as opposed to more frequent visitors to the dental office. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the STAI-Y has an adequate internal consistency reliability, generally similar to that reported in the international literature, suggesting it is appropriate for assessing dental anxiety in Arabic speaking populations. PMID:27279514
Bahammam, Maha A
To test the psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic version of the state trait anxiety-form Y (STAI-Y) in Saudi adult dental patients. In this cross-sectional study, the published Arabic version of the STAI-Y was evaluated by 2 experienced bilingual professionals for its compatibility with Saudi culture and revised prior to testing. Three hundred and eighty-seven patients attending dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, King Abdullah University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the study. The Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of anxiety were used to assess the concurrent criterion validity. The Arabic version of the STAI-Y had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: 0.989) for state and trait subscales. Factor analysis indicated unidimensionality of the scale. Correlations between STAI-Y scores and both MDAS and VAS scores indicated strong concurrent criterion validity. Discriminant validity was supported by the findings that higher anxiety levels were present among females as opposed to males, younger individuals as compared to older individuals, and patients who do not visit the dentist unless they have a need as opposed to more frequent visitors to the dental office. The Arabic version of the STAI-Y has an adequate internal consistency reliability, generally similar to that reported in the international literature, suggesting it is appropriate for assessing dental anxiety in Arabic speaking populations.
Jamjoom, M M; al-Malik, M I; Holt, R D; el-Nassry, A
Dental General Anaesthesia (DGA) has been shown to be of value in providing both restorative treatment and extractions in children who are unable to accept this using other methods of management. The aims of this retrospective study were to determine the characteristics of patients attending for treatment under DGA at a centre in Saudi Arabia, to describe the type of dental treatment carried out using DGA and in the subsequent 3-year period. Data were collected from hospital records of 555 patients who received treatment under DGA at King Fahad Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between 1995 and 1997. Ninety three percent of the patients were aged 8 or younger at the time of DGA, with 43% being under 5 years of age. The main indications for use of DGA in the youngest age group were dental management of rampant caries (77% of the youngest age group) and inability to accept treatment under local anaesthesia (49% of those aged 5-8 years). Seventy percent of patients had treatment involving both extractions and restorative care, and the majority, 81%, had one tooth or more restored with preformed metal crowns. Sixty-three percent of patients attended for recall after 6 months but only 10% did so after a 3-year interval. Only one of the 555 patients received a second DGA at the same centre during the 3 years following treatment. The service studied provides dental treatment primarily for children with extensive disease. Failure to attend for recall was common, suggesting that preventive methods which rely on regular attendance may not be successful in this group of children.
Halawany, Hassan S
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the career motivations, perceptions of the future of dentistry and preferred postgraduate specialties of Saudi dental students. Methods: A pretested, self-administered, 16-item questionnaire was distributed to first- through fifth-year dental students at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Of the 530 potential participants, 329 students (198 male and 131 female respondents) completed the questionnaire. High professional status (71.4%), a secure career (67.8%), a high income (78.1%), flexible working hours (54.4%), a wide range of career options after graduation (59.3%), opportunities for self-employment (69.3%) and good job opportunities abroad (65.3%) were endorsed to a great/considerable extent by the respondents. “It takes time to establish a practice” (62.3%), “Postgraduate education is a necessity” (72.4%) and “The increasing number of dental institutions is a threat to the profession” (59.3%) were endorsed to a great or considerable extent by the respondents. The most popular specialty among the male students was oral maxillofacial surgery (20.1%) and among female students was operative dentistry (23.4%). Conclusion: The career motivations of this group of dental students seemed to relate to socioeconomic aspects of dentistry and perceptions of the future of dentistry seemed to relate to the need for postgraduate education. PMID:25246989
Muzyka, B C; Glick, M
The dental team plays an integral role in safeguarding the general health of patients. Dental health care workers should be able to recognize risk factors associated with hypertension and counsel patients in an effort to reduce those that are present. In addition, dental professionals should recognize how these risk factors and associated hypertension affect the provision of dental care. This article reviews recent findings and therapies for hypertension, evaluates historically accepted but unsupported anecdotal information on the dental management of hypertensive patients and proposes guidelines for the dental management of these patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Review of post-operative morbidity reports for pediatric dental care under general anesthesia (GA show great variations. Until now, no morbidity data has been available to estimate the safety of pediatric patients under GA for dental rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study were to (1 investigate post-operative complications associated with dental care under GA and (2 correlate morbidity reports with patient's characteristics, dental procedures, and hospital protocol. Methods Study sample included 90 children attending GA for dental treatment at major governmental hospitals in Jeddah. Data were collected from every patient on three occasions, intra-operatively at the operating room, and post-operatively via phone calls in the first and third days after operation. Results Results showed that 99% of the children had one or more complaints in the first day in contrast to only 33% in the third day. Inability to eat (86%, sleepiness (71%, and pain (48% were the most common complaints in the first day, followed by bleeding (40%, drowsiness (39%, sore throat (34%, vomiting (26%, psychological changes (24%, fever (21%, cough (12%, and nausea (8%. A great significant complaints reduction was reported by the third post-operative day. Age, gender, admission type of the patients and GA duration were the factors that showed a significant relationship with post-operative complaints. Conclusion Post-operative morbidity was common, but mostly of mild severity and limited to the first day. Hospital staff efforts should be directed to control commonly reported postoperative complaints.
Younge, D; Moreau, P; Ezzat, A; Gray, A
The following factors are relevant to the communication problems that exist in this country: 1. The impression is that patients here cope better with terminal illness at home than do patients elsewhere. The extended family, with its strong ties, and the strong Islamic faith that encourages its members to provide for parents and children in case of need mean that any input by health professionals is magnified by the family in the care of the patient. At first, it was uncertain if foreign health professionals would be accepted into Saudi homes (which are intensely private and protected for the family) for the purpose of caring for patients. This has proved unfounded. Hospitality is a very important part of Saudi society; nurses and doctors are welcomed and respected. Much of this success is due to the use of Saudi men as drivers and translators. These people provide 24-hour service, act as social workers assessing the needs of the family, and are the link between the patient and family, the nurse, and the doctor. 2. "CURE" OR "PALLIATION": The emphasis for cancer patients in Saudi Arabia is still on "curative treatment," even after any realistic hope of a cure is gone. The problem this causes is compounded by many patients being excluded from the decision-making process. Decisions made by the family may not always reflect the patient's wishes. Greater communication is needed to guide treatment decisions. 3. TRUTH-TELLING: Denying information of the patient's illness is probably more a historical than a cultural phenomenon. Similar attitudes prevailed until very recently in practically all other countries. In this very conservative country, people are committed to preserving Islamic culture in the face of Western technology. As medicine continues to demonstrate its effectiveness as well as its limitations, people will come to realize that the right of patients to know and understand their illness allows them to cope much better, and is compatible with the
Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sectional study at National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Saudi Arabia. A validated Arabic questionnaire of 41 questions was developed and utilized specifically for this study. Arabic language instrument was distributed to 260 vitiligo patients. Scores were compared in relation to demographic, clinical, and social variables in 4 dimensions of scale (relationship with colleagues, family relationship, social relationship, and self respect. Results : Overall score QOL was 17.1. Mean score for males was 11.1, whereas that for females was 23.9 (P < 0.05. Females scored significantly higher in all the 4 dimensions. Patients with exposed disease lesions scored significantly higher than those with unexposed lesions 5 vs 3.4 (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The overall score of QOL in vitiligo is relatively high, indicating a negative impact of the disease on QOL. QOL in women is significantly more affected than in men.
Gaffar, Balgis O; Alagl, Adel S; Al-Ansari, Asim A
To assess the frequency and causes of dental anxiety and their relation to irregular dental visits among adult dental patients. The Dental Anxiety Question (DAQ) included within a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1025 patients attending the Interns' Dental Clinics in the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2012 to February 2013. A cross-sectional study design was used. The questionnaire consisted of 22 closed-ended questions divided into 4 sections; 1) demographics, 2) regularity of dental visits, and related causes, 3) DAQ, cancellation of dental appointments, history of previous trauma, dental anxiety provoking factors within dental environment and procedures, and 4) patients' status in dental clinics, preferences of dentists, and perceptions regarding dental anxiety. The prevalence of dental anxiety among the study sample was 27%. Anesthetic injection was the main factor of dental fear (88.2%), while dental surgical procedures (35.7%) and extractions (23%) were the most terrifying dental procedures. Lack of time (79.5%), cost (71.5%), far-situated dental services (62.2%), and fear (57.1%) were causes listed for irregular dental visits; while 31.3% had no specific reason. Irregular dental visits were not related to dental anxiety. Dental anxiety continues to be an obstacle despite the vast improvement in dentistry; and this raises an alert regarding personal and communication factors in the patient-dentist relationship. Factors such as equal distribution of dental services, time, and cost should also be addressed.
Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.
Murshid, Ebtissam Z.
The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…
Mutair, Abbas Saleh Al; Plummer, Virginia; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Clerehan, Rosemary
This article aims to increase an awareness of caring for Saudi families by non-Saudi nurses to improve their understanding of culturally competent care from a Saudi perspective. Healthcare providers have a duty of a care to deliver holistic and culturally specific health care to their patients. As a consequence of 'duty of care' obligations, healthcare providers must facilitate culturally congruent care for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. For the Saudi family considerable cultural clashes may arise when Saudi patients are hospitalized and receive care from healthcare professionals who do not understand Islamic principles and Saudi cultural beliefs and values. The healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia is a unique multicultural workforce that is mix of Saudi and significant other nationalities. Saudi nurses for example represent only 36.3% of the workforce in the different health sectors. Whilst the different ethnic and cultural background expatriate nurses represent 63.7% (Ministry of Health, 2010). This article also could increase the awareness of healthcare professionals caring for Arab and Muslims patients in another context in the world.
Alshihri, Amin M; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2-20 years), for forensic odontology application. This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2-20 years (24-240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p 12 months. This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate a Comprehensive Clinical Dentistry Course conducted at two dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in two dental schools: King Saud University (KSU and University of Dammam (UOD. The study subjects were students (42 UOD and 30 KSU, patients (32 UOD and 46 KSU, and faculty members (8 UOD and 7 KSU. Evaluations were collected using self-administered surveys. Results: The response rates were 72%, 78%, and 32% for students, patients, and faculty members, respectively. The students′ evaluations demonstrated that case acceptance by supervisors was one of the difficulties facing 57.14% of UOD students compared to 30% of KSU students. The majority of faculty members (39% were restorative specialists (25% UOD, 42.86% KSU. The overall evaluation of UOD faculty members was fair (50% or good to very good (50%. For KSU faculty members, the overall evaluation was good (50% or very good (50%. The mean age of the patients was 33.26 years. The level of education of the study subjects was either secondary school (43.6% or university level (35.9%. Most of the study subjects knew about the program from their friends (57.7%. Approximately 96.1% of the study subjects were satisfied with the overall treatment of students. Discussion: The fundamental aim of the students was to have their cases accepted as early as possible to complete requirements on time. Conclusion: Dental students displayed relatively high psychological stress in relation to case acceptance by their supervisors. Demonstrating good attitude and quality treatment can increase the flow of patients.
Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance
Amin M. Alshihri; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age...
Soban Qadir Khan; Imran Alam Moheet; Imran Farooq; Faraz Ahmed Farooqi; Aws Saleh ArRejaie; Mohammad Hassan Abdullah Al Abbad; Abdul Khabeer
Objective: Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its pattern in primary and permanent teeth among 6-12-year-old Pakistani school going children living in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between June and September 2014. A total number of screened children were 496 among them 259 were males and 237 were females. World Health Organization′s scale was used to examine children for dental fluorosis. Results...
Rees, T D
DM is such a common disease in the United States that virtually every dentist encounters patients with known or undiagnosed diabetes. The dentist should be alert for both general and oral signs and symptoms suggestive of uncontrolled or poorly controlled DM, and laboratory or interoffice screening tests should be a part of dental practice. Under no circumstances, however, should the dentist attempt to diagnose the disease. Patients with suggestive symptoms or with abnormal blood glucose levels identified by screening tests should be referred to a physician for diagnosis and any treatment necessary. Uncontrolled DM may be associated with increased frequency and severity of oral infections, including periodontal disease and dental caries. In some diabetic patients, susceptibility to oral disease may continue despite establishment of effective metabolic control. Dental treatment can safely be performed on the controlled diabetic patient, but some adjustment of office protocol and of antihyperglycemic drug administration may occasionally be necessary. Finally, the dental treatment team must always be alert for signs and symptoms of developing diabetic emergencies and be prepared to provide treatment as necessary.
Full Text Available Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS, we studied 58 RTP and 52 HCS. All subjects had a thorough oral examination and oral lesions were diagnosed according to the clinically accepted criteria. Gingival overgrowth (GO, erythematous candidiasis (EC and hairy leukoplakia (HL were diagnosed in RTP with prevalence of 74.1%, 15.5%, and 8.6%, respectively. The severity of the gingival overgrowth significantly correlated with the use of cyclosporine and nifedipine combination therapy, serum cyclosporine, and serum creatinine level. In conclusions, the finding of our study strongly propose that RTP should undergo routine and regular comprehensive oral examination, and any suspicious lesion must be investigate and treated.
Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A
The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.
Aim: To determine reasons for seeking dental care at late stages of oral diseases among dental patients attending the dental clinics at the School of Dentistry MUHAS. Materials and Methods: A total of 365 dental patients aged 15+ years who attended outpatient dental clinics of School of Dentistry MUHAS as first visit during ...
Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al
Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.
Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H.
Objectives To evaluate the sources of stress among students in the dental school environment, their perceived levels of stress and effective coping strategies. Methods This study was conducted during the first semester of the academic year, 2009–10, at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The eligible study group consisted of 556 undergraduate dental students from all five class years; they were surveyed with a detailed assessment tool. The validated and translated questionnaire comprised the modified version of the dental environmental stress (DES) survey, the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the brief coping scale (BCS). Results The overall findings substantiated with multiple regression indicate that, out of 20 factors of both DES and BC instruments, six factors were significantly and independently related to perceived stress scores (F = 34.638; p perceived stress scores. Conclusions Dental students displayed relatively high perceived stress scores. Female, advanced and married, compared with male, junior and single students reported more stress. Changes in certain environmental factors and coping strategies independently affected the perceived stress score. Strategies for stress management must be incorporated into dental education to ensure the output of effective dentists. PMID:24179318
Al-Sowygh, Zeyad H
To evaluate the sources of stress among students in the dental school environment, their perceived levels of stress and effective coping strategies. This study was conducted during the first semester of the academic year, 2009-10, at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The eligible study group consisted of 556 undergraduate dental students from all five class years; they were surveyed with a detailed assessment tool. The validated and translated questionnaire comprised the modified version of the dental environmental stress (DES) survey, the perceived stress scale (PSS) and the brief coping scale (BCS). The overall findings substantiated with multiple regression indicate that, out of 20 factors of both DES and BC instruments, six factors were significantly and independently related to perceived stress scores (F = 34.638; p factors self-efficacy and workload of DES and the factors behavioral disengagement, denial, positive reframing and venting of BC were positively and independently related to perceived stress scores. Dental students displayed relatively high perceived stress scores. Female, advanced and married, compared with male, junior and single students reported more stress. Changes in certain environmental factors and coping strategies independently affected the perceived stress score. Strategies for stress management must be incorporated into dental education to ensure the output of effective dentists.
To determine the use of the Internet by patients attending a range of dental clinics to search for information regarding dental procedures, and also to investigate their interest in online dental consultations and \\'dental tourism\\'.
Background: In Tanzania, patient satisfaction with dental services has received only minor attention. Objective: To assess patients' satisfaction with public dental health services in Dar es Salaam. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Five public dental clinics randomly selected from a list of all the nine public dental ...
The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness of dental implant in Nigerian patients and their willingness to choose dental implant as a tooth replacement option. A survey was conducted among patients presenting for dental treatment in 3 teaching hospitals and private dental clinics in 3 urban cities of ...
Amin M. Alshihri
Conclusion: New tables were developed in order to convert dental maturity calculation according to Demirjian’s method into estimated age of contemporary Western Saudi population (significant overestimation. For future research, increase in the sample size for all age ranges to establish new maturity scores and logistic curves for the studied population group and comparison with other Saudi children in rural communities found in other regions in Saudi Arabia would be ideal.
Al-Amry, Mohammad; Al-Ghadeer, Huda
Paintball is a popular recreational sport. This case series describes three Saudi patients exposed to paintball ocular injuries with sever ocular trauma. Two patients developed hyphema and traumatic cataract and one patient had vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, commotio retinae and retinal tear. All patients require surgical intervention. Final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200, 20/30 and 20/50 respectively. Paintball related ocular injuries can result in severe visual loss and...
Bellini, M; Maltoni, O; Gatto, M R; Pelliccioni, G; Checchi, V; Checchi, L
This study evaluated the presence of current and general phobia and anxiety symptoms in periodontology patients just before treatment in relation to specific dental fears and to general health status and quality of life. The study population was all consecutive outpatients attending the Periodontics and Implantology Services, School of Dentistry, University of Bologna, over a 12-month period in 2007. Data collection instruments were psychological questionnaires (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]-Y1, Marks-Sheehan Phobia Scale [MSPS], World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL] short form) plus supplementary items investigating specific dental fears, patient's dental history, and the dentist's clinical assessment of the patient. In all, 250 consecutive patients were recruited. Most (86%) presented with very mild anxiety and phobia symptoms; 13.2% and 13% presented with psychological symptoms of anxiety and phobia, respectively, independently of those subjects with specific dental fears who were significantly younger. The most common dental fears were fear of pain (48.8%) and of receiving an injection (29.9%). The patients' quality of life did not appear to be affected by these fears. In the dental outpatients seeking treatment for moderate-to-severe dental pathology at a university periodontics and implantology clinic and referring good general health and psychosocial functioning, levels of anxiety and phobia were usually low or absent; but when present, they were independent of ascertained specific dental fears.
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.; Samar A. Al Saleh; Mahfouz, Aisha A.; Sherif M. Abolfotouh; Haya M. Al Fozan
This study aimed to assess acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among Saudi nursing students, and to identify predictors of their willingness to provide care for patients with AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 260 baccalaureate nursing students at King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was done using a previously validated ins...
ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M
Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.
Objective: Fearful individuals often avoid care despite extensive dental needs and anxious patients feel more pain and of longer duration than less anxious patients. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with dental anxiety among patients visiting a University Dental Centre in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Background HLA-B*51 has been universally associated with Behcet's disease (BD susceptibility, while different alleles of HLA-A have also been identified as independent BD susceptibility loci in various ethnic populations. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of HLA-A and - B alleles with BD in Saudi patients. Materials and Methods Genotyping for HLA-A and HLA-B was performed using HLA genotyping kit (Lab type (R SSO in 120 Saudi subjects, including 60 BD patients and 60 matched healthy controls. Results Our results revealed that frequencies of HLA-A*26, -A*31 , and - B*51 were significantly higher in BD patients than in controls, suggesting that HLA-A*26, -A*31 , and - B*51 are associated with BD. The frequency of HLA-B*15 was significantly lower in BD patients than in controls. Stratification of genotyping results into active and nonactive forms of BD revealed that the frequency of HLA-A*31 was significantly higher in the nonactive form than in the active form of BD, while there was no significant difference in the distribution of other alleles between the two forms of BD. Conclusion This study suggests that HLA-A*26, -A*31 , and - B*51 are associated with susceptibility risk to BD, while HLA-B*15 may be protective in Saudi patients. However, larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Hassan Suliman Halawany
Conclusion: The results of this study show the top preferred specialties and career choices which can be a baseline for establishing national policies and for the improvement of graduate programs. There seems to be a need to promote mentoring activities and provide guidance and encouragement to pre-doctoral dental students in selecting the most appropriate specialty within their capability domain.
El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J
Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students.
Quadri, Mir Fa; Hakami, Bassam M; Hezam, Asma Aa; Hakami, Raed Y; Saadi, Fadwa A; Ageeli, Layla M; Alsagoor, Wafqah H; Faqeeh, Mohammad A; Dhae, Mohammed A
To analyze and report the type of relation present between dental caries and body mass index (BMI)-for-age among schoolchildren in Jazan region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study with multi-staged random sampling technique was designed to recruit the sample of schoolchildren. Caries was examined using the World Health Organization recommended "decayed and filled teeth"/"decayed missing and filled teeth (dft/DMFT)" method. The BMI-for-age was calculated using the value obtained from body weight and height (kg/m 2 ) of each child. The obtained results were plotted on age- and gender-specific percentile curves by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and categorized accordingly. Chi-squared test was conducted to analyze the relation between BMI-for-age and dental caries. Logistic regression was performed to judge the predictor variables. The p-value Dental caries, fast food, and snacks between meals were significant independent predictor variables for BMI (p Dental caries was a strong predictor, and the analysis showed that children with untreated caries had 81% (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval = 0.65, 0.58) higher chance of suffering from low BMI. To conclude, this is the first study attempted to see the relationship between BMI-for-age and dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Negative relation between dental caries and BMI should warrant health promoters about dental caries as a reason for low BMI in a subset of children. High and alarming percentage of untreated dental caries demonstrates the oral health needs among the schoolgoing children in Jazan region. Public health dentists should develop and implement prevention programs so that the oral health issues among schoolchildren are addressed.
Tulbah, Huda; AlHamdan, Eman; AlQahtani, Amal; AlShahrani, Asma; AlShaye, Mona
The fabrication of a clinically acceptable dental prosthesis requires proper communication between the dentist and the dental technician. Prosthodontic educators have been concerned with this interaction and communication. Fixed prosthodontics laboratories revealed that the technicians are often dissatisfied with the information provided in work authorizations. To evaluate the quality of communication between dentists and laboratory technicians via work authorizations for fixed prosthodontics in both governmental and private dental laboratories in Riyadh area from the technician's perspective. A sample of 66 dental laboratories, including all government dental laboratories and a selected number of randomly chosen private dental laboratories from each district of Riyadh (40%), participated in the survey. A questionnaire was developed to include questions related to the following areas of work authorization: clarity and accuracy of instructions, patient information, type of prosthesis, choice of materials, design and shade of the prosthesis and type of porcelain glaze. The questionnaire was answered in a face-to-face interview by technicians who were qualified in fixed prosthetic work. Data were analyzed through parametric tests (T-test and one-way ANOVA) to identify significant values (P communication between dentists and dental laboratories regarding the following: marginal design, pontic design, staining diagram, type of porcelain and glaze needed for the prosthesis. Significant differences were observed between the government and private dental laboratories. There was a greater lack of communication between the dentists and government laboratory technicians in Riyadh. There was no statistically significant difference between private laboratories of different areas in Riyadh city (P communication between dentists and dental technicians in Riyadh can sometimes be inadequate, and governmental laboratories have a lower level of communication.
Al-Hejaili Fayez F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out over a period of five months in two hemodialysis centers in Saudi Arabia. To assess the prevalence of insomnia, we used the ICSD-2 definition. We also examined the association between insomnia and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, dialysis duration, dialysis shift, and other demographic data. Results Out of 227 enrolled patients, insomnia was reported by 60.8%. The mean patient age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years; 53.7% were male and 46.3% were female. Insomnia was significantly associated with female gender, afternoon hemodialysis, Restless Legs Syndrome, high risk for obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness (P-values: 0.05, 0.01, Conclusion Insomnia is common in dialysis patients and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders. Greater attention needs to be given to the care of dialysis patients with regard to the diagnosis and management of insomnia and associated sleep disorders.
Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha
Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed.
Togoo, RA; Nasim, VS; Zakirulla, M; Yaseen, SM
Background: It has been observed that the general dentists and pedodontists differ in their treatment recommendations for pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Aim: To determine the knowledge and practice of pulp therapy in deciduous teeth by general dental practitioners (GDP) in two cities of southern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Fifty GDP selected at random from government and private dental clinics were questioned about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth in Abha and Najran cities using a 10-item questionnaire. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software version 11.0 and descriptive statistics were obtained. Results: All 50 participants responded to the survey. Pulpotomy was suggested as the first line of treatment for pulp-exposed primary tooth by 32 respondents with 44 using Buckley's formocresol and 32 applying it on the pulp for 5 minutes. 43 respondents squeeze dried the cotton pellet before application on the pulp. In pulpectomy procedure 44 respondents preferred zinc oxide eugenol as obturation material with 22 using handheld reamers and 15 using slow-speed lentilospirals for obturation. 12 respondents used obturation techniques which had no scientific relevance. In order of preference Glass ionomer cement (GIC), silver amalgam, and stainless steel crowns were the materials of choice for final restoration of endodontically treated deciduous teeth. All 50 answered in the affirmative when asked if they would like to have additional information about pulp therapy in deciduous teeth. Conclusion: The study concluded that general dentists were regularly performing pulp therapy in decidous teeth and therefore need to be frequently updated about these procedures. PMID:23440030
Al-Swuailem, Abdullah S
To assess the defect rates in latex examination gloves used in selected dental practices in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 796 latex examination gloves were collected from 5 governmental hospitals and 5 private dental practices between April 2012 and May 2012. The gloves were assessed for presence of defects visually (VT) and using water inflation test (WIT). One and 2 sample t-tests were used to assess significant differences in defect rates among each latex brand, and between governmental hospitals and private dental practices. Defects in latex gloves were more likely to be identified using WIT compared with VT (20.2% versus 4.3%, p=0.000). Using WIT, examined latex gloves had a defect rate approximately 8 times the acceptable quality level of 2.5% (20.2%, p=0.000). Using WIT, gloves used in private dental practices had significantly higher defect rates compared with governmental dental clinics (25.6% versus 14.6%, p=0.006). Most latex examination gloves used in the sampled governmental dental clinics and private dental practices in Riyadh had significantly higher preexisting defect rates than acceptable standard levels.
Full Text Available Paintball is a popular recreational sport. This case series describes three Saudi patients exposed to paintball ocular injuries with sever ocular trauma. Two patients developed hyphema and traumatic cataract and one patient had vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, commotio retinae and retinal tear. All patients require surgical intervention. Final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200, 20/30 and 20/50 respectively. Paintball related ocular injuries can result in severe visual loss and in most of the time requires surgical intervention. Most injuries occur in under-supervised settings and are easily preventable. Our main aim was to increase awareness among local ophthalmologists and eye professionals about this new game. Improved safety measures and appropriate public education could prevent such serious ocular injuries.
Al-Amry, Mohammad; Al-Ghadeer, Huda
Paintball is a popular recreational sport. This case series describes three Saudi patients exposed to paintball ocular injuries with sever ocular trauma. Two patients developed hyphema and traumatic cataract and one patient had vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, commotio retinae and retinal tear. All patients require surgical intervention. Final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200, 20/30 and 20/50 respectively. Paintball related ocular injuries can result in severe visual loss and in most of the time requires surgical intervention. Most injuries occur in under-supervised settings and are easily preventable. Our main aim was to increase awareness among local ophthalmologists and eye professionals about this new game. Improved safety measures and appropriate public education could prevent such serious ocular injuries.
Objective: This was to determine the prevalence of hypertension among dental patients and their common ... care . This study became necessary because of the increasing number of hypertensive patients detected at the dental clinic. Not much work has been done in .... relationship between hypertension and dental.
Background: Procedure‑related and patient‑related factors influence the prognosis of dental implants to a major extent. Hence, we aimed to evaluate and analyze various systemic factors in patients receiving dental implants. Materials and Methods: Fifty‑one patients were included in the study, in which a total of 110 dental ...
AbdelSalam, Maha; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim; AlAgl, Adel; Al-Harbi, Fahad
To describe peer-assisted learning (PAL) groups formed by dental undergraduate students in a biomedical course and to investigate the association of individual and group characteristics with academic performance. In 2015, 92 fourth-year students (43 males and 49 females) in the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were invited to form PAL groups to study a unit of a biomedical course. An examination was used to assess their knowledge after 2 weeks. In addition, a questionnaire and social network analysis were used to investigate (1) individual student attributes: gender, role, subject matter knowledge, grade in previous year, teaming with friends, previous communication with teammates, and content discussion, and (2) group attributes: group teacher's previous grade, number of colleagues with whom a student connected, teaming with friends, similarity of teammates' previous grades, and teacher having higher previous grades than other teammates. Regression analysis was used to assess the association of examination scores with individual and group attributes. The response rate was 80.4% (74 students: 36 males and 38 females). Students who previously scored grades A and B had higher examination scores than students with grades C/less (regression coefficient = 18.50 and 13.39) within the groups. Higher scores were not associated with working in groups including friends only (regression coefficient = 1.17) or when all students had similar previous grades (regression coefficient = 0.85). Students with previous high grades benefited to a greater extent from working in PAL groups. Similarity of teammates in PAL groups was not associated with better scores. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Samarkandi, Sara; Al-Harbi, Tahani; Al-Radhi, Haifa; Almadi, Majid A
Pneumatic dilatation (PD) is one of the effective treatments of achalasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pneumatic dilation and patient satisfaction in Saudi achalasia patients. We have retrospectively recruited patients with confirmed achalasia, who underwent at least one dilatation session from January 1990 to January 2010 at a single tertiary center. Symptoms, including weight loss, dysphagia, retrosternal pain, and regurgitation, were assessed with the use of the Eckardt score (which ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more pronounced symptoms). All patients were called and asked about their Eckardt score in addition to their satisfaction score post the dilatation procedure. The primary outcome was therapeutic success (Eckardt score≤3) and patient satisfaction at the time of their calls. The secondary outcomes included the need for retreatment and the rate of complications. A total of 29 patients were included, with a mean age of 40.30 (95% CI: 36.1-44.6) and 55.2% of them were males. The mean of the pre-dilatation Eckardt score was 8.3 (95% CI: 7.2-9.4), which dropped to 2.59 (95% CI: 1.7-3.5) after PD (Pdilatation and a total failure in two patients (7%) after the third dilatation. The mean number of dilatations was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.5) where 50.7% required one dilatation, 19.2% required two dilatations, and 30.1% required three dilatations. The mean of the symptoms-free period was 53.4 months (SD 52.7, range 1-180) with symptoms recurring in 35% of patients within 2 years. The mean of post-PD patient satisfaction was 7.45 (95% CI: 6.2-8.7). Perforation, which was treated conservatively, occurred in one patient (3.5%), whereas bleeding occurred in two patients (7%). Age or gender was not found to be a predictor of Eckardt score improvement on multivariate linear regression analysis. PD is an efficacious procedure in Saudi achalasia patients with a very good overall patient satisfaction with 53.4 months of symptoms
Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.
Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…
BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Alassiri, Suhail S.; Al-Adab, Aisha H.; Alsadhan, Ibrahim M.; Altheyab, Abdullah M.; Alrayes, Abdalla H.; Alkhawajah, Mohammad M.; Olaish, Awad H.
Objectives: To evaluate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance and define predictors of CPAP compliance among Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after applying an educational program. Methods: This prospective cohort study included consecutive patients diagnosed to have OSA based on polysomnography between January 2012 and January 2014 in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All patients had educational sessions on OSA and CPAP therapy before sl...
Al Onazi, Mariam; Al Jondeby, Mohamed; Azeem, Mubashar; Al Sayyari, Abdulla
We aimed to assess the empathy level of healthcare providers as perceived by hemodialysis (HD) patients and its determinants. This survey included 100 hemodialysis patients from two major dialysis units in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Units A and B). Patients were asked to score their perception of empathy by health care providers in 13 areas using 1 to 5 Likert Scale. Unit "A" contained more patients with diabetic nephropathy than unit "A". Unit "B" contained a higher number of native Arabic speaking nurses and its patients had longer mean duration on dialysis compared to unit "A". The overall score given for doctors empathy was 81.6% (84.5% for Unit "A" doctors and 78.8% for Unit "B" doctors (P=0.01). The overall score given for nurses empathy was 73.6% (76.2% for Unit "A" nurses and 70.9% for Unit "B" nurses (P=0.002). Female patients' perception of empathy was significantly greater than male patients in 8 out of 13 questions. Older patients gave higher score than younger patients. Patients with lower educational level perceived higher empathy levels than patients with higher education. Significantly lower scores were given by patients who received their dialysis treatment at night. We observed no differences in scores in relation to patients' duration on dialysis, diabetic status or Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI). Empathy goes beyond the language barrier. Patients dialyzed in evening shifts perceive less empathy from healthcare workers. The higher scores given by older, female and less educated patients might simply reflect their lower expectation of empathy.
Al Taweel, Sara Mohammad; Al Shehri, Huda Ahmed
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of dental interns at King Saud University College of Dentistry (KSUCD) regarding denture adhesives (DAs). Materials and Methods: Surveys were distributed to dental interns at KSUCD (n = 100). Cross-tabulations with the Pearson-™s Chi-square test were used to compare variables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Approximately, 85.5% of the respondents had learned about DAs as part of their undergraduate curriculum, 71% agree that DAs can be a beneficial adjunct in the fabrication of dentures, and 87% agree that dentists should routinely inform all denture patients of the proper use and misuse of DAs. Conclusion: Most of the participants have adequate knowledge and attitude toward DAs. PMID:28042271
Amin, T T; Al-Abad, B M
To assess the frequency of consumption of cariogenic foods, oral hygiene practices and dental health knowledge among Saudi male primary school children in relation to socio-demographics and to find the possible predictors for dental caries among them. The cross-sectional descriptive study included 1115 Saudi male selected by multistage random sample from 18 public primary schools. Subjects were interviewed by closed ended questionnaire gathering data regarding frequency consumption of some cariogenic foods, oral hygiene practices and dental health knowledge. Students were submitted to dental screening to detect the clinically evident caries lesion. The clinically decayed tooth was diagnosed in 68.9% of the included children, more in urban and younger students. Caries affected the subjects consumed cariogenic foods at greater frequency compared with caries-free children. Only 24.5% of the students brushed their teeth twice or more per day, and 29% of them never received instructions regarding oral hygiene practices. Miswak as an alternative and/or additional method of dental cleaning was used by 44.6%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that maternal working conditions, large family size and poor oral hygiene practices were the chief predictors for dental caries among the included school children. The poor oral hygiene practices, lack of parental guidance and appropriate dental health knowledge with frequent exposure to cariogenic foods in addition to socio-demographics are the main risk factors for dental decay among the surveyed students.
Full Text Available During the human gestation period, various systemic alterations occur in the mother"nsecondary to endocrine changes. These changes, combined with the presence of the gravid uterus, result"nin conditions affecting the various systems of the mother which must be considered by the dentist."nFetal development is divided into three stages:"n1 The fertilization and implantation period"n2 The embryonic period and"n3 The fetal period."nThe second period characterized by organogenesis which taratogens may result in functional and"nmorphogenic malformations."nThe ideal dental treatment schedule for the pregnant patient is twice during first trimester, at least once"nduring second trimester and once during third trimester."nThe second trimester is an ideal time for performing dental treatment."nEmergency problem should be alleviated immediately during pregnancy."nIndicated medications should not be with held because of pregnancy but patients must be informed of"nbenefits and risks."nWith careful attention to the special needs of the pregnant patient, the dentist can provide high quality"ndental care while minimizing potential risks to mother and fetus."nEmphasis should be on preventive strategies and meticulous oral hygiene to manage common oral"nproblems associated with pregnancy.
Background: Patient satisfaction is one of the indicators of the quality of care. Therefore it is one of the tools for evaluating the quality of care. Aim: To determine patient satisfaction after receiving dental treatment among patients attending public dental clinics in Dar-Es-Salaam. Material and methods: Five public dental clinics ...
Green, Danielle; Flanagan, Dennis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of many pervasive developmental disorders (PDD); others include Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder (also known as Heller's syndrome), pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and the higher functioning Asperger's syndrome. Because ASD is the most common of the developmental disabilities, it is not unusual for dentists to have ASD patients among their patient population. As the name indicates, ASD varies widely in its clinical manifestations; however, dentists are likely to encounter difficulties with communication and socialization. Although communication may be difficult, it is not impossible. A thorough understanding of this complex neurological disorder and displaying patience are vital for the dentist. This article seeks to familiarize readers with ASD characteristics and co-morbid conditions that may affect dental treatment and provide some management strategies for this unique population.
Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Al-Meedania, Laila A; Anil, Sukumaran
To determine the prevalence of dental erosion and its association to commonly used beverages and snacks among 3 to 5 year old preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Three hundred eighty-eight preschool children between 3 and 5 years old were selected from 10 different schools using a cluster random sample selection; there were 184 (47%) boys and 204 (53%) girls. The surfaces of each tooth were examined for erosion, and the level of tooth wear was recorded. Data on the frequently used beverages and snacks were obtained by questionnaires completed by the parents of the preschool children. Among the 388 children examined, 47% exhibited low erosion, 10% exhibited moderate erosion and 4% exhibited severe erosion. There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls in terms of the prevalence of erosion. Sixty percent of the children regularly consumed juice drinks. Among daily consumers, 84% of children showed erosion prevalence with strongly significant association (p preschool children in Saudi Arabia.
Mostafa A. Abolfotouh
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among Saudi nursing students, and to identify predictors of their willingness to provide care for patients with AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 260 baccalaureate nursing students at King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was done using a previously validated instrument. Students’ knowledge percentage mean score (PMS on AIDS was 72.93 ± 10.67 reflecting an average level of knowledge. There were many misconceptions about how AIDS is transmitted, for example, use of same toilets and bathrooms and washing clothes together (24.9%, swimming (53.7%, and coughing and sneezing (49.6%. Nursing students reported an overall negative attitude toward AIDS, with a PMS of 43.48 ± 9.21. The majority of students agreed that AIDS patients should be isolated from other patients (83%, and should not share the room with other noninfected patients (81.8%, and some reported that people living with AIDS deserve what has happened to them (24.7%. After controlling for confounders, students’ poor knowledge and negative attitude were associated only with having never been given nursing education as their primary university education “Stream 2 students” (p = .012 and p = .01, respectively. These findings have implications for development of teaching strategies and curricular approaches for nursing to address this health care issue.
This article asserts that pharmacologic usage can be reduced by understanding that pain is composed of somatic, affective, and cognitive elements; the dentist should be assertive in addressing and dealing with the emotional and psychological aspects of the anxious and fearful patient. The dentist can measure levels of anxiety and fear through self-report and records of dental care; an easily administered test of dental anxiety, such as the Dental Anxiety Scale; and a structured interview in a...
Alghamdi, Ahmed Abdullah; Almahdy, Ahmed
Dental caries and obesity are multifactorial diseases that have common risk factors. Studies worldwide reported varied outcomes about the association between dental caries and obesity. There is no published study that investigates this association among schoolchildren in Arabic countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dental caries (DMFT) and body mass index (BMI) for children aged between 14 and 16 years old in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The role of oral hygiene habits, parent's education, sugar consumption and physical activity in causing both diseases was also evaluated. This is a cross-sectional study that involved 610 schoolchildren aged between 14 and 16 years. The children were selected from 12 boy's intermediate schools distributed in Riyadh city. A questionnaire that asked about demographic data, oral hygiene habits, parents' education, sugar consumption and physical activity was distributed. Then, the mean DMFT and BMI were calculated by collecting the information from dental examination, body weight and height. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to explain the relationship between the teeth health and the BMI. Moreover, multivariate linear regression was conducted to model the relationship between DMFT and BMI and the socioeconomic score, sugar consumption and physical activity. The prevalence of dental caries (DMFT > 0) was 54.1%. Around 32% of the schoolchildren were either overweight or obese. A statistically significant association between dental caries (DMFT) and BMI was found (P = 0.008). It was found that obese schoolchildren are 1.79 times higher to be with healthy teeth (P = 0.02). In addition, it was found that schoolchildren with higher socioeconomic status are 1.26 times higher to be with healthy teeth group (P = 0.005). Similarly, schoolchildren who reported that they are using the fluoridated toothpaste were 1.63 times higher to be within the healthy teeth group (DMFT = 0) when everything else is
Woodmansey, Karl F.
Dental anxiety remains a pervasive barrier to dental treatment for many individuals, including college-age patients. In this article, the author reviews dental anxiety and examines the usefulness of assessment instruments for identifying dental anxiety. Using 2 unique assessment instruments, he examines the prevalence of dental anxiety in his…
Detailleur, V; Vansteenkiste, G; Renard, M; Verdonck, A
To describe dental and dentofacial characteristics observed in patients diagnosed with osteopetrosis and to advise a dental care approach in these patients. Four patients were clinically diagnosed with osteopetrosis, characterised by increased bone density, bone marrow failure, blindness and deafness due to compression of cranial nerves. All patients were dentally screened at different ages (2.5-31 years) and three of them were treated with a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the age of 6 months, 1 and 3.1 years. All patients showed similar dental characteristics but varying severity and extent. Dental pits, abnormalities in form, agenesis and enamel deformations are seen. The eruption of the permanent dentition occurs at a slow rate, primary teeth can persist, have no successor, and aberrant form of the primary/permanent teeth can delay eruption. Uneven surfaces and atypical dental crowns combined with visual impairment make brushing of the teeth and plaque removal more difficult to manage. Dental problems such as delay in tooth eruption, crown anomalies and agenesis are seen in the patients diagnosed with osteopetrosis, although the severity and extensiveness of the symptoms differ and possibly depend on the age of the patient at HSCT. Treatment management: Frequent dental follow-up examinations are necessary for guiding the eruption and professional dental cleanings. Aid in the eruption can be helpful. In the case of surgical interventions, an antibiotic prophylaxis is advised. A fluoride treatment can be added to prevent caries. The role of HSCT in dental findings needs further research.
Hayes, P A; Fasules, J
Dental screenings were completed on 209 pediatric patients six months and older that were scheduled for cardiac surgery from two different geographical locations. The screening involved an educational session on bacterial endocarditis and preventive dentistry followed by a dental examination. We found that sixty-two (30 percent) patients had seen a dentist regularly, ninety-three (44 percent) practiced daily oral hygiene and thirty-seven (18 percent) knew about bacterial endocarditis. Local dentists performed invasive procedures on seventy-one (34 percent) patients and thirty-four (48 percent) received antibiotic prophylaxis. Only twenty-three (68 percent) of the thirty-four patients received the then current American Heart Association antibiotic regimen. Dental disease was diagnosed in 175 (84 percent) of the 209 patients: 164 (78 percent) gingivitis; sixty (29 percent) caries; six (7 percent) dental abscess; three (1 percent) periodontal abscess; five (2 percent) periocornitis. Cardiac surgery was postponed in twenty-four (12 percent) patients. We conclude that parents lacked knowledge about bacterial endocarditis even after being informed during their routine cardiology visit, there appears to be a deficiency of knowledge among dentists regarding the indications and antibiotic regimen required to prevent bacterial endocarditis, and all cardiac surgical patients should have a dental exam and preventive dental program implemented prior to six months of age and dental screening prior to their cardiac surgery.
Mari Eli Leonelli de Moraes; Luiz Cesar de Moraes; Gustavo Nogara Dotto; Patrícia Pasquali Dotto; Luis Roque de Araújo dos Santos
...%), suspected anodontia (10.7%), conic teeth (8.3%) and impacted teeth (5.9%). In conclusion, patients with Down syndrome presented a high incidence of dental anomalies and, in most cases, the same individual presented more than one dental anomaly...
Yoshimura, Yasuro; Nariai, Yoshiki; Yoshimura, Hitoshi
To present data on hemodynamic changes during dental extractions in 5 patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, performed with electrocardiogram, heart rate, and blood pressure monitoring throughout the procedures, and to discuss the problems relating to the disease and dental extraction. The medical data for 5 patients, including medical records, physician correspondence, and laboratory data before the treatments, were assessed. Seven dental extractions were then performed while monitoring and recording the hemodynamic conditions. Heart rate, blood pressure, rate pressure products, and electrocardiographic findings were analyzed. Finally, posttreatment evaluations of the general and local conditions of the patients were conducted. All dental extractions were performed in nonactive stable periods, with no remarkable hemodynamic changes or complications, while maintaining a stable hemodynamic state throughout the extraction procedure. All patients received a pretreatment supplement of corticosteroid. Wound healing was similar to that in normal patients under antibiotic prophylaxis against infection originating from the dental extraction wound and the original dental lesion. Pretreatment general evaluation of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis should be performed through various examinations and physician consultation, and a stable hemodynamic change during the surgical procedure should be maintained under any hemodynamic monitors. Corticosteroid supplement and antibiotic coverage are also necessary for safe dental extraction and suitable healing.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with different malignancies but its role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial. This study investigated the prevalence, genotyping and physical state of HPV in ovarian cancer Saudi patients. Methods Hundred formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) ovarian carcinoma tissues and their normal adjacent tissues (NAT) were included in the study. HPV was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerated HPVL1 consensus primer pairs MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6 + to amplify a broad spectrum of HPV genotypes in a single reaction. The HPV positive samples were further genotyped using DNA sequencing. The physical state of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in the samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18. Results High percentage of HPV (42%) was observed in ovarian carcinoma compared to 8% in the NAT. The high-risk HPV types 16, 18 and 45 were highly associated with the advanced stages of tumor, while low-risk types 6 and 11 were present in NAT. In malignant tissues, HPV-16 was the most predominant genotype followed by HPV-18 and -45. The percentage of viral integration into the host genome was significantly high (61.1%) compared to 38.9% episomal in HPV positive tumors tissues. In HPV18 genotype the percentage of viral integration was 54.5% compared to 45.5% episomal. Conclusion The high risk HPV genotypes in ovarian cancer may indicate its role in ovarian carcinogenesis. The HPV vaccination is highly recommended to reduce this type of cancer. PMID:24252426
Conclusion: Diabetic patients with ACS in Saudi Arabia have longer lesions to be treated by IVUS, but no difference in average plaque burden nor remodeling. These findings are likely to impact our understanding of the optimal percutaneous interventions for our diabetic patients.
Al-Shehri, Zaina; Al Zoughool, Mustafa
This study assessed the nature, prevalence, and risk factors of musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) in dental clinics. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 515 dental students and dentists about nature of work and prevalence and frequency of MS symptoms. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association of MS with a number of important variables. Pain in the lower back (64%) and neck (60%) were the most prevalent MS. Working in the dental colleges' clinics was associated with increased risk of MS (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI [1.27, 4.18]). A stronger association was observed for dentists working in the private clinics (adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI [1.28, 5.17]). Female dentists were at more risk of MS than male participants (OR 1.63, 95% CI [1.02, 2.59]). The higher risk of reported MS symptoms in women and for those working in the dental colleges and private clinics underscores the importance of recognition and prevention of MS symptoms even early in the dental profession.
Ashok, Nipun; Rodrigues, Jean Clare; Azouni, Khalid; Darwish, Shorouk; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alkaabba, Abdul Aziz Fahad; Tarakji, Bassel
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a disease caused by beta corona virus. From April 11(th) to 9(th) June 2014, World Health Organization (WHO) reported a total of 402 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS from KSA, out of which 132 cases were reported from Riyadh alone. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and apprehension of patients about MERS visiting Al Farabi College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted which consisted of 10 self-prepared questions. A total of 404 patients participated in this study. Three hundred and forty patients had heard about MERS. Nearly a quarter of the patients (25.74%) were apprehensive about undergoing dental treatment because of MERS. A little more than half of the patients (50.99%) knew that camel was a source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona virus. Most of the patients (80.72%) were aware of the infection control measures to be followed by dentist and 138 patients claimed they took some precaution when present inside the dental college. Majority of the patients had heard about MERS and was aware of the infection control measures. However, some patients were apprehensive about undergoing dental treatment because of MERS. Further steps need to be taken to educate the patient's about transmission of MERS and infection control measures in a dental hospital.
Yagiela, John A; Haymore, T Lant
Hypertension is a common malady and a harbinger of such diseases as heart attack and stroke. Because millions of Americans are not aware they are hypertensive or it is not adequately controlled, dentists can contribute significantly to national health by screening their patients. Dentists must also be cognizant of the implications high blood pressure has for dental practice. Specific treatment recommendations include limiting dental care in patients with severe hypertension, reducing stress, and periodically monitoring blood pressure.
Sam, George; Alghmlas, Abdullah Saud; Alrashed, Muath I; Alaskar, Ziyad A
This cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the specialty chosen by the dental students for postgraduate studies and the future aspirations of students in a Saudi Arabia dental college. Of the total number of 120 questionnaires that were distributed, 107 subjects responded with selective responses and a response rate of 89%. A descriptive survey was conducted using one of the questionnaires among the students of dentistry at the dental college, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj among male students (men's college) for a period of 2 months. The data were analyzed using the statistical software program, predictive analytics software Statistics version 22.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). A hundred and seven of the 120 students took part in the study. A passion for orthodontics (42.9%) was reported to be the most important factor that influenced the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics followed by intellectual stimulation/challenge (25%). The decision to pursue orthodontics was made by 32.1% of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7% took the decision after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3% during a dental residency, whereas 3.6% had already decided before initiating their dental school studies. Working in a private practice environment was preferred by 11 residents (39.3%). Only four residents indicated that they would most likely be practicing in an academic setting while 10 were undecided. The zest for nonclinical specialties is less among students at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University's dental college, Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available These days, treatment in dentistry is no longer for patient without complication, but also for patient with bad medical record. With correct treatment management in handling medical condition of patient, not only for dental treatment but also their systematic disease, all the dental staff also can improve for the better quality of life of the patient. Patient with medical compromised start to realize that keeping good oral hygiene is so important for their lives, therefore dental staff need to improve their science and technology and also for facing patient with medical compromised. This article will discuss and suggest various treatment consideration and protocol for the patient of with medical compromised.
Mohamed M.S. Farag
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major health problem recognized globally. HCV is a common cause of liver fibrosis that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotyping among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients using different molecular techniques. HCV RNA viral load was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technology. For HCV genotyping, RT-PCR hybridization fluorescence-based method and reverse hybridization line probe assay (INNO-LiPA were used. A total of 40 anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C were examined for HCV RNA, genotyping, and different laboratory investigations. In the present study, HCV genotypes 4, mixed 4.1b, and 1 were detected in patients of both countries, while genotype 2 was only detected in Saudi Arabian patients. Genotyping methods for HCV showed no difference in the classification at the genotype level. With regard to HCV subtypes, INNO-LiPA assay was a reliable test in HCV genotyping for the detection of major genotypes and subtypes, while RT-PCR-based assay was a good test at the genotype level only. HCV genotype 4 was found to be the predominant genotype among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients. In conclusion, data analysis for detecting and genotyping HCV was an important factor for understanding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of HCV among Egyptian and Saudi Arabian chronic patients.
Mortell, Manfred; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Ahmad, Chean
To explore the perceptions of patient advocacy among Saudi Arabian intensive care unit (ICU) nurses. Despite advocacy being a crucial role for nurses, its scope is often limited in clinical practice. Although numerous studies have identified barriers to patient advocacy, their recommendations for resolution were unclear. The study employed a constructivist grounded theory methodology, with 13 Saudi Arabian registered nurses, working in critical care, in a tertiary academic teaching hospital. Semi-structured interviews, with broad open-ended questions, and reflective participant journals were used to collect data. All interviews were concurrently analysed and transcribed verbatim. Gender, culture, education, subjugation, communal patronage, organisational support and repercussions, and role-associated risks were all revealed as factors affecting their ability to act as advocates for critically ill patients. Saudi Arabian ICU nurses in the study believed that advocacy is problematic. Despite attempting to advocate for their patients, they are unable to act to an optimal level, instead choosing avoidance of the potential risks associated with the role, or confrontation, which often had undesirable outcomes. Patient advocacy from a Saudi Arabian nursing perspective is contextually complex, controversial and remains uncertain. Further research is needed to ensure patient safety is supported by nurses as effective advocates.
Mehl, Christian J; Harder, Sönke; Kern, Matthias; Wolfart, Stefan
The purpose of this study was to compare the patients' and dentists' perception of dental appearance. Based on internationally accepted guidelines about dental esthetics, a questionnaire was developed to measure "dental appearance" (QDA). Eleven items defined a QDA sum score (0 = "absolutely satisfied", 44 = "absolutely dissatisfied"). The QDA was completed by 16 patients (eight women, eight men, mean age 63 ± 9 years) before and after a complete oral rehabilitation. Forty-two dentists evaluated the esthetics before and after rehabilitation on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0 = "absolutely unesthetic", 100 = "absolutely esthetic"). The patients' quoting showed a significant esthetic improvement (QDA sum score) from 22 before treatment to 3.5 after treatment (P ≤ 0.001). Although most of the dentists judged an improvement in most of the patients dental appearances, no significant correlation could be found between patients' and dentists' judgment regarding dental appearance (r = -0.13-0.53, P > 0.05). When evaluating the influence of age, gender, and experience on rating dental appearance, no significant differences (P > 0.05) could be found.
Zawawi, Khalid H; Afify, Ahmed R; Yousef, Mohammed K; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A
This longitudinal study was aimed to investigate the association between didactic grades and practical skills for dental students and whether didactic grades can reliability predict the dental students' practical performance. Didactic and practical grades for graduates from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, between the years 2009 and 2011 were collected. Four courses were selected: Dental Anatomy, Operative Dentistry, Prosthodontics, and Orthodontics. Pearson product-moment correlation analyses between didactic and practical scores were conducted. There was only a significant correlation between didactic and practical scores for the Dental Anatomy course (Pgrades. Moreover, a poor degree of reliability was found between didactic and practical scores for all subjects. Based on the findings of this study, the relationship between didactic grades and practical performance is course specific. Didactic grades do not reliably predict the students' practical skills. Measuring practical performances should be independent from didactic grading.
Conclusion: In the integrated curriculum, our study highlights the importance of clinical training not only in making dental students competent but also in increasing their confidence in performing clinical procedures.
Tariq M. Alhawassi
Full Text Available Low-quality medicines deliver sub-optimal clinical outcomes and waste precious health resources. It is important to ensure that public funds are spent on healthcare technologies that meet national regulatory bodies such as the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA, quality standards for safety, efficacy, and quality. Medicines quality is a complicated combination of pre-market regulatory specifications, appropriate sourcing of ingredients (active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, excipients, etc., manufacturing processes, healthcare ecosystem communications, and regular and robust pharmacovigilance practices. A recent conference in Riyadh, sponsored by King Saud University, sought to discuss these issues and develop specific policy recommendations for the Saudi 2030 Vision plan. This and other efforts will require more and more creative educational programs for physicians, pharmacists, hospitals, and patients, and, most importantly evolving regulations on quality standards and oversight by Saudi health authorities.
Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro
Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.
Wang, Yi-Chia; Lin, I-Hua; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Fan, Shou-Zen
To offer individualized dental treatment to certain patients who cannot tolerate dental treatment, sedation or general anesthesia is required. The needs could be either medical, mental, or psychological. The most common indications for sedation or general anesthesia are lack of cooperation, multiple morbidities, and pediatric autism. In adults, cognitive impairment and multiple morbidities are most commonly encountered indications. Because of suboptimal home care, incomplete medical history, poor preoperative management, lack of cooperation, and developmental abnormalities, it is a challenge to prepare anesthesia for patients with special needs. The American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) has proposed guidelines for office-based anesthesia for ambulatory surgery. In patients with ASA physical status IV and V, sedation or general anesthesia for treatment in the dental office is not recommended. The distinction between sedation levels and general anesthesia is not clear. If intravenous general anesthesia without tracheal intubation is chosen for dental procedures, full cooperation between the dentist, dental assistant, and anesthesiologist is needed. Teamwork between the dentist and healthcare provider is key to achieve safe and successful dental treatment under sedation or general anesthesia in the patient with special needs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Grönroos, C; Masalin, K
In most industrialized countries the issues of unemployment or under-employment are becoming more critical for the members of the dental associations. In some countries this is creating greater competition between the private practitioners and public health dentists as well as between private dental practitioners themselves. Modern marketing, especially service marketing theory and models, can provide dentists and dental associations with tools to improve their position in relation to patients, political decision makers and other public agencies. However, marketing has to be understood correctly as a philosophy providing a means of approaching the establishing, maintaining and enhancing patient or customer relationships and not as a narrowly defined set of tools. As long as marketing is considered to be external campaigns, such as advertising and not much else, it is bound to fail. Other dimensions of marketing, such as interactive marketing and internal marketing, are of much greater importance to dental practitioners.
Altun, Ceyhan; Guven, Gunseli; Yorbik, Ozgur; Acikel, Cengizhan
The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of traumatic dental injury among Turkish children and young adults with autism and compare this to the general population of Turkish children and young adults without autism. This study was comprised of 186 children and young adults (138 males and 48 females), 93 with autism (autistic group, or AG) and 93 without autism (control group, or CG). Dental injuries were classified according to drawings and texts based on the WHO classification system, as modified by Andreasen and Andreasen. The rate of injury was higher among the AG (23%) than the CG (15%). The difference between the 2 groups, however, was not statistically significant (Pdental injury was enamel fracture. The rate of enamel fracture was higher in the CG (59%) than in the AG (33%), and the distribution of types of traumatic injury differed significantly between the AG and CG (P>.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of traumatic dental injuries among children and young adults with and without autistic disorder. The most frequently injured teeth were the permanent maxillary central incisors, and the frequency of injury to these teeth differed significantly (P>.01) between AG (56%) and CG (91%). The most common type of dental injury, enamel fracture, was more common in CG (59%) than AG (33%). The distribution of types of traumatic dental injuries differed significantly between the 2 groups (P>.01).
Al-Borie, Hussein M; Damanhouri, Amal M Sheikh
Saudi Arabian hospital performance, vis-á-vis patient satisfaction with service provision, has emerged as a key policy and planning concern. Keeping in view public and private hospital service quality, this article seeks to provide guidelines to the on-going Saudi Arabian health service reorganization, which emphasizes decentralization, bed-capacity expansion, research-based policymaking and initiatives in the health insurance sector. The article outlines an empirical study that compares patient satisfaction with service quality in Saudi Arabian public and private sector hospitals. The authors employ a stratified random sample (1,000 inpatients) from five Saudi Arabian public and five private hospitals. Data were collected through questionnaire using the SERVQUAL scale. For reducing the language bias the questionnaire was translated into Arabic. The response rate was 74.9 percent. Data were analyzed using SPSS and appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Cronbach's alpha for five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, safety and empathy) were high and the SERVQUAL instrument proved to be reliable, valid and appropriate. The results showed that sex, education, income and occupation were statistically significant in influencing inpatients' satisfaction, and all the null hypotheses were rejected. Only inpatient age was not significant. The study highlights service quality influence in the design of broader healthcare strategies for Saudi Arabian public and private hospitals. It demands that management researchers and analysts must identify regional service quality consistencies and related inpatient demographic indicators. The study offers some insights into, and guidance for, hospital quality assurance in Saudi Arabia in general and the urban hospital setting in the Middle-East in particular.
Korfage, Anke; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Arends, Suzanne; Meiners, Petra M; Visser, Anita; Kroese, Frans Gm; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan
Background: Limited evidence is available for applying dental implants in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients. Purpose: This study aims to retrospectively assess clinical outcome of implant therapy in a cohort of well-classified patients with SS. Materials and Methods: All SS patients attending the
Yousef A Al-Turki
Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.
Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus
The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.
Alyousef, Yousef M; Borgio, J Francis; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Al-Masoud, Naif; Al-Ali, Ali A; Al-Shwaimi, Emad; Al-Ali, Amein K
The high prevalence of dental caries in children worldwide is a major oral health problem which requires early intervention. Dental caries is mainly caused by the action of acids produced by bacteria in addition to many other factors. Recent genetic studies have reported that a number of genes are associated with the susceptibility to dental caries. The majority of these genes are associated with inflammation, increased susceptibility to infection, and dentine matrix formation. Using the TaqMan assay and direct DNA sequencing, the prevalence of 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP9, MBL2, MMP2, and TIMP2 genes was determined in 102 children with caries and in 100 age-matched caries-free controls. Out of the 6 SNPs tested in the 4 selected genes, only rs11003125 in the MBL2 gene was shown to be associated with a high prevalence of caries in our cohort. In addition, haplotype analysis of the 6 SNPs tested revealed that certain haplotypes, namely GT of rs11003125G and rs7501477T and GT of rs7096206G and rs7501477T, were found to be associated with a high prevalence of dental caries in our cohort, while haplotype AG of rs17576A and rs7501477G was found to have a protective effect against dental caries. In conclusion, the data indicate that rs11003125 in the MBL2 gene was shown to be associated with a high prevalence of caries in our cohort, and 2 haplotypes are also involved in the increased susceptibility to dental caries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mohamed A. Elkablawy
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate Ki67 immunoexpression pattern in Saudi breast cancer (BC patients and investigate any possible predictive or prognostic value for Ki67. Methods: This is a retrospective study designed to quantitatively assess the Ki67 proliferative index (PI in retrieved paraffin blocks of 115 Saudi BC patients diagnosed between January 2005 and March 2015 at the Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital, Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Ki67 PI was correlated with individual and combined immunoprofile data of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu with their clinicopathological parameters. Results: Ki67 immunoreactivity was highly expressed (greater than 25% of the tumor cells were positive in 85 (73.9% patients. The Ki67 PI was significantly associated with poor prognostic clinicopathological parameters including old age (p less than 0.02, high tumor grade (p less than 0.01, lymph node metastasis (p less than 0.001, and Her-2/neu positivity (p less than 0.009. However, the association with ER positivity, PR positivity, tumor size, and lymphovascular invasion were not statistically significant. The Ki67 PI was significantly associated with BC molecular subtypes that were Her2/neu positive (luminal B and HER-2 subtypes compared with the Her2/neu negative (luminal A subtype (p less than 0.04. Conclusion: The Ki67 PI is significantly higher in Saudi BC patients comparing with the reported literature. Ki67 PI was highest in the HER-2 and luminal-B molecular subtypes. Along with other prognostic indicators, Ki67 PI may be useful in predicting prognosis and management of Saudi BC patients.
Allam, Safaa; Moharam, Maha; Alarfaj, Gada
Family physician advice and follow-up may be important to reduce the negative aspects of locally marketed herbal remedies and improve the patient outcome. There is a lack of studies assessing the preference of Saudi patients for the integration of herbal medicine into primary care services. To examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of Saudi patients toward herbal medicine and its integration into primary care services. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2013 among adult patients attending the family medicine clinics at a primary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire (27 items) was developed and administered to all patients. A total of 240 patients were included in the current analysis. The average age was 33.5 ± 9.9 years, and 61% of the patients were women. Approximately 60% of the patients were aware of herbal medicine use and its possible side effects. More than 85% of the patients believed that herbal containers should be labeled with safety information. Approximately 71% of the patients had a favorable attitude toward integrated services. Approximately 65% of the patients used herbal remedies for themselves, and 42% used them for their children. Preference for integrated services was significantly associated with female sex, better knowledge, positive attitudes toward safety and regulations, and higher level of practice. A good knowledge and a very favorable attitude toward integrating herbal medicine into primary care services were found among a group of patients attending a primary care center in Saudi Arabia. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yoshimura, Fernanda Cortinhas; Cunha, Victor do Espirito Santo; Hahnstadt, Ruppert Ludwig; Pires, M?rio Cezar
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with oral sensitivity are common in our practice. Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent etiologies. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate oral contact dermatitis using the Brazilian standard series and complementary dental series in patients using dental prostheses, with or without oral complaints. Determine specific dental Brazilian series. METHODS: Patients using dental prostheses with or without oral complaints realized patch tests. Brazilian standard ser...
Alsulaimani, Reem Siraj; Al-Manei, Kholod Khalil; A Alsubait, Sara; AlAqeely, Razan Shafik; A M Al-Shehri, Sharifa; M Al-Madi, Ebtissam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of training duration and case difficulty on the radiographic quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students in Saudi Arabia. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted at King Saud University. Root canal treatments performed by 55 dental students from 2012-2014 were included in the study. Each student treated at least five teeth during the first year of clinical endodontic training and another five teeth during the second year. Case difficulty was assessed based on tooth position in the dental arch and preoperative conditions. The radiographic quality of the root canal filling was evaluated by two endodontists blinded to treatment completion date. The evaluation criteria were adequate obturation, presence of mishaps and preparation taper. The data were statistically analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses; and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Inadequate obturation and mishaps were significantly less prevalent in teeth treated after 2 years of clinical training. The odds ratios for inadequate obturation and mishaps increased significantly as tooth position moved posteriorly. Inadequate obturation and more mishaps were significantly more prevalent in teeth with preoperative conditions. Preparation taper was not significantly affected by training duration or case difficulty. The quality of root canal fillings performed by Saudi students was adversely affected by case difficulty. The radiographic quality of root canal fillings improved significantly after 2 years of clinical training. Preparation taper outcome is likely dependent on the preparation technique and instrument taper.
Escoda-Francolí, Jaume; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Araceli; Pérez-García, Silvia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Gay-Escoda, Cosme
A study is made of the dental implications of oral cancer, with a view to avoiding the complications that appear once oncological treatment is started. The study comprised a total of 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer according to clinical and histological criteria in the Service of Maxillofacial Surgery (Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona, Spain) during the period 1996-2005, and posteriorly treated in different hospital centers in Barcelona. Of the 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer in our Service, the present study finally analyzed the 12 subjects who reported for the dental controls. As regards the remaining 10 patients, 5 had died and 5 could not be located; these subjects were thus excluded from the analysis. All of the smokers had abandoned the habit. The most common tumor location was the lateral margin of the tongue. None of the patients visited the dentist regularly before the diagnosis of oral cancer. T1N0M0 was the most common tumor stage. Surgery was carried out in 50% of the cases, while 8.4% of the patients received radiotherapy and 41.6% underwent surgery with postoperative radiotherapy. In turn, 66.6% of the patients reported treatment sequelae such as dysgeusia, xerostomia or speech difficulties, and one patient suffered osteoradionecrosis. Forty-one percent of the patients did not undergo regular dental controls after cancer treatment. As regards oral and dental health, 16.6% presented caries, and 50% had active periodontal disease. Protocols are available for preventing the complications of oral cancer treatment, and thus for improving patient quality of life. However, important shortcomings in the application of such protocols on the part of the public health authorities make it difficult to reach these objectives.
Full Text Available Dental treatment of patients with leukemia should be planned on the basis of antineoplastic therapy which can be chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Many are the oral manifestations presented by these patients, arising from leukemia and/or treatment. In addition, performing dental procedures at different stages of treatment (before, during, or after must follow certain protocols in relation to the haematological indices of patients, aimed at maintaining health and contributing to the effectiveness of the results of antineoplastic therapy. Through a literature review, the purpose of this study was to report the hematological abnormalities present in patients with leukemia, trying to correlate them with the feasibility of dental treatment at different stages of the disease. It is concluded in this paper that dental treatment in relation to haematological indices presented by patients with leukemia must follow certain protocols, mainly related to neutrophil and platelet counts, and the presence of the dentist in a multidisciplinary team is required for the health care of this patient.
Almontashiri, Naif A M; Alswaid, Abdulrahman; Oza, Andrea; Al-Mazrou, Khalid A; Elrehim, Omnia; Tayoun, Ahmad Abou; Rehm, Heidi L; Amr, Sami S
PurposeHearing loss is more prevalent in the Saudi Arabian population than in other populations; however, the full range of genetic etiologies in this population is unknown. We report the genetic findings from 33 Saudi hearing-loss probands of tribal ancestry, with predominantly prelingual severe to profound hearing loss.MethodsTesting was performed over the course of 2012-2016, and involved initial GJB2 sequence and GJB6-D13S1830 deletion screening, with negative cases being reflexed to a next-generation sequencing panel with 70, 71, or 87 hearing-loss genes.ResultsA "positive" result was reached in 63% of probands, with two recurrent OTOF variants (p.Glu57* and p.Arg1792His) accountable for a third of all "positive" cases. The next most common cause was pathogenic variants in MYO7A and SLC26A4, each responsible for three "positive" cases. Interestingly, only one "positive" diagnosis had a DFNB1-related cause, due to a homozygous GJB6-D13S1830 deletion, and no sequence variants in GJB2 were detected.ConclusionOur findings implicate OTOF as a potential major contributor to hearing loss in the Saudi population, while highlighting the low contribution of GJB2, thus offering important considerations for clinical testing strategies for Saudi patients. Further screening of Saudi patients is needed to characterize the genetic spectrum in this population.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 19 October 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.143.
Atia, Gahder-Sara; May, Joanna
Exposure to excessive fluoride intake during the early childhood years can disrupt the normal development of enamel, resulting in dental fluorosis. This varies in severity, ranging from white opacities in mild cases to more severe black and brown discoloration or enamel pitting. This article aims to give the reader a better understanding of the aetiology, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient. Fluorosis can have a marked effect on dental aesthetics. The prevalence of fluorosis in the United Kingdom may increase following the publication of Delivering Better Oral Health, published by the Department of Health in 2007, which suggested changes to fluoride levels in children's toothpastes. This article highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of fluorosis and also explains the treatment options available to paediatric patients.
Girlaine Nunes Alves
Full Text Available This study proposed evaluates the perception of smile attractiveness between the patients dentistry and the influence of the media in the same opinion. The patients were randomly selected and interviewed using a direct approach while waiting for care. After answering the questionnaire, patients rated ten photographs extraoral of smile. The pictures were selected so that the lips, teeth and gingival tissue could be seen clearly, each picture having a different characteristic. Among the patients interviewed, 66.67% reported being satisfiedwith the aestheticsof the smile.Of the participants, 80% emphasized thewhitish color, the shape of teeth and the dental alignmentas factorsthat leavethe most beautiful smile. The teethamounted to55% of the answersgivenregarding themost attractivefacial feature, followedbyface shape(18.33%, mouth(15% and the eyes(11.67%. The patients interviewed admiring smiles showing teeth whitened and well aligned. Furthermore, the media have greatly influenced the patients' opinion regarding dental esthetics and smile.
Mosa Alrifai; Ahmed Alhadi; Mohammed Alhadi; Ahmed Aldarweesh; Abdulaziz Aleid; Fatimah Alshehri; Renata Chałas
... of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. The authors collected and analyzed the dental history of patients who had been treated at the university dental clinic in Lublin throughout 2013 and 2014...
BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Alassiri, Suhail S.; Al-Adab, Aisha H.; Alsadhan, Ibrahim M.; Altheyab, Abdullah M.; Alrayes, Abdalla H.; Alkhawajah, Mohammad M.; Olaish, Awad H.
Objectives: To evaluate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance and define predictors of CPAP compliance among Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after applying an educational program. Methods: This prospective cohort study included consecutive patients diagnosed to have OSA based on polysomnography between January 2012 and January 2014 in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All patients had educational sessions on OSA and CPAP therapy before sleep study, and formal hands-on training on CPAP machines on day one, day 7, and day 14 after diagnosis. The follow-up in the clinic was carried out at one, 4, and 10 months after initiating CPAP therapy. Continuous positive airway pressure compliance was assessed objectively. Logistic regression model was used to assess the predictors of CPAP adherence. Results: The study comprised 156 patients with a mean age of 51.9±12.1 years, body mass index of 38.4±10.6 kg/m2, and apnea hypopnea index of 63.7±39.3 events/hour. All patients were using CPAP at month one, 89.7% at month 4, and 83% at month 10. The persistence of CPAP-related side effects and comorbid bronchial asthma remained as independent predictors of CPAP compliance at the end of the study. Conclusion: With intensive education, support, and close monitoring, more than 80% of Saudi patients with OSA continued to use CPAP after 10 months of initiating CPAP therapy. PMID:26219440
Full Text Available The promoter region of human Interleukin −10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 ± 12.43 years and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of healthy controls and Vitiligo patients visiting out patient clinic of Department of Dermatology, Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, using QIA ampR DNA mini kit (Qiagen CA, USA. Interleukin-10 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using Arms primers to detect any polymorphism involved at positions −592, −819 and −1082.
Al Moamary, Mohamed S
Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews. Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (+/-18.7) were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5%) of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group (P = 0.029) and among those with longer duration of disease (P = 0.009). However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV(1), or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%), honey (24.5%), herbs (23.5%), cautery (12%), and blackseed (10%). There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities. Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.
Diz, Pedro; Scully, Crispian; Sanz, Mariano
.... The degree of systemic disease-control may be far more important that the nature of the disorder itself, and individualized medical control should be established prior to implant therapy, since in many of these patients the quality of life and functional benefits from dental implants may outweigh any risks.
Rodríguez Martínez, Sandra; Talaván Serna, Julio; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier
The present article makes a brief review about dental management of the patients with cirrhosis. It focus on problems related with infections, haemorrhagic events and treatment with drugs of common use in odontology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Aim: To assess patient satisfaction on dental services among secondary school students. Design: Cross-sectional study. Study participants: 200 Secondary school students in Makambako township randomly selected from school class registers. Methods: Self-administered structured questionnaire in a class room. Reliability ...
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim was to understand dental students’ experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students’ confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice. Methods: The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student’s confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident. A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted. Results: The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%, understanding extraction indications (93.8%, and performing simple extractions (90.6%. Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%, extracting molars with separation (50.0% or extracting third molars (56.3%. The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55, ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student’s confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003. Conclusion: It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students’ confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.
Aim: To determine patient satisfaction among dental patients treated at the School of Dentistry, MUHAS. Study design: Cross-sectional clinic based study. Study participants and methods: Two hundred twelve dental patients aged 18 years and above who attended the oral surgery and restorative dental clinics were given a ...
Mutzbauer, Till S; Imfeld, Thomas
It has long been a standard procedure to replace coumarin by heparin if a patient using this oral anticoagulant had to undergo dental surgery. The Quick-Value had then to exceed a certain limit before surgery could be safely performed. Today this procedure has changed in that a switch to heparin is only made for invasive and large area surgery. Simple dental extractions, small biopsies and periodontal treatments are performed under continuous oral anticoagulation and local hemostyptic measures are applied. It has been shown that the likelihood of postoperative bleeding complications after adequate local hemostasis during dental surgery is much lower than is the risk of thrombosis or embolic complication following cessation of anticoagulant medication before surgery.
Hafez M Ghanem
Results : From 474 patients, 20 (4.2% had a noncancer diagnosis. The main reason for the referral of noncancer patients was pain control. The most prevalent diagnoses were sickle cell disease (SCD in 6 (30% patients and peripheral arterial disease (PAD in 5 (25%. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the PC needs of noncancer patients are largely unmet in our region. Further efforts are necessary to advance noncancer PC in Saudi Arabia. The PC needs of patients with SCD and PAD need to be addressed in future research.
Bahammam, Maha A; Linjawi, Amal I
To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and barriers using evidence based practice (EBP) by future Saudi dentists and physicians. A questionnaire adapted from an EBP questionnaire was distributed to dental and medical final year students and new graduates at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during the 2012 to 2013 academic year. The questionnaire consisted of 14 multiple-choice questions, and 2 open ended questions and was divided into 5 sections assessing different categories. Data were grouped as dental (DS) and medical (MS) students. Descriptive and group comparison statistics were conducted. Out of 400, 297 students responded (DS=207, MS=90) with a 74% response rate. The students' knowledge and attitude were low with no significant difference between the 2 groups. Students` knowledge and attitudes towards EBP were assessed: EBP course attendance (DS=40.1%, MS=13.3%; p=0.000), reading journals (DS=6.3%, MS=3.3%; p=0.313), awareness of EBP components (DS=7.7%, MS=0%; p=0.332), and awareness towards the strongest evidence for EBP (DS=58.9%, MS=53.3%; p=0.370). More than half of the students in both groups did not use EBP in their treatment (DS=85%, MS=84.4%; p=0.842). The greatest reported barriers were; EBP is difficult to understand (DS=88.9%, MS=72.2%; p=0.000), and no time (DS=54.6%, MS=46.7%; p=0.210). The reported knowledge and attitudes among the junior health care physicians is considered below the required competency standards. These findings highlight the urgent need for changes in the current educational strategies to assure successful implementation of EBP in Saudi Arabia.
Jones, Vickie E; Karydis, Anastasios; Hottel, Timothy L
Interprofessional and intraprofessional education (when students from two or more professions or within the same profession, respectively, learn about, from, and/or with each other) is crucial for effective interdisciplinary collaboration. The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of a clinical intraprofessional education program for dental and dental hygiene students, based on students' expectations and satisfaction with the program and patients' satisfaction with the team-based care. The pilot program was developed at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Dentistry, where dental hygiene students were paired randomly with dental students scheduled for prophylaxis, scaling and root planing, or periodontal maintenance. Surveys with questions about the students' expectations and satisfaction were distributed to 89 senior dental students and 27 senior dental hygiene students before and after team-based procedures. Another survey was distributed to 17 patients asking about their satisfaction with the team-based care. All 27 dental hygiene students (100% response rate), 51 dental students (57.3% response rate), and all 17 patients (100% response rate) participated in the surveys. The results showed that both the dental and dental hygiene students had high expectations and were overall satisfied with the intraprofessional education. The students' expectations and perceived educational gap (difference between expectations and satisfaction) differed for the dental and dental hygiene students (ppatients were overwhelmingly satisfied with the team-based care. These results suggest that this intraprofessional practice model provided an effective educational experience for both dental and dental hygiene students and patients. The differences between the dental hygiene and dental students' expectations will help in the design of more effective training that promotes intraprofessional and interprofessional teamwork.
Renal involvement in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Proteinuria is common in patients with SCD and is a risk factor for future development of renal failure. We sought to identify risk factors, if any, associated with proteinuria in adult Saudi patients with SCD. We studied 67 patients with SCD followed-up at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients underwent 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantify proteinuria. In addition, blood was examined for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Clinical information was gathered from review of the patients' charts. A urine protein level of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours was considered abnormal. Urine protein was correlated with various clinical and laboratory parameters. Thirty-one males and 36 females were evaluated. The mean age of the cohort was 23.8 (± 7.2) years. Twenty-seven patients (40.3%) had proteinuria of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours. The study group had a mean hemoglobin level of 8.5 (± 2.8) g/dL and mean fetal hemoglobin (HbF) level of 14.4% (± 7.3%). Majority of the patients (61) had hemoglobin SS genotype and six patients had S-ß⁰ thalassemia. None of the parameters evaluated correlated with proteinuria although there was a borderline association with older age and higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.073 and 0.061 respectively). Hydroxyurea use for more than a year was not beneficial. In conclusion, our study suggests that proteinuria in adult Saudi patients is not associated with any clear identifiable risk factors.
Saatchi, Masoud; Abtahi, Mansoureh; Mohammadi, Golshan; Mirdamadi, Motahare; Binandeh, Elham Sadaat
Background: Dental anxiety and fear are major complications for both patient and dental care provider. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear in patients who referred to Isfahan Dental School and their relation to their age, gender, educational level, past traumatic experiences and frequency of dental visits. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 473 patients were provided with a questionnaire including three sections. First section contained questions concerning their age, gender, educational level, frequency of dental visits, reasons for irregular attendance and existence of past traumatic experiences. Second section comprised a Farsi version of Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS); and third included a Farsi version of dental fear survey (DFS). Data were analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The prevalence of dental anxiety among the study population was 58.8%. No correlation was found between age and MDAS (r = −0.08, P = 0.07) and DFS (r = −0.03, P = 0.53). Women demonstrated higher anxiety (P dental anxiety (r = −0.046, P = 0.32) and dental fear (r = −0.017, P = 0.79). Previous traumatic experiences were found to result in elevated anxiety and fear (P dental attendance and anxiety (r = −0.128, P = 0.008). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, anxiety associated with dental treatment was widespread in the study population. Dental fear and anxiety were not affected by age or education level. Dental fear and anxiety were higher in women. In addition, people who visited the dentist more regularly and individuals without previous traumatic dental experiences were less anxious. PMID:26005465
T Maheswaran; M Jonathan Daniel; N R Bhat; S V Srinivasan
Dental patients with a significant medical condition like hypertension are more likely to be encountered in the dental office. Those with very high blood pressure are at great risk for acute medical problems while receiving dental treatment. Adverse oral effects and drug interactions of antihypertensive medications further indicates special considerations for the hypertensive patient. This article highlights the recent advances in the dental management of hypertension. It is important for the...
Ashi, Heba; Campus, Guglielmo; Bert?us Forslund, Hel?ne; Hafiz, Waleed; Ahmed, Neveen; Lingstr?m, Peter
Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary reco...
Tellez, Marisol; Kinner, Dina G; Heimberg, Richard G; Lim, Sungwoo; Ismail, Amid I
To examine the prevalence of dental anxiety and its associations with pain and other psychological variables among patients seeking dental treatment and develop a directed acyclical graph of these relationships. One hundred and twenty patients who sought regular or emergency dental care completed a semi-structured interview assessing DSM-IV specific phobia of dental procedures and questionnaires assessing dental anxiety, pain at last dental visit, blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia, social appearance anxiety, and other psychological constructs. Differences between regular and emergency patients were explored using t-tests. Potential excess risk of dental anxiety due to interactions between pain and psychological processes was explored. Finally, multivariate linear regression was conducted. Thirty-five percent of participants came for emergency care. Almost half (49.2%) reported moderate or high anxiety, and 20% met criteria for specific phobia. The relationship between pain at the last dental visit and dental anxiety scores was confounded by social appearance anxiety and BII phobia. The dental anxiety-pain response may be affected by psychological processes such as social appearance anxiety and BII phobia. Targeting these related psychological constructs may improve the management of anxiety treatment among adult patients seeking dental care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Azad, Taif Anwar; Sultan, Tahira; Kalantan, Hatem; Kondkar, Altaf A; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M
Keratoconic corneas exhibit more mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage than do normal corneas and thus mtDNA may represent a potential candidate for genetic susceptibility studies in keratoconus. To test this hypothesis we determined mitochondrial haplogroups in Saudi patients with keratoconus and healthy controls of same ethnicity. Mitochondrial haplogrouping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based automated Sanger sequencing in 114 patients with keratoconus and 552 healthy controls. Mitochondrial haplogroups H and R were significantly overrepresented in patients with keratoconus (28.9% vs. 8.5%, P keratoconus. In addition, the results provide further evidence for a plausible role of mtDNA in keratoconus etiology.
Jazieh, Abdul Rahman; Al Sudairy, Reem; Abulkhair, Omalkhair; Alaskar, Ahmed; Al Safi, Faisal; Sheblaq, Nagham; Young, Susan; Issa, Maher; Tamim, Hani
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common among patients with cancer. However, the issue is not well-studied among the Saudi patient population. Our study aimed at determining the patterns of CAM use among patients with cancer in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using interview-administered questionnaire was conducted in patients with cancer in the Oncology Department of King Abdulaziz Medical City for National Guards, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients were asked about CAM use including dietary supplement (DS) and non-DS remedies. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify predicting factors for CAM use. A total of 453 adult patients were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 53.5 years (14.7-94.6), and the ratio of females to males was 271/182 (59.8%/40.2%). Of those, 410 patients (90.5%) used some type of CAM remedy. Non-DS remedies were used by 399 patients (88%) and were mainly of a religious nature including reciting the Quran (74.8%), prayer (16%), supplication (13%), and others (3.7%). However, 386 patients (85.2%) used DS including: Zamzam water (59.8%), honey (54.3%), black seed (35.1%), water with the Quran recited over it (29.8%), and other remedies. The majority of patients (90%) used CAM as a cancer treatment and the rest used it for various reasons, such as symptom control or supportive treatment. Only 18% of the patients discussed CAM use with their physicians, compared to 68% discussing it with religious clergypeople (Sheikhs).The univariate analysis revealed that only female gender is a predictor of CAM use, which remained significant in a multivariate analysis, in addition to current employment. The use of complementary therapies among Saudi patients with cancer is highly prevalent, with a predominance of interventions of religious background, indicating the strong influence of religion on peoples' lives, especially when people are faced with life-threatening illnesses.
Darwazeh, A M; Hamasha, A A; Pillai, K
To assess the prevalence of taurodontism in a group of Jordanian adult dental patients. Posterior periapical radiographs of 875 unselected dental patients were examined for the presence of taurodontism defined as the presence of an apically displaced pulp chamber without the usual constriction at the cemento-enamel junction. Taurodontism was detected in 8% of subjects and 4.4% of the teeth examined. The maxillary second molar was the most commonly affected tooth. It was equally distributed between males and females (7.9% compared with 8.1% respectively, P > 0.05). 26.7% of the taurodont teeth also had pulp stones or calcifications. Taurodontism is not uncommon in Jordan but further larger scale studies are required to assess its prevalence in the general population to compare it with other ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Walid Ahmed Abdullah,1,2 Hesham Khalil1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Warfarin is one of the most common oral anticoagulants used to prevent thromboembolic episodes. The benefits of discontinuation of this drug before simple surgical procedures are not clear and this approach could be associated with complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of bleeding in a series of 35 patients (in cases where the international normalized ratio [INR] is less than 4 following simple tooth extraction without modification of the warfarin dose given to patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients taking warfarin who had been referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, for dental extractions were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included patients with an INR of ≥4 or with a history of liver disease or coagulopathies. No alteration was made in warfarin dose, and the CoaguChek System was used to identify the INR on the same day of dental extraction. Bleeding from the extraction site was evaluated and recorded immediately after extraction until the second day. Results: A total of 35 patients (16 women and 19 men aged between 38 and 57 years (mean =48.7 were included in the present study. All patients underwent simple one-tooth extraction while undergoing warfarin treatment. Oozing, considered mild bleeding and which did not need intervention was seen in 88.6% of patients. Moderate bleeding occurred in 11.4% of all cases. The INR of the patients ranged from 2.00 to 3.50, with 77.2% of patients having INR between 2.0 and 2.5 on the day of extraction. No severe bleeding which needed hospital management was encountered after any of the extractions. The patients who suffered moderate
Babgi, Amani A
Cancer is one of the major health problems throughout the world. The number of cancer patients is increasing, out of the estimated nine million new cancer cases every year, more than half are in developing countries. The majority of these patients are incurable by the time their disease is diagnosed. Therefore, cancer mortality is expected to continue to rise in those regions of the world (WHO, 2002). In Saudi Arabia, the latest report from the Saudi Cancer Registry SCR for 2004 registered 9,381 new cases, of these cases 7,138 were Saudis. The crude incidence rate CIR of all cancers among Saudis was 41.9/100,000. The total number of adult cancer incidence cases reported was 8595, and for children were 713 cases (NCR, 2004). The most common feared symptom encountered in advanced cancer is pain. Through their perpetual encounter with pain, advanced cancer patients usually maintain different coping behaviors. Internationally speaking, there are limited researches and investigations that deal with cancer pain, and the importance of using adaptive coping behaviors to control it. In Saudi Arabia, specifically, pain coping behaviors has never been assessed or discussed before, so is the impact of cancer pain on the quality of life. The presence of any maladaptive coping behaviors with cancer pain will interfere with the patient's life style and their quality of life, and will affect the nurse's role in caring, planning, and implementing effective nursing interventions to reduce and control cancer patient's pain. A descriptive design was used for this study to assess the pain coping behavior Among Saudi patients suffering from advanced cancer. The study was conducted at the two tumor centers which deal with cancer patients in Jeddah City. A convenient sample of 132 patients with advanced cancer who were returning to the clinics, radiation therapy and medical oncology departments of the aforementioned tumor centers were included in the study. Data were collected by an
Ibrahim Suliman Al-Aboudi
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35% respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3% were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22 was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20. The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia.
Mohammad, Yousef; Al-Ahmari, Ahmed; Al-Dashash, Fahad; Al-Hussain, Fawaz; Al-Masnour, Firas; Masoud, Abdullah; Jradi, Hoda
Traditional medicine (TM) has been established as a two-edged sword. On one edge numerous forms of TM have been proven safe and effective, while on the other edge various modes of TM have been shown to be futile and potentially dangerous. Resorting to TM, especially for chronic diseases, is common world-wide and includes Saudi Arabia. Most neurological diseases are chronic. No data is available on the utilization of TM among patients with neurological disorders. We conducted this study to assess for the prevalence, pattern, perception and triggers for TM use by the adult Saudi patients with neurological disorders. A survey written in Arabic and comprised of 15 questions was used to collect data on the practice of TM among the neurology patients of King Saud University Ambulatory Clinic. The questions in the survey pertain mainly to the frequency of TM practice, its form and the patient's opinion of this practice. The data was collected through a face to face interview by three medical students who were instructed on the survey questions prior to the launch of the study. 292 patients completed the survey (35.9% males and 64.0% females). 67% (n = 196) of the sample used TM. Cupping or what is commonly known as "hojamah" was the most prevalent method (45.4%) followed by herbs, skin cauterization and the Reciting of the Holy Quran (42.3%, 33.7% and 20.4% respectively). The prevalence of TM use did not differ across gender (chi-sq = 2.02; p-value = 0.15), level of education (chi-sq = 4.02; p-value = 0.40), health status (chi-sq = 2.29; p-value = 0.68), age groups (chi-sq = 5.12; p-value = 0.16), or perception toward TM (chi-sq = 2.67; p-value = 0.26) in this population. The practice of TM is common among the neurology patients of Saudi Arabia. Cupping, herbs, and skin cauterization, which can be harmful when wrongly employed, are frequently utilized in this patient population. Measures and policies to endorse the appropriate use of TM by Saudi society must be
Joshi, Vinod K
The need to deliver cancer treatment promptly often requires modification of ideal dental treatment plans. Treatment planning and preventive care is crucial and needs to be done before radiotherapy in order to avoid complications such as osteoradionecrosis. Rapid delivery of this dental care can only be achieved if oral care is given adequate priority in the patient care pathway. Few cancer centres have the resources to provide comprehensive dental care and thus, in most circumstances, this care has to be provided by the patient's dentist and dental care professional, with advice from the local dental oncology specialist team. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haitham I. Sakr
Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of clopidogrel non-response and identify its risk factors among Saudi patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and June 2013, to assess the degree of platelet inhibition using the VerifyNow assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA, USA after receiving clopidogrel standard loading dose. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as ≤15% platelet inhibition or greater than 213 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU. Results: Three hundred and four patients were included in the study. The mean age was 60.3 ± 11.4 years, and 73% were males. Clopidogrel doses were 300 mg (57%, 600 mg (27%, and 75 mg (16%. All patients used aspirin (81 mg in 94%. Approximately 66% (200/304 showed in vitro clopidogrel non-response, 54% had low platelet inhibitions, and 61% had high post-loading PRU. Using multivariate regression analysis that included all significant characteristics; only diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-4.27, p=0.005 and higher preloading PRU (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.40-4.11, p=0.002 remained significantly associated with higher clopidogrel non-response while myocardial infarction (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.81, p=0.014 remained significantly associated with lower clopidogrel non-response. The associations of morbid obesity and diuretics use with higher clopidogrel non-response were slightly attenuated. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high rate of clopidogrel in-vitro non-response among Saudi patients undergoing coronary angiography.
Sakr, Haitham I.; Alamri, Hussein S.; Almoghairi, Abdulrahman M.; Alkhudair, Ashraf A.; AlMasood, Ali S.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of clopidogrel non-response and identify its risk factors among Saudi patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January and June 2013, to assess the degree of platelet inhibition using the VerifyNow assay (Accumetrics, San Diego, CA, USA) after receiving clopidogrel standard loading dose. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as ≤15% platelet inhibition or >213 P2Y12 reaction units (PRU). Results: Three hundred and four patients were included in the study. The mean age was 60.3 ± 11.4 years, and 73% were males. Clopidogrel doses were 300 mg (57%), 600 mg (27%), and 75 mg (16%). All patients used aspirin (81 mg in 94%). Approximately 66% (200/304) showed in vitro clopidogrel non-response, 54% had low platelet inhibitions, and 61% had high post-loading PRU. Using multivariate regression analysis that included all significant characteristics; only diabetes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-4.27, p=0.005) and higher preloading PRU (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.40-4.11, p=0.002) remained significantly associated with higher clopidogrel non-response while myocardial infarction (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.15-0.81, p=0.014) remained significantly associated with lower clopidogrel non-response. The associations of morbid obesity and diuretics use with higher clopidogrel non-response were slightly attenuated. Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high rate of clopidogrel in-vitro non-response among Saudi patients undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:26837400
Full Text Available Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,1 Madonna J Matar,2 Rima Moghnieh,3 Adel F Alothman,4 Thamer H Alenazi,5 Fayssal Farahat,1 Shelby Corman,6 Caitlyn T Solem,6 Nirvana Raghubir,7 Cynthia Macahilig,8 Seema Haider,9 Jennifer M Stephens6 1Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, 3Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanese Republic; 4Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Central Region, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, 5Infection Prevention & Control Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh (KAMC, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 6Real World Evidence: Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, 7Medical Affairs, Pfizer, New York, NY, 8Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 9Outcomes & Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities, treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials, hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay, and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality. Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results: Chart
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to determine whether patients with Gaucher disease had significant dental pathology because of abnormal bone structure, pancytopenia, and coagulation abnormalities. Methods Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination in addition to a routine hematological evaluation. Results Gaucher patients had significantly fewer carious lesions than otherwise healthy carriers. Despite prevalence of anemia, there was no increase in gingival disease; despite the high incidence of thrombocytopenia, gingival bleeding was not noted; and despite radiological evidence of bone involvement, there was no greater incidence loss of teeth or clinical tooth mobility. Conclusions These data represent the first survey of the oral health of a large cohort of patients with Gaucher disease. It is a pilot study of a unique population and the results of the investigation are indications for further research. Based on our findings, we recommend regular oral examinations with appropriate dental treatment for patients with Gaucher disease as for other individuals. Consultation between the dentist and physician, preferably one with experience with Gaucher disease, should be considered when surgical procedures are planned.
Manor, Yifat; Simon, Roy; Haim, Doron; Garfunkel, Adi; Moses, Ofer
Dental implant insertion for oral rehabilitation is a worldwide procedure for healthy and medically compromised patients. The impact of systemic disease risks on the outcome of implant therapy is unclear, since there are few if any published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective of this study is to investigate the rate of complications and failures following dental implantation in medically compromised patients in order to elucidate risk factors and prevent them. A retrospective cohort study was conducted from patient files treated with dental implantation between the years 2008-2014. The study group consisted of medically complex patients while the control group consisted of healthy patients. Preoperative, intraoperative, and post operative clinical details were retrieved from patients' files. The survival rate and the success rate of the dental implants were evaluated clinically and radiographically. A total of 204 patients (1003 dental implants) were included in the research, in the study group, 93 patients with 528 dental implants and in the control group, 111 patients with 475 dental implants. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding implant failures or complications. The failure rate of dental implants among the patients was 11.8 % in the study group and 16.2 % in the control group (P = 0.04). It was found that patients with a higher number of implants (mean 6.8) had failures compared with patients with a lower number of implants (mean 4.2) regardless of their health status (P dental implantation in medically complex patients and in healthy patients. Medically complex patients can undergo dental implantation. There are similar rates of complications and failures of dental implants in medically complex patients and in healthy patients.
Full Text Available Background: Patients with thalassemia major needs more dental care due to their medically compromised condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dental health and dental treatment needs of these patients at Zahedan university school of Dentistry in 2009.Materials and Method: In this descriptive-analytical study, 75 patients with thalassemia major were selected in which 42 boys and 33 girls with mean age of 10.79±6.2 referred to community dentistry center as the case group and 75 patients' relatives referred to Zahedan school of Dentistry as the control group. Two groups matched for age and sex. The studied variables were patient's educational level and their parents, dental caries and treatment needs. Statistical analysis was carried out by chi-squared test and t-test.Results: Thalassemic patient had increased average dental caries and missing (d=2.24, m=0.13, D=2.49, M=0.52 than the control group (d=2.13, m=0.05, D=0.97, M=0.35. Pulp therapy was the most needed treatment in patient group and in the other group filling dental caries was needed more. Conclusion: According to the high incidence of dental caries in patient with thalassemic major, effective preventive measures, health education and dental treatment are needed for this group.
Al Malki, Adel; Endacott, Ruth; Innes, Kelli
To examine attitudes to patient safety in two intensive care units from the perspective of health care professionals in Saudi Arabia. Despite adverse errors leading to poor patient outcomes, there is a paucity of literature, including staff perceptions, on adverse errors in Saudi Arabian intensive care units. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Health professionals (n = 144) completed the safety attitude questionnaire-intensive care unit. The scores from the six safety domains of the safety attitude questionnaire-intensive care unit showed all respondents had a negative attitude towards patient safety, with participants in one intensive care unit scoring lower in all domains. The mean scores across all domains ranged from 47.1 to 70.3 on a 100-point scale, with the lowest score reported in the "perceptions of management" domain. Respiratory therapists reported a significantly higher job satisfaction score than nurses, and physicians rated communication amongst themselves and nurses as high. There are significant challenges for safety culture in this study, with negative attitudes across all domains. Managers may need to review and consider policies relating to safety culture including workforce planning, leadership and patient centred care. Further research into this global health priority is required to contribute to improving patient safety in intensive care units. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kalogirou Eleni-Marina; Sklavounou Alexandra
Background/Aim: Dental implants are a reliable treatment choice for rehabilitation of healthy patients as well as subjects with several systemic conditions. Patients with oral mucosal diseases often exhibit oral mucosal fragility and dryness, erosions, blisters, ulcers or microstomia that complicate the use of removable dentures and emphasize the need for dental implants. The aim of the current study is to review the pertinent literature regarding the dental implantation prospects for patient...
Al-Saud, Loulwa Mohammed Saad
The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of first-year dental students and their relation to gender and past academic performance. A total of 113 first-year dental students (forty-two female, seventy-one male) at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated. The Visual, Aural, Read-write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire was used to determine the students' preferred mode of learning. This sixteen-item questionnaire defines preference of learning based on the sensory modalities: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. More than half (59 percent) of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20 percent) followed by kinesthetic (15.2 percent). Gender differences were not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean values of GPA in relation to the students' learning style preferences (p=0.019). Students with a single learning style preference had a lower mean GPA than those with multiple (quad-modal) learning style preferences. For effective instruction, dental educators need to broaden their range of presentation styles to help create more positive and effective learning environments for all students.
Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Naseeb, Al-Johara M.; Ali M. Almajwal; Mai N. Al-Mummar; Alhamdan, Adel A; Mohammed A. Al-Saif; Alorf, Sada M.
Malnutrition is highly prevalent in dialysis patients, and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. We have investigated the inter-relationship between malnutrition and its impact on morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We enrolled 60 PD patients, and measured C-reactive protein (CRP) and various nutritional markers, including pre-albumin. Patients were classified into two groups according to the albumin level since albumin is a good marker of nutrition conditi...
Khalid A. Al-Rubeaan
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels.
Shahid, Mohammad; Balto, Hanan A; Al-Hammad, Nouf; Joshi, S; Khalil, Hesham Saleh; Somily, Ali Mohammed; Sinjilawi, Nasr Abdul-Aziz; Al-Ghamdi, Sameer; Faiyaz-Ul-Haque, Muhammad; Dhillon, Varinderpal S
Tooth agenesis in human being is the most common congenital anomaly associated with dental development. Mutations in many genes such as MSH homeobox 1 (MSX1), paired box gene 9 (PAX9), ectodysplasin A (EDA) and EDA receptor (EDAR) have been associated with familial form of this condition. However, in large majority of patients, genetic cause could not be identified. The primary aim of present study was to identify the causative mutation(s) in these genes in Saudi Arabian families diagnosed with non-syndromic form of disease. Direct sequencing of coding regions, including exon-intron boundaries of these genes was carried out. All identified nucleotide variations were also tested to exclude possibility of being rare polymorphisms. The sequence analysis of exons and exon-intronic regions of these genes revealed five new mutations that include four in MSX1, one in PAX9 and one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in majority of the patients in MMP20. One novel mutation in exon 1 of MSX1 gene (5354C > G; A40G) was found in three patients. In addition, another novel mutation was detected in two patients in exon 3 (PAX9) as g.10672A > T which changes asparagine to isoleucine at position 40. These mutations were not found in any of the control subjects. A single SNP in MMP20 genes (g.5066A > C) that changes lysine to threonine at position 18 was found in 10% controls as well. Our results for the first time demonstrates that mutations in MSX1 gene might play an important role in hypodontia cases involving pre-molars and is a risk factor for this ethnic population mainly of Arabs and is first report linking these mutations with tooth agenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mun, S-J; Chung, W-G; Min, S-H; Park, J-K; Kim, C-B; Kim, N-H; Seo, H-Y; Chang, S-J
To develop a dental hygiene care programme based on the specific needs of patients with mental disorders and to suggest practical guidelines to improve the oral health care of these patients. A total of 73 patients with mental illness participated in the study. The patients were randomly classified into three groups and followed over 12 weeks at 4-week intervals. A newly designed dental hygiene care programme using flash-based video, brochures and a toothpick method was implemented by five dental hygienists. Plaque index, stimulated saliva, subjective oral dryness and dental caries activity were analysed as outcome variables. Results showed that the dental plaque index significantly decreased after each session (P plaque index of patients with mental disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seyed Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes and other risk factors in patients with dental infections.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 patients who preferred in maxillofacial word of shariaty hospital with acute dental infections in 9 months. A self-administered questionnaire was administered during a dental appointment in order to gather demographic information and recorded past history of systemic disease, OPG radiography, gingival examination, and the result of lab tests such as CBC , FBS, PT, Bilirubin , Creat, T3, T4, TSH, HIVAb and HBSAg.Results: 28% of the subjects and diabetes, 28% Anemia, 4% Hepatitis and 4% suffered from thyroid deficiency.28% were smokers and 18% declared using alcohol. 6% of this population was addicted to narcotic substances.There was a significant correlation between age, education, diabetes and dental infections (P<0.05. DMFT forpeople with dental infections without any systemic disease were 8, for diabetic patients, smokers and alcohol users were respectively 17.16, 17 and 14.Conclusion: Diabetes found highly prevalent in patients with dental infection and high DMFT.It indicates a need to establish a comprehensive oral health promotion program based on whole examination and blood glucose control in diabetic patients who have acute dental infection by collaboration between dental and general health care professionals. Moreover, it is recommended that all patients should be educated in dental and oral health forprevention of dental infections.
Crofts-Barnes, N P; Brough, E; Wilson, K E; Beddis, A J; Girdler, N M
Little is known about the anxiety patients experience before attending for dental treatment. The aim of this study was to determine, in dentally phobic patients, the temporal relationship of pre-operative anxiety levels, and the disruption to daily life caused by this. Twenty-four phobic and 19 comparison (non-phobic) dental patients were recruited. Four validated questionnaires were used to assess anxiety and quality of life, which each patient completed for 5 days prior to, and on the day of, treatment. Those in the experimental group were found to have significantly greater levels of dental and general anxiety, and a significantly lower quality of life compared with those in the comparison group. Significant temporal relationships were found with all of the questionnaires. Dental and general anxiety scores were significantly correlated with quality-of-life measures. This study suggests that phobic dental patients are experiencing significant increased anxiety, and significant negative quality-of-life effects, in this period.
Johnson, Judy A.; And Others
The literature on the use of standardized patients, lay persons trained to portray a particular patient, is reviewed, focusing on their use in medical education and potential applications in dental education. A test of 80 dental students using standardized patients is also described and evaluated. (MSE)
Abdulaziz A. AlBaker
Conclusions: Most of the dental care in Saudi Arabia is provided by non-Saudi dentists in both private and public health sectors. With the rising unemployment rate among Saudi dentists, the governmental bodies that are responsible of dental labor market regulations such as the ministries of health, economy and planning, and labor should come up with a policy to gradually but carefully replace the non-Saudi dentists in both public and private sectors with Saudi dentists.
Halvari, Anne E Münster; Halvari, Hallgeir; Williams, Geoffrey C; Deci, Edward L
To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in relative autonomous locus of causality (RALOC) predicting increases in caries competence, which in turn would positively predict dental attendance; (2) RALOC negatively predicting dental anxiety, which would negatively predict dental attendance; (3) RALOC and caries disease referred to the dentist after an autonomy-supportive clinical exam directly positively predicting dental attendance; and (4) the intervention moderating the link between RALOC and dental attendance. A randomised two-group experiment was conducted at a dental clinic with 138 patients (Mage = 23.31 yr., SD = 3.5), with pre- and post-measures in a period of 5.5 months. The experimental model was supported. The SDT path model fit the data well and supported the hypotheses explaining 63% of the variance in dental attendance. Patients personality (RALOC) and hygienists promoting oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, performance of autonomy-supportive clinical exams and reductions of anxiety for dental treatment have important practical implications for patients' dental attendance.
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Alshahrani, Rabab T; Almutairi, Zainab M; Hijazi, Raid A; Alaskar, Ahmed S
Aim This study aimed to (i) assess the level of patient satisfaction and its association with different sociodemographic and healthcare characteristics in an emergency care centre (ECC) in Saudi Arabia and (ii) to identify the predictors of patients' satisfaction. Methods A prospective cohort study of 390 adult patients with Canadian triage category III and IV who visited ECC at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1 July and end of September 2011 was conducted. All patients were followed up from the time of arrival at the front desk of ECC until being seen by a doctor, and were then interviewed. Patient satisfaction was measured using a previously validated interview-questionnaire, within two domains: clarity of medical information and relationship with staff. Patient perception of health status after as compared with before the visit, and overall life satisfaction were also measured. Data on patient characteristics and healthcare characteristics were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used, and significance was considered at p≤0.05. Results One-third (32.8%) of patients showed high level of overall satisfaction and 26.7% were unsatisfied, with percentage mean score of 70.36% (17.40), reflecting moderate satisfaction. After adjusting for all potential confounders, lower satisfaction with the ED visit was significantly associated with male gender (psatisfaction was not a significant predictor of patient satisfaction. Conclusions An appreciation of waiting time as the only significant modifiable risk factor of patient satisfaction is essential to improve the healthcare services, especially at emergency settings. PMID:27480456
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Alshahrani, Rabab T; Almutairi, Zainab M; Hijazi, Raid A; Alaskar, Ahmed S
This study aimed to (i) assess the level of patient satisfaction and its association with different sociodemographic and healthcare characteristics in an emergency care centre (ECC) in Saudi Arabia and (ii) to identify the predictors of patients' satisfaction. A prospective cohort study of 390 adult patients with Canadian triage category III and IV who visited ECC at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1 July and end of September 2011 was conducted. All patients were followed up from the time of arrival at the front desk of ECC until being seen by a doctor, and were then interviewed. Patient satisfaction was measured using a previously validated interview-questionnaire, within two domains: clarity of medical information and relationship with staff. Patient perception of health status after as compared with before the visit, and overall life satisfaction were also measured. Data on patient characteristics and healthcare characteristics were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used, and significance was considered at p≤0.05. One-third (32.8%) of patients showed high level of overall satisfaction and 26.7% were unsatisfied, with percentage mean score of 70.36% (17.40), reflecting moderate satisfaction. After adjusting for all potential confounders, lower satisfaction with the ED visit was significantly associated with male gender (p<0.001), long waiting time (p=0.032) and low perceived health status compared with status at admission (p<0.001). Overall life satisfaction was not a significant predictor of patient satisfaction. An appreciation of waiting time as the only significant modifiable risk factor of patient satisfaction is essential to improve the healthcare services, especially at emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Omer S. B. Alamoudi
Conclusions: Pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and interstitial lung disease were the most common abnormalities seen in RA patients. The presence of comorbidity, male gender, and ExRA was significantly associated with lung involvement.
Abdulaziz M. Al-Othman
Full Text Available Malnutrition is highly prevalent in dialysis patients, and a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. We have investigated the inter-relationship between malnutrition and its impact on morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We enrolled 60 PD patients, and measured C-reactive protein (CRP and various nutritional markers, including pre-albumin. Patients were classified into two groups according to the albumin level since albumin is a good marker of nutrition condition: Group I (n = 32 patients with normal albumin (NAP where the albumin level was above or equal to 35 g/L and Group II (n = 28 patients with low albumin level (LAP less than 35 g/L. The level (mean ± SD of blood urea nitrogen was significantly high (p < 0.05 in NAP group (19.9 ± 5.76 mmol/L compared with LAP group (15.9 ± 6.32 mmol/L. Data showed that, the mean of creatinine was significantly high (p < 0.01 in NAP group (921 μmol/L compared with LAP group (584 μmol/L (Table 2. There was a trend toward association of elevated CRP with all-cause mortality in PD patients. It is useful to incorporate albumin and CRP in the regular assessment of PD patients, whose survival may be improved by better management of malnutrition.
Al-Mohrej, Omar A; AlShaalan, Nouf S; Al-Bani, Waad M; Masuadi, Emad M; Almodaimegh, Hind S
Studies have shown that dentists have a higher incidence of work-related musculoskeletal (MSK) pain than those in other occupations. The risk factors contributing to MSK pain among Saudi dentists has not been fully studied so this study aims to estimate the prevalence of MSK pain and investigate its associated risk factors among dentists in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the capital city Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using random cluster sampling. 224 surveys were distributed among dentists with a 91.1% response rate (101 women and 103 men). The prevalence of MSK pain and its associated risk factors were investigated. 184 (90.2%) respondents reported having MSK pain. Lower back pain was the most commonly reported MSK pain (68.1%). Gender and age were reported to be predictors for at least one type of MSK pain. Older age was associated with lower back pain (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.50) and women had double the risk of shoulder pain (OR 2.52; 95% CI 1.12 to 5.68). In addition, lower back pain was related to the time the dentist spent with patients (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.54), while shoulder pain (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) and lower back pain (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10) were significantly related to years of experience. MSK pain is common among older and female Saudi dentists. Research on the impact of exercise and the ergonomics of the workplace on the intensity of MSK pain and the timing of its onset is required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Health professionals in Ireland are increasingly concerned about the quality of oral health in older patients. The aim of this study is to identify the obstacles that face this age-group when accessing dental care, so that we are in a better position to address them. A questionnaire was completed by 105 patients attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. Over 50 percent of respondents had not attended a dentist in over 36 months, for the reasons that \\'I have no problem or need for treatment’ (62%) and ‘I have no teeth, and therefore I have no need to go’ (54%). While it is common to assume that no teeth means no need to see a dentist, research shows that regular dental visits are vital for ensuring the early screening of oral cancer and other mucosal pathologies, and the optimisation of existing rosthesis\\/restorations. The chief recommendation of this paper is thus to provide better education and access to older people on the importance of visiting the dentist.
Riley, Joseph L; Gordan, Valeria V; Rindal, D Brad
The authors conducted a study to identify components of patient satisfaction with restorative dental care and to test the hypothesis that certain dentist, patient and procedure factors are associated with patient satisfaction.......The authors conducted a study to identify components of patient satisfaction with restorative dental care and to test the hypothesis that certain dentist, patient and procedure factors are associated with patient satisfaction....
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request... patient satisfaction with VA's dental services. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence...
Abdullah M Al-Shehri
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and patterns of dyslipidemia in Saudi patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study, which was conducted on all Saudi patients who underwent coronary angiography under the author′s personal care and were found to have > 50% coronary stenosis. Fasting lipid profile was measured in all patients during the admission for the coronary angiography. Results: Two hundred and ninety-five patients were included in the study. The mean age (±Standard deviation was 55.1 ± 11, ranging from 17 to 86 years. The majority of patients were males: 229 (77.6%. Mean total cholesterol was 175.6 ± 47.6 mg/dl, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was 111.3 ± 40.3 mg/dl, mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was 38.27 ± 9.5 mg/dl and mean triglyceride level was 141.8 ± 74.8 mg/dl. 21 (7.1% patients had normal coronary arteries, 107 (36.3% had one vessel disease, 78 (26.4% had two vessel disease and 89 (30.2% had three vessel disease. There was a significant correlation between the extent of CAD and age (P = 0.003, sex (P = 0.0002, total cholesterol (P = 0.02 and low HDL-C (P < 0.001. 21 (7.1% patients were asymptomatic, 110 (37.3% had stable angina, 127 (43.1% had none ST elevation acute coronary syndrome, 20 (6.8% had ST elevation myocardial infarction and 17 (5.7% had heart failure. There was also a significant correlation between age (P = 0.03, sex (P < 0.001, LDL-C (P = 0.005 and low HDL-C (P < 0.001 and the severity of CAD. Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is a very prevalent risk factor in Saudi patients with CAD. Low HDL-C was the most frequent lipid abnormality, which significantly impacts on the extent of the CAD.
Huraib, Sahar Bin; Nahas, Nadia Al; Al-Balbeesi, Hana O; Abu-Aljadayl, Faida Moawia; Vellappally, Sajith; Sukumaran, Anil
Awareness of gender- or nationality-driven preconceptions can help dentists to have a better interpretation of the dentist-patient relationship. It is even more noteworthy to understand these predilections in Saudi society, where women and men are usually segregated due to religion- and culture-based considerations. This study is one of the first to explore the preferences of patients when selecting a dentist with respect to gender and nationality in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 445 community residents residing in Riyadh were randomly selected for a cross-sectional study. The participants completed a survey designed to assess which of two factors (gender and/or nationality) were perceived as most relevant in choosing a dentist. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. Female participants did not show any preference for the gender of the dentist, whereas 40% of the male participants preferred a male dentist. Participants also favored male dentists in the felds of oral surgery (78.9%), implants (74.1%), endodontics (67.5%), orthodontics (65.8%) and prosthodontics (64.2%). An exception was noted in pediatric dentistry, for which female dentists were favored by 52.8% of the participants. Additionally, most (66.1%) participants did not have any preference for the nationality of the dentist. Riyadh residents showed a general preference for a male dentist but demonstrated no preference for nationality when selecting a dentist.
Sep 3, 2013 ... Methods: Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) results of 108 patients with clinical suspicion of food allergy who were specifically screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King. Khalid University Hosptial between January 2008 and ...
deaths occurred in babies born to patients with gestational diabetes. Conclusion- Gestational diabetes accounted for all the feta] losses in this study, while polyhydramnios was the most common antenatal complication which was signiﬁcantly higher in type 1 diabetics. Keywords: Pregnancy, Gestational diabetes, Antenatal.
Background: Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. Objectives: To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients ...
Thikriat S. Al-Jewair
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA among dental patients and investigate factors associated with high-risk OSA. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between October and December 2014. A total of 200 consecutive female and male dental patients were included in this study. Subjective and objective assessments were carried out. Habitual snoring and risk of OSA were assessed using the Arabic version of the Berlin questionnaire. Two trained investigators carried out the objective measurements of anthropometric data, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and clinical examination of upper-airway, and dental occlusion. Results: Habitual snoring was present in 18.2% of the females and 81.8% of the males (p less than 0.05. Breathing pauses during sleep of more than once a week occurred in 9% (n=17 of the sample. Of the males, 78.3% were at high risk of OSA compared with 21.7% of the females. Multivariate analysis for risk of OSA revealed that obese patients were almost 10 times more likely to report OSA symptoms than their non-obese counterparts (odds ratio: 9.9, 95% confidence intervals: 4.4-22.1. Tongue indentations, tonsil size, and a high Epworth Sleepiness Scale score were also independent risks of OSA. Conclusion: Tongue indentations and tonsil grades III and IV were significantly associated with risk of OSA. This validates the important role of dentists in the recognition of the signs and symptoms of OSA.
Coke, John M; Karaki, Donald T
Asthma is increasing worldwide at a dramatic rate. The way the medical community defines asthma is changing, from considering it solely a respiratory disease to recognizing it as a more complex inflammatory disease process. This means that the treatment of asthma is becoming multifocal, depending upon the varied symptoms displayed. Reflecting this change is a shift to the use of corticosteroids in addition to the more traditional pulmonary medications. Dentists should be aware of the newer classifications and treatment modalities. There needs to be an understanding of the role these pharmaceutical agents play in the needs and treatment of our dental patients. Recent trends in the diagnosis and management of asthma are examined and recommendations for managing the asthmatic patient are provided.
Herman, W W; Konzelman, J L; Sutley, S H
Despite approximately 40 years of experience with oral anticoagulant drugs, controversy still exists about the safety of dental treatment in a patient receiving this therapy. The authors review the topic in depth and offer detailed recommendations for the dental management of patients receiving coumarin anticoagulant therapy.
Miyawaki, T.; Kohjitani, A.; Maeda, S.; Egusa, M.; Mori, T.; Higuchi, H.; Kita, F.; Shimada, M.
The poor quality of oral health care for people with intellectual disability (ID) has been recognized, and the strong fears about dental treatment suggested as a major reason for disturbances of visits to dentists by such patients. Intravenous sedation is a useful method for relieving the anxiety and fear of such patients about dental treatment,…
The aim was to investigate the perception on halitosis among dental patients attending Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) dental clinic. A total of 200 patients aged 18+ years of whom 41.5% were males and 58.5% were females were randomly selected. A pre-structured questionnaire in Kiswahili language was ...
Finnema, KJ; Raghoebar, GM; Meijer, HJA; Vissink, A
Purpose: The aim of this retrospective report was to evaluate the treatment outcome of oral rehabilitation with dental implants in oligodontia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirteen oligodontia patients treated with dental implants were examined clinically and radiographically (follow-up 3 +/- 2
Full Text Available Dental patients with a significant medical condition like hypertension are more likely to be encountered in the dental office. Those with very high blood pressure are at great risk for acute medical problems while receiving dental treatment. Adverse oral effects and drug interactions of antihypertensive medications further indicates special considerations for the hypertensive patient. This article highlights the recent advances in the dental management of hypertension. It is important for the dentist to be aware of hypertension in relation to the practice of dentistry.
Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M; Kalantan, Hatem; Azad, Taif Anwar; Sultan, Tahira; Abu-Amero, Khaled K
We investigated Saudi patients with familial and sporadic Keratoconus for mutations in the Superoxide dismutase 1, soluble (SOD1) gene. We sequenced the entire coding region, exon-intron boundaries and intron 2 encompassing a 7-bp deletion in clinically confirmed Keratoconus patients (n = 55) and 100 ethnically matched healthy controls. All cases and controls were unrelated. Sequencing the SOD1 gene revealed the presence of four nucleotide changes and all were non-coding. Those were g.12035 C > A; g.13978 T > A; g.12037 G > A and g.11931 A > C with similar frequencies in patients and controls. All four sequence changes were benign polymorphisms with no apparent clinical significance. Additionally, the 7-bp deletion in intro2 reported previously, were not detected in any of our Keratocnus cohort. In our Keratoconus cohort, no pathogenic SOD1 mutation(s) was identified.
Key words: Dental plaque, oral health education, oral hygiene, patient education, tooth-brushing. Date of Acceptance: 28-Sep-2015. Address for correspondence: Prof. F Salama,. Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontic,. College of Dentistry, King Saud University, P. O. Box 60169,. Riyadh 11545, Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the leading cause of death in Saudi Arabia as elsewhere. Although, many studies found that South Asians had increased rates of ACS, others did not. The aim of the study is to explore the extent of difference between South Asians and Saudi presentation and risk factors of ACS patients. Materials and Methods: All patients who were diagnosed as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI based on World Health Organization (WHO criteria in 6 month period were included in the study. Results: A total of 190 patients confirmed ACS were included; 121 (63.70% were Saudi, 50 (26.3% were South Asians, and 19 (10.0% were other Arab nationalities. The mean age was 53.9 (SD 14.6. Out of the total South Asians 82% had normal body mass index (BMI ( P = 0.000. Saudi patients were the lowest of the three groups who smoked cigarette and/or shisha (26.6%; P = 0.000. 52.9% of Saudi patients were diabetics and 41.3% were hypertensive ( P = 0.004. More South Asians were presented with chest pain (94% vs 76%. Discussion: South Asians had a double rate of ACS incidence; they were younger, lower socio-economic status, more cigarette smokers, and less diabetics and hypertensive than other patients. An association between the apolipoprotein E (apoE genotype with the incidence of ACS in young South Asian is proposed. Conclusion: South Asians had double rate of ACS incidence; they were younger, lower socio-economic status, more cigarette smokers, and less diabetics and hypertensive than other patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentistry in Australia combines business and health care service, that is, the majority of patients pay money for tangible dental procedures such as fluoride applications, dental radiographs, dental fillings, crowns, and dentures among others. There is evidence that patients question dentists’ behaviours and attitudes during a dental visit when those highly technical procedures are performed. However, little is known about how patients’ experience dental care as a whole. This paper illustrates the findings from a qualitative study recently undertaken in general dental practice in Australia. It focuses on patients’ experiences of dental care, particularly on the relationship between patients and dentists during the provision of preventive care and advice in general dental practices. Methods Seventeen patients were interviewed. Data analysis consisted of transcript coding, detailed memo writing, and data interpretation. Results Patients described their experiences when visiting dental practices with and without a structured preventive approach in place, together with the historical, biological, financial, psychosocial and habitual dimensions of their experience. Potential barriers that could hinder preventive activities as well as facilitators for prevention were also described. The offer of preventive dental care and advice was an amazing revelation for this group of patients as they realized that dentists could practice dentistry without having to “drill and fill” their teeth. All patients, regardless of the practice they came from or their level of clinical risk of developing dental caries, valued having a caring dentist who respected them and listened to their concerns without “blaming” them for their oral health status. These patients complied with and supported the preventive care options because they were being “treated as a person not as a patient” by their dentists. Patients valued dentists who made
Turki A. Alzahrani
Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV among female patients, age 18-60 years, attending primary health care centers (PHCCs and to measure its determinants, and reporting behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using validated, translated, and self-administered questionnaire among 497 Saudi female patients attending PHCCs in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA from January to February 2015 was employed. A 2-stage probability sampling was adopted for selection of PHCCs in the first stage, and then participants in the second stage. Results: The estimated prevalence of IPV during the last year was 11.9%. Predictors of IPV related to abused women included divorced status and divorced parents; while those related to abusers (husbands included widowed parents, exposure to violence in childhood, and alcohol or drugs addiction. Most of the abused wives (56% talked regarding their IPV to their families, their husbands’ families (15.2%, or their friends (11.8%; while only a minority (3.3% complained to the police or to a judge, and no one reported this to a family physician, or to women protection agency. Conclusion: One out of 10 women is a victim of IPV in Taif, KSA. Intimate partner violence is significantly associated with a number of victim and abuser-related psychosocial factors, the detection of which might help screening for individuals at risk.
Mohammed Thamer AlShahrani
Full Text Available Dental erosion is the chemical dissolution of the tooth structure. Factors like eating disorders and gastrointestinal diseases are recognized as intrinsic factors for dental erosion. Advanced stages of dental erosion extensively damage the tooth morphology, consequently affecting both esthetics and functions. Reports indicate the growing prevalence of erosion, and hence knowledge of restorative rehabilitation of tooth erosion is an integral part of the contemporary dental practice. This clinical report describes an adult patient with gastroesophageal reflux induced dental erosion involving the palatal surface of the maxillary anterior teeth. The extensive involvement of the palatal surfaces compromised the esthetics, incisal guidance, and functional occlusal efficiency. Indirect all-ceramic restorations were utilized to restore the esthetics and occlusal reconstruction. In conclusion, patients affected by severe dental erosion require prosthetic rehabilitation besides the management of the associated medical condition.
AlHadi, Ahmad N; AlAteeq, Deemah A; Al-Sharif, Eman; Bawazeer, Hamdah M; Alanazi, Hasan; AlShomrani, Abdulaziz T; Shuqdar, Raafat M; AlOwaybil, Reem
Psychological disorders including depression and anxiety are not rare in primary care clinics. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a clinical diagnostic tool that is widely utilized by primary health care physicians worldwide because it provides a practical in-clinic tool to screen for psychological disorders. This study evaluated the validity of the Arabic version of the PHQ in all six modules including depression, anxiety, somatic, panic, eating, and alcohol abuse disorders. This is a quantitative observational cross-sectional study that was conducted by administrating the translated Arabic version of PHQ to a sample of King Saud University students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The sample was 731 university students who participated in this study including 376 (51.6%) females and 354 (48.4%) males with a mean age of 21.30 years. Eight mental health experts carried out the face validation process of the PHQ Arabic version. The internal consistency reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha for the PHQ9, GAD7, PHQ15, and panic disorder modules. The results were 0.857, 0.763, 0.826, and 0.696, respectively. In comparison, the eating disorders and alcohol abuse modules demonstrated poor internal consistency due to small number of participants in these modules. This study demonstrates that the Arabic version of the PHQ is a valid and reliable tool to screen for depression, anxiety, somatic, and panic disorders in a Saudi sample.
Al Mochamant Iosif-Grigorios; Fotopoulos Ioannis; Zouloumis Lampros
Dental treatment of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can be complicated because of the presence of behavioural unpredictability. This article reviews the present literature on the issues dealt with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The prevalence of autism is rising worldwide. Consequently, dentists will find an increasing number of such children in their routine practice, whose treatment will require special considerations in their dental mana...
Full Text Available Introduction: The basic knowledge about cardiovascular diseases (CVD s, the symptoms and complications that can occur during dental interventions in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and how to handle such patients during the dental intervention are essential to every dentist. Dental patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases that are not adequately treated have a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular event during the dental intervention. Results: The most common cardiovascular diseases that need special dental care are: arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, heart rhythm disorders and heart failure. Conclusion: Particular attention is needed when patients are treated with anticoagulant and /or antiplatelet therapy or when prevention of bacterial endocarditis is required.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ≤ 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ≤ 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The
Thukral, Rishi; Kumar, Anuj; Prasant, M C; Punjabi, Krunal M; Paliwal, Aparna; Patel, Kunal
One of the most common and effective ways of replacing missing teeth is by dental implants. Both quality and quantity of bone along with the area of implant placement govern the prognosis of the implant procedure. Certain risk factors predispose the implant treatment to high failure rate. Hence, we assessed the implant patients who were referred from private practitioners to the specialty hospitals from 2010 to 2014. All the patients being referred from private clinics to the specialty dental hospital for the purpose of prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants from June 2010 to July 2014 were included in the present study. Skilled oral and maxillofacial surgeons were appointed for performing the implant surgical procedures. Prosthetic rehabilitation was done after 6 to 8 weeks and after 10 to 14 weeks in implant cases without and with bone augmentation procedures respectively. Distribution of dental implants based on the indications, location, dimension of augmentation procedure, and complication of implants was analyzed and assessed for the level of significance. Of the patients, 712 were females, while the remaining were males. Most of the patients were in the age group of 50 to 59 years. As compared with completely edentulous patients, most of the patients required rehabilitation by a single implant. Maximum dental implants were placed in maxillary premolar region and mandibular first molar region. Over 1,000 cases in this study required rehabilitation by augmentation procedure. Partially edentulous patients are most commonly referred to specialized dental hospitals for prosthetic rehabilitation by dental implants, mostly with the purpose of implant placement. Failure rate can be minimized by following strict patient selection protocols along with following a standard surgical criterion. Following standard surgical protocols and strict treatment planning, prognosis of the dental implant procedures can be improved to a greater extent, thereby increasing its
Krikheli, N I; Karamysheva, E I; Lukina, G I; Dubova, L V
The aim of the study was to assess the mineral composition of mixed saliva in dental fluorosis patients undergoing treatment with microabrasion and bleaching. The study included 60 patients aged 18-35 years with various forms of dental fluorosis. Group 1 included 40 patients in which enamel microabrasion was performed, group 2 - 20 patients with microabrasion and bleaching. Mixed saliva composition was analyzed with Olimpus automatic analyzing device. Dental fluorosis treatment in both groups resulted in saliva mineral composition changed associated with enamel demineralization which proves the necessity for calcium and phosphate containing compositions in these treatment groups.
Emine Buket Şahin
Full Text Available Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP. Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our results. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with OLL or OLP and 30 healthy control subjects, who had at least one dental restoration material and/or dental filling, were included in the study. Both groups received standard series and dental patch test and the results were evaluated simultaneously. Results: The most frequent allergens in the dental series patch test in the patient group were palladium chloride (n=4; 12.12% and benzoyl peroxide (n=2, 6.06%. Of the 33 patients with OLL; 8 had positive reaction to allergents in the standard patch test series and 8 had positive reaction in the dental patch test series. There was no significant difference in the rate of patch test reaction to the dental and standard series between the groups. Ten patients were advised to have the dental restoration material removed according to the results of the patch tests. The lesions improved in three patients [removal of all amalgam dental fillings (n=1, replacement of all amalgam dental fillings with an alternative filling material (n=1 and replacement of the dental prosthesis (n=1] following the removal or replacement of the dental restoration material. Conclusion: Dental patch test should be performed in patients with OLL and dental restoration material. Dental filling and/or prosthesis should be removed/replaced if there is a reaction against a dental restoration material-related allergen.
Bruins, H.H. (Hubert Herman)
This thesis presents a series of studies that investigated preradiation dental decision making in patients with head and neck cancer. In Chapter 1, it is ascertained that in view of the risk for oral sequelae resulting from high-dose radiotherapy, special attention to preradiation dental planning
Hong, C.H.L.; Hu, S.; Haverman, T.M.; Stokman, M.; Napeñas, J.J.; Bos-den Braber, J.; Gerber, E.; Geuke, M.; Vardas, E.; Waltimo, T.; Jensen, S.B.; Saunders, D.P.
Introduction: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. Review method: A literature search was conducted in the
Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the dat...
Dental implant treatment is one of the most reliable therapeutic options for replacing missing teeth. In 2003, it was demonstrated that osteonecrosis of the jaw(ONJ)occurred in patients taking bisphosphonates(BRONJ). Recently, ONJ has also been demonstrated to occur in patients taking anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand antibody(denosumab:DRONJ). However, the precise mechanisms of ONJ remain unclear and definitive treatment strategies for ONJ have not been developed. There has been little information regarding the relationship between ONJ and dental implant treatment. However, a recent systematic review indicated that dental implant treatment is a triggering factor for BRONJ. The aim of this study was to provide the most current information on dental implant treatment in patients receiving anti-resorptive agents. A literature search has suggested that implant treatment becomes a risk factor for BRONJ around dental implants. Implantitis may also be a risk factor for BRONJ around dental implants. No available information regarding DRONJ around dental implants was noted. Hence, caution should be exercised when dental implant treatment is carried out in the patients taking anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates and denosumab.
El Batawi, Hisham Yehia; Panigrahi, Priyankar; Awad, Manal A.
Purpose: To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents? satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and af...
Indriasti Indah Wardhany
Full Text Available Leukemia is myeloproliferative disorders characterized by differentiation and proliferation of malignantly transformed hematopoetic stem cells, leading to suppression of normal cells, causing anemia, thrombocytopenia, and deficiency of normally functioning leukocytes. It has been classified as either acute or chronic and by cell type. The etiology of leukemia, in most cases, is unknown. Dental management of consideration of the leukemic patient should include history, examination, and screening laboratory tests. This case report is about dental management needs on several cases of hospitalized leukemic patients. Most of the patients have had oral hygiene and need an invasive dental treatment. Although, based on laboratory tests and patient overall condition, these patients considered as high-risk patients, the dentists should perform dental to prevent further oral infection severity.
Al Wakeel, Jamal; Al Harbi, Ali; Bayoumi, Magda; Al-Suwaida, Karaem; Al Ghonaim, Mohammed; Mishkiry, Adel
Quality of life (QoL) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is an important outcome for both physicians and patients in selecting dialysis modality. We conducted a comparison between regular maintenance hemodiaylsis and regular peritoneal dialysis patients in two tertiary referral hospitals in King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. We hypothesize that there might be cultural and socioeconomic factors modifying QoL in dialysis patients. Cross-sectional study on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. Two hundred dialysis patients participated in the study, one hundred in each group of dialysis modality, from July 2007 to July 2008. We used a cross-sectional design and collected the date using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQoL SF) questionnaire. Patients in both groups had similar sociodemographic characteristics (age, marital status, and education). Mean age (SD) in the hemodialysis group was 47.5 (13.8) years and 51.0 (13.5) years in the peritoneal dialysis group. Males represented 53% and 43%, respectively. Mean duration of dialysis was 77.2 (75.5) months in the hemodialysis group and 34.1 (26.9) months in the peritoneal dialysis group. The mean (SD) score was 49.5 (13.7) in the hemodialysis group and 61.3 (12.4) in the peritoneal dialysis group. QoL mean scores were significantly higher among peritoneal dialysis in all domains and in the total QoL, with the exception of the score of physical QoL, which was higher in the hemodialysis patients, compared to peritoneal dialysis patients, although the difference was not statistically significant. Multiple regression analysis indicated that hemodialysis was a negative predictor of QoL score, compared to peritoneal dialysis. Also, age, male gender, and dialysis duration were negative predictors of QoL score. In the unique culture of Saudi Arabia, peritoneal dialysis patients have better QoL, compared to hemodialysis patients, validating the findings of research reports from other countries.
Alghamdi, Faris S
To examine the impact of service quality perception on patient satisfaction and determine which dimension from 5 dimensions (tangible, reliability, responsive, assurance, and empathy) has the greatest impact on patient satisfaction. A total of 183 eligible patients participated in this study. This study was conducted in Al-Baha province, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to August 2013. We utilized the cross-sectional method, using a modified Assessment of Service Quality questionnaire to collect the data. To test the study hypothesis, multiple regression analysis was carried out. Analysis of variance revealed that the overall result showed a statistically significant impact of health service quality on patient satisfaction (p=0.000). The beta-weights (beta) suggested that the empathy dimension had the greatest influence on patient satisfaction (beta=0.476), followed by tangible (beta=0.198) and responsiveness dimensions (beta=0.164). Patient satisfaction was influenced by health service quality, with the empathy dimension as the greatest influence on patient satisfaction. Therefore, it should be considered a priority by government hospitals to train doctors in interpersonal relationship skills to enhance the doctor-patient relationship.
Ismail, Sahar A; Sayed, Doaa Samir; Abdelghani, Louloah N
Vitiligo patients repeatedly experience disinterest from the medical world regarding their disease as it does not cause physical impairment. Several therapeutic options are available for vitiligo management. The aim is to study vitiligo management strategy in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (KSA) as indicated by dermatologists and as experienced by patients. A written questionnaire was distributed to 132 dermatologists practicing in Jeddah, KSA. Another questionnaire was filled by 186 vitiligo patients attending dermatology outpatient clinic Al-Jedaani Hospital. For 76% of the participating dermatologists in Jeddah, KSA, vitiligo is not a pure cosmetic problem and 69% of the participating dermatologists encourage vitiligo treatment (acknowledged by 65% of patients). The main therapy was topical steroids and narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB) therapy in vitiligo focalis and vulgaris, respectively, for both children and adults. Of the participating patients, 51%, 57%, and 21% of patients reported getting adequate information from their first dermatologists about the disease name, treatment options, and prognosis, respectively. There is a significant correlation between ever receiving treatment and awareness of the exact diagnosis (p < 0.01), awareness of treatment options (p < 0.05) and treatment encouragement (p < 0.01). Dermatologists in Jeddah, KSA, are enthusiastic about vitiligo management; however, still some patients feel discouraged and misinformed. The study demonstrates the need for national evidence-based guidelines reflecting unique features of patients in this community.
Fahad A. Al-Abbasi
Full Text Available The role of amino acids in diabetes mellitus and its metabolic traits have been suggested previously; however, studied to a very limited scale in the Saudi patient population. Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were included in the current clinical study. Sample was representative and in accordance with the national population distribution. Blood samples were drawn and assayed for glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. General biochemical markers, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatinine kinase (CK, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were assessed. Serum amino acids of different categories (essential, semi-essential and metabolic indicator amino acids were assessed. Correlation co-efficient between each amino acid and serum glucose level was calculated. The current study showed positive correlation between amino acid level and glucose serum concentration in male while it showed negative correlation in female Saudi diabetic patients. Male patients had significantly higher methionine concentration parallel to their glycemic status. Metabolic indicator amino acids significantly changed in concordance with the glycemic status of female patients more than in male patients. In conclusion, serum amino acid is positively correlated with glycemic status in Saudi male diabetic patients while negatively correlated in female patients. Yet, further study would be recommended to utilize serum amino acid profile as surrogate parameter for the metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus.
Full Text Available Background/Aim: Dental implants are a reliable treatment choice for rehabilitation of healthy patients as well as subjects with several systemic conditions. Patients with oral mucosal diseases often exhibit oral mucosal fragility and dryness, erosions, blisters, ulcers or microstomia that complicate the use of removable dentures and emphasize the need for dental implants. The aim of the current study is to review the pertinent literature regarding the dental implantation prospects for patients with oral mucosal diseases. Material and Method: The English literature was searched through PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases with key words: dental implants, oral mucosal diseases, oral lichen planus (OLP, epidermolysis bullosa (EB, Sjögren’s syndrome (SS, cicatricial pemphigoid, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, scleroderma/systemic sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, leukoplakia, oral potentially malignant disorders, oral premalignant lesions, oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Results: Literature review revealed dental implantation in patients with OLP (14 articles, EB (11 articles, pemphigus vulgaris (1 article, SS (14 articles, systemic sclerosis (11 articles, systemic lupus erythematosus (3 articles and oral SCC development associated with leukoplakia (5 articles. No articles regarding dental implants in patients with pemphigoid or leukoplakia without SCC development were identified. Most articles were case-reports, while only a few retrospective, prospective or observational studies were identified. Conclusions: Dental implants represent an acceptable treatment option with a high success rate in patients with chronic mucocutaneous and autoimmune diseases with oral manifestations, such as OLP, SS, EB and systemic sclerosis. Patients with oral possibly malignant disorders should be closely monitored to rule out the development of periimplant malignancy. Further studies with long follow-up, clinical and radiographic
Abdullah Omar Al Houssien
Conclusions: This series in central Saudi Arabia suggests that the magnitude of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia seems to be higher in patients with DES compared to the population.
These days, dental implants are becoming routinely used as a treatment option for rehabilitation of lost teeth. Conventionally, it is only after the completion of bone healing that the dental implants are loaded into the bone. Bone healing time is approximately 3 months and. 6 months for the mandible and maxilla, respectively.
Ashi, Heba; Campus, Guglielmo; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Hafiz, Waleed; Ahmed, Neveen; Lingström, Peter
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13-15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake ( p ≤ 0.01). No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.
Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT and sweet taste preference (TP. Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (p≤0.01. No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.
Karaarslan, Bekir; Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Ozsevik, Abdul Semih; Ertas, Ertan
Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct age estimates for dental patients using orthopantomographs (OPGs). The OPGs were selected by an independent author with respect to criteria and evaluated by two independent dentists. The results were compared to chronologic ages. The reliability of the estimates, concurrently made by the two independent dentists using OPGs, was also evaluated. Methods: In this retrospective study, the OPGs of 238 Turkish individuals of known chronological age, ranging from 1 to 60 years, were measured. Patients were then classified. Radiographs were evaluated by two independent dentists and age estimation was achieved according to the decades. Results: The truest age estimates made by the dentists were in the 1–10 years age range (89.6%), the most inaccurate age estimates were in the 41–50 years age range (41.7%). Results indicate that the accuracy of age estimation diminishes with age. Conclusions: Despite the variations related to the practitioners, in this study, there were no significant differences in age estimations between the two participant practitioners. Age estimation through evaluating OPGs was the most accurate in the first decade and the least in fourth decade. It can be concluded that OPGs are not adequate for accurate age estimation. PMID:20922158
Vissink, A; Spijkervet, Fkl; Raghoebar, G M
In healthy subjects, dental implants have evolved to be a common therapy to solve problems related to stability and retention of dentures as well as to replace failing teeth. Although dental implants are applied in medically compromised patients, it is often not well known whether this therapy is also feasible in these patients, whether the risk of implant failure and developing peri-implantitis is increased, and what specific preventive measures, if any, have to be taken when applying dental implants in these patients. Generally speaking, as was the conclusion by the leading review of Diz, Scully, and Sanz on placement of dental implants in medically compromised patients (J Dent, 41, 2013, 195), in a few disorders implant survival may be lower, and the risk of a compromised peri-implant health and its related complications be greater, but the degree of systemic disease control outweighs the nature of the disorder rather than the risk accompanying dental implant treatment. So, as dental implant treatment is accompanied by significant functional benefits and improved oral health-related quality of life, dental implant therapy is a feasible treatment in almost any medically compromised patient when the required preventive measures are taken and follow-up care is at a high level. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study addressed three research objectives related to non-Muslim nurses’ experiences providing health care to Muslim patients in Saudi Arabian hospitals. These objectives included: first, understanding what it is like to care for Muslim patients considering both religion and culture; secondly, exploring what it is like being cared for by non-Muslim nurses. In order to address these objectives, the study has employed a qualitative approach, represented in hermeneutic phenomenology. The tar...
Full Text Available Background: Dental fear is a major factor in postponing and cancelling a dental appointment. The studies in this field are still limited. The current study was conducted to examine dental fear in patients going to dentists in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 400 patients were selected randomly from 20 dental offices in Mashhad. The data were collected, using Dental Fear Scale. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been measured and confirmed in previous studies. The data were analyzed, using the SPSS software to perform t-test, ANOVA, Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient, and Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. Results: Nearly 20.8% of the participants had mild, 57.5% had moderate, and 21.8% had severe dental fear. The mean score of fear was statistically higher in females (49.95±13.3 compared to males (39.69±14.7. In terms of marital status, the highest mean score of fear was observed among the divorced and widows (51.82 ± 14.2. In terms of occupation, the highest mean score of fear was observed among the housewives (52.63±12.89. Correlational analysis showed the following inverse relationship between dental fear score and age(r=-0.18,p<0.001, education level(ρ=-0.28,p<0.001and income level (ρ=-0.39,p< 0.001. Conclusion: females, particularly housewives, have a significantly higher level of dental fear, and it had an inverse correlation with age, education level and level of income and they should be considered in interventional and educational programs aimed decreasing dental fear level.
Full Text Available Objective: To report ultrasound (US, laboratory and chest radiograph (CXR findings of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB and discuss the diagnostic relevance of US in EPTB in high-risk individuals. Methods: In this retrospective study, we described a cohort of 39 patients with a primarily immigrant background diagnosed with HIV and EPTB in Saudi Arabia and evaluated the role of US in their clinical management. All inpatient files of those diagnosed with EPTB who were HIV positive and had at least one US exam and one CXR exam performed were identified; results and outcomes were extracted. Results: Thirty-nine patients were diagnosed with HIV-associated EPTB between January 2008 and March 2012 and fulfilled the search criteria. Disseminated TB was diagnosed in 32 patients, pleural TB in 15, TB meningitis in 9 and TB pericarditis in 5. Enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were the single most frequent US finding seen in 61%, followed by pleural effusions (38%, liver (36% and spleen (31% lesions. CXR were normal in 38% of the patients. Conclusions: As EPTB infections in HIV positive patients can be treated effectively if diagnosed early, we suggest that US should be integrated in diagnostic algorithms for EPTB.
Al Hazzani, Saad A
This case report illustrates the use of evidence-based practice in formulating a comprehensive dental treatment plan for a patient who presented himself with signs of oral health debilitation accompanying methamphetamine (MA) abuse called "meth mouth" with the goal of providing dental care practitioners in Saudi Arabia with an insight into the global problem of MA abuse and its impact on oral health. This report documents the case of a 22-year-old male patient who reported to the clinic with rampant caries caused due to MA abuse exacerbated by poor oral hygiene and smoking habit. The treatment plan of this present case was formulated on the lines of the evidence-based dentistry approach. A clinical question was composed based on the Problem, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome format to identify past studies and case reports on meth mouth. A standard search was conducted on PubMed Central. Standard guidelines on the treatment of meth mouth were extracted from the Web site of the American Dental Association. A total of 2 systematic reviews, 7 review articles, 4 epidemiologic studies, 5 case reports, and 1 American Dental Association guideline were found. Accelerated dental decay leading to rampant caries in young and middle-aged adults is a characteristic oral finding in MA abusers. The most important factor that affects the prognosis of dental care is complete cessation of MA use by the patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BaHammam, Ahmed S; Alassiri, Suhail S; Al-Adab, Aisha H; Alsadhan, Ibrahim M; Altheyab, Abdullah M; Alrayes, Abdalla H; Alkhawajah, Mohammad M; Olaish, Awad H
To evaluate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance and define predictors of CPAP compliance among Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after applying an educational program. This prospective cohort study included consecutive patients diagnosed to have OSA based on polysomnography between January 2012 and January 2014 in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. All patients had educational sessions on OSA and CPAP therapy before sleep study, and formal hands-on training on CPAP machines on day one, day 7, and day 14 after diagnosis. The follow-up in the clinic was carried out at one, 4, and 10 months after initiating CPAP therapy. Continuous positive airway pressure compliance was assessed objectively. Logistic regression model was used to assess the predictors of CPAP adherence. The study comprised 156 patients with a mean age of 51.9±12.1 years, body mass index of 38.4±10.6 kg/m2, and apnea hypopnea index of 63.7±39.3 events/hour. All patients were using CPAP at month one, 89.7% at month 4, and 83% at month 10. The persistence of CPAP-related side effects and comorbid bronchial asthma remained as independent predictors of CPAP compliance at the end of the study. With intensive education, support, and close monitoring, more than 80% of Saudi patients with OSA continued to use CPAP after 10 months of initiating CPAP therapy.
Aldhilan, Asim; Syed, Ghulam M S; Suleiman, Ihab; Al Zaibag, M; Fielding, Henry
A high transient ischemic dilatation ratio (TID) for the left ventricle (LV) from a gated myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI) study is widely believed to be associated with significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We have investigated the relationship between TID and CAD for our male Saudi Arabian patient population. In this retrospective study, all male Saudi Arabian patients who underwent a two-day G-MPI study using Tc99m MIBI during the year 2011 having a TID ⩾ 1.20 were included. Quantitative perfusion and gated parameters were obtained using Cedar Sinai's AutoQuant software version 3.0, 2003, Means of summed stress scores, summed rest scores and summed difference scores (SSS, SRS, SDS, respectively), stress and rest ejection fraction (EF) were calculated. Visual interpretation was performed to classify the perfusion as normal, fixed, mixed (fixed and reversible defects), single reversible or multiple reversible defects. Coronary angiograms were assessed as normal with no CAD, single vessel, two-vessel or three-vessel disease. Correlations between the TID and other parameters were studied using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with IBM-SPSS version 20. A total of 52 male patients had a high TID of ⩾1.20 (mean 1.30 ± 0.13). Ten patients had a SSS of 0-3 and 16 were classified as normal by visual assessment. Stress EF (mean 50.4 ± 12%) was lower than the rest EF (mean 56.6 ± 12.8%) with the difference being statistically significant (Students paired t-test, p = 0.001). Angiography results were available in 44 patients, 3 having a normal angiogram, 24 having three vessel disease, 7 having two vessel disease and 10 having one vessel disease. Five patients with normal perfusion and SSS = 0-3 had CAD as seen on a coronary angiography. CAD on coronary angiography showed a significant correlation with perfusion abnormalities as assessed by visual interpretation (p = 0.002). TID showed a significantly correlation with both perfusion abnormalities (p
Farooqi, Faraz A.; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A.; Khan, Soban Q.; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S.,
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits. PMID:25987118
Bodner, Ehud; Iancu, Iulian
The tendency of patients with high levels of anxiety to easily recall threatening stimuli has not been examined in relation to dental anxiety. The current study was aimed to examine the effect of pre-treatment anxiety levels and of information given prior to dentistry surgical procedures on free recall of threatening words. Forty-two subjects attending a private dental clinic were recruited. While awaiting root-canal treatment or tooth extraction, patients were asked to proofread a list of 32 words, which contained mental and physical threat-related words, as well as positive and neutral words. only half of the subjects received information on the forthcoming surgical procedure. Pre-treatment anxiety levels using the dental anxiety Scale (daS) and word recall were evaluated. Only subjects with high dental anxiety (above median score) recalled more mental and physical threat related words, than positive words. Moreover, the dental anxiety score as a continuous variable predicted the mean number of mental threat-related words recalled. no significant differences were noted between those who did or did not receive information prior to the surgical procedures, on the recall of the four types of words. Similar to other anxiety disorders, patients with dental anxiety display a tendency for free recall of threatening stimuli presented to them before a threatening event. Preliminary information given prior to dentistry surgical procedures does not decrease anxiety. Suggestions for intervention in the dentist's clinic are given.
Ahmed A. Alsunni
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12, moderate (13-24 and high (25-36 scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. Results: The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56% subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%, while 122 (61% had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%, 124 (62% were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56% were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5% before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5% subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.
Alsunni, Ahmed A; Albaker, Waleed I; Badar, Ahmed
To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculated and categorized into low (0-12), moderate (13-24) and high (25-36) scores. The association of misconception score with various potential determinants was calculated using Chi-square test. Step-wise logistic regression was applied to the variables showing significant association with the misconception score in order to identify the determinants of misconceptions. The mean age was 39.62 ± 16.7 and 112 (56%) subjects were females. Type 1 diabetics were 78 (39%), while 122 (61%) had Type 2 diabetes. Insulin was being used by 105 (52.5%), 124 (62%) were self-monitoring blood glucose and 112 (56%) were using diet control. Formal education on diabetes awareness had been received by 167 (83.5%) before the interview. The mean misconception score was 10.29 ± 4.92 with 115 (57.5%) subjects had low misconception scores (15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no dietary control and no diabetes education were all significantly (P misconception scores. Step-wise logistic regression suggested that diabetes education, gender, education and time since diagnosis were significant (P misconception scores. The strongest determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in our study population were female gender, rural area of residence, illiteracy or little education, 15 years since diagnosis, no self-monitoring, no diet control and no education about diabetes.
Southerland JH; Gill DG; Gangula PR; Halpern LR; Cardona CY; Mouton CP
...: Hypertension is a chronic illness affecting more than a billion people worldwide. The high prevalence of the disease among the American population is concerning and must be considered when treating dental patients...
Mahesh K Puttaraju
Full Text Available Tenia solium, a parasite causes cysticercous cellulose when affecting the central nervous system, the manifestation is called neurocysticercosis. The most common symptom in neurocysticercosis is seizure. Generally, oral diagnosticians come across cases of oral cysticercosis and it is rare to find a case of neurocysticercosis in the dental office, as it goes undetected. Sometimes, when patients experience seizure in the dental office and subsequent evaluation is performed, rarity such as this can be detected. One case of neurocysticercosis in a 27 year old unmarried female patient detected due to its presentation in the dental office is being reported here.
Appukuttan, Deva Priya
Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, “tell-show-do”, and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy, and is currently the most accepted and successful psychological treatment for anxiety and phobia. In certain situations, where the patient is not
Full Text Available The goals of chronic dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients include restoration of the highest achievable state of personal physical health and preservation as well as restoration and development of the highest level of psychological and social functions. We conducted this study to evaluate factors influencing the process of adaptation such as religious faith, economic status and extended family-tribal system. It was hoped that studying these factors might provide further dimension to our understanding of the psychopathology of ESRD patients, and to help offer new ideas to improve the quality of their lives. A sample comprising 54 patients with ESRD was studied in Abha hemodialysis centre in Southern Saudi Arabia. The socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data were collected. The psychiatric status of the patients was evaluated using a structured "The Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale" (CPRS clinical interview. The result indicated that the major co-morbidity (in 60% of these patients was a depressive illness due to renal failure diagnosable according to DSM-IV criteria. Our study suggests the need for specific anti-depressant treatment in order to ameliorate many distressing symptoms, which may affect the quality of these patients′ life. Concomitant social problems of poverty, absence of spouse and illiteracy, dictate a more prompt attitude in initiating support systems and attention to providing leisure activities.
Al Mochamant Iosif-Grigorios
Full Text Available Dental treatment of patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD can be complicated because of the presence of behavioural unpredictability. This article reviews the present literature on the issues dealt with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The prevalence of autism is rising worldwide. Consequently, dentists will find an increasing number of such children in their routine practice, whose treatment will require special considerations in their dental management. Knowledge regarding the oral health status of autistic children is essential for the paediatric dentists. Negative behaviour toward dental treatment was very clear in autistic children. Self-inflicting trauma/habits were observed in autistic children. It was concluded that the autistic children do not have a higher dental caries score compared to that of normal children. Their oral hygiene was fair; however, they exhibited more debris deposits than normal children.
van Foreest, Andries
The treatment of dental problems in animals and humans requires a different approach. While a basic knowledge of medicine is sufficient for dentists, a degree in veterinary medicine is a prerequisite for performing dental procedures in animals. Concepts such as oral-health veterinarian and dental care technician will be part of animal dental care in the future. When deciding on the plan of treatment, veterinarians should pay attention to the symptomatology, oral examination, and pain response. A number of treatments that are self-evident in human dentistry are often not recommended in veterinary medicine. Dental treatments for companion animals should be characterized by minimal interventions with maximum results: effective, efficient, and most of all patient/client focused.
Sekiguchi, H; Ishiuchi, C; Yakushiji, M
This survey was conducted to clarify which dental treatments in children are regarded as difficult by general dentistry practitioners. The subjects were 615 children who first visited Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital from January 1995 to August 1999 with reference letters. There were 615 children in the study; 571 (92.8%) came from Chiba City where our hospital is located and the 11 regions surrounding Chiba City. The prime reasons for referral in the order of frequency were treatments of dental caries, malalignment/malocclusion, traumatized teeth, supernumerary teeth, retarded eruption/impacted teeth, abnormal direction of erupted teeth, congenitally missing teeth, prolonged retention of deciduous teeth, and abnormal frenulum. Patients with dental caries or traumatized teeth in the deciduous dentition period and those with malalignment/malocclusion, supernumerary teeth, or retarded eruption/impacted teeth in the mixed dentition period were often referred to medical organizations specializing in pediatric dentistry because of the difficulties in controlling the patients' behavior and in providing adequate treatment. The information about pediatric dental treatments considered difficult by general dentists revealed by this survey appears to be useful and needs to be incorporated in the programs for clinical training of undergraduate students and education of postgraduate students.
Simon Elison NM
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, oral health services are mostly in the form of dental extractions aimed at alleviating acute dental pain. Conservative methods of alleviating acute dental pain are virtually non-existent. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine treatment success of emergency pulpotomy in relieving acute dental pain. Methods Setting: School of Dentistry, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Study design: Longitudinal study. Participants: 180 patients who presented with dental pain due to acute irreversible pulpitis during the study period between July and August 2001. Treatment and evaluation: Patients were treated by emergency pulpotomy on permanent posterior teeth and were evaluated for pain after one, three and six week's post-treatment. Pain, if present, was categorised as either mild or acute. Results Of the patients with treated premolars, 25 (13.9% patients did not experience pain at all while 19 (10.6% experienced mild pain. None of the patients with treated premolars experienced acute pain. Among 136 patients with treated molars 56 (31% did not experience any pain, 76 (42.2% experienced mild pain and the other 4 (2.2% suffered acute pain. Conclusion The short term treatment success of emergency pulpotomy was high being 100% for premolars and 97.1% for molars, suggesting that it can be recommended as a measure to alleviate acute dental pain while other conservative treatment options are being considered.
Omar I. Saadah
Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD, a gluten intolerance disorder, was implicated to have 57 genetic susceptibility loci for Europeans but not for culturally and geographically distinct ethnic populations like Saudi Arabian CD patients. Therefore, we genotyped Saudi CD patients and healthy controls for three polymorphisms, that is, Phe196Ser in IRAK1, Trp262Arg in SH2B3, and Met518Thr in MMEL1 genes. Single locus analysis identified that carriers of the 518 Thr/Thr (MMEL1 genotype conferred a 1.6-fold increased disease risk compared to the noncarriers (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.22–5.54; P<0.01. This significance persisted even under allelic (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.05–2.28; P=0.02 and additive (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.17–0.71; P=0.03 genetic models. However, frequencies for Trp262Arg (SH2B3 and Phe196Ser (IRAK1 polymorphisms were not significantly different between patients and controls. The overall best MDR model included Met518Thr and Trp262Arg polymorphisms, with a maximal testing accuracy of 64.1% and a maximal cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10 (P=0.0156. Allelic distribution of the 518 Thr/Thr polymorphism in MMEL1 primarily suggests its independent and synergistic contribution towards CD susceptibility among Saudi patients. Lack of significant association of IRAK and SH2B3 gene polymorphisms in Saudi patients but their association in European groups suggests the genetic heterogeneity of CD.
Full Text Available Williams syndrome is a multisystemic rare genetic disorder caused by deletion of 26-28 genes in the long arm of chromosome 7. It is characterized by developmental and physical abnormalities including congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, mental retardation, neurological features, growth deficiency, genitourinary manifestations, gastrointestinal problems, musculoskeletal problems, unique behavioral characteristics, and dental problems. Dental abnormalities include malocclusion, hypodontia, malformed teeth, taurodontism, pulp stones, increased space between teeth, enamel hypoplasia, and high prevalence of dental caries. Authors report a 17-year-old female patient with underlying Williams syndrome. Oral features and problems seen in the patient are listed. Malocclusion and screwdriver shaped teeth were noticed. Generalized widening of the periodontal ligament space with vital teeth was seen. This finding has not been reported in cases of Williams syndrome earlier. Precautions taken during dental treatment in patients with Williams syndrome are also discussed.
Al-Khaldi, Yahia M
The objective of this study was to assess the attitude of physicians at primary health-care centers (PHCC) in Aseer region toward patient safety. This study was conducted among working primary health-care physicians in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia, in August 2011. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts was used; the first part was on the socio-demographic, academic and about the work profile of the participants. The attitude consisting of 26 questions was assessed on a Likert scale of 7 points using attitude to patients safety questionnaire-III items and the last part concerned training on "patient safety", definition and factors that contribute to medical errors. Data of the questionnaire were entered and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. The total number of participants was 228 doctors who represent about 65% of the physicians at PHCC, one-third of whom had attended a course on patient safety and only 52% of whom defined medical error correctly. The best score was given for the reduction of medical errors (6.2 points), followed by role of training and learning on patient safety (6 and 5.9 points), but undergraduate training on patient safety was given the least score. Confidence to report medical errors scored 4.6 points as did reporting the errors of other people and 5.6 points for being open with the supervisor about an error made. Participants agreed that "even the most experienced and competent doctors make errors" (5.9 points), on the other hand, they disagreed that most medical errors resulted from nurses' carelessness (3.9 points) or doctors' carelessness (4 points). This study showed that PHCC physicians in Aseer region had a positive attitude toward patient safety. Most of them need training on patient safety. Undergraduate education on patient safety which was considered a priority for making future doctors' work effective was inadequate.
Babay, Hanan A; Kambal, Abdelmageed M
Coryneform bacteria have been increasingly recognized as opportunistic pathogens in recent years. The aim of this study is to identify and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of coryneform bacteria isolated from blood cultures of patients seen at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and review the literature. All coryneform bacteria isolated from blood culture specimens between January 2001 and March 2003 were prospectively identified by API Coryne System (BioMerieux, France). Clinical data were collected from each patient's medical record. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antimicrobial agents were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden). Out of 50 coryneform bacteria isolated, 19 different species were identified. Corynebacterium propinquum was the most common species 6/50 (12%) followed by Corynebacterium auris 5/50 (10%), Corynebacterium afermentans, Corynebacterium striatum, Dermabacter hominis, Brevibacterium, and Arthrobacter species 4/50 (8%) each. Underlying chest diseases were common among the patients 11/50 (22%), followed by different surgeries 10/50 (20%). Of all, 12/50 (24%) patients were from different intensive care units (ICUs), 36/50 (72%) had either vascular, urinary or respiratory intubation. Three patients in ICUs died, one was an elderly patient with gastrointestinal bleeding and 2 teenagers (one had tracheoesophageal fistula and the other was post-arrest road traffic accident patient). Vancomycin was the most active antimicrobial agent against all coryneform species. The majority had MIC Corynebacterium striatum was the only isolate susceptible to ampicillin. This study revealed that coryneform bacteria are increasingly being recognized as a cause of serious infections in immunocompromised patients. We recommend identification and susceptibility testing of predominant isolates of coryneform bacteria from different clinical sites of seriously ill
Conclusions: The range of lesions seen in Saudi geriatric patients were similar to those reported for other parts of the world, although the lesions were more similar to those reported from developing countries. The very high rate of oral cancer, however, is expected to take the majority of the resources allocated to geriatric oral health care, except if a strong, population-based prevention program is initiated immediately.
Yousry A. Hawash
Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that chronic renal failure (CRF predisposes patients to infection with intestinal protozoa. We tested this hypothesis with a matched case-control study to determine the prevalence of these protozoa and their diarrhea associated symptoms among 50 patients with CRF (cases from Taif, western Saudi Arabia. Fifty diarrheal patients without CRF were recruited in the study as controls. Participants were interviewed by a structured questionnaire and stool samples were collected. Samples were thoroughly examined with microscopy and three coproantigens detection kits. Enteric protozoa were detected in 21 cases and 14 controls. Blastocystis spp. were the most predominant parasite (16% in cases versus 8% in controls, followed by Giardia duodenalis (10% in cases versus 12% in controls and Cryptosporidium spp. (10% in cases versus 6% in controls. Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in two cases, while Entamoeba histolytica was described in one case and one control. Intestinal parasitism was positively associated with the male gender, urban residence, and travel history. Clinical symptoms of nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain were significantly varied between the parasitized cases and controls (P value ≤ 0.05. Given the results, we recommend screening all diarrheal feces for intestinal protozoa in the study’s population, particularly those with CRF.
AlRahabi, Mothanna K.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) and detected iatrogenic errors in an undergraduate dental clinic at the College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia. Dental records of 280 patients who received RCT between 2013 and 2016 undertaken by dental students were investigated by retrospective chart review. Root canal obturation was evaluated on the basis of the length of obturation being ?2?mm from the radiographic apex, with uniform radiodens...
Ashrafioun, Lisham; Edwards, Paul C; Bohnert, Amy S B; Ilgen, Mark A
Substance use is overrepresented in dental clinics that provide affordable care and dental clinics provide potential access to opioid analgesics. Research is needed to better understand prescription opioid misuse in this population. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the misuse of prescription opioids in adults seeking dental care from a low-cost dental training clinic. Patients were recruited from a university school's dentistry patient emergency and admission services clinic. Patients (n = 369) within the waiting area of the clinic completed a self-report questionnaire about their nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, medication diversion and use of substances. Approximately 37.9% (140/369) of those who completed the study survey reported at least some nonmedical use of pain medications within the past 30 days. Use was associated with diversion of medication, and use of tobacco, marijuana, and sedatives. Within this sample from a dental clinic, nonmedical use of prescription pain medications was more common than in the general population. This suggests that dental clinics may be an appropriate setting for provider education and patient-based intervention strategies to reduce nonmedical use of pain medications.
Syed, Shahbano; Bilal, Sobia; Dawani, Narendar; Rizvi, Kulsoom
To evaluate the dental anxiety levels and to assess its correlation with self-assessed dental status and treatment needs of patients. The study was conducted at the Out Patient Department of Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Karachi. Using non-probability quota sampling, the study included the first 32 patients between 18 and 35 years of age, visiting the facility. Over a period of one month (22 working days) 704 patients comprised the study population. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to self-assess their dental anxiety levels, oral health status and treatment needs. The data was analysed using SPSS 17.0 with descriptive frequencies and chi-square test. Of the total participants, 650 (92.32%) patients provided consent. Average dental anxiety scale score was 12.46, representing high anxiety score. There were 174 (26.8%) smokers; only 234 (36%) had visited a dentist less than a year ago; 385 (59.2%) considered their dental health to be satisfactory; 306 (47.1%) thought of their treatment needs to be 'little'; 222 (34.2%) brushed their teeth twice daily. Dental anxiety was statistically significant with treatment needs and dental status. Relation of tooth-brushing with last dental visit and treatment needs was also found to be significant. A high level of dental anxiety was observed among the study population. The dental professionals should seek ways to help dentally anxious individuals.
Cooper, Brigette R; Monson, Angela L
In 2003, the Minnesota Dental Practice Act was modified to allow dental hygienists and assistants to place amalgam, composite, glass ionomer, and stainless steel crowns. A restorative functions course was added to the curriculum of a dental hygiene program at a state university in Minnesota to teach these skills. Student requirements for the course included clinical experiences on a minimum of twelve patients, as outlined by the Minnesota Board of Dentistry. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics and satisfaction levels of patients receiving care in the restorative functions dental hygiene clinic. An online survey was offered to eighty-two adult patients receiving restorative treatment in the clinic, with sixty-four patients agreeing to participate for a response rate of 78 percent. The average patient was thirty-one to forty years old, Caucasian, worked full-time, did not have dental insurance, had a family income of between $20,000 and $40,000, and chose this clinic due to low cost. Ninety-eight percent of responding patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their overall clinic experience, and 98 percent also thought the quality of care at this clinic was the same, better, or much better than previous dental care they had received. Most patients would return to this clinic for future restorative work (97 percent), in addition to recommending this clinic to others seeking restorative work (98 percent). Wilcoxen signed rank tests revealed the patients were significantly more satisfied (prestorative visit to a private dentist. Group differences were examined using the non-parametric test, Mann-Whitney, which is similar to the two-sample t-test for parametric data. No significant group differences in the overall satisfaction with this clinic were found according to income level, dental insurance, or ability to pay for an unexpected dental bill. Findings in this study suggest the majority of patients were satisfied with the overall
Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term for a group of conditions characterized essentially by motor dysfunctions that may be associated with sensory or cognitive impairment. Such children tend to have a higher incidence of traumatic dental injuries than the general population. This increased incidence is often attributed to poor muscular co-ordination that predisposes individuals with Cerebral palsy to trauma Aim: The study was conducted to assess different dental injuries and the risk factors for dental trauma to occur in patients with cerebral palsy. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 70 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy attending special school in Durg and Bhilai city between 7 and 18 years of age. Results: Dentinal fracture was seen in 40% of cases. Few cases had tooth displacement, discoloration, and pulpal involvement. Conclusion: Dentists should be well aware of the possible dental injuries in such patients. Preventive measure measures should be taken by health care provider to reduce traumatic exposure.
Dubey, A; Ghafoor, P A; Rafeeq, M
Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term for a group of conditions characterized essentially by motor dysfunctions that may be associated with sensory or cognitive impairment. Such children tend to have a higher incidence of traumatic dental injuries than the general population. This increased incidence is often attributed to poor muscular co-ordination that predisposes individuals with Cerebral palsy to trauma Aim: The study was conducted to assess different dental injuries and the risk factors for dental trauma to occur in patients with cerebral palsy. The study comprised 70 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy attending special school in Durg and Bhilai city between 7 and 18 years of age. Dentinal fracture was seen in 40% of cases. Few cases had tooth displacement, discoloration, and pulpal involvement. Dentists should be well aware of the possible dental injuries in such patients. Preventive measure measures should be taken by health care provider to reduce traumatic exposure.
Melissa Almeida Souza
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypophosphatemic rickets represents a group of heritable renal disorders of phosphate characterized by hypophosphatemia, normal or low serum 1,25 (OH2 vitamin D and calcium levels. Hypophosphatemia is associated to interglobular dentine and an enlarged pulp chambers. AIM: Our goal was to verify the dental abnormalities and the oral health condition in these patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study of oral conditions in patients with Hypophosphatemic rickets. This report employed a simple method to be easily reproducible: oral clinical exam and radiographic evaluation. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were studied, 5 males, median age of 11years (4 to 26. Occlusion defects (85,7% and enamel hypoplasia (57,1% were significant more frequently than dental abscesses (one patient. We observed enlarged pulp chambers in 43% of the patients and hypoplasia and dentin abnormalities in 14,3%. We could not detect a significant correlation between dental abnormalities and delayed treatment (p>0,05. DMFT index for 6 to 12 years patients (n = 12 showed that the oral health is unsatisfactory (mean DMFT = 5. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Hypophosphatemic Rickets frequently present dental alterations and these are not completely recovered with the treatment, unless dental abscess and they need a periodical oral examination.
Tawares, Mary; And Others
The study developed a profile of dental implant patients from 38 private practices to document characteristics of endosseous implant recipients of the past 10 years. Data were then analyzed using multivariate techniques to examine the relationship between these characteristics and patient-reported outcomes. Patients tended to have high incomes and…
PUTTARAJU, Mahesh K; Srikanth Hanasoge Srivathsa
Tenia solium, a parasite causes cysticercous cellulose when affecting the central nervous system, the manifestation is called neurocysticercosis. The most common symptom in neurocysticercosis is seizure. Generally, oral diagnosticians come across cases of oral cysticercosis and it is rare to find a case of neurocysticercosis in the dental office, as it goes undetected. Sometimes, when patients experience seizure in the dental office and subsequent evaluation is performed, rarity such as this ...
Almashouq, Mohammad K.; Youssef, Amira M.; Al-Qumaidi, Hamid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Al-Shehri, Khalid; Masoodi, Saba N.
Background Although Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with high rates of diabetic foot complications, there are only limited data concerning mortality among such a high risk group. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to assess all-cause mortality and its related predictors among diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot complications. Methods Using data from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), a total of 840 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years with current or past history of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) or diabetes related lower extremity amputation (LEA) were recruited in 2007 from active patients’ files and followed up to 2013. These patients were compared with an equal number of age and gender matched diabetic patients without foot complication recruited at the same period. All patients were subjected to living status verification at 31st December 2013. Results The all-cause mortality rate among patients with DFU was 42.54 per 1000 person-years and among LEA patients was 86.80 per 1000 person-years among LEA patients for a total of 2280 and 1129 person-years of follow up respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (95% CI) was 4.39 (3.55–5.23) and 7.21 (5.70–8.72) for cases with foot ulcer and LEA respectively. The percentage of deceased patients increased by almost twofold (18.5%) among patients with diabetic foot ulcer and more than threefold (32.2%) among patients with LEA compared with patients without diabetic foot complications (10.7%). The worst survival was among patients with LEA at 0.679 and the presence of diabetic nephropathy was the only significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with diabetic foot complications. On the other hand, obese patients have demonstrated significantly reduced all-cause mortality rate. Conclusions Diabetic patients with diabetic foot complications have an excess
Davis, Betsy K
Those over the age of 65 years old and the "baby boomers" regard oral health, including oral/dental/facial aesthetics, as part of their overall health and wellness. Over 65% of discretionary wealth in the United States belongs to those over the age of 50. In many instances, they have had to deny their own needs for those of their families and are now at a point where their dental issues can finally be addressed. Aesthetic dentistry offers the opportunity to reverse the signs of aging and restore a youthful appearance. A smile can be the most eye-catching feature of a face and therefore should blend in or harmonize with facial appearance. Advances in aesthetic dentistry, such as porcelain veneers, bonding, periodontal surgery, and dental implants, have shown great efficacy and reliability when used properly. Aesthetic dentistry offers the opportunity for the aged population to have a more youthful, harmonious smile with improved function and optimum oral health.
Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Helwa, Inas; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman; Strickland, Shelby; Hauser, Michael A; Allingham, R Rand; Liu, Yutao
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that control various biological processes. The role of many identified miRNAs is not yet resolved. Recent evidence suggests that miRNA mutations and/or misexpression may contribute to genetic disorders. Point mutations in the seed region of MIR184 have been recently identified in Keratoconus (KC) patients with or without other corneal and lens abnormalities. We investigated mutations within MIR184 in KC patients from Saudi Arabia and examined the relative expression of miR-184 and miR-205 in human cornea. Ethnically matched KC cases (n = 134) were recruited and sequencing was performed using PCR-based Sanger sequencing and analyzed using the Sequencher 5.2 software. Expression of miR-184 and miR-205 was profiled in postmortem unaffected ocular tissues obtained from donors with no history of ocular diseases. miR-184 expression was 15-fold higher than that of miR-205 in cornea samples. No mutation(s) within the screened genomic region of MIR184 in KC cases was detected. This suggests that mutation in MIR184 is a rare cause of KC alone and may be more relevant to cases of KC associated with other ocular abnormalities. The increased expression of miR-184 versus miR-205 in normal cornea samples implies a possible role of miR184 in cornea development and/or corneal diseases.
Kay, E J; Ward, N; Locker, D
To measure the subjective impact of oral health in a group of patients attending general dental practices in the North West of England and to investigate the attributes of dentists and practices in order to examine how such attributes might relate to patients' subjective perceptions of oral health. Fifteen general dental practices conducting a simultaneous survey of attending patients and 15 practitioners from these practices providing information about their attitudes to treatment, prevention and various aspects of their surgery. General dental Patient subjective impact scores. Relationships between practice and practitioner variables and patients' subjectively perceived oral health. Fifteen practitioners with diverse practice attributes provided data on 718 patients. The mean total oral health impact score was 18.4. Twenty two per cent of patients had experienced pain in the four weeks before the survey and 11% had been unable to chew some foods. Fifty five per cent of the surveyed population had, in the previous year, worried about the appearance of their mouth and 65% had worried about their oral health in general. Dentists' beliefs were related to patient impact scores but practice attributes were not significantly associated with patients' impacts. Fourteen percent of the differences in patients' subjectively perceived oral health can be attributed to dentist attitudes and attributes. Further research regarding the influence of dentists personality and professional beliefs on patients well-being needs to be undertaken.
Al Fraihi, Khalid J; Latif, Shahid A
To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients' demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients' expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients' expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p less than 0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients' expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management.
El Batawi, Hisham Yehia; Panigrahi, Priyankar; Awad, Manal A
To investigate the perceived clinical outcome and parents' satisfaction after dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia over a follow-up period of 2 years. A prospective study of questionnaire data obtained from 352 pediatric patients before and after treatment of early childhood caries with full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Questionnaires focused on oral symptoms, functional limitations, and emotional and social well-being before and after dental treatment. Cases were followed up for 2 years postoperatively. A dramatic disappearance of symptoms was reported from parents' perspective. There was a high satisfaction rate (99.14%) also among parents of the children included in the study. Children with early childhood caries do not necessarily express it verbally as pain. The disease has a lot of other expressions affecting children's behavior and habits, including the ability to sleep, thrive, and socialize. This study contributes to the existing literature that full dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia [dental general anesthesia (DGA)] has an immediate positive impact on the physical and social quality of life of children suffering from early childhood caries as well as on their families. Postoperative preventive care, early diagnosis, and treatment of recurrent caries are key factors to maintain postoperative outcome of DGA.
Southerland, Janet H; Gill, Danielle G; Gangula, Pandu R; Halpern, Leslie R; Cardona, Cesar Y; Mouton, Charles P
Hypertension is a chronic illness affecting more than a billion people worldwide. The high prevalence of the disease among the American population is concerning and must be considered when treating dental patients. Its lack of symptoms until more serious problems occur makes the disease deadly. Dental practitioners can often be on the frontlines of prevention of hypertension by evaluating preoperative blood pressure readings, performing risk assessments, and knowing when to consider medical consultation of a hypertensive patient in a dental setting. In addition, routine follow-up appointments and patients seen on an emergent basis, who may otherwise not be seen routinely, allow the oral health provider an opportunity to diagnose and refer for any unknown disease. It is imperative to understand the risk factors that may predispose patients to hypertension and to be able to educate them about their condition. Most importantly, the oral health care provider is in a pivotal position to play an active role in the management of patients presenting with a history of hypertension because many antihypertensive agents interact with pharmacologic agents used in the dental practice. The purpose of this review is to provide strategies for managing and preventing complications when treating the patient with hypertension who presents to the dental office.
Haridi, Hassan Kasim; Al-Ammar, Abdalmohsen Saud; Al-Mansour, Moazzy Ibraheim
The concept of standard precautions (SP) has been a cornerstone of dental infection control (IC) practice. Full adherence with SP guidelines is still a matter of concern in many institutions. The objectives of the present study were to assess and characterise compliance with SP guidelines among dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) and to analyse factors that affect compliance. A regional cross-sectional questionnaire survey among DHCWs in all health facilities was carried out from August to November 2014. A total of 307 returned valid self-report questionnaires with a response rate of 73.1%. Most participants (86.3%) were aware of the SP guidelines, 84.4% received IC training and 88.9% received hepatitis B vaccination. Compliance with SP was found to be high; the majority (90.1%) attained 75% on the compliance scale. In the multivariate logistic regression model, perceived higher institutional commitment as regard IC requirements (odds ratio [OR], 4.34; P <0.001), perceived training as adequate (OR, 3.51; P = 0.003), dentist job (OR, 2.99; P = 0.035) and younger age (OR, 0.59; P = 0.041) were independently predicted as good compliant behaviour. This survey revealed high self-reported compliance with SP guidelines. Institutional factors appear to have an important role. Attention should be paid to dental assistants and private DHCWs.
Brennan, D S; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Spencer, A J
Indigenous Australians have been reported in a range of studies to have worse health than non-Indigenous Australians. Among health care card holders, a financially disadvantaged group eligible for public-funded dental care, oral health may also be worse among Indigenous persons. The aims of this study were to examine the oral health of Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous adult public dental patients in terms of caries experience and periodontal status, controlling for age and gender of patient, type of care and geographic location. Patients were sampled randomly by state/territory dental services in 2001-2002. Dentists recorded oral health status at the initial visit of a course of care using written instructions. The samples were weighted in proportion to the numbers of public-funded dental patients for each state/territory. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the presence of periodontal pockets of 6+ mm was higher (P Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous patients (OR = 2.24, 1.34-3.76), after controlling for age and gender of patients, type of care and geographic location. Multivariate negative binomial regression analysis (RR: rate ratio) controlling for age and gender of patients, type of care and geographic location indicated that Indigenous patients had higher numbers of decayed teeth (RR = 1.42) and missing teeth (RR = 1.44) but lower numbers of filled teeth (RR = 0.51) compared to non-Indigenous patients (P Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients. Indigenous adult public dental patients had worse oral health status than non-Indigenous patients, with a higher percentage of Indigenous patients having periodontal pockets 6+ mm, and Indigenous patients having more decayed and missing teeth. Indigenous patients lack both timely and appropriate preventive and treatment services.
Full Text Available Deva Priya Appukuttan Department of Periodontics, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: Dental anxiety and phobia result in avoidance of dental care. It is a frequently encountered problem in dental offices. Formulating acceptable evidence-based therapies for such patients is essential, or else they can be a considerable source of stress for the dentist. These patients need to be identified at the earliest opportunity and their concerns addressed. The initial interaction between the dentist and the patient can reveal the presence of anxiety, fear, and phobia. In such situations, subjective evaluation by interviews and self-reporting on fear and anxiety scales and objective assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse oximetry, finger temperature, and galvanic skin response can greatly enhance the diagnosis and enable categorization of these individuals as mildly, moderately, or highly anxious or dental phobics. Broadly, dental anxiety can be managed by psychotherapeutic interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of both, depending on the level of dental anxiety, patient characteristics, and clinical situations. Psychotherapeutic interventions are either behaviorally or cognitively oriented. Pharmacologically, these patients can be managed using either sedation or general anesthesia. Behavior-modification therapies aim to change unacceptable behaviors through learning, and involve muscle relaxation and relaxation breathing, along with guided imagery and physiological monitoring using biofeedback, hypnosis, acupuncture, distraction, positive reinforcement, stop-signaling, and exposure-based treatments, such as systematic desensitization, “tell-show-do”, and modeling. Cognitive strategies aim to alter and restructure the content of negative cognitions and enhance control over the negative thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy is a combination of behavior therapy and cognitive therapy
Conclusion: Both IGA and NIGA are effective and relatively safe methods for dental patients who need dental treatment in a special needs dental clinic, but anesthesia itself still carries certain risks.
Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Jahman; Alkulaibi, Yasser Abdullah; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb
Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and Hb F) were also estimated in SCA and SCT patients. Results of Hb capillary electrophoresis performed on all patients with SCH from January 2011 to December 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Of a total of 3332 patient data analyzed, 307 were anemic patients (58% males and 42% females) with SCH. The sickling test showed all the patients to be positive. Hb electrophoresis revealed the incidence of 96.7%, 3.3%, and 0% of the patients suffered from SCA, SCT and sickle/beta-thalassemia, respectively. Patients with SCA had a higher level of Hb F and showed no crisis when compared with other SCA patients who had lower or no Hb F levels. SCA is relatively frequent among males (56.4%) than females out of all patients with SCH. The SCA incidence was more common (48.5%) among children, frequency of SCT among adult age group was 1.6%, while sickle/beta-thalassemia was 0%.
Introduction: Hypertension is one of the cardiovascular diseases which has been reported as one of the common causes of death worldwide. Some medical conditions including hypertension could alter the course of oral disease; modify dental treatment and response to such treatment. Objective: This was to determine the ...
Al-Bawardy, Rasha; Blatt, Benjamin; Al-Shohaib, Saad; Simmens, Samuel J
The implicit "hidden curriculum" strongly influences medical students' perceptions of the importance of patient-centeredness. A new instrument, the Communication, Curriculum, and Culture Survey (C3), already used to assess this hard-to- access part of the curriculum in the US, has potential for use in cross-cultural comparisons. To use the C3 to perform a pilot cross-cultural comparison of the patient-centeredness of the hidden curriculum between a Saudi medical school and 9 U.S. medical schools. Senior Saudi medical students completed the C3 and a second instrument, the Patient-Provider Orientation Scale (PPOS), which measured their attitudes toward patient-centered behavior. Senior Saudi medical students. 139/256 (54%) Saudis completed the C3; 122/256(48%) completed the PPOS. Means for 2 out of 3 of the C3's domains (0-100 scale) were lower for the Saudis than those for the Americans (95% confidence intervals in parentheses): 47 (45, 50) vs. 55 (53, 58); 54 (50, 58) vs. 68 (67, 70); they overlapped in the third: 60 (57, 63) vs. 62 (60, 63). The mean Saudi PPOS score was 4.0 (3.9, 4.1); for the American medical schools, 4.8 (4.8-4.8) (1-6, least to most patient-centered). In this preliminary study the data suggest that the patient-centeredness of the hidden curriculum differs in Saudi and US medical schools in 2 out of 3 domains. Cross-cultural use of instruments such as the C3 can highlight such important differences and help educators evaluate their curriculum from an international, as well as a local perspective. Use of instruments across borders is a growing trend and an indicator of the increasing globalization of medical education.
Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus opacification among dental paediatric patients. Two hundred and eight Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of dental patients under the age of 18 were reviewed for sinus opacification. Patients with any sinus-related signs or symptoms were excluded. The overall prevalence of sinus opacification was 48.1%. The ethmoid (28.4%) and maxillary (27.8%) sinuses were most frequently affected. There were no statistically significant differences for both age and gender. The high prevalence of sinus opacification in asymptomatic children emphasizes the necessity of clinical correlation.
Inglehart, Marita R
Research findings concerning the role of gender in patient-physician interactions can inform considerations about the role of gender in patient-dental care provider interactions. Medical research showed that gender differences in verbal and nonverbal communication in medical settings exist and that they affect the outcomes of these interactions. The process of communication is shaped by gender identities, gender stereotypes, and attitudes. Future research needs to consider the cultural complexity and diversity in which gender issues are embedded and the degree to which ongoing value change will shape gender roles and in turn interactions between dental patients and their providers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency situations, basic life support is most important. However, emergencies in young children mostly involve breathing. Therefore, physicians who treat pediatric dental patients should learn PALS. It is necessary for the physician to regularly renew training every two years to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations. In order to manage emergency situations in the pediatric dental clinic, respiratory support is most important. Therefore, mastering professional PALS, which includes respiratory care and core cases, particularly upper airway obstruction and respiratory depression caused by a respiratory control problem, would be highly desirable for a physician who treats pediatric dental patients. Regular training and renewal training every two years is absolutely necessary to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations.
Pekkan, G; Kilicoglu, A; Hatipoglu, H
To evaluate the relationship between dental anxiety, general anxiety and depression levels in patients attending a university hospital dental clinic in Turkey. A cross sectional study. 250 first visit patients seeking dental treatment. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess the dental anxiety, general anxiety and depression level in these patients. The mean MDAS, BAI, and BDI scores were 10.5, 9.4, and 10.7, respectively. The prevalence of dental anxiety was found to be 20.8% (52/250) at the cut-off point > or = 15 and 6.8% (17/250) at the cut-off point > or = 19 according to MDAS score evaluation. MDAS and BAI scores were significantly higher in women (p or = 19 (p anxiety was positively correlated with patients' general anxiety level and was higher in women and at younger age.
Aubertin, Mary A
The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recently published new guidelines for the management of adult patients at risk for developing hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and associated conditions. These new guidelines include a new risk category (designated as prehypertension) and indicate a lower range for classifying normal blood pressure. This article provides a brief review of recent literature and highlights the pertinent changes from previous guidelines. In consideration of the new hypertension categories, the implications of monitoring blood pressure in the dental office are discussed and the classifications are correlated with specific recommendations for dental management.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is
Baqain, Zaid H; Khraisat, Ameen; Sawair, Faleh; Ghanam, Sana; Shaini, Firas J; Rajab, Lamis D
The aim of this study was to examine the reasons for dental extraction and to determine the pattern of tooth loss in patients seeking care at the oral surgery teaching clinics in the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, over a 3-year period. Data pertaining to the dental extractions of 2435 patients were analyzed. The results showed that 63.8% of the teeth included in this study were extracted because of dental caries, 22.9% because of periodontal disease, and 11.0% for prosthetic reasons. Pericoronitis, orthodontic treatment, trauma, and eruption problems accounted for 2.4% of the reported extractions. The upper premolars were the teeth most commonly extracted, and the lower first and second molars were the teeth most commonly extracted because of dental caries. The logistic regression test revealed that extraction because of dental caries occurred mostly in the group aged 21 to 30 years (P < .001). Periodontal disease was not likely the cause of extraction in patients younger than 40 years. Mandibular incisors were the teeth least likely extracted because of dental caries (P < .001), but they were the teeth most commonly extracted because of periodontal disease (P < .001). Extraction for orthodontic reasons mostly involved the premolars (P < .05) and occurred in patients 20 years of age or younger (P < .001). Men were less likely to lose teeth because of caries and periodontal disease (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively) and were more likely to lose teeth for prosthetic reasons and trauma. The information gained from this study is useful to shift oral health planning toward emphasizing the importance of maintaining natural dentition and preventing dental disease.
Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Igai, Hitoshi; Ibe, Takashi; Kawatani, Natsuko; Uchiyama, Toshio; Gomi, Akinori; Takahashi, Sayako; Otake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki
To prevent oral problems in lung cancer patients, dental intervention should be performed in conjunction with cancer treatment in cancer base hospitals. This paper reports on the perioperative oral care management of lung cancer patients. From January 2013 to August 2015, perioperative oral management was performed in 123 patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. We ensure cooperation between the departments of medicine and dentistry. First, the dentist plans oral management based on the patient's individual oral status. Then, the actual oral management is performed by an in-hospital dentist and at the regional dental clinic. The patients comprised 70 males and 53 females with an average age of 69.4 years;118 had primary lung cancer and 5 had metastatic lung cancer. Abnormal findings were detected in approximately 50% of the patients, of whom 6 received oral treatment before starting their cancer treatment. Two patients(1.3%)had postoperative complications. In all cases, the oral care support team provided both tooth and oral mucosal care. About half of the referred patients required oral treatment. There were no serious adverse events due to the oral care intervention. Further investigation is necessary to establish appropriate treatment policy guidelines for dental disease requiring oral maintenance.
Patient satisfaction: a survey of dental outpatients at the lagos university teaching hospital, nigeria. ... The items with the top three scores were dentist-patient relationship (respect/listen), rapport and infection control with mean scores of 3.5, 3.4, and 3.3 ... unsupervised students in 85.7%, 59.5% and 89% respectively.
The validity of the Periodontal Treatment Need System and the Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Need as screening tests for allocation of patients to dental students was assessed and compared. Sixty-one patients reporting to the Department of Periodontology at the University of Oslo were studied. (MLW)
Alswat, Khalid; Abdalla, Rawia Ahmad Mustafa; Titi, Maher Abdelraheim; Bakash, Maram; Mehmood, Faiza; Zubairi, Beena; Jamal, Diana; El-Jardali, Fadi
Measuring patient safety culture can provide insight into areas for improvement and help monitor changes over time. This study details the findings of a re-assessment of patient safety culture in a multi-site Medical City in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results were compared to an earlier assessment conducted in 2012 and benchmarked with regional and international studies. Such assessments can provide hospital leadership with insight on how their hospital is performing on patient safety culture composites as a result of quality improvement plans. This paper also explored the association between patient safety culture predictors and patient safety grade, perception of patient safety, frequency of events reported and number of events reported. We utilized a customized version of the patient safety culture survey developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The Medical City is a tertiary care teaching facility composed of two sites (total capacity of 904 beds). Data was analyzed using SPSS 24 at a significance level of 0.05. A t-Test was used to compare results from the 2012 survey to that conducted in 2015. Two adopted Generalized Estimating Equations in addition to two linear models were used to assess the association between composites and patient safety culture outcomes. Results were also benchmarked against similar initiatives in Lebanon, Palestine and USA. Areas of strength in 2015 included Teamwork within units, and Organizational Learning-Continuous Improvement; areas requiring improvement included Non-Punitive Response to Error, and Staffing. Comparing results to the 2012 survey revealed improvement on some areas but non-punitive response to error and Staffing remained the lowest scoring composites in 2015. Regression highlighted significant association between managerial support, organizational learning and feedback and improved survey outcomes. Comparison to international benchmarks revealed that the hospital is performing at or
Merve Erkmen Almaz
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in paediatric patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study consisted a sample of 9173 patients, aged between 0-15 years, referred to our clinic between 1 August 2011-1 August 2012. The patients were examined clinically and radiographically in terms of the number, size, shape, structure and color anomalies. Results: One hundred sixty six children (1.8% were found to have developmental dental anomalies. The most frequently observed anomalies were congenitally missing teeth (0.52% and supernumerary teeth (0.27%. Anomalies such as dens invaginatus (0.03%, dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.02% and dilaceration (0.02% were encountered more rarely. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and determination of the prevalence of dental anomalies in children is important in the treatment planning.
Full Text Available It comes to consulting the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Nuevo León pediatric male patient of 9 years 10 months, who was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of hemophilia due to a subsequent persistent bleeding to treatment with steel crowns made in an earlier appointment. Interconsultation is performed with the hematologist who by laboratory examinations notice decreased coagulation factor VIII confirming the diagnosis of hemophilia A. It plans and conducts comprehensive treatment dental team with the hematologist who said that patients in hospitals with the replacement of missing clotting factor is prepared by cryo precipitates or with concentrated factor VIII intravenously before and after his dental intervention. The aim of the article is to highlight that hemophilia can be a disease detected during dental surgery in some patients and for it to be successfully treated with multidisciplinary management protocol is required between hematologists and dentists.
Albackr, Hanan B; Alhabib, Khalid F; Ullah, Anhar; Alfaleh, Hussam; Hersi, Ahmad; Alshaer, Fayez; Alnemer, Khalid; Al Saif, Shukri; Taraben, Amir; Kashour, Tarek
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical features, and in-hospital outcomes of heart failure in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events recruited patients admitted with ACS from 17 hospitals in Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2007. The outcomes of ACS patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) compared with those without CHF were analyzed. A total of 4523 patients with ACS were identified, of whom 905 (20%) had CHF. Compared with no CHF, patients with CHF were older (62±13.1 vs. 57±12.9 years; P=0.001), less likely to be men (70 vs. 79%; P=0.001), likely to present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (48 vs. 36%; P=0.001), likely to have diabetes (71 vs. 54%; P=0.001), hypertension (64 vs. 54%; P=0.001) and previous history of coronary artery disease (53 vs. 43%; P=0.001), and likely to have significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction coronary intervention (19 vs. 50%; P=0.001). Adjusted in-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock were higher in the CHF group (odds ratio 4.43, 95% confidence interval 2.52-7.78; and odds ratio 3.51, 95% confidence interval 2.23-5.52), respectively. ACS patients with CHF in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Coronary Events were older, more likely to have more cardiac risk factors, and less likely to be treated with optimum medical treatment on admission. These findings were associated with higher incidence of their in-hospital adverse outcomes. More aggressive treatment is warranted to improve prognosis.
Lobbezoo, F; Brouwers, J E I G; Cune, M S; Naeije, M
Bruxism (teeth grinding and clenching) is generally considered a contraindication for dental implants, although the evidence for this is usually based on clinical experience only. So far, studies to the possible cause-and-effect relationship between bruxism and implant failure do not yield consistent and specific outcomes. This is partly because of the large variation in the literature in terms of both the technical aspects and the biological aspects of the study material. Although there is still no proof for the suggestion that bruxism causes an overload of dental implants and of their suprastructures, a careful approach is recommended. There are a few practical guidelines as to minimize the chance of implant failure. Besides the recommendation to reduce or eliminate bruxism itself, these guidelines concern the number and dimensions of the implants, the design of the occlusion and articulation patterns, and the protection of the final result with a hard occlusal stabilization splint (night guard).
Nakamura, F; Hirayama, Y; Morita, I; Nakagaki, H
The objective of this study was to clarify to what extent Japanese dentists recommend dental floss and what factors influence dentists in encouraging their patients to use dental floss. The subjects in this study were 291 dentists who were directors of dental clinics, selected by stratified sampling by age. Dentists whose teachers at dental school had demonstrated dental flossing tended to recommend patients to use dental floss 2.2 (1.0-4.6: 95% CI) times more frequently compared with those who did not see demonstrations of flossing at dental school. Respondents who considered that using dental floss was very easy and easy, moderate, and difficult recommended patients to use dental floss 45.4 (11.2-183.9), 17.4 (6.6-45.8) and 5.9 (2.5-14.1) times more frequently, respectively, compared with those who considered it very difficult. Respondents who considered that using dental floss was effective, fairly effective or very effective in preventing dental caries recommended patients to use dental floss 3.8 (1.7-8.6), 3.8 (1.7-8.8) and 9.1 (3.6-23.0) times more frequently respectively, compared with those who considered it ineffective or only slightly effective. The demonstration of the use of dental floss by teachers at their dental schools gave dentists a good impression and a positive opinion of dental flossing. This was closely associated with recommendations by dentists to their patients to use dental floss.
Full Text Available Janet H Southerland,1 Danielle G Gill,1 Pandu R Gangula,2–4 Leslie R Halpern,1 Cesar Y Cardona,5 Charles P Mouton6 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Oral Biology and Research, 3Department of Physiology, 4Center for Women's Health Research, 5Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Family and Community Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Hypertension is a chronic illness affecting more than a billion people worldwide. The high prevalence of the disease among the American population is concerning and must be considered when treating dental patients. Its lack of symptoms until more serious problems occur makes the disease deadly. Dental practitioners can often be on the frontlines of prevention of hypertension by evaluating preoperative blood pressure readings, performing risk assessments, and knowing when to consider medical consultation of a hypertensive patient in a dental setting. In addition, routine follow-up appointments and patients seen on an emergent basis, who may otherwise not be seen routinely, allow the oral health provider an opportunity to diagnose and refer for any unknown disease. It is imperative to understand the risk factors that may predispose patients to hypertension and to be able to educate them about their condition. Most importantly, the oral health care provider is in a pivotal position to play an active role in the management of patients presenting with a history of hypertension because many antihypertensive agents interact with pharmacologic agents used in the dental practice. The purpose of this review is to provide strategies for managing and preventing complications when treating the patient with hypertension who presents to the dental office. Keywords: high blood pressure, dental, guidelines, inflammation, metabolic disease, blood pressure medicines
Imam, Abdelmageed; Al-Anzi, Faisal G; Al-Ghasham, Mohammad A; Al-Suraikh, Moayad A; Al-Yahya, Azzam O; Rasheed, Zafar
To determine the frequency of antibody seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a cancer patient population. We also explored on association of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity with selected variables. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at Prince Faisal bin Bandar cancer center, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, from November 2014 to March 2015. One hundred thirty seven patients were involved in the study. Demographic data was collected using structured questionnaire, and clinical information was retrieved from the patient's medical reports. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique was used for antibody assay. Results: The frequency of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii infection was 30.6%. The patient's age range from 1.5-84 years with a geometric mean of 42.7 years. The seropositivity was significantly higher (p<0.05) among the 40-80 years age group (71.4%) as compared to 0-39 years one (28.6%). Conclusion: The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii increases with increasing age among cancer patients in this region of central Saudi Arabia. More research is advisable for better understanding of ageing in pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis among patients with malignancies.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To determine the prevalence of respiratory diseases and the length of stay among hospitalized patients with respiratory disorders 2 To detect the medical disorders commonly associated with respiratory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was done for 810 patients hospitalized with respiratory diseases in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over 5 years (January 1996 to December 2000. A special form was used to collect information from patient medical records including demographic data (such as age, sex and nationality, discharge diagnosis with other associated diseases and length of stay during hospitalization. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of patients were males and 56.3% were Saudis. The mostly affected age group was 46-65 years (41.8%. Asthma (38.6%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (17.2%, pneumonia (11.5%, lung cancer (8.4% and tuberculosis (TB (7.2% had the highest prevalence among hospitalized patients. Asthma was higher among females (63.3% than males (36.7%. In contrast, lung cancer, COPD and TB were higher among males (88.2, 66.9 and 74.1% than females (11.8, 33.1 and 25.9% respectively ( P P CONCLUSION: Asthma, COPD and pneumonia were the leading causes of hospitalization among patients with respiratory disorders, while diabetes and hypertension were the most commonly associated diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the changes in dental healthcare, such as the increasing assertiveness of patients, the introduction of new dental professionals, and regulated competition, it becomes more important that general dental practitioners (GDPs take patients' views into account. The aim of the study was to compare patients' views on organizational aspects of general dental practices with those of GDPs and with GDPs' estimation of patients' views. Methods In a survey study, patients and GDPs provided their views on organizational aspects of a general dental practice. In a second, separate survey, GDPs were invited to estimate patients' views on 22 organizational aspects of a general dental practice. Results For 4 of the 22 aspects, patients and GDPs had the same views, and GDPs estimated patients' views reasonably well: 'Dutch-speaking GDP', 'guarantee on treatment', 'treatment by the same GDP', and 'reminder of routine oral examination'. For 2 aspects ('quality assessment' and 'accessibility for disabled patients' patients and GDPs had the same standards, although the GDPs underestimated the patients' standards. Patients had higher standards than GDPs for 7 aspects and lower standards than GDPs for 8 aspects. Conclusion On most aspects GDPs and patient have different views, except for social desirable aspects. Given the increasing assertiveness of patients, it is startling the GDP's estimated only half of the patients' views correctly. The findings of the study can assist GDPs in adapting their organizational services to better meet the preferences of their patients and to improve the communication towards patients.
Van den Bossche, Anne-Marie; Ploscar, Paula
This contribution presents the legal framework for intra-European mobility of dental patients. After presenting the EU competences in respect of healthcare and a brief look into the various routes of patient mobility, the article sets out the rules for access to dental care, treatment abroad and reimbursement through social security. In addition, we focus on the impact of European Union (EU) law upon national systems in respect of professional insurance, complaints procedures and information mechanisms. In conclusion, we reflect on the development in EU law of an independent set of rights to cross-border dental care and its consequences for financing and reimbursement of care, as well as for national practices in respect of professional liability and insurance.
Carolina Silveira Barbosa
Full Text Available The rate of bariatric surgery has significantly risen in the past decade as an increasing prevalence of extreme obesity can be observed. Although bariatric surgery is an effective therapeutic modality for extreme obesity, it is associated with risk factors affecting also oral health. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of dental manifestations in bariatric patients. Bariatric surgeries are associated with an increased risk for gastro-esophageal reflux which in turn might account for the higher amount of carious and erosive lesions observed in bariatric patients. As a result, also dentin hypersensitivity might be observed more frequently. The current data indicate that recommended postsurgical meal patterns and gastric reflux might increase the risk for dental lesions, particularly in the presence of other risk factors, such as consumption of sweet-tasting foods and acidic beverages. Further research is needed to evaluate the correlation of bariatric surgery and the development of dental diseases.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activities Under OMB Review... Form 10-0503).'' Title: Survey of Healthcare Experiences, Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA Form...
Waters, B G
The appropriate management of dental patients with cardiovascular disease is contingent on appropriate assessment and evaluation. Baseline vital signs, a good medical history and medical evaluation are all essential for the safe delivery of care. All patients with cardiovascular disease can be managed using the following guidelines: 1. Properly assess the patient. This should include an assessment by the dentist and also a medical consultation if required. 2. Establish what medications the patient is taking along with the dose and timing and note any potential drug interactions and side effects. 3. Use short appointments (less than one hour), preferably in the morning. 4. Premedication should be considered to alleviate anxiety. The intraoperative use of nitrous oxide and oxygen is also a reasonable strategy for patients with cardiovascular disease, particularly those with ischemic heart disease. 5. Effective local anesthesia is important in order to avoid undue stress during the appointment as long as the guidelines for the administration of epinephrine are followed. The use of epinephrine impregnated gingival displacement cord should be strictly avoided in patients with cardiovascular disease. 6. For patients with angina pectoris, a fresh supply of nitroglycerin should be available at the time of the appointment. Prophylactic nitroglycerin has been shown to be effective in the prevention of both hypertension and angina pectoris during dental treatment. The appointment should be terminated early if the patient becomes overly anxious. In the event of cardiovascular symptoms during dental treatment, all work should be stopped. Emergency measures should be instituted if necessary. Preparations for emergencies should be undertaken by all dentists. The treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease is relatively simple if the proper steps are taken. The use of blood pressure measurements on all patients will help to screen for undiagnosed hypertension and all
Rowland, Michael L
The United States is becoming substantially more diverse in its citizenry, with numerous racial and ethnic cultural groups and immigrants living and working in this country. In addition, there has been an increase in the number of languages other than English spoken in homes, as well as an increase in the number of individuals with limited English-speaking abilities. Given the emerging racial, ethnic, and cultural trends in U.S. society, it is important that dental students as future practitioners have knowledge of interpreter services, working with professionally trained interpreters, and the legal responsibilities and requirements of interpretation. The purposes of this study were to 1) describe the role of interpreters in dental health care settings; 2) identify challenges they face; and 3) propose approaches and strategies to improve communication between dental students as future practitioners and non-English-speaking patients. Data were collected through a series of individual in-depth, face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured open-question format and email communications with three key informants who were purposefully selected to participate in this study based on their comprehensive knowledge and experience as interpreters. The qualitative analysis revealed themes or stories related to the following areas of this study: 1) the role of professional interpreters in dental and other health care settings; 2) challenges faced by interpreters and providers working with patients with limited English-speaking ability; and 3) strategies and approaches used to improve communication and address challenges. By understanding the unique interpreting needs of non- or limited English-speaking patients, dental students have an opportunity to broaden their cultural competency skills. Dental schools have an obligation to ensure that students, faculty, and staff know and understand the legal rights of patients and health care providers to communicate effectively when
Komlós, György; Körmöczi, Kinga; Miklya, Ildikó; Joób-Fancsaly, Arpád
Physiological differences occuring in pregnancy modify certain steps of dental treatments. Since in our everyday practice we meet expectant patients, we have to be aware of what kind of changes does this transitional state require from the dentist, how to do a good timing in the course of dental treatment, which are those medicaments that can be used safely and those which should be avoided. The summerized data in the article are to contribute the safe choice of the possibly necessary antibiotics during the treatments. Besides, dental care should not be delayed due to our doubts about local anestetics, because it may carry serious consequences later. Relying on the most up-to-date facts, moreover, we mention the guidelines of the use of analgesics during pregnancy in dentistry. The treatment of pregnant women does not differ to a high degree from those who are non-pregnant, yet some of its viewpoints need special attention and we have to take them into consideration in order to do the appropriate medical work. Basically, in our opinion, before every dental and dental surgical intervention it is essential to consult with the patient's gynaecologist and in agreement with him/her to determine the course of the medicinal treatment.
Mohamed Abdullah Jaber
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. RESULTS: The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI and Met Need Index (MNI for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61 or fair 37.8% (23/61 oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61 of the autistic children had gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.
Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah
Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.
Zallen Richard D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients present to dental clinics for treatment of painful conditions. Prior to seeking treatment, many of these patients will self-medicate with non-prescription analgesics (NPA, and some will unintentionally overdose on these products. The objective of this study is to describe the use of NPA among dental patients. Methods All adult patients presenting to an urban dental clinic during a two-week period in January and February of 2001 were approached to participate in this research project. Trained research assistants using a standardized questionnaire interviewed patients. Patient demographics and the NPA usage over the 3 days preceding the office visit were recorded. We defined a supra-therapeutic dose as any dose greater than the total recommended daily dose stated on package labeling. Results We approached 194 patients and 127 participated. The mean age of participants was 35.5 years, 52% were male. Analgesic use preceding the visit was reported by 99 of 127 patients, and most (81/99 used a NPA exclusively. Fifty-four percent of NPA users were taking more than one NPA. NPA users reported using ibuprofen (37%, acetaminophen (27%, acetaminophen/aspirin combination product (8%, naproxen (8%, and aspirin (4%. Sixteen patients reported supra-therapeutic use of one or more NPA (some ingested multiple products: ibuprofen (14, acetaminophen (3, and naproxen (5. Conclusion NPA use was common in patients presenting to a dental clinic. A significant minority of patients reported excessive dosing of NPA. Ibuprofen was the most frequently misused product, followed by naproxen and acetaminophen. Though mostly aware of the potential toxicity of NPA, many patients used supra-therapeutic dosages.
Emine Buket Şahin; Fatma Çetinözman; Nihal Avcu; Ayşen Karaduman
Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP). Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our result...
Marshall, Jennifer; Sheller, Barbara; Williams, Bryan J; Mancl, Lloyd; Cowan, Charles
This study evaluated potential predictors of cooperation during dental appointments for children with autism. Data were collected from 108 parent/child pairs and their dentists. Questions included: (1) medical/dental history; (2)functional language; (3) personal hygiene skills; (4) academic setting; and (5) achievements. Behavior was scored using the Frankl scale. Subjects were 80 males and 28 females 2.7 to 19 years old with a mean age of 9.8 years. Frankl scores were 65% uncooperative (definitely negative or negative) and 35% cooperative (positive or definitely positive). Multiple factors predicted uncooperative behavior: (1) appointment type (P=.03); (2) concurrent medical diagnoses (P=.04); (3) nonverbal/minimal or echololic language (P=.005); (4) inability to understand language appropriate for age (P=.02); (5) inability to follow multistep instructions (P=.04); (6) parents providing most/all tooth-brushing (P=.004); (7) partially or not toilet trained at 4+ years (P=.02); (8) inability to sit for a haircut (P=.01); (9) attending special education (Ptraining, toothbrushing, haircuts, academic achievement and language can give the dentist insight into the child's ability to respond positively to behavior guidance techniques based on communication.
A study on a stratified sample of 120 adult registered diabetic patients from the only two diabetes clinics in Ibadan, University College Hospital (UCH) and Ring Road Government Hospital and fifty (50) healthy adult nondiabetic volunteers as control, shows that 51.48% of the interviewees have never visited the dental clinic ...
Lu, Hui; Zeng, Bing Hui; Yu, Dong Sheng; Jing, Xiang Yi; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi Ming [Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)
Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital disorder, typically characterized by persistently open skull sutures, aplastic or hypoplastic clavicles, and supernumerary teeth. Mutations in the gene encoding the runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) protein are responsible for approximately two thirds of CCD patients. We report a 20-year-old CCD patient presenting not only with typical skeletal changes, but also complex dental anomalies. A previously undiagnosed odontoma, 14 supernumerary teeth, a cystic lesion, and previously unreported fused primary teeth were discovered on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Mutation analysis identified the causal c.578G>A (p.R193Q) mutation in the RUNX2 gene. At 20 years of age, the patient had already missed the optimal period for dental intervention. This report describes the complex dental anomalies in a belatedly diagnosed CCD patient, and emphasizes the significance of CBCT assessment for the detection of dental anomalies and the importance of early treatment to achieve good outcomes.
Results: Of the 200 respondents, majority (n=154;77%) had knowledge on cross infection during dental treatment, especially in regard to HIV/AIDS (n=126,63%) followed by fungal infections (n=85;42.5%) and syphilis (n=34;17%). The patients also knew that transmission of disease could occur through air droplets (n=163 ...
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request... measure patients' satisfaction with VA's dental services. DATES: Written comments and recommendations on..., Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10-0503. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 10-0503). Type...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey); Activities under OMB Review... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900- 0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any correspondence....gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0764 (Dental Patient Satisfaction Survey)'' in any...
Madhan, Balasubramanian; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Garhnayak, Lokanath; Naik, Eslavath Seena
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare a group of Indian dental students' attitudes toward HIV-positive status, substance misuse, intellectual disability, acute mental illness, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) orientation. Two hundred and twelve students at various stages in the dental curriculum anonymously completed the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS) for these conditions. Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used, respectively, to analyze the intrastage and interstage differences in MCRS scores. The results revealed that the regard of dental students was considerably positive for all the conditions except LGBT, for which it was just borderline positive. Intellectual disability received the highest regard among all the conditions and LGBT the least. An intermediary and comparable regard was noted for acute mental illness and HIV-positive status followed by substance misuse. While the regard for LGBT remained consistent throughout the curriculum, those for other conditions showed a marginal decrease at the completion of the clinical training. Active curricular reforms are required to ensure a more inclusive and nondiscriminatory dental care environment for patients from such often-stigmatized populations, especially those with LGBT orientation and substance misuse.
Ghulam, Omar A; Fadel, Hani T
Overhanging dental restorations (ODRs) and secondary caries lesions (SCLs) are of high prevalence and jeopardize the fate of the restoration. To assess the relationship between ODRs, SCLs and certain caries contributory factors. A total of 502 radiographic records of dental patients with proximal fillings (mean age 38 ± 13 years, 50% females) were screened for ODRs and SCLs. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. In addition, two-step cluster analysis was performed in an attempt to explain trends in ODR and SCL distribution. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. More than 30% of the individuals had ODRs and SCLs. No differences between genders were observed ( p > 0.05). Individuals with medical conditions had more ODRs than those without (49% vs. 34%, p ≤ 0.05), while those with high caries experience had more SCLs (49%, p ≤ 0.05). The cluster analysis grouped the participants in five clusters, with the cluster involving individuals with no medical conditions and low caries experience demonstrating the lowest prevalence of ODRs and SCLs. Within the study limits, more than one third of the sample of dental patients had ODRs and SCLs. The medical condition was associated with ODRs, while the past caries experience was associated with SCLs.
Odai, Emeka Danielson; Ehizele, Adebola Oluyemisi; Enabulele, Joan Emien
Pain is considered a key symptom associated with possible impairment of oral-health-related quality of life and its assessment is important for the planning and evaluation of preventive and treatment effort. The tools for assessing pain must therefore be valid and consistent. The objective of this study was to assess dental patients' level of pain based on the clinical diagnosis of their dental condition and the correlation between two pain assessment scales, Visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Full Cup Test (FCT), for the assessment of pain among dental patients. A total of 185 patients presenting at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital dental outpatient clinics with various forms of orofacial pain were included in this study. The mean VAS scores and mean FCT scores for the different dental conditions were compared. Agreement between VAS and FCT was evaluated using the Intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients and Cronbach alpha coefficient was also calculated to assess consistency of the two pain scales. Majority i.e. 95.1, 96.2 and 100% who presented with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis and pericoronitis respectively, presented with moderate to severe pain levels (p < 0.05). Only 25.9 and 4% who presented with chronic marginal gingivitis and chronic pulpitis respectively presented with no pain (p < 0.05). A large proportion (75%) of patients with no pain had single diagnosis while more than half (52.1%) of those who presented with severe pain had multiple diagnoses (p = 0.025). The mean VAS and FCT scores for acute pain were 6.1 ± 2.1 and 5.9 ± 2.4 respectively and for chronic pain 3.9 ± 2.7 and 3.7 ± 2.7 respectively (P = 0.001). The interclass correlation coefficient revealed that the mean VAS and FCT scores were statistically correlated and reliable with a Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.85. It can be concluded that patients who presented with either acute or chronic dental conditions may experience moderate to severe level of pain, with
Davydov, A B; Lebedev, S N; Lebedeva, Iu V; Davydova, O B
After the supervision over patients with cancer of mucous membrane of oral cavity (MMOC) admitted for treatment in the Tver Regional Clinical Oncological Hospital (TRCOH), the analysis of 427 primary revealed cases of cancer of mobile part of the tongue MPoT (S 02) was carried out. The study included retrospective analysis of case records of 237 patients treated from 1997 to 2013 with the diagnosis of MPoT and prospective examination of 190 patients treated by authors in specialized departments of TRCOH. On the basis of questioning of 67 III-IV stages tongue carcinoma patients at the age of 50-59 years clinical course features, cancer risk factors and oral care patterns were studied. It was revealed that patients often make decision to see an oncologist to meet relatives wishes, prefer self-treatment, trust hearings and quacks or simply hope for self-recovery. Studying of dental status revealed high prevalence and intensity of caries. All males and the majority of sampled women weren't informed about additional methods of oral cavity hygiene (dental floss, mouthwashes, gels) and had unsatisfactory or bad level of Fedorov-Volodkina hygienic index. We revealed a high necessity in treatment of caries and its complications, an average of 3.61 and 2.73 teeth needed filling and 4,43 and 1.77 teeth - extraction in male and female patients, correspondently. The received data identify a great need for dental treatment and patient education in patients with tongue malignancy.
Many patients still experience dental treatment as an unsettling and unpleasant situation despite of the today available possibility to have a treatment assisted by local anesthetization that is largely pain-free. The pathological form of dental treatment anxiety is prevalent throughout the world and as a condition on its own right associated with dental treatment. The actual level of the anxiety can be evaluated by the dental team on the basis of the visual analogue scale (VAS) or the dental...
Andreia Pereira SOUZA
Full Text Available Patients with Vitamin D-resistant rickets have abnormal tooth morphology such as thin globular dentin and enlarged pulp horns that extend into the dentino-enamel junction. Invasion of the pulp by microorganisms and toxins is inevitable. The increased fibrotic content of the pulp, together with a reduced number of odontoblasts, decreases the response to pulp infection. The most important oral findings are characterized by spontaneous gingival and dental abscesses occuring without history of trauma or caries. Radiographic examinations revealed large pulp chambers, short roots, poorly defined lamina dura and hypoplastic alveolar ridge. These dental abscesses are common and therefore the extraction and pulpectomy are the treatment of choice. The purpose of this article is to report a case of Vitamin D-resistant rickets in a 5 year-old boy, describing the dental findings and the treatment to be performed in these cases.
SOUZA, Andréia Pereira; KOBAYASHI, Tatiana Yuriko; LOURENÇO NETO, Natalino; SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; OLIVEIRA, Thais Marchini
Patients with Vitamin D-resistant rickets have abnormal tooth morphology such as thin globular dentin and enlarged pulp horns that extend into the dentino-enamel junction. Invasion of the pulp by microorganisms and toxins is inevitable. The increased fibrotic content of the pulp, together with a reduced number of odontoblasts, decreases the response to pulp infection. The most important oral findings are characterized by spontaneous gingival and dental abscesses occuring without history of trauma or caries. Radiographic examinations revealed large pulp chambers, short roots, poorly defined lamina dura and hypoplastic alveolar ridge. These dental abscesses are common and therefore the extraction and pulpectomy are the treatment of choice. The purpose of this article is to report a case of Vitamin D-resistant rickets in a 5 year-old boy, describing the dental findings and the treatment to be performed in these cases. PMID:24473729
Raymond M Khan
Full Text Available Over the past decade, there have been major improvements to the care of mechanically ventilated patients (MVPs. Earlier initiatives used the concept of ventilator care bundles (sets of interventions, with a primary focus on reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, recent evidence has led to a more comprehensive approach: The ABCDE bundle (Awakening and Breathing trial Coordination, Delirium management and Early mobilization. The approach of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP was developed by patient safety researchers at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and is supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to improve local safety cultures and to learn from defects by utilizing a validated structured framework. In August 2015, 17 Intensive Care Units (ICUs (a total of 271 beds in eight hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia joined the CUSP for MVPs (CUSP 4 MVP that was conducted in 235 ICUs in 169 US hospitals and led by the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality. The CUSP 4 MVP project will set the stage for cooperation between multiple hospitals and thus strives to create a countrywide plan for the management of all MVPs in Saudi Arabia.
Chung, Evelyn M; Sung, Eric C; Sakurai, Kari L
About 40% to 50% of Down syndrome (DS) patients can have significant congenital heart defects such as patent ductus arteriosus, Tetralogy of Fallot, and septal defects. Patients with large septal defects may develop Eisenmenger syndrome (ES), which is defined by the cardiac septal defect and pulmonary hypertension coupled with a reverse right to left shunting of blood flow. DS patients that suffer from this condition require special considerations in the delivery of their dental care to prevent further medical complications or emergencies such as infection, cyanotic episodes, and thromboemboli. Collaboration with the cardiologist is also essential to ensure a complete and comprehensive pre-operative work up. The purpose of this article is to describe the dental management of DS patients with ES under general anesthesia.
Faizal C Peedikayil; Vijayan, Ajoy
Pain control is an important part of dentistry, particularly in the management of children. Behavior guidance, and dose and technique of administration of the local anesthetic are important considerations in the successful treatment of a pediatric patient. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the relevant data on topics involved, and on the current methods available in the administration of local anesthesia used for pediatric dental patients.
Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Vijayan, Ajoy
Pain control is an important part of dentistry, particularly in the management of children. Behavior guidance, and dose and technique of administration of the local anesthetic are important considerations in the successful treatment of a pediatric patient. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the relevant data on topics involved, and on the current methods available in the administration of local anesthesia used for pediatric dental patients. PMID:25885712
MEMARPOUR, MAHTAB; BAZRAFKAN, LEILA; ZAREI, ZAHRA
Introduction Establishment of effective communication between the clinician and patient is essential in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment. These skills have been less investigated among dental students. This study aimed to evaluate communication skills of dental students in Shiraz with patients through direct observation, patients' perspectives and students' self-assessments. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled the fifth and sixth year dental students and one of each student’s patients who was chosen using simple random sampling method. We used a checklist for data collection. Students’ communication skills were assessed at three steps of the student-patient interview – at the beginning of the interview, during the interview, and at the end of the interview. The checklist was completed by three groups: 1) an observer, 2) the patient and 3) the student, as self-assessment. The validity of the checklist was confirmed by clinical professors and the reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Student’s t test. A repeated measure MANOVA was used to compare the mean communication skills in the researcher, patients, and students at each step of the patient interviews. Results There were 110 students (mean age: 22.3±8.4 years) and 110 patients (mean age: 32±8.8 years) who completed the checklists. Overall, the communication skills of dental students were rated as good according to the patients. However, the observer and student participants rated the skills at the moderate level. We observed significant differences between communication skills in all three groups and in the three steps of the patient interviews (ppatients' beliefs and students' self assessments, there were no differences between male and female students in communication skills in the three steps of the patient interviews (all p>0.05). However from the observer’s viewpoint, female students showed better
Memarpour, Mahtab; Bazrafkan, Leila; Zarei, Zahra
Establishment of effective communication between the clinician and patient is essential in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment. These skills have been less investigated among dental students. This study aimed to evaluate communication skills of dental students in Shiraz with patients through direct observation, patients' perspectives and students' self-assessments. This cross-sectional study enrolled the fifth and sixth year dental students and one of each student's patients who was chosen using simple random sampling method. We used a checklist for data collection. Students' communication skills were assessed at three steps of the student-patient interview - at the beginning of the interview, during the interview, and at the end of the interview. The checklist was completed by three groups: 1) an observer, 2) the patient and 3) the student, as self-assessment. The validity of the checklist was confirmed by clinical professors and the reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Student's t test. A repeated measure MANOVA was used to compare the mean communication skills in the researcher, patients, and students at each step of the patient interviews. There were 110 students (mean age: 22.3±8.4 years) and 110 patients (mean age: 32±8.8 years) who completed the checklists. Overall, the communication skills of dental students were rated as good according to the patients. However, the observer and student participants rated the skills at the moderate level. We observed significant differences between communication skills in all three groups and in the three steps of the patient interviews (ppatients' beliefs and students' self assessments, there were no differences between male and female students in communication skills in the three steps of the patient interviews (all p>0.05). However from the observer's viewpoint, female students showed better communication skills during the interviews (p=0
Afi Savitri Sarsito
The treatment of oral and dental diseases in healthy patients can be performed with general standard and usually do not cause problems. On the other hand treatment of oral and dental diseases in medically compromised patients, especially one with disease of cardiovascular system must be performed with specific standard or otherwis emay evoke serious problems. Therefore the treatment needs to be compromised with the condition of the patients as well as the medication they are taking. This pape...
Sands, Kirsty M; Twigg, Joshua A; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W
Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97% gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant 'microbial shift' occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection.
Wetselaar, P.; Vermaire, J.H.; Lobbezoo, F.
This case report describes a patient who is referred by his home physician to a centre for special dental care because of the presence of severe oral pain with an existing dental phobia. The patient has Asperger's Syndrome. Besides his extreme fear for dental treatment and several deep carious
Güneri, P.; Epstein, J.B.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Çankaya, H.; Boyacıoğlu, H.; Barasch, A.
Aim: Dental treatment is necessary in oncology patients since pre-existing oro-dental disease may influence cancer treatment and prognosis. This study investigated the applicability of two indices in reflecting the actual oral health status of 100 non-cancer patients who were admitted for dental
Full Text Available Aim: Dental treatment is necessary in oncology patients since pre-existing oro-dental disease may influence cancer treatment and prognosis. This study investigated the applicability of two indices in reflecting the actual oral health status of 100 non-cancer patients who were admitted for dental complaints/routine controls.
Full Text Available Introduction: Establishment of effective communication between the clinician and patient is essential in order to increase the effectiveness of treatment. These skills have been less investigated among dental students. This study aimed to evaluate communication skills of dental students in Shiraz with patients through direct observation, patients’ perspectives and students’ self-assessments. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled the fifth and sixth year dental students and one of each student’s patients who was chosen using simple random sampling method. We used a checklist for data collection. Students’ communication skills were assessed at three steps of the student-patient interview – at the beginning of the interview, during the interview, and at the end of the interview. The checklist was completed by three groups: 1 an observer, 2 the patient and 3 the student, as self-assessment. The validity of the checklist was confirmed by clinical professors and the reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha test. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Student’s t test. A repeated measure MANOVA was used to compare the mean communication skills in the researcher, patients, and students at each step of the patient interviews. Results: There were 110 students (mean age: 22.3±8.4 years and 110 patients (mean age: 32±8.8 years who completed the checklists. Overall, the communication skills of dental students were rated as good according to the patients. However, the observer and student participants rated the skills at the moderate level. We observed significant differences between communication skills in all three groups and in the three steps of the patient interviews (p0.05. However from the observer’s viewpoint, female students showed better communication skills during the interviews (p=0.001. Conclusion: There was a degree of failure in communication skills of dental students with patients in the interview
E. N. Mitin
Full Text Available Psychological comfort on the dental admission is important for the implementation of preventive measures. Considerable attention is now being given to the relationship doctor-dentist with patients, establish positive communication, without which it is impossible to implement preventive measures. Particularly urgent is the problem of creating a trusting relationship between doctor and patient in childhood. With three years there has been persistent memory on the pain, the child’s organs and systems are in a state of unstable equilibrium, so the feeling of fear and pain have a particularly pronounced effect on the psyche of a young patient. The dominant value in the motivation for subsequent visits to the doctor is the emotional coloring of the first visits to the dental clinic.
Maryam, Amirchaghmaghi; Atessa, Pakfetrat; Mozafari Pegah, Mosannen; Zahra, Shafiee; Hanieh, Ghalavani; Davood, Aghasizadeh; Yeganeh, Khazaei
... (dental university, dental offices and clinics) for treatment in Mashhad, Iran. A total number of 1,188 patients were registered, 871 of whom had a medical history that was of some interest to us...
Dickey, Keith Winfield
The article describes a survey of 36 dental education programs to identify educators' reactive policies and procedures in their patient treatment centers to minimize dental contamination and cross-contamination. (Author/CT)
Magdy Mahmoud Emara
Conclusion: Asthmatic patients may be at a higher risk of developing oxygen desaturation after dental procedures regardless of their type with and without local anesthesia and a decrease in PEF after dental procedures with local anesthesia.
Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa
We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program...
Ogata, Yorimasa; Nakayama, Yohei; Tatsumi, Junichi; Kubota, Takehiko; Sato, Shuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Onitsuka, Tokuya; Sakagami, Ryuji; Nozaki, Takenori; Murakami, Shinya; Matsubara, Naritoshi; Tanaka, Maki; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ota, Junya; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Ishihara, Yuichi; Ito, Taichi; Saito, Atsushi; Yamaki, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Hidaka, Toshirou; Sasaki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Takashi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Shibutani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Kazuyuki; Araki, Hisao; Ikumi, Noriharu; Aoyama, Yukihiko; Kogai, Hideki; Nemoto, Kenji; Deguchi, Shinji; Takiguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Inokuchi, Keita; Ito, Takatoshi; Kado, Takashi; Furuichi, Yasushi; Kanazashi, Mikimoto; Gomi, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yukie; Kubokawa, Keita; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Hirose, Tetsushi; Sase, Toshinaga; Arita, Hirokazu; Kodama, Toshiro; Shin, Kitetsu; Izumi, Yuichi; Yoshie, Hiromasa
We investigated the prevalences and risk factors for peri-implant diseases in Japanese adult dental patients attending a follow-up visit at dental hospitals or clinics as part of their maintenance program...
Malamed, S F; Quinn, C L
A 56-year-old patient with alleged allergy to local anesthetics required restorative dental treatment. Electronic dental anesthesia was used successfully, in lieu of injectable local anesthetics, to manage intraoperative pain associated with the restoration of vital mandibular teeth.
Huebner, Colleen E; Milgrom, Peter; Conrad, Douglas; Lee, Rosanna Shuk Yin
A growing number of studies and reports indicate preventive, routine and emergency dental procedures can be provided safely to pregnant patients to alleviate dental problems and promote oral health...
Martinowitz, U; Mazar, A L; Taicher, S; Varon, D; Gitel, S N; Ramot, B; Rakocz, M
Dental extraction in patients receiving long-term oral anticoagulant therapy is a controversial issue. Continuation of anticoagulation exposes the patient to serious hemorrhage, whereas cessation of therapy increases the risk of thromboembolism. Forty patients treated by coumarin underwent 63 tooth extractions, without a change in the therapeutic protocol of anticoagulation. The biologic adhesive Beriplast was used successfully to achieve local hemostasis at the site of the surgical wound. Apart from one patient who had mild oozing, there were no incidences of postsurgical hemorrhage.
Ken, Yukawa; Tachikawa, Noriko; Kasugai, Shohei
This aim of this study was to investigate the differences between patients with and without a treatment history of dental implants by use of a questionnaire survey in order to determine the information that is required for patients undergoing dental implants. The questionnaires were given to 4512 patients who visited the Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital for oral implants between January 2012 and December 2014, and 2972 (66%) valid questionnaires were collected. There were 857 patients with a treatment history of dental implants and 2115 patients without. "Preservation of an adjacent tooth" was the reason that 32% of these patients chose implant therapy, and the patients without treatment history were significantly higher than the patients with one. Significantly, more patients without a treatment history of dental implants selected the after-effects of surgery and pain after surgery as their main concerns for implant therapy compared to those with a treatment history. In the question "Pain after surgery," the patients without treatment history did not know significantly lower than the patients with one. Patients without a treatment history of dental implants placed more importance on the preservation of healthy teeth. Because patients, in particular those without a treatment history of dental implants, are anxious about surgery, we should provide them with more information on treatment than we already do and explain the risks of treatment to them. To keep the credence between doctors and patients, informed consent and patient education on treatment are six important concerns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alghnam, Suliman; Palta, Mari; Hamedani, Azita; Remington, Patrick L; Alkelya, Mohamed; Albedah, Khalid; Durkin, Maureen S
Traffic-related fatalities are a leading cause of premature death worldwide. According to the 2012 report the Global Burden of Disease 2010, traffic injuries ranked 8th as a cause of death in 2010, compared to 10th in 1990. Saudi Arabia is estimated to have an overall traffic fatality rate more than double that of the U.S., but it is unknown whether mortality differences also exist for injured patients seeking medical care. We aim to compare in-hospital mortality between Saudi Arabia and the United States, adjusting for severity and demographic variables. The analysis included 485,611 patients from the U.S. National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) and 5,290 patients from a trauma registry at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For comparability, we restricted our sample to NTDB data from level-I public trauma centers (≥400 beds) in the U.S. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of setting (KAMC vs. NTDB) on in-hospital mortality after adjusting for age, sex, Triage-Revised Scale (T-RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), mechanism of injury, hypotension, surgery and head injuries. Interactions between setting and ISS, and predictors were also evaluated. Injured patients in the Saudi registry were more likely to be males, and younger than those from the NTDB. Patients at the Saudi hospital were at higher risk of in-hospital death than their U.S. counterparts. In the highest severity group (ISSs, 25-75), the odds ratio of in-hospital death in KAMC versus NTDB was 5.0 (95% CI 4.3-5.8). There were no differences in mortality between KAMC and NTDB among patients from lower ISS groups (ISSs, 1-8, 9-15, and 16-24). Patients who are severely injured following traffic crash injuries in Saudi Arabia are significantly more likely to die in the hospital than comparable patients admitted to large U.S. trauma centers. Further research is needed to identify reasons for this disparity and strategies for improving the care of
Wali, Aisha; Siddiqui, Talha Mufeed; Khan, Rabia; Batool, Kanza
The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cluster-sampling technique was used and 200 dental surgeons from six different dental institutions were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire was distribut...
AlSaggaf, Wafaa; Asiri, Mohammed; Ajlan, Balgees; Afif, Alaa Bin; Khalil, Roaa; Salman, Anas Bin; Alghamdi, Ahmed; Bashawieh, Osama; Alamoudi, Atheer; Aljahdali, Abeer; Aljahdali, Nouf; Patwa, Hussam; Bakhaidar, Mohammed; Bahijri, Suhad M; Ahmed, Maimoona; Al-Shali, Khalid; Bokhari, Samia; Alhozali, Amani; Borai, Anwar; Ajabnoor, Ghada; Tuomilehto, Jaakko
To compare the effect of different treatment regimens (oral hypoglycemic agents [OHGs], insulin therapy, and combination of both) on glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Saudi. Patients with T2DM, but no serious diabetic complications, were randomly recruited from the diabetes clinics at two large hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during June 2013 to July 2014. Only those without change in treatment modality for the last 18 months were included. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured. Treatment plan was recorded from the patients' files. Fasting blood sample was obtained to measure glucose, HbA1c, and lipid profile. A total of 197 patients were recruited; 41.1% were men and 58.9% were women. The mean (±SD) age was 58.5 ± 10.5 years. Most patients (60.7%) were on OHGs, 11.5% on insulin therapy, and 27.7% were using a combination of insulin and OHGs. The mean HbA1c was lower in patients using OHGs only, compared with means in those using insulin, or combined therapy in patients with disease duration of ≤10 years (P = 0.001) and also in those with a longer duration of the disease (P diabetes education, fails to control hyperglycemia adequately in Saudi T2DM patients. There is a challenge to find out reasons for poor control and the ways as to how to improve glycemic control in T2DM.
Intravenous sedation is the most commonly used method of sedation for the provision of adult dental care. However, disparity exists in pre-operative fasting times in use for patients throughout the United Kingdom.
Medline from 1986 to September 2010. Hand-searching of unspecified journals over an unspecified period of time. Clinical studies, though not confined to a particular type (e.g. randomised controlled trial), involving patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery. Only those articles published in English were included. No details are given of the number of reviewers, of any quality assessment of the included papers, nor of how they proposed to synthesise the data or conduct subgroup and sensitivity analysis. A narrative report of findings from 21 included studies. No report is made of the types of study, nor their quality. In 16 studies that examined whether dental implants osseointegrated following radiation, between 68% and 100% did (no confidence intervals reported). Studies ranged in duration from 2 months to 13 years. Dental implants can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy.
Azimi, S; AsgharNejad Farid, A A; Kharazi Fard, M J; Khoei, N
The objective of this study was to determine the degree of correlation between emotional intelligence of dental students, patient satisfaction and related factors. A total of 123 senior students and their patients participated in the study. Students completed the 133 item Bar-On Standardised Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQI) and patients completed a seven item satisfaction questionnaire. The mean score for EI of female students was 442 and 462 for male students, for an overall average score of 452 for all dental students. Male students significantly scored higher in stress control (P = 0.0), general mood (P = 0.011) and intrapersonal scales (P = 0.024). There was a statistically significant relationship between student gender and average EI score (P = 0.007). Married students scored higher in adaptability (P = 0.019) and general mood scales (P = 0.039). Significant relationships existed between students' gender (P = 0.009), level of patient education (P = 0.0) and patient satisfaction levels. Not recording a significant relationship for the interpersonal scale (r = 0.134), there was a significant relationship amongst intrapersonal, stress control, adaptability, and general mood dimensions of the students and patient satisfaction reports. There was a statistically significant relationship between general emotional intelligence score of the students and patient satisfaction. Patients of the students with high general emotional intelligence scores were significantly more satisfied with treatment than patients of students with low EI.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Feng, Xiaoying
Failure to receive proper oral health care including both prevention and maintenance is influenced by myriad and complex social, economic, and dental factors, including access to care. Reducing oral health disparities requires changes in the preparation of future dentists as well as measuring and influencing the attitudes and knowledge of practicing dentists. The aim of this study was to determine the likelihood that future dentists (students and residents) and faculty members at one U.S. dental school would treat Medicaid participants. Attitudes were measured using the Deamonte Driver scenario survey, which assesses factors affecting dentists' participation in Medicaid. In October 2012, all 113 full-time faculty members were invited to participate, and 60 completed the survey, for a response rate of 53.1%. In January and February 2013, all 18 residents in the dental clinics and university hospital were invited to participate, and 16 completed the survey, for a response rate of 88.9%. From 2013 to 2015, all 267 students in three classes were invited to participate: first-year students in the Classes of 2017 and 2018 and fourth-year students in the Class of 2015. A total of 255 students completed the survey, for an overall student response rate of 95.5%. The results showed that the students were more likely to participate in caring for Medicaid patients than the faculty and residents. The white and male students had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the females and underrepresented minority students, while residents had stronger negative stereotypes about Medicaid patients than the students and faculty. Overall, the cultural competency skills, beliefs, and attitudes of these faculty members and residents were less developed than those of their students, signaling a need for broad educational and faculty development programs to fully prepare the future dental workforce to care for these patients.
Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro
Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males) wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI). A questionnaire was used to collect patient’s information, including gender, a...
Cruz Pamplona, Marta; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia
Summary: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the main causes of death in the developed world, and represent the first cause of mortality in Spain. In addition to their associated morbidity, such disorders are important due to the number of affected individuals and the many patients subjected to treatment because of them. Objective: An update is provided on the oral manifestations seen in patients with arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias and heart failure, and...
Rada, Robert E
The author conducted a literature review to investigate concerns that parents of a child with an autism spectrum disorder may have when oral health care is provided to the child. The author conducted a search of PubMed using the terms "mercury," "fluoride," "nitrous oxide," "antibiotics," "gluten," "casein," "acetaminophen" and "dentistry" each with the term "autism." He identified controlled studies and literature reviews in both medical and alternative medical literature that were related to areas of importance to oral health care workers. The use of mercury, fluoride, nitrous oxide, antibiotic agents and acetaminophen all are sources of controversy between dentistry and the parents of children who have autism. The author found that patients who have autism frequently also have allergies, immune system problems, gastrointestinal disturbances and seizures. Dental health care workers must be aware of these comorbid conditions so they can provide optimal care to the children with autism spectrum disorders. The author found two distinct theories as to what causes autism: one that focuses on genetic causes, and one that focuses on the impact of the environment. He found that the interpretation of these theories might affect parents' concerns about various dental treatments. Dentists treating patients who have autism may need to provide more than standard patient care, as the use of time-tested dental treatment and prevention modalities may be questioned or refused by parents.
Noma, Noboru; Kamo, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kohei; Plaza-Villegas, Francisco; Oka, Shunichi; Imamura, Yoshiki
There are nonodontogenic headache disorders that mimic dental pain. One such headache disorder is hemicrania continua (HC). HC is a primary headache syndrome characterized by a continuous, unilateral headache that is completely responsive to indomethacin. Patients may have signs and symptoms that the dentist should differentiate from odontogenic pain and temporomandibular disorders. These symptoms can make the diagnostic process a challenge for dentists if patients' pain has multiple causes. Dentists, thus, must have thorough knowledge of odontogenic and nonodontogenic causes of pain so they can make accurate diagnoses and prepare treatment plans. The authors describe the case of a 41-year-old woman with a six-year history of continuous headaches and a one-year history of temporomandibular dysfunction and odontogenic pain. She sought treatment from a number of dentists and received a diagnosis of right-side facial pain and headache on the basis of the results of clinical and radiologic examinations, which was followed by dental treatment. She did not experience any pain relief. Additional results of our examination led to a diagnosis of HC. Dentists must consider headache disorders in patients who have continuous headaches after undergoing dental treatment for odontogenic pain.
Moffet, Howard H; Schillinger, Dean; Weintraub, Jane A; Adler, Nancy; Liu, Jennifer Y; Selby, Joe V; Karter, Andrew J
People with diabetes are at increased risk of periodontal disease and tooth loss. Healthy People 2010 set a goal that 71% or more of people with diabetes should have an annual dental exam. We assessed dental insurance and annual dental visits among dentate respondents from the Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE) Survey cohort (N = 20,188), an ethnically stratified, random sample of patients with diabetes aged 30 to 75 years receiving medical care from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We calculated predicted probabilities for an annual dental visit (PPADV) by using regression models that incorporated age, sex, education level, annual household income, and self-reported race/ethnicity, stratified by whether the respondent had dental insurance. Among 12,405 dentate patients, 9,257 (75%) had dental insurance. Annual dental visits were reported by 7,557 (82%) patients with dental insurance and 1,935 (61%) patients without dental insurance. The age-sex adjusted odds ratio for an annual dental visit was 2.66 (95% confidence interval, 2.33-3.03) for patients with dental insurance compared to those without dental insurance. For patients with dental insurance, the PPADV was 71% or more for all except those with the lowest household income. In contrast, for those without dental insurance, the PPADV was less than 71% for all except those with the most education or the highest income. We found some racial/ethnic subgroups were more likely than others to take advantage of dental insurance to have an annual dental visit. Patients with diabetes in this managed care population who lacked dental insurance failed to meet the Healthy People 2010 goal for an annual dental visit. An increased effort should be made to promote oral health among people with diabetes.
Summary. Objective: To compare the pregnancy outcome in women with singleton breech presentation at term delivered by caesarean section (CS) and vaginal breech delivery. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Abha Maternity hospital, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: 573 women with singleton breech.
Thamir M. Alshammari
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance plays an important role in ensuring that patients are receiving safe drugs. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, health institutions, marketing authorization holders and healthcare professional are involved in pharmacovigilance activities regardless of the level of the involvement. Although pharmacovigilance is well established in developed nations and it is considered a new concept in Saudi Arabia. It is a collective effort from various stakeholders to make pharmacovigilance successful toward promoting safe and effective use of medicines among the population. However, the practice of pharmacovigilance still needs more attention especially from marketing authorization holders and healthcare professionals. The aim of this review was to describe the current situation of pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and the activities that have been conducted by the stakeholders.
Full Text Available Nahed Janoudi,1 Narges Omran,2 Waleed Hussain,3 Hanan Al-osaimi,4 Matouqa Baamer,5 Muhammad Irfanullah Siddiqui,6 Omar Fathaldin,7 Hani Almoallim1,4,8 1Department of Medicine, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, 2Department of Medicine, Alnoor General Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, Heraa General Hospital, 4Alzaidi Chair of Research in Rheumatic Diseases, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 5Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Hospital & Oncology Center, Jeddah, 6Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, 8Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of adalimumab as a treatment for fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Methods: Fatigue was monitored in patients with RA who were already on an adalimumab treatment regimen. Fatigue, general well-being, comorbidities, and disease activity were measured at baseline and ~8, 16, and 24 weeks, thereafter. Results: Significant reductions in fatigue scores and disease activity were observed from baseline to 6 months after. A predictive regression model of fatigue severity was proposed and was found to be significant, with RA disease activity as the most significant predictor of fatigue severity. Conclusion: This quasi-experimental study is a good starting point for research on the efficacy of adalimumab in treating fatigue in RA patients. The results here suggest that a randomized controlled trial assessing adalimumab as a treatment option for RA patients suffering from fatigue is warranted. Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, fatigue, adalimumab, disease activity, Saudi Arabia, FACIT-F
Kyle, B N; McNeil, D W; Weaver, B; Wilson, T
Dental patients generally recall more pain than they originally report, with ratings of pain related to state anxiety and dental fear, but the role of depression in recall of dental pain remains uncertain. This study examined the relative contributions of different variables in explaining dental pain recalled after tooth extraction. Patients presenting for tooth extraction, prior to extraction, rated their current dental pain and state anxiety, prediction of pain and state anxiety during extraction, depression, and dental fear. Immediately postprocedure and then 1 mo later, patients rated their pain and state anxiety during extraction. Hierarchical linear regression equations were used to explain variance in recalled pain and state anxiety. In addition, patients were divided into high and low dental fear and depression groups and compared on ratings of pain and state anxiety across time. In a final sample of 157 patients, the most important predictors of recalled pain were pain reported during extraction (β = .53) and recalled state anxiety (β = .52). Dental fear and depression had a significant interaction: only when patients reported less depression did those patients who reported more dental fear also report more pain than patients who reported less dental fear (P dental operatory reporting more pain, but all patients generally reported less pain during extraction than they predicted or recalled. Memory of state anxiety and pain reported during tooth extraction, not depression or state anxiety at the time of extraction, were critical factors in memory of the pain associated with the procedure. At higher levels of depression, patients higher and lower in dental fear did not differ in report of pain. Future studies are needed to further clarify interactions of depression and dental fear over time. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.
Andersson, Pia; Johannsen, Annsofi
The aim of the present study was to investigate smokers' perceptions of and motivation for smoking cessation activities in dentistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS PATIENTS: who smoked were consecutively recruited from general as well as specialist dental care clinics in Sweden. After a dental visit the patients completed a questionnaire about self-perceived oral health, smoking habits, motivation, reasons to quit and not to quit smoking, support to quit, smoking cessation activities and questions about smoking asked by dentists and dental hygienists. The sample consisted of 167 adult patients (≥ 20 years) who smoked daily. During the last 6 months, 81% of the patients had experienced oral health problems. The most common complaints were discolourations of the teeth, periodontal problems and dry mouth (38%, 36% and 33%, respectively). Improved general health was a major reason to quit smoking (89%). It was also stated that it was important to avoid oral health problems. 71% of the patients preferred to quit by themselves and 16% wanted support from dentistry. High motivation to quit smoking was reported by 20%. Occurrence of periodontitis during the last 6 months was significantly associated with being highly motivated to stop smoking (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.03-8.55). This study revealed that, although it was important to quit smoking to avoid oral health problems, the patients were not aware that tobacco cessation activities can be performed in dentistry. Periodontal problems seem to be the most motivating factor among the patients who were highly motivated to stop smoking.
Carpenter, G; Cotroneo, E; Moazzez, R; Rojas-Serrano, M; Donaldson, N; Austin, R; Zaidel, L; Bartlett, D; Proctor, G
Oral health is dependent upon a thin mobile film of saliva on soft and hard tissues. Salivary proteins adhere to teeth to form the acquired enamel pellicle which is believed to protect teeth from acid erosion. This study investigated whether patients suffering diet-induced dental erosion had altered enamel pellicles. Thirty patients suffering erosion were compared to healthy age-matched controls. Subjects wore a maxillary splint holding hydroxyapatite and human enamel blocks for 1 h. The acquired enamel pellicle was removed from the blocks and compared to the natural incisor pellicle. Basic Erosive Wear Examination scores confirmed that dental erosion was present in erosion patients and absent from healthy age-matched controls. Erosion patients had half the amount of proteins (BCA assay) within the acquired pellicle forming on splint blocks compared to normal controls (p < 0.05). In particular, statherin, a calcium-binding protein, was 35% less abundant (p < 0.05). Calcium concentration within the acquired pellicle was also reduced by 50% in erosion patients (p < 0.001). In contrast, the natural pellicle on the incisor had similar amounts of total protein in erosion patients and healthy controls. In summary, the formation of new acquired pellicles on surfaces was reduced in erosion patients, which may explain their greater susceptibility to acid erosion of teeth. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Alzahrani Hasan A; Bakhotmah Balkees A
Abstract Background There is little published on current Saudi diabetic patients' practices when they are exposed to foot disorders such as open wound, ulcer, and skin cracks. These factors are usually influenced by local culture and communities beliefs. The aim of the current study was to identify the pattern of patients' use of CAM products in dealing with diabetic foot disorders topically in a group of diabetic patients. Findings A Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative coho...
Fuad Husain Akbar
Full Text Available Patient satisfaction against the quality of dental health serviceswas a comparison between the perception of care received by expectation before getting treatment. The Research was conducted at Tenriawaru General Hospital in Bone Regency based on the five dimensions of service quality, they were the assurance, empathy, responsiveness, physical appearance, and medical services by using Likert scale. The study was descriptive with a sample of 65 people. The research subjects were all visitors (patient Dental Polyclinic of Tenriawaru General Hospital in Bone Regency. Results showed patient satisfaction on dimensions of assurance 84.6% falling into the category satisfied. On the dimensions of empathy showed 81.5% of patients satisfied. On the dimensions of responsiveness showed 36.9% of patients satisfied. On the dimensions of physical appearance showed 84.6% of patients satisfied. On the dimensions of medical services showed 72.3% of patients satisfied. Based on the result of patient satisfaction against the quality of dental health services at the Dental Polyclinic of Tenriawaru General Hospital in Bone Regency which reviewed from five dimensions showed patients satisfied against the quality of dental health services at Tenriawaru General Hospital in Bone Regency.
Fuad Husain Akbar
Full Text Available Patient satisfaction against the quality of dental health services was a comparison between the perception of care received by expectation before getting treatment. The research was conducted at Tenriawaru general hospital in Bone regency based on the five dimensions of service quality, they were the assurance, empathy, responsiveness, physical appearance, and medical services by using Likert scale. The study was descriptive with a sample of 65 people. The research subjects were all visitors (patient dental polyclinic of Tenriawaru general hospital in Bone regency. Results showed patient satisfaction on dimensions of assurance 84.6% falling into the category satisfied. On the dimensions of empathy showed 81.5% of patients satisfied. On the dimensions of responsiveness showed 36.9% of patients satisfied. On the dimensions of physical appearance showed 84.6% of patients satisfied. On the dimensions of medical services showed 72.3% of patients satisfied. Based on the result of patient satisfaction against the quality of dental health services at the dental polyclinic of Tenriawaru general hospital in Bone regency which reviewed from five dimensions showed patients satisfied against the quality of dental health services at Tenriawaru general hospital in Bone regency.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dental erosion refers to the loss of tooth structure by being scratched chemically without bacterial involvement which needs to care about due to its prevalence and treatment problems. This study was designed with the aim of evaluation of the frequency of dental erosion and its causing factors in patients referring to yazd dental school in 2012-2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 400 patients referring to yazd dental school were randomly selected. All of their teeth were evaluated in three surfaces (buccal, lingual and occlusal. The BEWE score was used for classification the extent of damages. Also, patients were given a questionnaire that included patient demographic information and questions to investigate the causes of dental erosion. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and Mann-Whiney, Fisher exact, and Chi-square tests. Results: In this study, 138 men and 261 women were participated with the mean age of 33.26±10.83. 84 persons (21.1% had erosion. There was a direct and significant relationship between the dental erosion and patient's age (P >0.001. Also, there was a direct relationship between the dental erosion and reflux and consumption of lemon and pickle, beverages, soft beer and juice (P>0.001. Conclusion: Consumption of lemon and pickle, beverages, soft beer and juice increases the risk of erosion. Considering the prevalence of dental erosion in about 21% of patients, it is necessary to pay more attention to the knowledge of the causes of erosion and reduction strategies of it.
Özen, B; Malamed, S F; Cetiner, S; Özalp, N; Özer, L; Altun, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of moderate sedation with nitrous oxide/oxygen (N(2) O/O(2)) alone or combined with different dosages and administration routes of midazolam in uncooperative paediatric dental patients using the Bispectral Index System (BIS). This one-year clinical study examined first-visit moderate sedation performed in 240 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Subjects were randomly divided into four groups according to drug, route and dosage, as follows: Group 1 - 0.20 mg/kg midazolam (40 mg/ml) delivered intranasally; Group 2 - 0.75 mg/kg midazolam (15 mg/3 ml) delivered orally; Group 3 - 0.50 mg/kg midazolam (15 mg/3 ml) delivered orally. All children in these three groups also received inhalation sedation with 50%-50% N(2) O/O(2), whereas children in Group 4 received inhalation sedation with 50%-50% N(2) O/O(2) only. The outcome of sedation was evaluated as either 'successful', 'failed' or 'not accepted'. The highest success rate was found in Group 1 (0.20 mg/kg intranasally, 87%), followed by Group 2 (0.75 mg/kg orally, 79%). The overall mean success rate for all groups was 73%. Moderate sedation can be successfully used in the clinical management of paediatric dental patients, with both intranasal and oral sedation using midazolam in conjunction with nitrous oxide found to be effective methods. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.
Kalsi, H; Nanayakkara, L; Pasi, K J; Bowles, L; Hart, D P
Patients with inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) can face difficulty in accessing primary dental care either due to disease-specific or patient-related barriers. This can lead to poor oral health and increase the need for more invasive dental treatment. This study aimed to highlight actual and perceived barriers that IBD patients from the East London area were experiencing. It also gives an overview of the experience history of the General Dental Practitioners (GDPs) treating these patients. Information was gathered via pre-designed surveys as part of a service development audit. A total of 105 anonymous patient surveys and 50 GDP surveys were completed between December 2010 and July 2011. The patient survey highlighted more patients to be affected by patient-related than disease-specific barriers to access dental care. The GDP survey identified that just under half of GDPs questioned were not confident in the dental management of patients with bleeding disorders. Identifying misconceptions and barriers to access primary dental care will enable further development of our shared-care approach between General Dental Services, Hospital or Community Dental Services and Haemophilia Centre, optimizing regular preventative advice and follow ups to prevent dental disease and invasive dental treatment requiring haemostatic treatment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Creanor, S; Millward, B A; Demaine, A; Price, L; Smith, W; Brown, N; Creanor, S L
To determine the attitudes of patients attending routine appointments at primary care dental clinics and general dental practices towards the possibility of chair-side screening for medical conditions, including diabetes, in the dental setting. A brief, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to adult patients (≥18 years) attending 2 primary care dental clinics and 16 general dental practices in South-West England. One hundred and ninety-seven completed questionnaires were received from patients at primary care dental clinics and 429 from general dental practice patients. Overall, 87% of respondents thought that it was important or very important that dentists screened patients for medical conditions such as diabetes; 79% were very willing to let a dental team member carry out screening. The majority indicated willingness to be screened for various medical conditions during a visit to the dentist, with significantly higher proportions of respondents in the primary care clinics indicating willingness (hypertension: 83% vs 74%; heart disease: 77% vs 66%; diabetes 82% vs 72% [all p dental team. Overall, 61% had never knowingly been screened or tested for diabetes; 20% reported that they had been tested within the previous 12 months. The majority of respondents supported the concept of medical screening in a dental setting and were willing both to have screening tests and discuss their results with the dental team. Patient acceptance is paramount for successful implementation of such screening programmes.
Cruz Pamplona, Marta; Margaix Muñoz, María; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia
Introduction: Liver diseases are very common, and the main underlying causes are viral infections, alcohol abuse and lipid and carbohydrate metabolic disorders. The liver has a broad range of functions in maintaining homeostasis and health, and moreover metabolizes many drug substances. Objective: An update is provided on the oral manifestations seen in patients with viral hepatitis, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and on the dent...
Hayami, Akimune [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). School of Dentistry
The purpose of this study was to determine patient exposure from the dose which can be easily measured in the X-ray room. Dose-area product was proved to be the best quantity for estimating mean energy imparted under appropriate conditions. The mean energy imparted could be estimated with reasonable accuracy from dose-area product at the same beam quality. There is a reasonable correlation between mean energy imparted and detrimental health effects for a wide range of x-ray examinations. The effective dose can be estimated from dose-area product with reasonable accuracy at the same beam quality and the same projection site. The effective dose should be estimated only at the same beam quality if the uncertainty factor of two is permissible. Effective dose for intraoral examination can be calculated practically only from the equivalent doses of the thyroid, red bone marrow, brain, bone surface, skin, upper esophagus and muscular substance. Of those, equivalent dose for the thyroid was the most effective. As the average absorbed dose for the thyroid is influenced significantly by positioning in the same site for the small field size as in intraoral examinations, this might result in a unstable effective dose. There is no such instability in the mean energy imparted. In an ideal x-ray department, patient dose measurement should be always carried out on every patient, including for the purpose of quality assurance procedures. The dose-area product method is more convenient for this purpose. (K.H.)
Sidawi, Bhzad; Al-Hariri, Mohamed Taha Ali
At present, Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the main threats to the human health in the 21st century. It may lead to severe conditions such as blindness, end-stage of renal disease, limb amputation and a variety of debilitating neuropathies. Previous researches indicated that diabetes is caused by a complex interaction of patient's genetics, life-style and environmental factors. They also highlighted that providing quality and healthy built environment to citizens including diabetic patients would prevent poor and unhealthy condition. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is one of top ten countries in the prevalence of diabetes. Little researches though were conducted in KSA in regards to the effect of environmental conditions of the built environment. In 2011, the present researchers have carried out a pilot survey on a number of diabetic patients to find out the possible impact of built environment settings on the patient's lifestyle. The research explored whether diabetic patients use smart tools in their daily life to overcome the daily life's difficulties and perform their life as normal as possible. The results showed a close link between a poor home and environmental settings, the patient's lifestyle, and the patient's health status. It also highlighted the absence of smart tools and systems use. The paper argues that certain changes to the built environment must be done and to provide a healthy and safe environment for diabetic patients. This would help these patients to abandon their bad habits and adopt healthier lifestyle.
Marsillac, Mirian de Waele Souchois de; Andrade, Marcia Rejane Thomas; Fonseca, Raquel de Oliveira; Marcal, Sonia Lucia Macedo; Santos, Vera Lucia Campos
A panoramic radiograph is more likely utilized in children with high caries risk and mixed dentition, and it can be complemented by other X-rays (such as periapical and/or bitewings). This study analyzed 1359 panoramic radiographs taken over 33 years at the Pedodontics Clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro in order to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in mixed dentition children. The population evaluated had 670 (49.3%) boys and 689 (50.7%) girls, ranging in age from 5-12 years, with a median age of 8 years. The total prevalence of anomalies detected was 11.72%; anodontia and supernumerary teeth were the most reported (4.63% and 3.31%, respectively). Statistical differences noted were in the presence of supernumary teeth in males (4.9%, P dentition, as well as complement the clinical examination at the first dental visit of a pediatric patient with a high risk for caries.
Wali, Aisha; Siddiqui, Talha Mufeed; Khan, Rabia; Batool, Kanza
The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dental surgeons in the city of Karachi providing treatment to pediatric patients. A cluster-sampling technique was used and 200 dental surgeons from six different dental institutions were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire was distributed to the dental surgeons that comprised 20 closed-ended questions. The data was entered and analyzed for frequency and percentages by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19. The results showed that 76 (38%) dental surgeons took the responsibility of managing pediatric patient when given; 68 (34%) dental surgeons allowed the parents in the clinic; 111 (55.5%) dental surgeons are of the view that colorful and fun environment in dental clinic make the child at ease; 59 (29.5%) always demonstrate the dental procedure to the child to eradicate imaginary fears; 94 (47.0%) dental surgeons preferred the child to be treated in general anesthesia (GA) to avoid difficult behavior of the child; 135 (67.5%) dental surgeons did not show syringe needle or any instrument to the child. All the members of dental profession must be aware of patient perceptions, preferences, and fear to meet patient's needs. Dental studies should include guidelines and techniques to train the upcoming dentists for excellent practice in pediatric dentistry. Wali A, Siddiqui TM, Khan R, Batool K. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Dental Surgeons in managing Child Patients. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):372-378.
Salih A Bin Salih
Full Text Available Objective: To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008. Results: Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8% and 563 (78.1% patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3% patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01. Conclusions : Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control
Ben Bacha Abir G
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to clarify the relationship amongst absolute and relative concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and/or proinflammatory and proapoptotic biomarkers. Materials and methods Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+/K+, Ca2+/Mg2+ together with IL6, TNFα as proinflammatory cytokines and caspase3 as proapoptotic biomarker were determined in plasma of 25 Saudi autistic male patients and compared to 16 age and gender matching control samples. Results The obtained data recorded that Saudi autistic patients have a remarkable lower plasma caspase3, IL6, TNFα, Ca2+ and a significantly higher K+ compared to age and gender matching controls. On the other hand both Mg2+ and Na+ were non-significantly altered in autistic patients. Pearson correlations revealed that plasma concentrations of the measured cytokines and caspase-3 were positively correlated with Ca2+ and Ca2+/K+ ratio. Reciever Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis proved that the measured parameters recorded satisfactory levels of specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion Alteration of the selected measured ions confirms that oxidative stress and defective mitochondrial energy production could be contributed in the pathogenesis of autism. Moreover, it highlights the relationship between the measured ions, IL6, TNFα and caspase3 as a set of signalling pathways that might have a role in generating this increasingly prevalent disorder. The role of ions in the possible proinflammation and proapoptic mechanisms of autistics' brains were hypothesized and explained.
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to determine the oral manifestations of patients undergoing dialysis. Two subgroups of the population were studied: (1 Those who have been on dialysis for less than one year, (2 those who have been on dialysis for more than one year. Two dental indices–periodontal index and decayed, missing, filled index were used to identify periodontal status, dental canes activity. Data were compiled and analyzed by using the unpaired t-test. Results suggested that 100% (n = 26 of the patients undergoing dialysis presented with some form of periodontal disease (mean value = 2.24, standard deviation = 1.33. Majority of the patients displayed either established periodontal disease (57.6% or the beginning of periodontal disease (38 4%. Approximately, 70% of the patients had high decayed, missing, filled index (mean value = 6.19, standard deviation = 6.40. Findings led to the conclusion that patients on dialysis need comprehensive professional oral care and self-care instructions. The source of infection in oral cavity can cause variety of systemic diseases, causing morbidity and mortality in these immune-suppressed patients.
Full Text Available Surgical management of oral cancer lesions results in explicit aesthetic and functional disfigurement, including facial deformity, loss of hard and soft tissue, impaired speech, swallowing and mastication, which modify the patient′s self-image and quality-of-life. Recent advances in head and neck reconstruction techniques and dental implant based prosthetic rehabilitation may significantly improve the quality-of-life and self-esteem for such post-surgery patients. This clinical report describes rehabilitation of oral cancer patient having segmental mandibulectomy with implant-supported fixed partial denture.
Al-Momani, Mohammed Mahmoud
To investigate patients' satisfaction with nursing care by measuring the gap between patients' expectations of care and perceptions of the actual care provided and to identify the areas of nursing care that need improvement. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients who were admitted to the Departments of Medicine and Surgery at King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A modified Service Quality (SERVQUAL) instrument was adapted to collect information from a convenience sample of 432 patients from November 25, 2012, to February 3, 2013. The instrument comprised 22 pairs of questions assessing 5 dimensions of the nursing care provided to patients during hospitalizations. The mean patient expectations and perceptions as well as the gap score values for each dimension of nursing service were tested for differences between the mean scores of the sample at a level of significance of 0.05 using a t test. The gap score for all of the 5 dimensions of nursing services were: responsiveness, -1.71; reliability, -1.48; tangibles, -1.36; assurance, -1.26, and empathy, -0.96. Service quality across the dimensions of responsiveness and reliability was statistically significant (p < 0.05). This result indicated that patients were not satisfied with the nursing service quality in relation to all dimensions. Our study showed negative gaps for the 5 nursing service quality dimensions evaluated. This could provide nurses with information about the aspects of nursing care that promote more positive patient outcomes and satisfaction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Alkhamees, Hadeel A; Selai, Caroline E; Shorvon, Simon D
The current survey sought to identify the religious and cultural beliefs about the causes and treatment of epilepsy in people with epilepsy from Saudi Arabia and a number of other aspects relating to the possibility of cure, coping with the condition, and public awareness. Study instruments were developed on the basis of the literature, a focus group of people with epilepsy, and feedback from people in the field with local knowledge. These were then piloted. A survey was then carried out among a total of 110 adults with epilepsy. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires inquiring into their beliefs about the causes and range of treatments used for epilepsy. Each participant was allowed to choose more than one cause and more than one treatment method. The questionnaires were administered face to face by a clinical psychologist (HAA) to improve the quality of the responses. We found that most adults with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia believe that epilepsy is a condition with multifactorial causation and for which more than one treatment method should be applied. A test from God was the most commonly ascribed cause (83% as well as 40% who believed that some cases of the illness were a punishment from God). The belief in the concept of God's will helped many in the cohort to accept their illness as part of their destiny. Ninety-six percent of the patients believed that there were also medical causes (such as an illness, brain insult, inflammation, heredity, contagion), and a similar proportion believed that there were also religious causes. Smaller proportions believed epilepsy could be due to cultural (78%) or psychosocial causes (64%). Thirty-four percent of people believed that there could be sometimes no cause, but only 2% thought that epilepsy never had any identifiable cause. Most patients did not believe that one treatment alone would help. Ninety-three percent of patients believed in medical treatment, 93% in religious treatment, and 64% in traditional
Fahad N. Almajhdi
Full Text Available Purpose. Influenza A and B viruses are the leading cause of respiratory infections in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. There is a lack of data on coinfection of influenza A and B viruses circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aimed to identify the circulation of influenza viruses that contribute to respiratory tract infections in Saudi children. Methods. We collected 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs from hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness (ARI at Riyadh during the period extended from October 2010 till April 2011. Samples were tested for the common respiratory viruses including influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Results. Overall, 6 samples were found positive for influenza A and/or B viruses. Among these positive clinical samples, only one collected sample from a female one-year-old immunocompromised child with leukemia showed a coinfection with influenza A and B viruses. In present study coinfection was confirmed by inoculation of the clinical specimen in specific pathogenfree embryonating chicken eggs and identification of the virus isolates by hemagglutination and one-step RT-PCR. Conclusion. This study opens the scene for studying the role of influenza virus’s coinfection in disease severity and virus evolution. Further studies are required to better understand the clinical importance of viral coinfection.
Langabeer, James R; Walji, Muhammad F; Taylor, David; Valenza, John A
The implementation of an electronic patient record (EPR) in many sectors of health care has been suggested to have positive relationships with both quality of care and improved pedagogy, although evaluation of actual results has been somewhat disillusioning. Evidence-based dentistry clearly suggests the need for tools and systems to improve care, and an EPR is a critical tool that has been widely proposed in recent years. In dental schools, EPR systems are increasingly being adopted, despite obstacles such as high costs, time constraints necessary for process workflow change, and overall project complexity. The increasing movement towards cost-effectiveness analyses in health and medicine suggests that the EPR should generally cover expenses, or produce total benefits greater than its combined costs, to ensure that resources are being utilized efficiently. To test the underlying economics of an EPR, we utilized a pre-post research design with a probability-based economic simulation model to analyze changes in performance and costs in one dental school. Our findings suggest that the economics are positive, but only when student fees are treated as an incremental revenue source. In addition, other performance indicators appeared to have significant changes, although most were not comprehensively measured pre-implementation, making it difficult to truly understand the performance differential-such pre-measurement of expected benefits is a key lesson learned. This article also provides recommendations for dental clinics and universities that are about to embark on this endeavor.
Porritt, Jenny; Jones, K; Marshman, Z
Objective Evaluate patients' and professionals' experiences of a nurse-led dental anxiety management service (NDAMS).\\ud \\ud Design Service evaluation.\\ud \\ud Setting The NDAMS operates as part of the Sheffield Salaried Primary Dental Care Service.\\ud \\ud Subjects and methods Questionnaire survey of anxious patients and qualitative interviews with patients and professionals.\\ud \\ud Interventions Dental nurses delivered low-level psychological interventions as part of an integrated care pathwa...
Wang, Yan; Li, Chunjie; Yuan, He; Wong, May Cm; Zou, Jing; Shi, Zongdao; Zhou, Xuedong
Successful restorations in dental patients depend largely on the effective control of moisture and microbes during the procedure. The rubber dam technique has been one of the most widely used isolation methods in dental restorative treatments. The evidence on the effects of rubber dam usage on the longevity of dental restorations is conflicting. Therefore, it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine the effects of this method. To assess the effects of rubber dam isolation compared with other types of isolation used for direct and indirect restorative treatments in dental patients. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 17 August 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 17 August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 August 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 August 2016), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 17 August 2016), SciELO BIREME Virtual Health Library (1998 to 17 August 2016), Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM, in Chinese) (1978 to 30 August 2016), VIP (in Chinese) (1989 to 30 August 2016), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, in Chinese) (1994 to 30 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online (in Chinese) for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth trials) assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. We included four studies
Coelho, C; Pooler, J; Lloyd, H
A qualitative study to explore the issues for patients and students when giving feedback on the communication of dental students. The Department of Health and National Institute for Health Research are committed to involving patients in improving clinical education, research and service delivery. Yet, there is a limited body of evidence on the perceptions of patients when asked to be involved in this way, and specifically when asked to provide feedback on the communication skills of dental students. This study seeks to address this gap and heighten the understanding of the issues faced by patients when asked to be involved in clinical education. Data were collected using focus groups with dental students (n=10) and patients (n=8) being treated by these students. Both groups were asked about their thoughts, feelings and beliefs about patients being asked to provide feedback on the communication skills of dental students. Data analysis involved inductive thematic analysis of transcribed audio recordings. Four themes emerged from the data: "legitimacy," "co-educators," "maintaining the equilibrium of the patient-student relationship" and the "timing of patient feedback." Support for involving patients in giving feedback on students' communication skills was established, with patients considering they were best placed to comment on the communication skills of dental students. Patients and students do not want to provide feedback alone and want support to assist them, especially if feedback was negative. Issues of anonymity, confidentiality and ownership of the feedback process were worrisome, and the positioning of patient feedback in the programme was seen as critical. Patients and students are willing to engage in patient feedback on students' communication skills, and with support and training, the concerns around this are not insurmountable and the benefits could potentially profit both groups. These findings have resonance with other healthcare educators when
Omar A. Ghulam
Conclusions: Within the study limits, more than one third of the sample of dental patients had ODRs and SCLs. The medical condition was associated with ODRs, while the past caries experience was associated with SCLs.
Alzahrani Hasan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little published on current Saudi diabetic patients' practices when they are exposed to foot disorders such as open wound, ulcer, and skin cracks. These factors are usually influenced by local culture and communities beliefs. The aim of the current study was to identify the pattern of patients' use of CAM products in dealing with diabetic foot disorders topically in a group of diabetic patients. Findings A Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative cohort of diabetic patients living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was designed. A pre-designed questionnaire to identify local diabetics' practices in dealing topically with foot disorders including open wound, chronic ulcer, and skin cracks was designed. Questionnaire was administered by a group of trained nutrition female students to diabetics face to face living in their neighborhood. A total of 1634 Saudi diabetics were interviewed. Foot disorders occurred in approximately two thirds of the respondents 1006 (61.6%. Out of the 1006 patients who had foot disorders, 653 reported trying some sort of treatment as 307 patients (47.1% used conventional topical medical treatment alone, 142 (21.7% used CAM products alone, and 204 (31.2% used both treatments. The most commonly used CAM product by the patients was Honey (56.6% followed by Commiphora Molmol (Myrrh in (37.4% and Nigellia Sativa (Black seed in (35.1%. The least to be used was Lawsonia inermis (Henna in (12.1%. Ten common natural preparations used topically to treat diabetic foot disorders were also identified. Conclusions The use of CAM products in topical treatment of diabetic foot disorders is fairly common among Saudi diabetic patients. Honey headed the list as a solo topical preparation or in combination with other herbs namely black seeds and myrrh. The efficacy of the most common products needs further research.
Bakhotmah, Balkees A; Alzahrani, Hasan A
There is little published on current Saudi diabetic patients' practices when they are exposed to foot disorders such as open wound, ulcer, and skin cracks. These factors are usually influenced by local culture and communities beliefs. The aim of the current study was to identify the pattern of patients' use of CAM products in dealing with diabetic foot disorders topically in a group of diabetic patients. A Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative cohort of diabetic patients living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was designed. A pre-designed questionnaire to identify local diabetics' practices in dealing topically with foot disorders including open wound, chronic ulcer, and skin cracks was designed. Questionnaire was administered by a group of trained nutrition female students to diabetics face to face living in their neighborhood. A total of 1634 Saudi diabetics were interviewed. Foot disorders occurred in approximately two thirds of the respondents 1006 (61.6%). Out of the 1006 patients who had foot disorders, 653 reported trying some sort of treatment as 307 patients (47.1%) used conventional topical medical treatment alone, 142 (21.7%) used CAM products alone, and 204 (31.2%) used both treatments. The most commonly used CAM product by the patients was Honey (56.6%) followed by Commiphora Molmol (Myrrh) in (37.4%) and Nigellia Sativa (Black seed) in (35.1%). The least to be used was Lawsonia inermis (Henna) in (12.1%). Ten common natural preparations used topically to treat diabetic foot disorders were also identified. The use of CAM products in topical treatment of diabetic foot disorders is fairly common among Saudi diabetic patients. Honey headed the list as a solo topical preparation or in combination with other herbs namely black seeds and myrrh. The efficacy of the most common products needs further research.
Al-Ghamdi, Khalid M.
Background: Impetigo is a common contagious superficial skin infection, most frequently seen in children. Objectives: To determine the clinical and epidemiological features of impetigo patients seen in the dermatology clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU). Methods: This is a retrospective study of impetigo patients seen in the dermatology clinic at KFHU, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during the period January 1990 to December 2001. Data collected from patients’ records included dem...
Sunbul, Nada; Delvi, Mohamed Bilal; Zahrani, Tariq Al; Salama, Fouad
The purpose of this randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial was to evaluate and compare the behavioral differences resulting from the sedative effects of atomized buccal (transmucosal) and atomized intranasal (parenteral) midazolam (0.3 mg/kg) as a method for sedation of pediatric dental patients. Twenty-five 36- to 72-month-old patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups that were sedated with either atomized buccal in the first visit or intranasal midazolam in the second visit (0.3 mg/kg). Patient be- havior was rated, and drug acceptance by method of administration was determined. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups in maximum working time. There were significant differences between both groups in drug acceptance (P=.008) and onset time (P=.00). The statistical differences between the two groups were not significant in all behavior rating scales, except for the crying rating scale, since the buccal group showed more crying. Atomized buccal and intranasal midazolam are both effective for sedation of pediatric dental patients and have the same maximum working time. However, atomized intranasal is more acceptable by children, has faster onset time, and children demonstrate less crying.
Full Text Available Saeed Kadasah,1 Misbahul Arfin,2 Sadaf Rizvi,2 Mohammed Al-Asmari,2 Abdulrahman Al-Asmari2 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Division of Molecular Biology & Genetics, Scientific Research Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Schizophrenia is one of the most common devastating psychiatric disorders that negatively affects the quality of life and psychosocial functions. Its etiology involves the interplay of complex polygenic influences and environmental risk factors. Inflammatory markers are well-known etiological factors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of proinflammatory cytokine genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (-308G/A and TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms with schizophrenia susceptibility. Subjects and methods: TNF-α and TNF-β genes were amplified using amplification refractory mutation system primers in 180 schizophrenia patients and 200 healthy matched controls recruited from the Psychiatry Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of TNF-α (-308G/A and TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms in patients were compared with those in controls. Results: The frequencies of TNF-α (-308 allele A and genotype GA were significantly higher, while those of allele G and genotype GG were lower in schizophrenia patients as compared to controls, indicating that genotype GA and allele A of TNF-α (-308G/A may increase susceptibility to schizophrenia, while genotype GG and allele G may reduce it. On the other hand, the distribution of alleles and genotypes of TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphism does not differ significantly in patients from controls; however, the frequency of genotype GG of TNF-β (+252A/G was significantly higher in male patients than in female patients. The distribution of TNF-α (-308G/A and TNF-β (+252A/G polymorphisms was almost similar in schizophrenia patients with
Regezi, J.A.; Courtney, R.M.; Kerr, D.A.
Management of patients irradiated for oral cancer should include consideration of their oral health prior to, and after, radiation therapy. Data from 130 patients, followed for a period of 1 to 10 years, are presented and evaluated. The philosophy of retention and maintenance of as many teeth as possible is supported by this data. Extraction of teeth with severe periodontal disease after irradiation also proves to be a relatively safe operation. Osteoradionecrosis tends to be limited in extent and is generally well tolerated by the patient when treated conservatively. A treatment regimen is presented that significantly reduces the morbidity from therapeutic irradiation of the jaws. A comprehensive dental evaluation and follow-up plan coupled with patient cooperation are instrumental to the success of this program.
Afi Savitri Sarsito
Full Text Available The treatment of oral and dental diseases in healthy patients can be performed with general standard and usually do not cause problems. On the other hand treatment of oral and dental diseases in medically compromised patients, especially one with disease of cardiovascular system must be performed with specific standard or otherwis emay evoke serious problems. Therefore the treatment needs to be compromised with the condition of the patients as well as the medication they are taking. This paper explains the management of oral and dental diseases in patients with disease of cardiovascular system usually found such as hypertension, infective endocarditis, rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases where the cooperation between dentist and internist is extremely recommended.
Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa
this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.
Dewan, Karun; Bishop, Karl
Cherubism is a rare non-neoplastic, fibro-osseous hereditary disorder characterized by bilateral expansion of the maxilla and mandible producing a characteristic facial appearance. It can affect the facial and dental growth of the individual and often results in gross aesthetic and functional deficiencies. The teeth may also be displaced or submerged and these problems can often compromise successful restorative rehabilitation. This paper describes the restorative management of an adult patient with Cherubism involving a fixed implant retained mandibular restoration. The care utilized 3D planning software and implant insertion guides to facilitate an early loading protocol and the use of optimum bone quality/volume areas.
Natto, Zuhair S; Aladmawy, Majdi; Rogers, Thomas C
The purpose of this article is to discuss the impact of the training program for predoctoral dental and hygiene students at Loma Linda University School of Dentistry (LLUSD) with regard to issues related to treating patients with a high risk of having HIV/AIDS. LLUSD offers a training program for fourth-year dental hygiene and predoctoral dental students that addresses the oral health care needs of persons with HIV disease. The training occurs in small groups 2 days per week at a community clinic serving HIV-positive individuals. Three academic quarters are required to train all fourth-year students each year. Evaluation of program effectiveness is conducted by means of pre- and post-session surveys. Dental hygiene and dental students completed the pre-survey during the spring quarter of their third year in public health dentistry courses. The same students completed the post-session survey at the end of their weekly training sessions during the fourth year. The overall change in all areas related to the students' comfort level in treating patients in the 3 defined categories is in a positive direction (p-valuehistory of blood transfusion in both student groups upon completion of the HIV and the Dentist training program at LLUSD. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Bruins, H H; Koole, R; Jolly, D E
The proposed model was designed to function as a tool for the development and testing of evidence-based clinical guidelines for the pretherapy oral screening and dental management of patients with head and neck cancer. Methods of clinical decision analysis were used to analyze the decision dilemma and construct a decision algorithm and decision tree. The robustness of the model was tested by means of a probabilistic sensitivity analysis with second-order Monte Carlo simulations (n = 10.000). Clinical criteria for evaluating dental pathologic conditions and malignancy- and patient-related conditions were transformed in probability estimates. The tradeoffs between the benefits and drawbacks of the dental intervention were integrated into the model to identify the optimal option for dental intervention. The calculation process of "folding back and averaging out" the decision tree enabled the identification of the optimal options for dental intervention in four different pretherapy risk conditions. A priori testing of the proposed model with 95% confidence intervals suggests that it has a great potential for solving clinical dilemmas associated with pretherapy dental decision-making. In addition, it seems a useful tool for the development of evidence-based clinical guidelines. A posteriori clinical testing should further validate the model before its assimilation into clinical practice takes place.
Ali H Hassan
Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi
Al-Mountashiri, Nadiyah Abdullah; Al-Zhrani, Amal Mohammad; Ibrahim, Shereen Fawzy Hafez; Mirghani, Hyder Othman
Medical nutritional therapy is an important aspect of diabetes care, there is an increasing awareness of breakfast skipping, late dinner and meal contents on diabetes control. To assess dietary habits, physical activity and diabetes perception among patients with type 2 diabetes. This case-control study was conducted among patients with diabetes mellitus at the diabetes center in Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia during the period from March through June 2017. One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes and 150 control subjects were interviewed to collect demographic data regarding, breakfast skipping, late dinner intake, and fruit, vegetables, sweet food, and fast food consumption. Diabetic patients' perception of their disease was also assessed. (If diabetes is serious, it can be prevented and reversible). Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using Chi-square and independent-samples t-test. In the present study, body mass index (BMI) (pbreakfast skipping (pskip breakfast, consume less fast food and more fruits than control subjects. More physical activity and less sweet food consumption was observed among patients with accepted glycemic control.
Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the clinical features, and mutations of the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (MUT gene in 2 patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA attending King Saud University Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in January 2014. The infants aged 6 days (patient 1 and 3 months (patient 2 with sepsis-like picture, metabolic acidosis, and hyperammonemia were presented. Investigations revealed high propionylcarnitine (C3, elevated urinary methylmalonic acids, 3-hydroxypropionic acids and methylcitrate, consistent with MMA. Sanger-sequencing detected a homozygous novel mutation (c.329A>G; p.Y110C in the MUT gene in patient 1 and a heterozygous in parents. This mutation is predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein structure and function. In patient 2, we detected a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.2200C>T; p.Q734X and a heterozygous in parents. This mutation leads to a premature stop-codon at codon 734 of the MUT gene. We identified 2 novel mutations in the MUT gene causing isolated MMA.
Alzahrani, Sami H; Alamri, Sultan H
Malnutrition is a nutritional disorder that adversely affects the body from a functional or clinical perspective. It is very often observed in the elderly population. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among hospitalized elderly patients and its associated factors and outcomes in terms of length of stay and mortality in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the nutritional status of hospitalized elderly patients using the most recent version of the short form of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF). A total of 248 hospitalized patients were included (70.0 ± 7.7 years; 60% female). According to the MNA-SF, a total of 76.6% patients were either malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Malnourished patients had significantly lower levels of serum albumin (28.2 ± 7.7), hemoglobin (10.5 ± 1.8), and lymphocyte (1.7 ± 0.91). They had increased tendency to stay in the hospital for longer durations (IQR, 5-11 days; median = 7 days) and had a mortality rate of 6.9%. Malnutrition was highly prevalent among hospitalized elderly and was associated with increased length of stay and mortality.
佐藤, 潤; 川合, 宏仁; 山崎, 信也; 相澤, 徳久; 島村, 和宏; 鈴木, 康生; サトウ, ジュン; カワイ, ヒロヨシ; ヤマザキ, シンヤ; アイザワ, ノリヒサ; シマムラ, カズヒロ; スズキ, ヤスオ; Jun, Sato; Hiroyoshi, KAWAAI; Shinya, YAMAZAKI
In our hospital, we have many cases of ambulatory general anesthesia in the dental treatment of disabled patients. However, if the disability patients have strong refusal to enter the general anesthesia room due to strong phobia, we can not apply the general anesthesia induction. We experienced a dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia of a disabled patient who could not sit on any dental chair except for his favorite one. The patient was a 16-year-old boy. He was diagnosed Down ...
Tuberculosis transmission among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients is due to the level of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) circulation in the community and in the healthcare settings where HCWs are active. In contrast, most papers about dentistry report that dental HCWs (DHCWs) and patients are at relatively high risk, mainly based on tuberculosis case series that occurred in the 80's-90's. This meta-narrative review was designed to evaluate the tuberculosis risk in dentistry accounting for the historical-geographical contexts. All available studies reporting data on MT infection (active/latent tuberculosis, tuberculin skin test) among patients and DHCWs. PubMed, Scopus, GOOGLE Scholar. MT/tuberculosis and dentistry/dentist/dental/dent*. 238 of the 351 titles were excluded because did not concern dental healthcare providing, 94 papers were excluded because they did not provide original data. Thirteen studies on occupational risk, nine on transmission to patients remained. Some, often non-confirmed, cases of MT infection among patients were reported in specific historical-geographical contexts where MT was endemic. The risk of active pulmonary tuberculosis transmission from infected DHCWs to patients is minimal today, provided that the basic infection control guidelines are applied. The development of active tuberculosis among DHCWs is occasional and is associable to MT circulation rather than dental healthcare providing. Tuberculosis transmission in dental healthcare settings was due to the lack of basic infection control measures, while the risk is acceptable (i.e., similar to the general population) nowadays. Therefore, tuberculosis transmission can be safely prevented wearing gloves and surgical mask and providing regular air changes in the operative and non-operative dental healthcare settings. Precautionary Principle-based measures are implementable when patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis are routinely treated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All
Hypertension is one of the most frequently encounte‑ red systemic diseases in patients visiting the dental clinics, due its high prevalence worldwide. It has been attributed to approximately 7.1 million deaths per year, having a pre‑ valence of approximately 1 billion.While managing a hypertensive patient in the dental office, the dentist must take efforts to perform the dental procedures with opti‑ mum pain control, stress and anxiety reduction. Admini‑ nistration of ...
Mehmet Citak; Elif Bahar Cakici; Yasin Atakan Benkli; Fatih Cakici; Bircan Bektas; Suleyman Kutalmış Buyuk
ABSTRACT Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in a subpopulation of orthodontic patients with agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors (MLI). Methods: The material of the present study included the records of the 1964 orthodontic patients. Panoramic radiographs and dental casts were used to analyze other associated eight dental anomalies, including agenesis of other teeth, dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, peg shaped MLI, taurodontism, p...
Ardeshir Lafzi; Nader Abolfazli; Amir Eskandari
Background and aims. Dental procedures injuring oral tissues may induce bacterial release to blood stream that can cause infective endocarditis in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran, regarding endocarditis prophylaxis in cardiac patients receiving dental treatments.
Full Text Available Stephen Wotman1, Catherine A Demko1, Kristin Victoroff1, Joseph J Sudano2, James A Lalumandier11Department of Community Dentistry, Case Western Reserve University, School of Dental Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Center of Health Care Research and Policy, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: This report defines verbal interactions between practitioners and patients as core activities of dental practice. Trained teams spent four days in 120 Ohio dental practices observing 3751 patient encounters with dentists and hygienists. Direct observation of practice characteristics, procedures performed, and how procedure and nonprocedure time was utilized during patient visits was recorded using a modified Davis Observation Code that classified patient contact time into 24 behavioral categories. Dentist, hygienist, and patient characteristics were gathered by questionnaire. The most common nonprocedure behaviors observed for dentists were chatting, evaluation feedback, history taking, and answering patient questions. Hygienists added preventive counseling. We distinguish between preventive procedures and counseling in actual dental offices that are members of a practice-based research network. Almost a third of the dentist’s and half of the hygienist’s patient contact time is utilized for nonprocedure behaviors during patient encounters. These interactions may be linked to patient and practitioner satisfaction and effectiveness of self-care instruction.Keywords: dental practice, dental practice core activities, direct observation of dental practice, Dental Davis Observation Code, dentist, hygienist patient behaviors
Al-Zahrani, Mansour K; Elnasieh, Abdulrahman M; Alenezi, Farhan M; Almoushawah, Abdulrahman A; Almansour, Mohammed; Alshahrani, Fahad; Rahman, Saeed Ur; Al-Zahrani, Abdullah
The aim of the current study was to determine whether oral cholecalciferol (45000 IU) per week for the 2 months and once on the 3rd month could translate to full vitamin D status correction and improved metabolic profile among patients with suboptimal vitamin D status. A total of 248 Saudi patients with T2DM were screened for vitamin D deficiency. Two hundred out of the 248 patients had suboptimal vitamin D levels, and were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D oral supplementation (45000 IU/week for 2 months and a single 45000 IU in the last month) or placebo for 3 months. Anthropometrics and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 3 months. Serum glucose, HBA1c and lipid profile were measured routinely and serum 25-OH vitamin D using ELISA. More than half of the subjects (59.8%) were vitamin D deficient at screening. Both groups had significant improvements in vitamin D levels after 3 months, with most of the treatment group achieving status correction. In the treatment group, a significant improvement in the diastolic blood pressure was observed after 3 months (P = 0.021), while the rest of the variables were comparable. Vitamin D supplementation of 45000 IU/week for 2 months and once on the 3rd month was able to improve vitamin D status among vitamin D deficient T2DM patients and marginally improve diastolic blood pressure.
Sait, Khalid Hussain; Anfinan, Nisrin Mohammad; Eldeek, Basem; Al-Ahmadi, Jawher; Al-Attas, Maha; Sait, Hesham Khalid; Basalamah, Hussain Abdullah; Al-Ama, Nabeel; El-Sayed, Mohamed Eid
To evaluate the perception of cancer patients toward treatment services and influencing factors and to inquire about the use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Information was obtained through pre-tested structured questionnaires completed by cancer patients during treatment at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Of 242 patients, 137 (64.6%) accepted to enter this study. Most were Saudi (n=93, 68%), female (n= 80, 58%), educated at university (n=71, 52%), married (n=97, 72%) and with breast cancer (n=36, 26%). One-hundred (73%) patients were satisfied with the services provided; 61% were Saudi. Ninety-four (68%) respondents were satisfied with the explanation of their cancer. Twenty-eight (21.6%) patients received CAM, of them 54.0% received herbal followed by rakia (21.0%), nutritional supplements/vitamins (7.0%) and Zamam water (18.0%), with significant differences among them (p =0.004). Seven (5%) patients believed this therapy could be used alone; 34 (25%) patients believed it could be used with other treatments, regardless of whether they themselves used this therapy. Fifty-three (53%) satisfied patients felt they received enough support; 31 (58%) patients received support from family and friends; 22 (41.6%) patients received support from the health-care team. Patients who received information about their disease from their physicians and those who felt they had enough support were more satisfied. The patients who took alternative treatment were older age, mostly female and highly educated but values did not reach significance. We stress enhancing the educational and supportive aspects of cancer-patient services to improve their treatment satisfaction and emphasize the need for increasing the educational and awareness programs offered to these patients.
Werkmeister, R; Szulczewski, D; Walteros-Benz, P; Joos, U
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risks and complications of rehabilitation with dental implants after tumour surgery and radiotherapy. After a disease-free survival of 18 months, 29 patients who had undergone oral cancer treatment were rehabilitated with dental implants. The complication rate of implants in irradiated, non-irradiated and grafted bone was analyzed at least 3 years after implant placement. In the healing period, 28.6% of the implants in irradiated bone and 8.4% in non-irradiated bone showed soft tissue complications. Of the implants, 26.7% in the irradiated and 14.7% in the non-irradiated mandibular bone were lost in the first 36 months after placement. Thirty-one point two percent of implants inserted in non-irradiated bone grafts were affected and did not osseointegrate. Of 109 inserted implants, 70 were suitable for prosthetic rehabilitation. There are high complication rates after implant placement in oral cancer patients. Irradiation adversely affects soft tissue healing. Osseointegration is frequently disturbed, especially when implants were placed in non-vascularized bone grafts.
Full Text Available Introduction: Utilization of dental service is a concept of expressing the extent of interaction between the service provider and the people for whom it is indented. However, one of the major issues in social welfare is the equitable provision of these services to the population. Aim: To determine the perceived barriers affecting access to the dental services in the dental institute. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dental institute during the month of February in the year 2014 using decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method. The study sample included the 364 subjects. The required data were collected using a specially designed and pretested questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA and MATLAB 7.6.0. The mean, standard deviations were used to describe the data, and inferential statistics included one-way ANOVA and DEMATEL. Results: The five determinants of cost, inconvenience, fear, organization, and patient-dentist relationship were determined as barriers to access dental services. Based on subjects′ responses to the questions, the cost (54.75% agreed or strongly agreed was identified as the most important factor affecting the access to dental health care followed by dentist-patient relationship (48.57%, inconvenience (36.55%, fear (23.70%, and organization (14.02%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0001. When the hierarchy of the affecting and affected factors was calculated, based on the factor analysis by using DEMATEL method, the cost (R−J = 0.16 and organization (R−J = 1.15, were certain affecting determinant which influenced the access to dental services and inconvenience. Conclusion: The major barriers to oral health care utilization among our patients were cost, fear, and organization. Policymakers, administrators, and insurance organizations have a major role. Hence, the policies should be fair and
Umeizudike, Kehinde Adesola; Ayanbadejo, Patricia Omowunmi; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Savage, Kofoworola Olaide
To determine the relevance of routine blood pressure (BP) measurement in patients attending the dental clinic. This was a retrospective survey of patients who attended the dental clinic in the Preventive Dentistry Department of a tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria over an eighteen month period. Data retrieved from the patient's hospital records included age, sex, BP and history of hypertension. Data was analyzed using Epi info 2011 package. p-value history of hypertension was obtained for 952 patients (49.8%). Of the 763 patients with high blood pressure, 14.8% had a known history of hypertension, while 42.1% were previously undiagnosed (p clinic. The high prevalence of hypertension particularly the previously undiagnosed cases among the dental patients highlights the relevance of routine blood pressure assessment prior to dental procedures in contemporary dental practice, so as to minimize the potential complications that could occur.
. Private sector focus, privatization of state owned entities and salary cuts in the public sector were proposed. But the item that drew most attention was the plan to sell a 5 per cent stake in the oil company Saudi Aramco, the national pride of the Kingdom, which was seen by many as selling the family...... silver. Later in 2016 the Vision 2030 plan was followed by the National Transformation Plan 2020 which is a far more detailed plan or operational plan, posting specific benchmarks and targets for the economy in order to fulfill the aims of the Vision 2030....
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental anxiety is a common and potentially distressing problem, both for the patients and for dental practitioners. It is considered to be the main barrier and affects the working lives of dental professional potentially compromising their performance. Aim: To know the effect of aromatherapy in the reduction of dental anxiety and to compare the anxiety levels of dental patients with the control group. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used. Of 40 dental clinics in Khammam town, 10 dental clinics were selected by simple random sampling method. A total of 100 patients attending the dental clinic for the first time were included in the study. Ambient odor of lavender was maintained with a candle warmer. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, smoking status, Modified dental anxiety scale (Humphries et al. in 1995, was given to the patients when they were waiting in the waiting room. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Considerable decrease in anxiety scores in 3 age groups was observed. A statistically significant (P = 0.002 decrease with age in mean anxiety score. A significant difference in anxiety scores of lavender group, a significant decrease of anxiety scores with an increase of age. Conclusion: Lavender decreased the current anxiety scores of patients effectively.
Nagy, Zsolt; Nemes, Júlia; Nyárasdy, Ida
A 34 years old male patient was referred to our clinic for restorative dental treatment. During detailed consultation and dental examination a relatively rare form of periodontal disease had been diagnosed. Intraoral examination included recording of dental and periodontal status. Based on patient's dental history, measurements of probing pocket depths (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and also the X-ray findings, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP) unknown by the patient was diagnosed. After patient's consent the comprehensive treatment plan covered the dental prevention, periodontal non-surgical and surgical therapy and rehabilitation. The treatment started with oral hygienic instruction, motivation then supra- and subgingival scaling and rootplaning. Later extraction and elective root canal treatment were performed, followed by open flap periodontal surgery combined with hemisection of two molars. After a full mouth conservative restorative therapy, function and esthetics were restored by fix dental prostheses. This case is a good example to underline the importance of periodontal examination during the dental screening and dental status recording for each patients showing up at dental clinics. Otherwise in many cases this asympthomatic disease can remain undetected.
The skin entry dose to patients\\' eyes during dental x-ray examination was carried out on one hundred and ten patients comprising infants and adult of both sexes. The dose measurements was performed at Alpha dental centre, Ibadan, using Lithium fluoride thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLD). The results of the study ...
Meurs, D.; Rutten, M.; de Jongh, A.
The objective of this study was to investigate whether having background information about a patient with an intellectual disability (ID) would have a positive effect on the level of cooperation during a first dental visit. Study participants were 57 consecutive dental patients (mean age = 24.3
Schuurhuis, Jennifer Marleen
Pre-treatment dental screening of, amongst others, head-and-neck-cancer and hematology patients aims to identify and eliminate oral foci of infection to prevent oral problems during or post-treatment. The efficacy of dental screening in these patients is yet not evidence based. In particular in high
Suvarna, Suraj; Dutt, Poonam; Misra, Animesh; Usmani, Nausheen; Singh, Abhishek; Suvarna, Chandini
Osteonecrosis is one of the prevalent side effects of bisphosphonate (BP) therapy in oral cancer patients. In case of patients with various oncologic lesions, standard guidelines contraindicate the use of dental implants if the patients are on BP therapy. Literature also quotes studies that emphasize on the safety of dental implants in patients on BP therapy. Hence, this study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of dental implants in patients on BP therapy. In this retrospective analysis, a total of 140 dental implants in 112 patients were included. Inclusion criteria included only those patients who were on or had history of BP therapy. Calculation of implant failure and survival rate was done. Ten cases of implant failure occurred, giving a success rate of above 92%, which was comparable to the results found in previous studies in patients who were not on BP therapy. No significant risk of implant failure is seen in patients on BP therapy compared with other patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infected patients should be expected in the Sudanese dental health care services with an increasing frequency. Dental care utilization in the context of the HIV epidemic is generally poorly understood. Focusing on Sudanese dental patients with reported unknown HIV status, this study assessed the extent to which Andersen's model in terms of predisposing (socio-demographics, enabling (knowledge, attitudes and perceived risk related to HIV and need related factors (oral health status predict dental care utilization. It was hypothesized that enabling factors would add to the explanation of dental care utilization beyond that of predisposing and need related factors. Methods Dental patients were recruited from Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital (KDTH and University of Science and Technology (UST during March-July 2008. A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7, 56.5% females and 61% from KDTH were examined clinically (DMFT and participated in an interview. Results A total of 53.9% confirmed having attended a dental clinic for treatment at least once in the past 2 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that predisposing factors; travelling inside Sudan (OR = 0.5 were associated with lower odds and females were associated with higher odds (OR = 2.0 for dental service utilization. Enabling factors; higher knowledge of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6 and higher HIV related experience (OR = 0.7 were associated with lower odds, whereas positive attitudes towards infected people and high perceived risk of contagion (OR = 1.3 were associated with higher odds for dental care utilization. Among need related factors dental caries experience was strongly associated with dental care utilization (OR = 4.8. Conclusion Disparity in the history of dental care utilization goes beyond socio-demographic position and need for dental care. Public awareness of HIV infection control and confidence on the competence of dentists should be improved to
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH and examine associated etiological factors related to the severity of DH in dental clinic patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed in which three hundred and thirty three patients aged 15 to 44 years old were assessed for the presence and severity of DH. The dentine hypersensitivity diagnosis was based on self-reported sensitivity and a clinical examination. The questionnaire included socio-demographic information, data about oral health habits and acidic dietary intake. A descriptive analysis was performed and the association between DH severity and risk factors was determined using an ordinal logistic regression model. Results: Dentine hypersensitivity was detected in 88 out of 333 (26.4% subjects (95% CI: 21.83-31.56. The pH of natural juices (OR=6.013; 95% CI: 0.995-36.319, p=0.051 and pH of alcohol beverages (OR= 7.800; 95% CI: 2.282-26.658, p=0.001 were significantly associated with the severity of dentine hypersensitivity. Conclusions: The results indicated that the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in these patients was consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, the severity of DH was influenced by acidic diet. These results suggest that dental counseling should be provided to all patients as well as to those with dentine hypersensitivity to prevent the occurrence of this oral health problem and the severity of symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among current musculoskeletal interventions used to treat low back pain (LBP, physiotherapy exercise has the highest evidence of effectiveness in avoiding recurrence and chronic disability. However, effectiveness of physiotherapy is thought to be directly related to the patients' adherence to physiotherapy. Since adherence is reported to be directly influenced by socio-cultural factors, this study was conducted to investigate factors related to patients' adherence in a group of Saudi female patients with LBP. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted on female LBP patients referred to the department of physiotherapy at a local tertiary hospital over a 12 month period. A total of 98 charts were reviewed. Two physiotherapists specialized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation collected information from the medical files. Data were classified in three categories: patients' personal demographics, patients' medical condition and history, and type of physiotherapy administered. Contingency tables and chi-square test were computed to test for differences in proportions. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables. Results Subjects who attended their scheduled appointments were classified as adherent (40%, and those who failed to attend 2 consecutive scheduled appointments and got discharged were classified as non-adherent (60%. Factors that significantly correlated with adherence included: age (r = 0.7, p Conclusion This study reveals an alarming level of non-adherence to physiotherapy among patients with LBP. It remains unclear as to what level of adherence is required to achieve beneficial effect of treatment. It is quite evident however, that early withdrawal from treatment would not allow the therapeutic benefits of the treatment to be realized. Future research should be directed toward developing strategies to improve adherence.
Asahi, Y; Kubota, K; Omichi, S
We had clinical grounds to suspect that patients with autism had greater propofol requirements during dental procedures than patients with intellectual impairment without autism. This hypothesis was tested by an audit of a standard anaesthetic technique. The audit was approved by our Hospital Ethics Committee. We compared the propofol requirements and effect using a standardised protocol during dental treatment in 56 autistic patients (age range three to 35 years) and 56 intellectually impaired patients (age range four to 42 years). Patients in each disability group were divided into three subgroups by age: six years or younger, seven to 19 years and 20 years or older. Combative patients received oral midazolam premedication, other patients received a single intravenous bolus of midazolam at induction. Otherwise, standardised propofol boluses and infusion were the only anaesthetic agents used. The propofol infusion rates of the intellectually impaired group showed significant decline with age (propofol rate of requirement mg x kg(-1) x h(-1), mean [SD]): 19 years group 8.5 (2.4) (P = 0.001 cf autism group than in the intellectual disability group, and the proportion of the cases where bolus propofol administration was needed after induction was significantly higher in the autistic patient group than in the intellectually impaired patients (P dental treatment compared with intellectually impaired patients.
Sarah M Khayyat
Full Text Available To assess the level of medication adherence and to investigate predictors of medication adherence and blood pressure control among hypertensive patients attending primary healthcare clinics in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.Hypertensive patients meeting the eligibility criteria were recruited from eight primary care clinics between January and May 2016 for this study. The patients completed Arabic version of Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8, an eight-item validated, self-reported measure to assess medication adherence. A structured data collection form was used to record patients' sociodemographic, medical and medication data.Two hundred and four patients, of which 71.6% were females, participated in the study. Patients' mean age was 59.1 (SD 12.2. The mean number of medication used by patients was 4.4 (SD 1.89. More than half (110; 54% of the patients were non-adherent to their medications (MMAS score 65 years (OR 2.0 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2; P = 0.04], and being diabetic (OR 0.25 [95% CI: 0.1-0.6; P = 0.04] were found to be independent predictors of medication adherence.Medication adherence is alarmingly low among hypertensive patients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia which may partly explain observed poor blood pressure control. There is a clear need to educate patients about the importance of medication adherence and its impact on improving clinical outcomes. Future research should identify barriers to medication adherence among Saudi hypertensive patients.
Our study showed low incidence rate of cardiomyopathy toxicity due to Herceptin therapy in Saudi individuals. However, the rate of cardiomyopathy differs by the criteria used as well as the imaging modality used to assess LV function.
Carmagnola, D; Filippucci, L; Celestino, S; Carrassi, A; Delia, S; Lodi, G
Dentistry in Italy is mainly private and therefore perceived as forcedly expensive. Dental tourism is becoming popular in order to get cheap dental care. The aim of this study was to carry out a survey aimed at investigating the perception of dental tourism by Italian patients who have recently received such dental care abroad. A questionnaire was posted on the web site of an Italian consumers association (Altroconsumo) and members were invited to fill in the questionnaire in case they had experienced dental treatment abroad. Eighty-one complete forms were included in the study. The main motivation for turning to dental tourism was saving money. Another frequent reason for choosing dental tourism was that full rehabilitation was offered in a short time span, usually one week. Patients have often underlined that they appreciated different aspects of the foreign dentists, like speed, kindness, humanity, interest in the course of the treatment, the feeling of ease conveyed by the environment and the personnel. Past negative experiences with Italian dentists were in some cases advocated as reasons for searching dental care abroad. Such negative experiences resulted in a lack of trust in Italian dentists. Some patients reported that while the overall treatment abroad was carried out in a short time, single prosthetic sessions were very long, up to 6 hours. Most patients were satisfied with dental tourism.
Al- Ayadhi Laila Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenobiotics are neurotoxins that dramatically alter the health of the child. In addition, an inefficient detoxification system leads to oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and immune dysfunction. The consensus among physicians who treat autism with a biomedical approach is that those on the spectrum are burdened with oxidative stress and immune problems. In a trial to understand the role of detoxification in the etiology of autism, selected parameters related to sulfur-dependent detoxification mechanisms in plasma of autistic children from Saudi Arabia will be investigated compared to control subjects. Methods 20 males autistic children aged 3-15 years and 20 age and gender matching healthy children as control group were included in this study. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total (GSH+GSSG, glutathione status (GSH/GSSG, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione- s-transferase (GST, thioredoxin (Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR and peroxidoxins (Prxs I and III were determined. Results Reduced glutathione, total glutathione, GSH/GSSG and activity levels of GST were significantly lower, GR shows non-significant differences, while, Trx, TrxR and both Prx I and III recorded a remarkably higher values in autistics compared to control subjects. Conclusion The impaired glutathione status together with the elevated Trx and TrxR and the remarkable over expression of both Prx I and Prx III, could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of autism.
Kanneppady, Sham Kishor; Balamanikandasrinivasan; Kumaresan, Ramesh; Sakri, Santosh B
... (Chinese, Indian, Malay) of patients attending AIMST Dental Institute, Malaysia. Dental records and orthopantomographs of 2200 patients aged between 20 and 40 years were retrieved and examined retrospectively...
Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; AlDawood, Kassim M; AlKhudeer, Basima K; AlSaqqaf, Abdullah A
This paper aims to assess trainees' satisfaction with the process and assessment aspects of the Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine (SDFM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 among trainees undertaking the SDFM. A questionnaire was distributed to all trainees in four examination centres in Saudi Arabia, under the supervision and guidance of the investigators (four members of the scientific committee of SDFM). There was a total of 97 participants in this study, the majority of whom were Saudis. More than 85% were satisfied with most elements of training including; an adequate number and variety of patients and cases, allocating time for training, giving regular written evaluation. Satisfaction with mentoring and giving constructive feedback scored less well and trainees were less satisfied with some hospital clinical rotations, which requires further exploration.
Fahad M Almutairi
Full Text Available This study was performed to analyze various demographic data such as age, gender, nationality, status of the patients, and the causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD of 349 patients who were undergoing hemodialysis (HD during the period from January 2013 to December 2015 at the Dialysis Center of King Khalid Hospital in Tabuk City. One hundred and fifty-two patients (43.6% were on HD in 2015. Age of the patients ranged from 9 to 93 years and the mean age was 51.3 ± 17.6 years. Majority of the patients, i.e., 140 (40.1% were in the age group of 40–59 years, followed by the age group of 60–79 years by 27.8% (97 patients. Saudis constituted 84.2% (294 and non-Saudis accounted 15.8% (55 of the patients over the years studied. There were 198 males (56.7% and 151 females (43.3%. The death rate in 2014 was 6.2%, whereas it increased in 2015 to 10.5%. The high escape rate (10.3% of patients was in 2014. Diabetic nephropathy was the most common cause of ESRD, accounting for 30.4% of all cases, followed by unknown etiologies accounting for 25.2%. Nearly 22.6% of all ESRD cases had hypertension. Primary glomerular disease was seen in 8.9% and obstructive uropathy in 3.7%. Other causes constituted 7.4% of the cases. The data of ERSD patients in Tabuk City are comparable with that of other regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conclude that analysis studies of HD centers help to understand the problems and the needs of the patients, find the solutions, and create a connection between the consumers and health-care providers.
Tsirogiannis, Panagiotis; Neophytou, Sophia; Reul, Anika; Heydecke, Guido; Reissmann, Daniel R
To develop a reliable and valid instrument for the comprehensive assessment of patients' burdens during dental impression making, the Burdens in Dental Impression Making Questionnaire, BiDIM-Q. The item pool was generated in a convenience sample of 20 prosthodontic patients using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The final instrument was tested in 145 consecutively recruited patients, and psychometric properties of the BiDIM-Q were determined. Four different impression materials were used according to the manufacturers' instructions and indications: alginate, c-silicone, polyvinylsiloxane, and polyether. The final BiDIM-Q consisting of 12 items showed sufficient reliability, indicated by Cronbach's alpha of .82 and an average inter-item correlation of .29. Validity was supported by Pearson correlation coefficients for the correlation between the instrument's total score with the patients' overall satisfaction rating (r=.63), and by the correlation matrix for the correlations of the patients' perceptions with the practitioners' satisfaction ratings. Overall, patient perceived burdens were low with highest burdens observed when using polyether in partially dentate patients for pick-up impressions, while lowest burdens were reported when using c-silicone for impressions of edentulous jaws. The BiDIM-Q is a reliable and valid tool for assessing patient-based process-related quality of care in dentistry allowing a deeper insight into patients' perspective during dental impression making. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Jameil, Noura; Hassan, Amina A; Hassanato, Rana; Isac, Sree R; Otaiby, Maram Al; Al-Shareef, Fadwa; Al-Maarik, Basmah; Ajeyan, Iman Al; Al-Bahloul, Khloud; Ghani, Samina; Al-Torbak, Dana
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase protein produced in hepatocytes. Its deficiency affects the lungs and liver. A case-control study was carried out to determine the prevalence of 2 common deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in both healthy and chronic obstructive pulmmonary disease (COPD)-affected Saudi populations and to clarify the importance of genetic tests in the screening of people at risk for COPD.One thousand blood samples from healthy individuals and 1000 from COPD-affected Saudi individuals were genotyped for the above-mentioned alleles, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with the exclusion of any other nationalities. Data were analyzed by determining the allele and genotype frequencies through gene counting and its confidence intervals. The allele frequencies, derived by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium method, were analyzed by Pearson Chi-squared tests. The confidence intervals for genotype frequencies were calculated using exploratory software for confidence intervals.Of the 1000 COPD patients included in our study, the prevalence of PI*S and PI*Z was 21.8% and 7.7%, respectively, while within the 1000 normal samples, these alleles occurred in 8.9% of patients for PI*S and 1.6% for PI*Z. The AAT deficiency genotype frequencies (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) were 6.5 per 1000 and 87 per 1000 for normal and COPD-affected Saudi individuals.Our results indicated a high prevalence of AATD alleles in the normal Saudi population and an association between AAT deficiency and pulmonary disease development. Additionally, our research confirms the importance of genetic screening to achieve early and accurate diagnosis of AATD.
Imre, Ildikó; Tóth, Zsuzsanna
During dental rehabilitation of a patient with ICD, an upper telescope retained overdenture with acrylic baseplate and lower cantilever bridges were constructed. In the consultation following the anamnesis and the clinical examination, the cardiologist did not believe antibiotic profilaxis to be necessary, adding that it is advisable to avoid the use of ultrasonic depurator and electrocauter. Nowadays after saving the life the improving of patient's better quality of life is an important aspect. The risk of ICD-implantation is minimal however, not negligible, the patient can pursue a way of life free of limitation. According to the latest trends, the number of ICD-implantations will increase exponentially in the near future, due to the aging of the population, the simplification and safeness of implantation and the increase of patients who can be treated with the device. In case of arritmia or putative dysfunction, the latest ICD-s are able to send emergency alert to the arritmia centre with the help of an outer transmitter. Probably the system will completely change the follow-up of patients with ICD within the next few years, clinical researches of its efficiency are going on at present.
Rafeeq, M M; Murad, Has
Bronchial asthma is a social and economic healthcare burden. Drug utilization studies are important tools to assess current prescription practices against standard guidelines and help in rationalizing the management. This retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the pattern of drug utilization in bronchial asthma patients in a government hospital of Saudi Arabia. Retrospective prescribing information of patients of all ages and both sexes diagnosed with bronchial asthma being treated with at least one of the anti-asthmatic medications was utilized. Demographic details, brand/generic name, indication, route, dosage, frequency, and date of starting the drug were recorded. Prescriptions were examined for order, number, and therapeutic class of drugs in addition to poly-pharmacy and appropriateness. Patients having other respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), bronchitis, emphysema, or any comorbidity such as diabetes, hypertension, and peptic ulcer were excluded. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used for statistical analysis. A total of 380 prescriptions were studied. Patients were aged from 4 months to 79 years, with 55.3% males and 44.7% females. Pediatric prescriptions were 47.4%. Bronchodilators followed by steroids were the most common drug groups. Salbutamol and budesonide were the most common from each group, respectively. 89.5% of the patients were having at least two drugs. Number of drugs per prescription averaged 3.18 ± 1.22, however, no correlation was found between different age groups and number of drugs. 61.3% drugs were administered by inhalational route and 34.8% by oral route. Approximately 77.2% prescriptions were found to be appropriate. Prescription pattern was mainly in accordance with standard guidelines with some knowledge and technical gaps in prescription writing methodology.
Farooqi, Faraz A; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A; Khan, Soban Q; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S
To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods. This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits.
AlAlyani, Wafa S; Alshouibi, Ehab N
To identify the potential factors that would predict a dentist's awareness of domestic violence (DV), as well as the factors that influence the probability of dentists to take the required action. Also, to list the common barriers that dentists face when managing DV victims. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered, structured questionnaire was sent randomly to dentists practicing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The online survey link was emailed with a cover message that illustrated the study context. Responses were accepted from January 2016 until the end of February 2016. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate analysis carried out to identify significant variables at p less than 0.05 level of significance. Results: A sample size of 151 responses were recruited. The result of multivariate models indicated that the odds of dentists' awareness and taking actions towards DV victims were influenced by their education, clinical experience, gender, practicing sector, and qualification. Lack of training in identifying DV and embarrassment to bring up DV with patients were the most common barriers for the respondents when treating DV victims. Conclusion: Continuing education with regards to DV was found to be the most relevant predictor. More educational courses in this regard would empower dentists to support DV victims.
El-Ansary Afaf K
Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.
Moola, Sandeep; Pearson, Alan; Hagger, Christina
Dental anxiety has been identified as a significant and common problem in both children and adults and is considered an obstacle for dental care providers in the delivery of quality oral care. Patients with dental anxiety tend to avoid professional dental care which poses a problem for dentists and patients alike.There are various treatment options for reducing dental anxiety. Music has been used in different medical fields to meet physiological, psychological, and spiritual needs of patients. Music interventions can either be passive (music listening) or active music (therapy).There was a significant gap in the literature on the effectiveness of music therapy and music listening in reducing dental anxiety in patients undergoing various dental treatments/procedures. This systematic review specifically examined the effectiveness of music interventions in reducing dental anxiety in both paediatric and adult patients. The objective of this systematic review was to critically appraise, synthesise and present the best available evidence related to the effectiveness of music interventions on dental anxiety in paediatric and adult patients. A comprehensive search was undertaken on major electronic databases from their inception to October 2010. The search was restricted to English language and other languages where a translation was available from colleagues (for e.g. Chinese, Japanese, and Italian). Randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies were included in the review. Critical appraisal and data extraction were undertaken using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal instrument and the standard data extraction form for evidence of effectiveness. Seven studies with a combined total of 598 patients were included. Two out of the seven studies were RCTs, four quasi-randomised and one quasi-experimental study. There were 513 adult patients as participants from five studies and 85 paediatric patients from two
Rowe, Dorothy J; Essex, Gwen; Nojoumi, Sanaz
...) and one without DH (n = 111) were requested to complete a 15-item survey assessing knowledge of clinical duties of licensed dental hygienists, attitudes regarding outcomes of collaborating with hygienists, and demographic characteristics...
Maret, Delphine; Peters, Ove A.; Vigarios, Emmanuelle; Epstein, Joel B.; van der Sluis, Lucas
The primary purpose of preoperative dental screening of medical patients is to detect acute or chronic oral conditions that may require management prior to planned medical interventions. The aim of this communication is to discuss the background of preoperative dental screening and the link between
Suresh, Ruby; Jones, Katharine C; Newton, Jonathan Timothy; Asimakopoulou, Koula
This exploratory study evaluated the effectiveness of an action-control behavioral intervention on adherence to dental flossing in patients with periodontal disease. Action control, that is, monitoring one's behavior and evaluating it against a self-set standard, has been suggested as a self-regulatory strategy that can assist people who intend to engage in behavioral change. In a single-center, single-blind prospective trial, 73 dental patients received a behavioral intervention, which was either matched or mismatched to their stage of behavioral change. Through responses to a standardized self-report measure, participants were classified either as motivational (i.e., not ready to change) or volitional (i.e., contemplating change) with regard to dental flossing. The intervention consisted of a simple self-monitoring tool for dental flossing in the form of a diary. Flossing frequency, dental plaque, and bleeding scores were measured before and at 4 weeks postintervention. Flossing frequency, dental plaque, and bleeding scores improved (P < 0.001) in both stage-matched and stage-mismatched patients. A brief behavioral intervention enhances adherence to dental flossing, regardless of participants' stage of change. Keeping a flossing diary can increase dental flossing and reduce plaque and bleeding scores in patients with periodontal disease, in the short term. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Hamzah, Hajar S; Gao, Xiaoli; Yung Yiu, Cynthia K; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M
Internet social media offers a rich source for soliciting the public's views on health issues. This qualitative research, using You-Tube as a platform, aimed to explore the public's perspectives on management of dental fear and anxiety (DFA) in pediatric patients. Using three keywords ("dental fear," "dental phobia," and "dental anxiety"), YouTube videos were searched. Twenty-seven videos related to DFA in children and adolescents were reviewed by three investigators, including a nondental layperson. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted for interpreting the data. Several strategies were considered useful for controlling DFA in pediatric patients, including: verbal and nonverbal communication to establish closeness and effective guidance (explanation, permission-seeking, reassurance, and negotiation); desensitization to dental settings and procedures; tell-show-do; positive reinforcement; distraction by imagination and thoughtful designs of clinic; and parental presence and support. Some self-coping strategies adopted by patients alleviated their DFA, such as self-reasoning and trust-building through long-term connection. Dentists' clinical competence, favorable treatment outcomes, and state-of-the-art devices and technologies (dental lasers, intraoral camera, and adapted anaesthesia method) contributed to reducing DFA. Authentic testimonials in YouTube videos endorsed and interpreted a variety of strategies adoptable by patients, parents, and dental professionals for managing children's and adolescents' dental fears and anxieties.
Watson, C M; Whitehouse, R L
Concern about cross-contamination between dental patients prompted investigation of current suctioning practices. The possibility of the suck-back phenomenon and the presence of oral bacteria in vacuum lines were studied, and dental offices were surveyed concerning the use and disinfection of suction equipment.
Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency ...
Tomislav Lauc; Enita Nakas; Melina Latic-Dautovic; Vildana Dzemidzic; Alisa Tiro; Ivana Rupic; Mirjana Kostic; Ivan Galic
Objective. To evaluate the difference between chronological and dental age, calculated by Willems and Cameriere methods, in various skeletal patterns according to Steiner's ANB Classification. Methods...
Picos, Alina; Chisnoiu, Andrea; Dumitrasc, Dan L
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition. In addition to esophageal alterations, there are several extra-esophageal symptoms, such as dental erosion. These areas of dental erosion have a characteristic localization and may sometimes be the first symptom of the GERD syndrome. Late recognition of these effects, or ignoring them, may cause irreversible dental lesions with a negative impact on esthetics, on masticator functions and hence on the digestive system. In this paper the effects of gastroesophageal reflux on hard dental tissues are reviewed.
Full Text Available After acrylic resins have been developed they found a broad area of application. Today they have totally replaced the amalgam and are used in the manufacturing of dental prosthesis, restorative materials, root canal filling materials, bonding materials and glass ionomers. As a consequence, the number of allergic reactions to these materials is increasing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the most common intraoral clinical manifestations of allergic reactions to plastic materials used in dentistry. Materials and methods: The study population consisted of 200 interviewed participants divided into two groups: dental patients with methacrylic restorations and occupationally exposed to methacrylates manicurists and dental technicians. All of them had dental treatments with acrylic materials. 154 of them were patch tested with 24 methacrylate allergens compiled from (MethAcrylate Series Adhesives, Dental & Other, (MethAcrylate Series - Nails Artificial Series (MN- 1000 (Chemotechnique Diagnostics Vellinge, Sweden. 30 patients (19.48% showed positive reactions to tested substances. Results: Erythema was observed in 8 (26.66 % patients, edematous changes in oral tissues in 4 (13.33% patients. In 60% of patients with positive reactions, there were no intraoral findings. Aphthous or lichenoid eruptions which are specific for contact allergy to dental materials were not registered during intraoral inspections. Conclusions: According to results of this study we cannot confirm that there are specific intra or extra oral changes pathognomonic for methacrylate allergy in dental patients.
Dewi, Fellani Danasra; Sudjana, Grita; Oesman, Yevis Marty
Transformation of health care is underway from sellers' market to consumers' market, where the satisfaction of the patients' need is a primary concern while defining the service quality. Hence, commitment to provide a high-quality service and achieving patients' satisfaction becomes an important issue for dental health care provider. The aim of this research is to investigate the quality of dental health care service based on empathy and responsiveness aspects. A total of 90 questionnaires were completed by the dental patients who came to dental polyclinic located in Government Hospital, West Java, Indonesia. The questionnaire was concerned on two dimensions of service quality model, i.e. empathy and responsiveness. The obtained data were analyzed using inferential statistics (t test) and also descriptive statistics with importance-performance analysis. All the attributes tested by t test showed that perception and expectation differed significantly, except for responsiveness, i.e. ability of dental assistants in assisting the dentist (t test 0.505important factor in evaluating patient satisfaction is the response given by administration staff related to long waiting time (t test 5.377), followed by dental assistant's knowledge about the patient's need during treatment (t test 4.822) and explanation that was given by dentist (t test 4.700). It can be inferred from IPA that priority should be given to dentist's communication and dental assistant's knowledge toward patient's needs to enhance the service quality.
Gislana Braga Machado
Full Text Available Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.
Machado, Gislana Braga
Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.
García Linares, Sixto; Departamento Médico-Quirúrgico. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima - Perú.; Bravo Castañola, Francis; Segunda Especialidad en Periodoncia. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima - Perú.; Ayala Luis, Jocelyn; Alumna Odontología pregrado. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima - Perú.; Bardales Cuzquén, Guadalupe; Alumna Odontología pregrado. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima - Perú.
The present study evaluates the relationship between salivary pH and periodontal disease. Sixty patients (30 gingivitis patients and 30 periodontitis patients) who went to UNMSM Dental School were evaluated. Also, we took a control group that included 20 dental students with healthy periodontum. We evaluated periodontal status and salivary samples were taken before and after phase I treatment. It was found a difference between control group that presented an average pH of 6.9 and gingivitis a...
Çakıcı, Fatih; Benkli, Yasin; Çakıcı, Elif
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of taurodontism in a north Anatolian dental patient subpopulation, considering factors such as dental localization.Methods:We designed a descriptive study evaluated of panoramic radiography of 1044 patients who presented to our Endodontic Services of Dentistry Faculty, Ordu University, in the city of Ordu in the north of Turkey. All the data (age and sex) were obtained from Turcasoft software (Samsun, Turkey). Patients who were ...
Recordings of patient satisfaction with provision of dental implant treatment are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate satisfaction amongst patients attending for provision of implant treatment by training undergraduate and postgraduate students at Dublin Dental School and Hospital (DDSH). A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to 100 individuals randomly selected from records of patients who had received implant treatment via student clinics in the previous 5 years. The response rate was 68%. Results showed a high overall level of satisfaction with treatment received.
Celikoglu, M; Buyuk, S K; Sekerci, A E; Cantekin, K; Candirli, C
To compare the frequency of maxillary dental anomalies in patients affected by unilateral (UCLP) and bilateral (BCLP) cleft lip with palate and to determine whether statistical differences were present or not between cleft and normal sides in UCLP group by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In addition, the frequency of those dental anomalies was compared with previous studies presenting the same population without cleft Study Design: Fifty non-syndromic patients affected by UCLP (28 patients) and BCLP (22 patients) were selected for analysis of dental anomalies by means of CBCT. The frequency of maxillary dental anomalies including tooth agenesis, microdontia of lateral incisor, ectopic eruption and impaction of canine and supernumerary tooth were examined. Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for statistical comparisons. All patients affected by UCLP and BCLP were found to have at least one maxillary dental anomaly. The most frequently observed dental anomaly was tooth agenesis (92.5% and 86.4%, respectively) in UCLP and BCLP groups. Tooth agenesis and canine impaction were observed more commonly in the cleft side (75.0% and 35.7%, respectively) than in the normal side (57.1% and 14.3%, respectively) in UCLP group (p≯0.05). All dental anomalies were found to be higher in both cleft groups than in general populations not affected by cleft. Since patients affected by UCLP and BCLP had at least one dental anomaly and higher dental anomaly frequency as compared to patients without cleft, those patients should be examined carefully prior to orthodontic treatment.
Riley, Joseph L; Gordan, Valeria V; Rindal, D Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; Patel, Sagar; Foy, Pat; Williams, O Dale; Gilbert, Gregg H
The authors conducted a study to identify components of patient satisfaction with restorative dental care and to test the hypothesis that certain dentist, patient and procedure factors are associated with patient satisfaction. Practitioner-investigators (P-Is) from 197 practices in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) recruited consecutively seen patients who had defective permanent-tooth restorations that were replaced or repaired. At the end of the treatment visit, P-Is asked each participant to complete a satisfaction survey and mail it directly to a DPBRN regional coordinator. Analysis of the results of 5,879 satisfaction surveys revealed three satisfaction components: interpersonal relationship-comfort factors, material choice-value factors and sensory-evaluative factors. Satisfaction was highest among patients who received care in a private practice model, whose restorations were repaired rather than replaced and whose restored teeth were not molars. These data suggest that a patient's judgments of a dentist's skills and quality of care are based on personal interactions with the dentist, the level of comfort the patient perceives while receiving care and any experience of posttreatment sensitivity in the treated tooth. These conclusions have direct implications for management of patient care before, during and after the procedure. By taking a patient-centered approach, dentists should seek to understand how patients evaluate and rate the service provided, thereby enabling themselves to focus on what each patient values most.
Tin-Oo, Mon Mon; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Hassan, Nurhidayati
We assessed factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their dental appearance and the treatments they desired to improve dental aesthetics. A cross-sectional study was performed out among 235 adult patients who visited the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia dental clinic. A structured, interviewer-guided questionnaire was used to identify patient satisfaction with their general dental appearance, cosmetic elements and desired treatments. The 235 patients consisted of 70 males (29.8%) and 165 females (70.2%), of mean age 31.5 years (SD 13.0). Of these patients, 124 (52.8%) were not satisfied with their general dental appearance. In addition, 132 patients (56.2%) were not happy with the color of their teeth, 76 (32.3%), regarded their teeth were poorly aligned, 62 (26.4%), as crowded and 56 (23.4%) protruded. Dissatisfaction with tooth color was significantly higher in female than in male patients (odds ratio [OR] of 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.50). Tooth whitening was the treatment most desired by patients (48.1%). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patient dissatisfaction with general dental appearance was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.18-4.03), unhappiness with tooth color (OR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.74-5.34) and the opinion that their teeth protruded (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.44-5.91). Most patients in this study were not satisfied with their dental appearance with a greater percentage of females expressing dissatisfaction than males. An age was not associated with satisfaction. Unhappiness with tooth color and feelings of having protruding teeth also had a significant negative influence on patient satisfaction with general dental appearance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed factors influencing patients' satisfaction with their dental appearance and the treatments they desired to improve dental aesthetics. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed out among 235 adult patients who visited the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia dental clinic. A structured, interviewer-guided questionnaire was used to identify patient satisfaction with their general dental appearance, cosmetic elements and desired treatments. Results The 235 patients consisted of 70 males (29.8% and 165 females (70.2%, of mean age 31.5 years (SD 13.0. Of these patients, 124 (52.8% were not satisfied with their general dental appearance. In addition, 132 patients (56.2% were not happy with the color of their teeth, 76 (32.3%, regarded their teeth were poorly aligned, 62 (26.4%, as crowded and 56 (23.4% protruded. Dissatisfaction with tooth color was significantly higher in female than in male patients (odds ratio [OR] of 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.50. Tooth whitening was the treatment most desired by patients (48.1%. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that patient dissatisfaction with general dental appearance was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.18-4.03, unhappiness with tooth color (OR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.74-5.34 and the opinion that their teeth protruded (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.44-5.91. Conclusions Most patients in this study were not satisfied with their dental appearance with a greater percentage of females expressing dissatisfaction than males. An age was not associated with satisfaction. Unhappiness with tooth color and feelings of having protruding teeth also had a significant negative influence on patient satisfaction with general dental appearance.
Nelson, Travis M; Sheller, Barbara; Friedman, Clive S; Bernier, Raphael
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition which most dentists will encounter in their practices. Contemporary educational and behavioral approaches may facilitate successful dental care. A literature review was conducted for relevant information on dental care for children with ASD. Educational principles used for children with ASD can be applied in the dental setting. Examples include: parent involvement in identifying strengths, sensitivities, and goal setting; using stories or video modeling in advance of the appointment; dividing dental treatment into sequential components; and modification of the environment to minimize sensory triggers. Patients with ASD are more capable of tolerating procedures that they are familiar with, and therefore should be exposed to new environments and stimuli in small incremental steps. By taking time to understand children with ASD as individuals and employing principles of learning, clinicians can provide high quality dental care for the majority of patients with ASD. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Adel F Alothman,1 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,2 Madonna J Matar,3 Rima Moghnieh,4 Thamer H Alenazi,1 Fayssal M Farahat,2 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Claudie Charbonneau,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1College of Medicine, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Infection Prevention and Control, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, King AbdulAziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Infectious Disease, Notre Dame de Secours University Hospital, Byblos, Lebanon; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Real-world Evidence/Data Analytics Center of Excellence, Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 8Pfizer International Operation, Paris, France Objectives: The objective of this study was to document the burden and treatment patterns associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs due to Candida and Aspergillus species in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods: A retrospective chart review study was conducted using data recorded from 2011 to 2012 from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of IFI due to Candida or Aspergillus, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Descriptive results were reported. Results: Five hospitals participated and provided data on 102 patients with IFI (51 from Lebanon and 51 from Saudi Arabia. The mean age of the patients was 55 years, and 55% were males. Comorbidities included diabetes (41%, coronary artery disease (24%, leukemia (19%, moderate
Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P; Wong, Allen
The increasing number of children and adults with autism spectrum disorders highlights the need to provide a full range of services, including dental care. A review of the autism spectrum, the magnitude of the problem, and approaches to providing services by dental practitioners are presented.
Abdulrahman S. Al-Ajlan
Full Text Available The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20–39-years and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40–59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable.
Gaffar, B O; El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; AlAgl, A S
This study assessed the association between oral health knowledge and practices of pregnant Saudi women selected from visitors to a government hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia in 2014. Women answered questions on oral health knowledge during pregnancy and knowledge of infant oral health. Most women (> 70%) knew that dental caries in children can be prevented, that pregnancy affects oral health and that dental treatment during pregnancy can negatively affect infants. Most women (> 80%) performed oral hygiene procedures but only 18% regularly visited the dentist. In a regression analysis, oral health knowledge was not significantly associated with reported oral hygiene practices. Women who visited the dentist regularly were more likely to know how to prevent caries in children, and that dental treatment during pregnancy and infant health were associated.
Allaire, Joanna L
Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.
Cheng, B S S; McGrath, C; Bridges, S M; Yiu, C K Y
To adapt an existing medical questionnaire on patient-provider communication for use in the dental setting, and to evaluate the performance of the measure in a first dental encounter (validity and reliability). A patient feedback questionnaire on consultation skills was adapted for use in dental settings through content and convergent validity. A survey of dentist consultation skills was conducted among adults attending a teaching hospital. Patients self-completed a 16-item Dental Patient Feedback on Consultation skills (DPFC) questionnaire during their first dental consultations. Repeat assessments were conducted on -10% of the sample. Variations in DPFC responses (scale and item level) were examined in relation to socio-demographics and dental attendance pattern in bivariate and regression analyses. Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient - ICC) were examined. A DPFC questionnaire was derived following minor modifications. The clarity of items ranged from 81.1-100% and content validity index ranged from 0.73-1.00. Exploratory item factor analysis showed a one-dimensional construct. The response rate to the survey was 90.5% (389/430). Variations in DPFC scores with respect to global rating of satisfaction were apparent (P DPFC (P DPFC questionnaire was adapted with acceptable validity and reliability. Dental service utilization pattern was associated with dentist-patient clinical communication rather than socio-demographics.
Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail: email@example.com; Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros [Center of Oncology, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)
In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients. (author)
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the attitude of the physicians towards the follow-up of the renal transplant patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We sent a questionnaire to 168 physicians working in 148 active dialysis centers in the KSA. The study was conducted from June-October 2005. There were 140 physicians (83.3% who answered the questionnaire; they represented 136 (91.9% dialysis centers. There were 43 (31.2% respondents who had a transplant clinic for follow-up of transplant recipients. Of the 96 (69.1% who did not have a clinic, 29 (30.2% claimed expertise for follow-up of transplant recipients, six (6.2% had a laboratory set-up to monitor the immunosuppressive drug levels and 40 (44.4% felt the need for one. There were 121 (89% respondents who would consider the chronic renal failure (CRF patients for transplantation because it is the best form of therapy. Seventy-seven respondents (55% had a protocol for work-up of the CRF patients for transplantation, 31 (22.3% had a coordinator for the work-up of the transplant candidates, 34 (24.5% had regular meetings to decide on the waiting list for transplantation, and 51 (37.8% had affiliation with, or worked at a transplant center. Nevertheless, 127 (90.7% respondents believed that the results of renal transplantation were good enough to recommend the procedure to all patients as early as possible. There were 133 (97.1% respondents who believed that organ shortage was the major factor for the low percentage of renal transplantation. Only 52 (37.1% respondents knew about the recent regulations established by the World Health Organization (WHO for organ donation. There were 63 (48.1% respondents who believed that seeking commercial renal transplantation outside the KSA to be unacceptable because of the medical and ethical complications involved. Many respondents (71.4% from non-MOH hospitals, and those who had transplant clinics believed that the tacrolimus + mycophenolate
Mehmet YILMAZ; ÇAĞLAR TORUN, Aysun; Burcu BAŞ; Duran, Hatice; KÖSE, İlyas; FURUNCUOĞLU, Halit
Special need patients have increased risk for oral diseases throughout their life. Sedation and general anesthesia is generally the preferred treatment for special needs patients though it provides optimal conditions for dental treatment. This study was aimed to describe our anesthetic experience in dental treatments of 519 special needs patients at a dental faculty in the north side of Turkey during a three-year period. The data referring to patient’s demographic information, anesthetic tech...
Margalit, Danielle N; Losi, Stephanie M; Tishler, Roy B; Schoenfeld, Jonathan D; Ann Fugazzotto, Jo; Stephens, Josie; Cebulski, Amy L; Hammerstrand, Elizabeth L; Ma, Laura; Lopes, Holly M; Haddad, Robert I; Treister, Nathaniel S; Frustino, Jennifer L
Head and neck (H&N) cancer therapy can have a detrimental effect on oral health by increasing the risk of dry mouth, dental caries, dental infection, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Pretreatment dental evaluations are recommended for patients with H&N cancer before radiation therapy to minimize the risk of acute and long-term adverse effects. In an earlier effort to educate patients and community dentists about the importance of pretreatment dental evaluations, we created a dental instructional guide (DIG) that outlines the necessary components of the preradiation dental evaluation. Yet our program did not have a system for documenting which patients received the DIG. The aim of this project was to create a reliable system to ensure that patients are given the DIG before radiation therapy and that such patients are readily identifiable, allowing us to confirm that their dental evaluations are complete before starting treatment. We implemented a tracking template within the H&N oncology program at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute that documents the date, patient, and clinician who gave the DIG. We used the Model for Improvement methodology and performed plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles to test and monitor the results of the template implementation. We showed a significant improvement in the rate of DIG documentation from a baseline of 0% (range, 0% to 0%) to a mean of 53% (range, 0% to 100%) over 3 months (P dental evaluation, thereby decreasing the risk of dental complications from H&N cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Al-Ghamdi, Khalid M.
Background: Impetigo is a common contagious superficial skin infection, most frequently seen in children. Objectives: To determine the clinical and epidemiological features of impetigo patients seen in the dermatology clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU). Methods: This is a retrospective study of impetigo patients seen in the dermatology clinic at KFHU, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during the period January 1990 to December 2001. Data collected from patients’ records included demographic features, clinical features, investigations and treatment. Only patients with positive skin culture were included in the study. Results: The total number of patients included in this study was 65 and constituted 0.08% of all the cases presenting with dermatology problems in that period. Males were affected by impetigo more than the females, giving a ratio of 1.7:1. The majority of the cases occurred in children less than 10 years of age, and the bullous form of impetigo was the predominant type. The sites affected by impetigo were mainly the extremities and the face. The highest number of patients was seen during summer and Staphylococcus was the most common causative agent. Conclusion: The incidence and prevalence of impetigo in Saudi Arabia is unknown and can be best defined by prospective community-based study. The diagnosis and management of impetigo is best achieved by microbiological cultures and sensitivities laboratory investigations. PMID:23012100
Al-Ouda, Sarah K.; Al-Banyan, Abdulmajeed A.; Al-Gahtani, Farjah H.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Al-Dakhil, Lateefa O.
Objectives: To determine the frequency of alloimmunization against human platelet antigens (HPAs) and human leucocyte antigen class 1 (HLA1) in multiparous women and multi-transfused patients. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and August 2013, on 50 multiparous women with no history of previous blood transfusion recruited from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic, and 50 patients, who received multiple platelet transfusions, recruited from the Hematology/Oncology Ward, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: The frequency of alloimmunization among multiparous pregnant women was 76%, as follows: 16% against HLA1 only, 8% against HPAs only, 52% against both HPAs and HLA1 antigens. In multi-transfused patients, the rate of alloimmunization was 42% as follows: 2% against HLA1 only, 22% against HPAs only, 18% against both HPAs and HLA1 antigens. The frequency of alloimmunization increases with the number of pregnancies, but not with the number of platelet transfusions. Conclusion: Alloimmunization against HPAs and HLA1 is very common among Saudi multiparous women and multi-transfused patients, which encourages the search for the extent of the possible complications in the fetus and newborn and in multitransfused patients and how to prevent their occurrence. PMID:25987107
Full Text Available Difficulty in dental management is one of the factors that characterize the patient that requires special care in dentistry. One of the clinical conditions that make dental treatment particularly complex is microstomia.Microstomia is defined as a small and insufficient oral aperture that will hinder diagnosis and dental treatment. Although there have been reports of patients with diseases and syndromes that cause microstomia, the available literature offers only a limited number of reviews on this topic. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the etiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of microstomia. In addition, to describe the therapeutic adaptations to be applied in dental procedures in patients with microstomia, emphasizing the importance of a preventive approach in this group of patients.
Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of rare genetic disorders characterised by skin and mucous membrane fragility and systemic manifestations of variable severity. We report a case of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in an 18-year-old male patient who presented to the Department of Oral Health at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015 with recurrent dental pain and infections. Due to the poor dental status of the patient and anticipated operative difficulties due to microstomia and limited mouth opening, the patient underwent full dental clearance under general anaesthesia. This article discusses the dental and anaesthetic challenges encountered during the management of this patient and provides a brief literature review.
Meng, M.; Zhang, Q.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Ma, C.; Zhang, S.
PURPOSE: To assess the relationships between occlusal tooth wear and occlusal conditions, chewing side preference, and occlusal guidance scheme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 257 Chinese adult dental school patients were categorized according to a hierarchical functional classification system.
Singh, Divya; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, Jn; Tripathi, Abhay Mani
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the eff-cacy of 'audio distraction' in anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children were randomly selected and equally divided into two groups of thirty each. The first group was control group (group A) and the second group was music group (group B). The dental procedure employed was extraction for both the groups. The children included in music group were allowed to hear audio presentation throughout the treatment procedure. Anxiety was measured by using Venham's picture test, pulse rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. 'Audio distraction' was found efficacious in alleviating anxiety of pediatric dental patients. 'Audio distraction' did decrease the anxiety in pediatric patients to a significant extent. How to cite this article: Singh D, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Tripathi AM. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):149-152.
Eman M. Shorog
Conclusion: In patients with CVD, the routine use of nonprescription medications was common for a number of reasons. Health care providers should proactively discuss nonprescription use with their CVD patients to avoid potential harmful outcomes.
Gary L. Drahos
Full Text Available Background Pre-clinical student competencies are usually assessed in only one specific area and not contextualized in a patient care scenario. Exposing preclinical students to a high fidelity simulated urgent care patient scenario will help the student develop critical thinking and intuitive dental treatment skills that will prepare them for actual urgent dental care (UDC treatment in the clinic. Aims Dental students, in the preclinical years, have difficulty in applying various disciplines of dentistry to an actual patient. The goal of this exercise is to contextualize several disciplines (diagnosis, material selection, oral pathology, electronic record keeping, patient interview and critical thinking into a real patient case. The hypothesis is that providing a preclinical urgent care session in this manner will better prepare students for clinical UDC treatment. Methods An urgent care patient scenario was developed that integrated multiple disciplines and contextualized common urgent clinical situations that are encountered daily, focusing on interviewing skills, basic diagnostic skills, manipulation of electronic patient records, material selection and defence of selection, image and data procurement, prescription writing, critical decision making, oral medicine diagnosis, treatment planning for a focused need, and performance of dental treatment. Second year dental students are required to interview a first time (walk-in urgent care patient to determine the chief complaint, diagnose the urgent problem (based on information obtained by interviewing the patient and to make critical patient care decisions and self-assess their performance. Results Students generally completed the session on time and in a satisfactory fashion. Preparation for the session was key and faculty calibration was essential. Conclusion Completion of this case scenario better prepared the students for the clinic as indicated by student self-assessment, post course
Tarek Mohamed Ali
Conclusions: Hepcidin levels are correlated to the glycemic status in CKD and HD patients and hepcidin levels in hemodialysed patients were significantly correlated with eGFR but it is not considered as an independent predictor for hepcidin level in these patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI. A questionnaire was used to collect patient’s information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Results Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7, mesial (0.8 ± 0.6, and distal (0.8 ± 0.5 areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3 (P < 0.038. The maxillary lateral incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 and maxillary canines (1.0 ± 0.8 had more biofilm than other teeth (P < 0.05. The maxillary arch (0.8 ± 0.7 had significantly more biofilm than mandibular arch (0.6 ± 0.6 (P = 0.042. No significant difference was found between the right side (0.7 ± 0.7 and left side (0.7 ± 0.6 (P = 0.627. Less biofilm was found in females (0.6 ± 0.5, adults (0.3 ± 0.3, and “self-motivated” patients (0.3 ± 0.3, compared with males (0.9 ± 0.5, children (0.8 ± 0.6, and “family-motivated” patients (1.1 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001. The amount of biofilm was associated with self-report of the frequency of daily tooth brushing (P < 0.001. Conclusions Patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances have the highest biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.
Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro
The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males) wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI). A questionnaire was used to collect patient's information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7), mesial (0.8 ± 0.6), and distal (0.8 ± 0.5) areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3) (P biofilm than other teeth (P biofilm than mandibular arch (0.6 ± 0.6) (P = 0.042). No significant difference was found between the right side (0.7 ± 0.7) and left side (0.7 ± 0.6) (P = 0.627). Less biofilm was found in females (0.6 ± 0.5), adults (0.3 ± 0.3), and "self-motivated" patients (0.3 ± 0.3), compared with males (0.9 ± 0.5), children (0.8 ± 0.6), and "family-motivated" patients (1.1 ± 0.5) (P biofilm was associated with self-report of the frequency of daily tooth brushing (P biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.
Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Yoon, Woong [Chonnam National Univ. Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Korea. Atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery bifurcation is the most common cause of stroke. The carotid artery calcification is easily appreciated by CT(Computed tomography). CT is often taken in a dental hospital for the diagnosis of inflammation. injury, cyst or tumor on maxillofacial region. However, there was no report of carotid artery calcification on CT in dental patients. The presence of carotid artery calcification was evaluated by an experienced radiologist on CT scans of 287 patients (166 males, 121 females, average age 42, range 6 to 86 years) and the medical history of the patient and the interpretation of CT were reviewed. Carotid artery calcification was detected on CT scans of 57 patients (19.8%; 35 males, 22 females). All the male patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 50, and all the female patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 60. Among the 57 patients, 10 had Diabetes mellitus, 20 had cardiovascular disease, 3 had history of stroke and 3 underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Carotid artery calcification was not included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients except one patient. The prevalence of carotid artery calcification on CT of dental patients was about 20% in this study. Carotid artery calcification should be included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients.
Gómez de Diego, Rafael; Mang de la Rosa, María Rocío; Romero Perez, María Jesús; Cutando Soriano, Antonio; López-Valverde Centeno, Antonio
The aim of this study was to review the current scientific literature in order to analyse the indications and contraindications of dental implants in medically compromised patients. A reference research was carried out on PubMed using the key words “implant” AND (oral OR dental) AND (systemic disease OR medically compromised), in articles published between 1993 and 2013. The inclusion criteria were the following: clinical studies in which, at least, 10 patients were treated, consensus article...
Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M.; Al-Maweri, Sadeq A.; Tarakji, Bassel
Objectives To explore the current literature of the survival of dental implants in irradiated head and neck cancer patients considering the role of implant location, bone augmentation, dose of radiation and timing of implant placement. Study Design Pubmed search was conducted to identify articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 and presenting data of dental implant survival with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Studies on animal subjects and craniofacial implant...
Imbaud, Tamara Christine de Souza; Mallozi, M?rcia Carvalho; Domingos, Vanda Beatriz Teixeira Coelho; Sol?, Dirceu
Abstract Objective: To describe the frequency and etiology of rhinitis, oral breathing, types of malocclusion and orofacial disorders in patients treated for dental malocclusion. Methods: Patients with poor dental occlusion (n=89, 8-15 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment at the Postgraduate Orthodontics Center (São Paulo, Brazil) participated in the study. Rhinitis and oral breathing were diagnosed by anamnesis, clinical assessment and allergic etiology of rhinitis through immediate hyp...
Yao, Jie; Li, Ming; Tang, Hua; Wang, Peng-Lai; Zhao, Yu-Xiao; McGrath, Colman; Mattheos, Nikos
While research in terms of patient-centered care in implant therapy is growing, few studies have investigated patients' initial perceptions prior to consultation with the implant dentist. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to capture patients' initial information level, perceptions, as well as expectations from the implant therapy. A 34-item questionnaire was developed to investigate patients' preoperative information, perceptions and expectations from treatment with Dental Implants. The study was conducted in three locations (Hong Kong, SiChuan and JiangSu) during 2014-2015 with 277 patients. The main information source about implant therapy was the dentist or hygienist for less than half of the patients (n = 113, 42%). About 62.8% of participants considered that they were in general informed about implants, but only 17.7% felt confident with the information they had. More than 30% of the sample appeared to maintain dangerous misperceptions about Dental Implants: "Dental Implants require less care than natural teeth"; "Treatment with Dental Implants is appropriate for all patients with missing teeth"; "Dental Implants last longer than natural teeth"; and "Treatments with Dental Implants have no risks or complications." Patients were divided when asked whether "Dental Implants are as functional as natural teeth" (agreement frequency = 52.7%). Expectations from treatment outcome were commonly high, while there was a significant correlation between the overall mean of perception scores and outcome expectation scores (r = 0.32, P dental team would need to diagnose and correct prior to initiating implant treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lateefa O. Al-Dakhil
Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical trials are experimental projects that include patients as subjects. A number of benefits are directly associated with clinical trials. Healthcare processes and outcomes can be improved with the help of clinical trials. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and beliefs of patients about their contribution to and enrolment in clinical trials. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used for data collection and analysis. A questionnaire was developed with six categories to derive effective outcomes. Results: Of the 2000 participants approached to take part in the study, 1081 agreed. The majority of the study population was female, well educated, and unaware of clinical trials. Only 324 subjects (30.0% had previously agreed to participate in a clinical trial. The majority (87.1% were motivated to participate in clinical trials due to religious aspects. However, fear of any risk was the principal reason (79.8% that reduced their motivation to participate. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that patients in Saudi Arabia have a low awareness and are less willing to participate in clinical trials. Different motivational factors and awareness programs can be used to increase patient participation in the future.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviewing the literature, no studies were cited to report the prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulceration in Jordan. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of recurrent aphthous ulceration in Jordanian subjects. Methods A total of 684 dental patients who attended Jordan University of Science and Technology interviewed and administered to fill questionnaires related to history, size, shape, and duration of recurrent aphthous ulceration. Other related questions were also asked. Results About 78% of subjects experienced recurrent aphthous ulceration. Approximately 85% of ulcers were less than one cm in diameter, 66% were circular in shape, 92% were painful, 82% interfered with eating, and 55% located in lips and buccal mucosa. Only 50%of participants related ulcers to stress. Sixty eight percent reported no association with tiredness and 85% no association with types of food ingested. Of the 39% who had blood tests carried out, 7% had vitamin B12 and 4% hemoglobin deficiency. Conclusion Recurrent aphthous ulceration is a common problem in Jordanian adults.
Sadat-Ali M; Al-Shafie B; Al-Omran AS; Azam MQ
Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other disease...
Sirajudeen Shaik Alavudeen
Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is extremely prevalent in patients with diabetes. Limited data exist on utilization patterns of antihypertensive in this population are consistent with evidence-based practice guidelines. Objective: To evaluate utilization patterns of antihypertensive agents among diabetic patients with hypertension. Design: Retrospective descriptive cross sectional. Patients / Participants: 149 patients with diabetes and hypertension from outpatient department at Family Medicine Hospital, Ahaderfieda. Khamis Mushait, K.S.A. Results: Over 43% of patients were receiving calcium channel blockers (CCB, 36.2 % of received angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs (34.9%, diuretics (34.2% and β -blockers (16.2%. Patients on monotherapy were mostly receiving CCB (34.3% and ACEI (29.9%. The majority (55.03% of treated patients were on multidrug regimens. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, a diuretic with ACEI (25% and calcium channel blocker with angiotensin receptor blocker (25% was most commonly prescribed. Conclusions: Patterns of antihypertensive therapy were generally consistent with international guidelines. Areas of improvement include increasing ACEI/ARB and diuretic use, decreasing the number of untreated patients, and increasing the proportion of patients with controlled BP in this population.
Alharbi, Abdulhameed A; Alraddadi, Rajaa M; Alharbi, Alwaleed A; Alharbi, Yazeed A
The clinical outcome of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may differ according to their beliefs concerning their illness and its treatment. Both the disease itself and negative perceptions of the illness may increase patients' morbidity and mortality. This study aims to compare hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients' illness perceptions and their related factors. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in five dialysis centers. After excluding patients with psychiatric comorbidities, 342 stable dialysis patients (HD, n = 267; PD, n = 75) completed a demographic questionnaire and the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). The data were analyzed using t-tests and ANOVAs. Out of the 342 patients, 53.8% were male and 46.2% were female. Their mean age was 46.1 ± 16.5 years. Compared to the HD patients, the PD patients perceived their illness to be significantly less chronic (p = .029) and more controllable, whether through personal or treatment control (p = .012, p = .017). Patients' most common cause of attributions were stress, worry, or poor past medical care. PD showed an advantage over HD in terms of perceptions of ESRD chronicity and controllability. Intervention programs targeting illness perception are needed to support dialysis patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a biological disorder with clearly defined phenomenology. Studies from the Middle East on this topic have been particularly rare. Little is known about the influence of culture on clinical features, presentations and management of autism. The current study was done to compare characteristics of autism in two groups of Egyptian as well as Saudi children. Methods The sample included 48 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. They were recruited from the Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were grouped into an Egyptian group (n = 20 and a Saudi group (n = 28. They were assessed both clinically and psychometrically using the GARS, the Vineland adaptive behavioral scale, and the Stanford Binnet IQ test. Results Typical autism was more prevalent than atypical autism in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical variables like regression, hyperactivity, epilepsy or mental retardation. Delayed language development was significantly higher in the Egyptian group while delay in all developmental milestones was more significant in the Saudi group. The Vineland communication subscale showed more significant severe and profound communication defects in the Saudi group while the Gilliam developmental subscale showed significantly more average scores in the Egyptian group. Both groups differed significantly such that the age of noticing abnormality was younger in the Saudi group. The age at diagnosis and at the commencement of intervention was lower in the Egyptian group. The Saudi group showed a higher percentage of missing examinations, older birth order and significantly higher preference to drug treatment, while the Egyptian group showed a high preference to behavioral and phoniatric therapies, higher paternal and maternal education, higher employment among parents and higher family
Dept. of Periodontology and Community Dentistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 2. ... as frequency table and means ± standard deviation. (SD). ... Packaging (beauty of pack) ..... of dental technology and therapist students.
Kani, E; Asimakopoulou, K; Daly, B; Hare, J; Lewis, J; Scambler, S; Scott, S; Newton, J T
To describe the characteristics of patients attending a psychologist-led cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) service for individuals with dental phobia and the outcomes of treatment. Analysis of routinely collected assessment and outcome data from 130 patients attending a single secondary service providing CBT for dental phobia. The patients comprised 99 women and 31 men, with an average age of 39.9 years (SD 14.8). Approximately 77% of the patients scored at levels suggestive of dental phobia on the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Fear of dental injections and the dental drill were the most common high scoring items on the MDAS. Ninety four percent of patients reported one or more impacts of their mouth, teeth and gums on their life using the OHIP-14. A minority of patients had co-morbid psychological conditions - 36.9% had high levels of general anxiety and 12.3% had clinically significant levels of depression. Suicidal ideation was reported by 12% of patients and four (3%) reported recent intent to commit suicide. Of all patients referred 79% went on to have dental treatment without sedation and 6% had their dental treatment under sedation. The average number of CBT appointments required before a patient received dental treatment without sedation was five. CBT offers an effective technique for helping dentally anxious patients receive treatment without sedation. Those interested in running such services should be cognizant of the moderately high level of co-morbid psychological conditions in this group.
A Dubey; P A Ghafoor; M Rafeeq
Background: Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term for a group of conditions characterized essentially by motor dysfunctions that may be associated with sensory or cognitive impairment. Such children tend to have a higher incidence of traumatic dental injuries than the general population. This increased incidence is often attributed to poor muscular co-ordination that predisposes individuals with Cerebral palsy to trauma Aim: The study was conducted to assess different dental injuries and the ris...
Krause, Meggan; Vainio, Lauren; Zwetchkenbaum, Samuel; Inglehart, Marita R
The objectives of this study were to explore how U.S. and Canadian dental schools educate students about special needs patients and which challenges and intentions for curricular changes they perceive. Data were collected from twenty-two dental schools in the United States and Canada with a web-based survey. While 91 percent of the programs covered this topic in their clinical education, only 64 percent offered a separate course about special needs patients. The clinical education varied widely. Thirty-seven percent of the responding schools had a special clinical area in their school for treating these patients. These areas had between three and twenty-two chairs and were funded and staffed quite differently. Most programs covered the treatment of patients with more prevalent impairments such as Down syndrome (91 percent), autism spectrum disorders (91 percent), and motion impairments (86 percent). Written exams were the most common outcome assessments (91 percent), while objective structured clinical examinations (18 percent) and standardized patient experiences (9 percent) were used less frequently. The most commonly reported challenge was curriculum overload (55 percent). The majority (77 percent) planned educational changes over the next three years, with 36 percent of schools planning to increase clinical and 27 percent extramural experiences. The findings showed that the responding U.S. and Canadian dental schools had a wide range of approaches to educating predoctoral students about treating special needs patients. In order to eliminate oral health disparities and access to care issues for these patients, future research should focus on developing best practices for educational efforts in this context.
Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet
Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.
Almaramhy, Hamdi; Al-Shobaili, Hani; El-Hadary, Kamal; Dandash, Khadiga
This study aimed to measure knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students towards patient safety concepts, and to detect variation by the mode of learning. A cross sectional study administrated an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 150 medical students graduated from two national medical schools, one follow the traditional lecture based learning (LBL) and the other applies innovative learning strategy (ILS). Students' self-ratings of knowledge level and attitude towards patient safety in relation to the mode of learning were measured. The study was conducted in April 2010. More than half of the participants (52.7%) self-rated their general knowledge on patient safety on good level compared to 27.3% for the specific knowledge issues score. Most participants (60.7%) agreed the importance of patient safety. The majority agreed to support peers who make unintentional errors and not to blame them for their own mistake (76.0 and 80.7% respectively). Less than half (44.7%) of the participants agreed the patients' role in error prevention and 47.3% agreed error disclosure to the patient. ILS participants were significantly more recognizable of the patient safety issues: problem solving (Ptowards patient safety issues. Basic relevant educational interventions with focus on deficient issues are recommended.
Lu, Yuan-Yuan; Wei, I-Hua; Huang, Chih-Chia
Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are at an increased risk for many diseases. However, little has been published about the dental health of patients with ASDs. Here, we describe the clinical presentations in a 28-year-old woman with autistic disorder. The most striking finding was the severe dental problems which had been neglected for several years. Our patient exhibited a combination of several factors that may have increased the risk of development of severe dental problem. The early recognition is still challenging to managing this unusual condition in patients with ASDs. From the experience of caring for this patient, a team of parents or caregivers, psychiatrist and dentist should be involved in maintaining oral health care of such patients with early intervention and long-term follow-up. Evidence-based behavioral management approaches for patients with ASD need to be developed to improve compliance with oral care procedures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treatment patterns, resource utilization, and outcomes among hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft tissue infections in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Madonna J Matar,1 Rima Moghnieh,2 Adel F Alothman,3 Abdulhakeem O Althaqafi,4 Thamer H Alenazi,3 Fayssal M Farahat,4 Shelby Corman,5 Caitlyn T Solem,5 Nirvana Raghubir,6 Cynthia Macahilig,7 Seema Haider,8 Jennifer M Stephens5 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Notre Dame des Secours University Hospital, Jbeil, Lebanon; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Makassed General Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Infection Prevention and Control, King AbdulAziz Medical City, King Saud bin AbdulAziz University for Health Sciences, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 5Pharmerit International, Real-World Evidence/Data Analytics, Bethesda, MD, 6Pfizer, New York, NY, 7Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, 8Pfizer, Groton, CT, USA Objectives: To describe treatment patterns and medical resource use for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTI in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon in terms of drug selection against the infecting pathogen as well as hospital resource utilization and clinical outcomes among patients with these infections. Methods: This retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from five hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA cSSTI, which was culture-proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients with each infection type to capture demographics, treatment patterns, hospital resource utilization, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was descriptive. Results: Data were abstracted from medical records of 87 patients with MRSA cSSTI; mean age 52.4±25.9 years and 61% male. Only 64% of patients received an MRSA active initial therapy, with 56% of first
Sjögren, P; Bäckman, N; Sjöström, O; Zimmerman, M
To analyse patient safety in domiciliary dental care, with data from a quality registry. Retrospective analysis. Domiciliary dental care, private caregiver, Sweden, 2012-2014. All reported events in the quality registry at a provider of domiciliary dental care, (2012-05-01 to 2014-06-30) were categorized into 14 domains, and for severity as 'minor', 'moderate', or 'serious' events. The reported events were also independently assessed by an experienced reviewer for national requirements of reporting patient safety related events. The quality registry covered 724 (0.03%) reported events during 218,586 consecutive treatment sessions in domiciliary dental care, including 628,070 registered dental procedures. Fifty (6.9%) of the reported events were patient safety related, of which 11 (1.5%) events were reportedly of minor severity, 20 (2.8%) as moderate, and 19 (2.6%) as serious. For all degrees of severity, the most frequently reported events were related to problems with patient identity control (3.3%). None of the events required reporting to national authorities. Domiciliary dental care has a low frequency of patient safety related events (0.03% of all treatments). Identity controls need to be emphasised in nursing homes or where individuals are dependent on the care of others.
Al-Khamis, Fahd A
To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200-900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.
Fahd A Al-Khamis
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200-900 pg/ml, 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml, and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml. Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 (P < 0.005. Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.
Almogren, A; Shakoor, Z; Adam, M H
Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients investigated for food allergy. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) results of 108 patients with clinical suspicion of food allergy who were specifically screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2008 and April 2009. This group of patients included 73 males and 35 females with mean age 27+13.2 years. Estimation of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies was performed by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) using Pharmacia ImmunoCAP 250 analyzer. Out of the 108 patients 15 (13.8%) had garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in their sera. Garlic specific IgE antibodies with the RAST scores between one to four were present in 14 and onion specific IgE were detected in 13 patients. For garlic specific IgEs majority of patients (08) had RAST score of one (0.35-0.69 kU/L) and for onion specific IgE antibodies seven patients had RAST score of two (0.70-3.49 kU/L). Among these patients 12 (80%) were found to have coexisting specific IgE antibodies against garlic and onion. The presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in a sizeable number of patients indicate sensitization and allergenic potential of these food materials.
Pani, S C; Al Khabbaz, H J; Bin Enayeg, S H; Bin Zouman, A H
To study the impact of examination stress on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of senior dental students and compare changes in TAC between students who exercise regularly and those who do not. A questionnaire designed to evaluate physical activity levels, body mass index (BMI) and academic performance was distributed to 325 senior dental students. Of the 312 who responded, a total of 70 were enrolled in the study, of whom 60 completed the study. The students were composed of a low-activity group (n = 30), who had a Goddard-Sheppard (GS) exercise score of 60. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaires and salivary samples were collected at the first week of the semester and at the week of the examinations. Salivary TAC was measured using a commercially available Radical Absorbance Antioxidant Assay measurement kit (Zen-Bio ORAC™, AMS Biotechnology, Abington UK). A total of 60 students completed the study. A significant increase in DES values and a significant reduction in salivary TAC values were observed in the week of the examination compared to baseline scores. Although no differences were observed in the DES scores between the high-exercise and low-exercise groups, the high-exercise group showed a significantly lower reduction in examination week salivary TAC compared to their counterparts in the low-exercise group. Regression models showed a significant association between the TAC, exercise scores and DES scores in the week of the examinations. Regular exercise may help protect students against the oxidative stress associated with academic stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.