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Sample records for saudi arabia recognized

  1. Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  2. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  3. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  4. Using Phytoliths and Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy to Recognize Subtle Subsurface Unconformities in the Unayzah Group of Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, T.B. van; Steinhauff, D.M.; Hooker, N.P.

    2014-01-01

    Unayzah Group correlation in Saudi Arabia is hindered by the lack of terrestrial fossils preserved in oxidized red-beds. Phytoliths are biogenic siliceous plant infillings and casts resistant to oxidation. In previous studies the presence of Biogenic Silica microfossils (Phytoliths) in Unayzah Group

  5. Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

    Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

  6. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Kear

    Full Text Available Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region.

  7. Mental illness in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF

    2015-01-01

    Adel F Almutairi Population Health Research Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaWhile I was reading on this topic, I came across an online article attributed to a Saudi psychologist that contained information about mental illness among the Saudi population. What really struck me right away was the estimate that was given for the number of m...

  8. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  9. President Li Xiaolin Visits Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Min

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Prince Alwaleed,chairman of Kingdom Holding Company of Saudi Arabia,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin led a delegation to visit Saudi Arabia from Feb 16 to 20.During the visit,Ms.Li met with the prince,visited Kingdom Hospital and Kingdom School and held working talks with Alwaleed Philanthropies.During the meeting with Prince Alwaleed,Ms.Li mentioned that Chi-

  10. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  11. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  12. Pediatric pulmonary services in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%. The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years′ experience (44.8% and were North American training programs graduates (69%. The majority of the respondents (51% were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma′a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85% lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.

  13. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  14. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  15. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  16. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 km2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic.

  17. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  18. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Tumors of the eye in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, A; Cavender, J C

    1991-11-01

    The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.

  20. Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Issa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

  1. Satisfaction of trainees of Saudi Diploma Family Medicine, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaldi, Yahia M; AlDawood, Kassim M; AlKhudeer, Basima K; AlSaqqaf, Abdullah A

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to assess trainees' satisfaction with the process and assessment aspects of the Saudi Diploma of Family Medicine (SDFM). This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 among trainees undertaking the SDFM. A questionnaire was distributed to all trainees in four examination centres in Saudi Arabia, under the supervision and guidance of the investigators (four members of the scientific committee of SDFM). There was a total of 97 participants in this study, the majority of whom were Saudis. More than 85% were satisfied with most elements of training including; an adequate number and variety of patients and cases, allocating time for training, giving regular written evaluation. Satisfaction with mentoring and giving constructive feedback scored less well and trainees were less satisfied with some hospital clinical rotations, which requires further exploration.

  2. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  3. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... interested in participating in the ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia must complete and submit an application... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission...

  4. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-14

    Turki Al Faisal, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9...the Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over...killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http://www.saudiembassy.net

  5. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Metapneumovirus in Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Haitham Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Two HMPV subgroups, A and B, and four genotypes, A1, A2, B1 and B2, have been identified. Concurrent circulation of the different genotypes in yearly epidemics has been recorded globally, but not in Saudi Arabia. The current report was designed to study HMPV epidemiology in Saudi children and to analyze the genetic diversity and circulation patterns. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 174) were collected from hospitalized children in Riyadh (2008-2009). The screening of samples using real-time RT-PCR identified 19 HMPV strains. The majority of the strains belonged to subgroup B, while all strains of subgroup A were members of genotype A2. In 2008, only subgroup B was recognized, whereas in 2009 both subgroups were identified to be cocirculating at similar rates. The full-length attachment (G) gene and a partial sequence of the fusion (F) gene of positive samples were sequenced. The G gene showed a high degree of genetic diversity and exhibited a variable number of positively selected sites in different lineages. In contrast, the F gene demonstrated an extensive genetic stability with a higher tendency toward purifying selection. This is the first report on HMPV genotype circulation in Saudi Arabia; however, the exact circulation kinetics requires further retrospective and prospective study.

  6. Further records of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnert, Volker; Sharaf, Mostafa; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2014-02-11

    Five species of pseudoscorpions are recorded from the southwestern mountains of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pseudochthonius arabicus Mahnert n. sp. is described as new to science; this genus was previously known only from sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America and represents the first record of the family Chthoniidae from the Arabian Peninsula. Paratemnoides ellingseni (Beier, 1932), a widespread species in tropical Africa, and Withius piger (Simon, 1878) are added to the faunal list of Saudi Arabia. Minniza monticola Mahnert, 1991 and Rhacochelifer sonyae Mahnert, 1991 are apparently endemic to the southwestern mountains of Saudi Arabia.

  7. EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, Sultan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

  8. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... universities. Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's... practices in Saudi Arabia to security; Pre-scheduled meetings with potential partners, distributors,...

  9. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  10. An overview of wetlands of Saudi Arabia: Values, threats, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaid, Sami; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Thomas, Jacob; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Schneider, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The wetlands of Saudi Arabia are located in a water-stressed region that is highly vulnerable to climate and other global changes. Sebkhas, mudflats, mangroves, and wadis are the dominant wetlands in the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These unique wetlands are recognized as a sanctuary for biodiversity and for their economic services generated from mineral extraction, agriculture, and grazing. Despite their ecological values and societal services, the long-term permanence of Saudi Arabia's wetlands faces strong challenges resulting from human activities associated with sustained population growth, habitat degradation, and coastal development. This paper consolidates a literature review of Saudi Arabia's wetlands from local to global importance, highlights their biodiversity, and identifies threats and evolution of these vulnerable ecosystems in the arid Arabian Peninsula by focusing on the status of key freshwater taxa (Odonata, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and waterbirds) and documenting changes affecting important wetlands.

  11. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  12. Educational R&D in Saudi Arabia: An Ethnomethodological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Paul

    Educational development in Saudi Arabia is closely related to Moslem religious belief. A review of the socio/cultural behavior based upon Saudi religious belief can provide insight to educators on how to make educational and research activities in developing nations more relevant to people with a non-Western frame of reference. Among muslims,…

  13. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  14. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  15. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  16. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  17. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    Saudi Arabia needs to continue to take steps to exercise oversight of fundraising activities in the Kingdom and Saudi charitable activities abroad...a personal minute to Attorney General in December 2006, Prime Minister Blair wrote “it is in my judgment very clear that the continuation of the SFO...nationwide fundraising campaign under the auspices of the Saudi Committee to Support the Palestinian People in response to Israel’s military

  18. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    position—from one of repeated surpluses to one of actual and projected deficits—rooted in drastic reductions in global market prices for crude oil. Oil... market , its vast wealth, and its global investment posture. Saudi Military Campaigns and Policy in Yemen Saudi Arabia has long exercised a strong role...America, and Saudi officials have appeared committed to preserving and expanding the kingdom’s share of global oil markets , with apparently mixed

  19. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  20. Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

  1. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  2. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  3. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  4. Patient's medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  6. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. Hegazi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  8. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  9. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  10. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  11. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  12. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  13. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  14. Transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and

  15. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  16. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  17. Strategic Importance of Saudi Arabia - Neither A Friend Nor Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    civilizations to include Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia, Rome , Byzantium, India, China, and Persia to mention just a few.2 The Koran, or book of faith for... catapulted the United States’ relationship with Saudi Arabia into the limelight. Many Americans around the country, to include influential members

  18. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  19. Mineral deposits in western Saudi Arabia; a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ralph Jackson; Greenwood, William R.; Worl, Ronald G.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kiilsgaard, Thor H.

    1975-01-01

    Mineral deposits in Saudi Arabia include a variety of deposits which were formed in many geologic environments. These include magmatic and late magmatic deposits in igneous masses, contact metamorphic deposits along the margins of igneous bodies, and stratiform sulfide deposits and veins. Notable deposits of sedimentary origin include deposits of iron oxides and phosphate.

  20. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse them

  1. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  2. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  3. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers.

  4. C.N.S. tumors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A W

    1992-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.

  5. Sustainability Assessment of Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

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    Habib M. Alshuwaikhat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities are paramount change drivers in bringing about a culture of sustainability in society by setting themselves up as models and nurseries for sustainable development. Thus, assessment of sustainability integration within universities is key to their impact on sustainable development. This study conducted an assessment of different public sector universities of Saudi Arabia based on five components: (i Teaching and Curriculum; (ii Research and Scholarship; (iii Campus Operations; (iv Management and Community; and (v Financial Management. The sustainability assessment questionnaire (SAQ was utilized as a tool to discern the component-wise sustainability assessment for Saudi universities. The outcomes of the survey reveal that, in stark contrast with the universities of the developed world, offerings of sustainability relevant academic courses in Saudi Arabia are still lacking. Most Saudi universities still need to integrate research and scholarship in the area of sustainability; sustainable-campus operations in the current scenario are not sufficient. The results also reveal that sustainability-related projects are not prioritized within universities and sustainable financial management practices are not significant. This article concludes by proposing some recommendations emphasizing the importance of adopting sustainability practices in Saudi universities.

  6. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  7. Post occupancy evaluation of primary schools in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Sana; Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    The physical school environment has been shown to be important in helping children fulfill their academic potential and in providing appropriate working conditions for staff. However, few tools have been developed that enable multi stakeholder consultation which takes into account the opinions of young students. In Saudi Arabia there has been widespread investment in schools, but few guidelines have been provided to assist design or continuous evaluation. A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was developed and used to evaluate three international primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The methods identified weaknesses in the three schools and differences in responses from the three groups consulted (children, teachers and parents). Conclusions drawn from the study are that greater efforts need to be made to draw together research about how school facilities can support teaching and learning, increase effectiveness and levels of satisfaction. POE, when used in conjunction with checklists could be used as a means of driving up standards of educational facilities.

  8. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  9. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  10. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Adminis...

  11. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Towards integration of health economics into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M

    2015-04-01

    In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  14. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Baki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

  15. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  17. The Impact of Urbanization on Energy Intensity in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.

  18. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  19. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...

  20. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of...

  1. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying Memorandum...

  2. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  3. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  4. Success Factors Contributing to eGovernment Adoption in Saudi Arabia: G2C approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abunadi, Ibrahim; Sanzogni, Louis; Sandhu, Kuldeep; Woods, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is predetermined to implement eGovernment and provide world-class government services to citizens by 2010. However, this initiative will be meaningless if the people did not adopt these electronic services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine success factors that will facilitate the adoption of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia. The results of the literature review have been deployed into surveys with Saudi eGovernment users. The discussion of the analysis from results...

  5. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take c...

  6. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim K Alhowaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our

  7. Recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia; Saikin no Saudi Arabia no sekiyu tanko to kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison

    2013-09-01

    The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

  9. Parents′ perception of children′s obesity, in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman A Al-Mohaimeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child′s weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children′s weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child′s weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children′s weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child′s weight status. Parents′ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved.

  10. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  11. Online sources of health statistics in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers looking for health statistics on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) may face difficulty. This is partly due to the lack of awareness of potential sources where such statistics can be found. The purpose of this paper is to review various online sources of health statistics on KSA, and to highlight their content, coverage, and presentation of health statistics. Five bibliographic databases where local research can be found are described. National registries available are summarized. Governmental agencies, as well as societies and centers where the bulk of health statistics is produced are also described. Finally, some potential international sources that can be used for the purpose of comparison are presented.

  12. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  13. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…

  14. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  16. Detection of Toxic Metalsin Lipsticks Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairia Mohamed Ahmed Al-Qahtani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Since the dawn of civilization cosmetics have constituted a part of routine body care not only by the upper strata of society but also by middle and low class people. Heavy metals contamination in cosmetic products is becoming an important health problem in both worldwide and locally at the level of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA.The aim of this study was tostudy.Quantitatively estimated heavy metals “lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic” using graphite.Methods: total of 21 popular brands used lipstick products sold in Riyadh market samples from 3 different types of lipsticks frequently used among females in Saudi Arabia was digested. The digested samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, mercury and Arsenic using graphite furnace- atomic absorption spectrometry. Results:the mercury concentration was high followed by arsenic and cadmium, finally lead. The results indicate that the toxic heavy metals in all the samples were below the US FDA and SFDA permissible limits for cosmetic products with the exception the mercury content in some lipstick samples was higher than SFDA. There was no significant difference among the lipsticks in price categories.Conclusion: Continuous use and possible unintended ingestion of these toxic heavy metals, though in low levels in the cosmetics, may pose potential health risk due to their bioaccumulation in body organs.

  17. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alghadir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.

  18. Premedication for neonatal intubation: Current practice in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mosalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite strong evidence of the benefits of rapid sequence intubation in neonates, it is still infrequently utilized in neonatal intensive care units (NICU, contributing to avoidable pain and secondary procedure-related physiological disturbances. Objectives: The primary objective of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the practice of premedication and regimens commonly used before elective endotracheal intubation in NICUs in Saudi Arabia. The secondary aim was to explore neonatal physicians′ attitudes regarding this intervention in institutions across Saudi Arabia. Methods: A web-based, structured questionnaire was distributed by the Department of Pediatrics, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, to neonatal physicians and consultants of 10 NICUs across the country by E-mail. Responses were tabulated and descriptive statistics were conducted on the variables extracted. Results: 85% responded to the survey. Although 70% believed it was essential to routinely use premedication for all elective intubations, only 41% implemented this strategy. 60% cited fear of potential side effects for avoiding premedication and 40% indicated that the procedure could be executed more rapidly without drug therapy. Treatment regimens varied widely among respondents. Conclusion: Rates of premedication use prior to non-emergent neonatal intubation are suboptimal. Flawed information and lack of unified unit policies hampered effective implementation. Evidence-based guidelines may influence country-wide adoption of this practice.

  19. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.

  20. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing.

  1. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  2. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.

    1995-05-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  3. Prevalence and genotyping ofToxoplasma gondii among Saudi pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  4. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  5. Emergency department musculoskeletal radiological requests abuse and patients attitude toward radiological exposure in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Montaser*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: People in Saudi Arabia expose to huge amount of radiological hazardous with a common believe that radiology is essential for diagnosis all musculoskeletal injuries. Wealthy medical system does not always lead to competent practice.

  6. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  7. Chronic Hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia: Three Years Local Experience in a University Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Hisham O; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Qattan, Faten; Fallatah, Hind I.; Al Rumani, Maha

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a global infection. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of CHC is declining due to the implementation of a blood screening program. However, CHC still remains a leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Objectives This is a retrospective study of CHC patients at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods Out of a total of 291 CHC patients from the hepatology clinic at King Abdul Aziz University h...

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P

  9. Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ≥18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction

  10. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaid AI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ali I Swaid,1 Abdelkhalig H Elhilu,2 Mohamed S Mahfouz3 1Department of ENT, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85 enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results: Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively. Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32, while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39. Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively. The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%, while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion: It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Jazan University, internship program, gynecology and

  11. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258

  12. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  13. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  14. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

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    Mashael K. Alshaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  15. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  16. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  17. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  18. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

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    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  19. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  20. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:28203115

  1. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  2. An Investigation of Technical and Scale Efficiency of Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Saad Al Kahtani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education sector in Saudi Arabia had a phenomenal growth over the last decade. This study sets out to empirically examine the technical and scale efficiency of government universities in Saudi Arabia. In general, the technical efficiency of Saudi public universities appears to be high. However, majority of public universities relative performance is a dismal when the scale efficiency is taken into consideration. Only two universities out of the total sample of twenty are on the frontier in comparison to five universities based on the VRS efficiency.

  3. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  4. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5%) were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353) reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma). In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management. PMID:28036050

  5. Emergence of new virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M; Al-Hammadi, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013. These strains clustered into two genetically distinct genogroups related to year of isolation (G2 and G3). All new Saudi Arabia viruses clustered with the European strains, while the old strains clustered with strains from China and America. Based on amino acids and nucleotide sequences, the Saudi Arabia strains (RHD/1/SA/2012, RHD/2/SA/2012, and RHD/3/SA /2013) had high identity with Mexico89, Ca11-ITA, and 00-13,FRA virus; on the other hand, there was a relatively high identity with Bahrain strain. The evolutionary relationship of Saudi RHDVs strains revealed significant nucleotides and amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region E, suggesting the emergence of new RHDVs circulating in Saudi Arabia rabbitries. These antigenic changes represented by the antigenic index might be a potential cause of vaccination failure and raises the need to review the vaccination strategies against RHD.

  6. Book Review: Al-Seghayer, Khalid 2011, English Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Status, Issues, and Challenges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Hala Print CO. 175 pages, ISBN 978-6030079254

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghsoon Reda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this book, Khalid Al-Seghayer offers a thorough study of the history and status of English language teaching in Saudi Arabia, highlighting deficiencies and suggesting remedies in an attempt to cure the current standards of English education, particularly in public schools which, in his own words, “have deteriorated perhaps beyond hope of recovery” (p. 95.

  7. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  8. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  9. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... leader in the region. The mission will help participating firms gain market insight, make industry... and loss. Saudi Arabia also relies on desalination plants to produce 70% of its potable water, using.... Ice-breaker with FCS Staff/Q&A. Sunday, April 15--Day 2 Riyadh U.S. Embassy Briefing....

  10. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  11. Adoption of Mobile Banking in Saudi Arabia : An Emprical Evaluation Study

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    Ayman N. Alkhaldi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the adoption of mobile banking practices in Saudi Arabia. It focuses on the existence of sufficient infrastructure, and the possible challenges that m-banking services may face. Also, discovers the potential opportunities in the country. A sample of banks in Saudi Arabia was surveyed via questionnaire, with a particular focus on the staff in the related IT departments. The findings demonstrate that although m-banking is believed to be important, there is a general lack of awareness, and it is still not widely accepted by the public. M-banking services provided should be easier to use and offer more security to its users. Furthermore, findings reveal that cooperation among the concerned parties is currently not extensive. From this, the researcher recommends that governing regulations and policies should be properly identified and put in place, and proposes that banking decision-makers in Saudi Arabia should reevaluate their bank’s strategic plans.

  12. An analysis of macroeconomic fluctuations for a small open oil-based economy: The case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulkarim, Bander B.

    The increasing fluctuations in the oil prices through the last decades have been transferred to the oil exporting countries. Thus, many oil exporting countries experienced significant changes in the economic activity due to changes in the oil markets. In light of this, oil exporting countries have attempted to implement a policy that would stabilize the fluctuations in the oil markets recognizing the adverse effects of such behavior on oil exporting countries, as well as oil importing countries. Saudi Arabia, as the largest oil-exporting country and a member of OPEC, takes the role of oil-markets stabilizer by behaving as the swing producer. This role has caused the global economic fluctuations to transfer into the domestic economy. In addition, Saudi Arabian government has adopted a fixed exchange rate currency regime. Although it has contributed to domestic price stabilizations, this policy has also exposed the country to global economic disturbances. The purpose of the study is to empirically investigate these aspects for Saudi Arabia. First, the effects of shocks originated in the international markets on the Saudi Arabian economy. Second, how the fixed exchange rate regimes influences the domestic macroeconomic variables. Third, to what extent the oil sector contributes to the non-oil domestic fluctuations. Finally, how the findings from the study can be explained by economic theory. In pursuing this, there are four economic theories that are considered to explain the causes of business cycles. These theories are Classical Theory, Keynesian Theory, Monetarist Theory, and the Real Business Cycles. In addition, a theoretical model is derived that is suitable for an oil-based economy. The model follows the set up of McCallum and Nelson (1999). Then, the empirical models of Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) and Error Correction Model (ECM) are implemented with three different specifications: Choleski Decomposition, Block Exogeneity and long-run Cointegration

  13. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  14. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  15. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  16. Factors leading to refractory asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moamary, Amal M.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Al Moamary, Mohamed S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristic of patient with refractory asthma (RA) from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This paper prospectively studied in a university hospital factors leading to RA in a cohort of patients who have inadequately controlled asthma or with frequent exacerbations despite optimum controller therapy. It also studied patients with asthma that requires extended periods of oral steroids to control. RESULTS: The mean age was 45.1 years (±9.1) where 74 patients were enrolled in this study with the age group (37–48 years) is having the highest percentage (64.8%). Female patients represented 62.2%. The two major comorbid conditions were allergic rhinitis (54.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (33.8%). The vast majority (72 patients) had at least one trigger factor for asthma (97.3%). The asthma control test showed that 86.4% had an uncontrolled status. Spirometry showed mild disease in 9.5%, moderate in 47.3%, and severe in 43.2%. Eosinophilia was seen in only 16.2%. Immunoglobulin E level between 70 and 700 μg/L was found in 58.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: RA has certain clinical characteristics and associated comorbid conditions as well as precipitating factors that facilitate the identifications of these cases. PMID:28197221

  17. A review of some statistics on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jassir, Mohammed; Moizuddin, Syed Khaja; Al-Bashir, Bushra

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the ideal and most natural way of nurturing infants. The importance of breastfeeding has been proved unequivocally, and UNICEF and WHO have issued guidelines to ensure breastfeeding. Saudi Arabia is a country where the legislation is derived from the Quran and Hadiths. The Holy Quran says that the mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two complete years.... The majority of mothers start breastfeeding their infants but soon introduce bottles. The single most common reason cited for the early introduction of bottle feeding is that the breast milk is insufficient. Because of this tendency, many mothers practice mixed feeding. The duration of breastfeeding varies but in general it is done beyond six months, and various factors affect the duration. Researchers have recently started using the WHO recommended key breastfeeding indicators. In a study these key indicators were found to be very low. The authors feel that there is a need to revise the media campaign for promoting breastfeeding utilizing the instructions and guidance from the Holy Quran and Hadiths.

  18. Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed A. Mahfouz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users. In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females (aOR = 3.081, 95% CI: 2.004–4.739. Similarly, parental history of tobacco use was found to be a significant risk factor (aOR = 1.540, 95% CI: 1.040–2.278. Among current users, 89.9% were interested in quitting and 66.1% tried before to quit. The prevalence of smoking among HCWs in the present study, besides being a public health problem, represents a potential barrier in involving this group as a first line for tobacco control. There is a need for a national intervention programme in the country in a tailored manner for HCWs to control tobacco use parallel to the running national program for public. These interventions should begin early in basic medical education and to be applied continually during one’s medical career.

  19. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  20. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman O. Aljaloud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.

  1. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  2. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  3. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Alhababy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  4. Causes of Contractors’ Failure in Industrial Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying and assessing the main causes of contractors’ failure in industrial projects in Saudi Arabia. 24 causes were identified from the literature for assessment by owners, contractors and subcontractors. These causes were classified under five categories, namely managerial causes, financial causes, growth causes, environmental causes and uncontrollable causes. A survey of 36 participants was conducted. Data was collected from 15 owners, 11 contractors and 10 subcontractors. The results indicated that lack of experience in the business field, war, poor project management, poor cost estimation, unavailability of stationed project leader at site, neglect and type of the contract are the most severe causes behind contractor’s failure in construction projects. The rank correlation coefficient indicated that there is a high level of agreement among owners, contractors and subcontractors on the severity of the different failure causes. The research provides a severity of the ranking of the different causes of failure so that mitigation measures could be developed to avoid them or lessen their effects.

  5. HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.

  6. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy A. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years attending primary health care centers (PHCCs in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%, smoking in front of children (11.3%, overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%, noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3% and children (68%, children watching television (T.V more than 2 hours (50%, adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%, and late solid food introduction (65.3%. Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services.

  7. Prevalence of potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions among tobacco users in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attas, Safia Ali; Ibrahim, Suzan Seif; Amer, Hala Abbas; Darwish, Zeinab El-Said; Hassan, Mona Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is recognized as a health problem worldwide and there is an established tobacco epidemic in Saudi Arabia as in many other countries, with tobacco users at increased risk of developing many diseases. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal, potentially malignant or malignant, lesions associated with tobacco use among a stratified cluster sample of adults in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 599 was collected and each participant underwent clinical conventional oral examination and filled a questionnaire providing information on demographics, tobacco use and other relevant habits. The most common form of tobacco used was cigarette smoking (65.6 %) followed by Shisha or Moasel (38.1%), while chewing tobacco, betel nuts and gat accounted for 21-2%, 7.7%, and 5% respectively. A high prevalence (88.8%) of soft tissue lesions was found among the tobacco users examined, and a wide range of lesions were detected, about 50% having hairy tongue, 36% smoker's melanosis, 28.9% stomatitis nicotina, 27% frictional keratosis, 26.7% fissured tongue, 26% gingival or periodontal inflammation and finally 20% leukodema. Suspicious potentially malignant lesions affected 10.5% of the subjects, most prevalent being keratosis (6.3%), leukoplakia (2.3%), erythroplakia (0.7%), oral submucous fibrosis (0.5%) and lichenoid lesions (0.4%), these being associated with male gender, lower level of education, presence of diabetes and a chewing tobacco habit. It is concluded that smoking was associated with a wide range of oral mucosal lesions , those suspicious for malignancy being linked with chewable forms, indicating serious effects.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-11-27

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Pover-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  9. Seismic hazard assessment of Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia: deterministic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Faisal; El-Hady, Sherif M.; Atef, Ali H.; Harbi, Hussein M.

    2016-10-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by utilizing deterministic approach to evaluate the maximum expected earthquake ground motions along the Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia. The analysis is accomplished by incorporating seismotectonic source model, determination of earthquake magnitude ( M max), set of appropriate ground motion predictive equations (GMPE), and logic tree sequence. The logic tree sequence is built up to assign weight to ground motion scaling relationships. Contour maps of ground acceleration are generated at different spectral periods. These maps show that the largest ground motion values are emerged in northern and southern regions of the western coastal province in Saudi Arabia in comparison with the central region.

  10. Mapping the epidemiology and trends of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Bright; Al-Hajoj, Sahal

    2015-12-01

    An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-10-10

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. 

  12. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Mohamed Lotfy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.

  13. The Role of Organizational Design in Enhancing Employee Motivation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dasseh, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reveals that the centralized, bureaucratic and rigid authority lines are the main features in the Saudi work environment. Researchers have studied several HRM topics in Saudi Arabia such as leadership, regulations and the impact of culture on employees. However, there seems to be a lack of attention to topics related to motivation, empowerment and organizational design. This paper aimed to explore the factors that motivate employees, investigate the relationship between orga...

  14. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Intercultural Awareness and the Iowa Air National Guard Elf One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Report 82-2, USAF Academy, CO: Offliceof Instruction for Geography, July 1982. ,ii military units with the culture and language as well as with Ssocial ...Egyptian aircraft attacked oil prices in the aftermath of the 1973 Taif, which ended a brief border war several southern Saudi towns. Media - war, thereby...While on duty, members will be quartered at the International Hotel in A] Juvayl, Saudi Arabia. "We consider it a distinct honor to * •be the first Air

  15. The Need for Strategic Research and Study Centers (Think Tanks) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    AND ABBREVIATIONS AEI American Enterprise Institute CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CEPS Centre for European Policy Studies CSR corporate...establishing a brand new body to select the monarch and his Heir Apparent from among the sons and grandsons of the founder; introducing unprecedented...whole. Moreover, the Majlis has been able to increase awareness of corporate social responsibility ( CSR ) in Saudi Arabia.57 At the same time, Saudi

  16. Pattern of skin cancer among Saudi patients attending a tertiary care center in Dhahran, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A 20-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center.

  17. The large carpenter bees of central Saudi Arabia, with notes on the biology of Xylocopa sulcatipes Maa (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large carpenter bees (Xylocopinae, Xylocopa Latreille occurring in central Saudi Arabia are reviewed. Two species are recognized in the fauna, Xylocopa (Koptortosoma aestuans (Linnaeus and X. (Ctenoxylocopa sulcatipes Maa. Diagnoses for and keys to the species of these prominent components of the central Saudi Arabian bee fauna are provided to aid their identification by pollination researchers active in the region. Females and males of both species are figured and biological notes provided for X. sulcatipes. Notes on the nesting biology and ecology of X. sulcatipes are appended. As in studies for this species from elsewhere, nests were found in dried stems of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Asclepiadaceae and Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae.

  18. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

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    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms

  19. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  20. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant RE, which is in contrast to other studies where myopia was more common. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of strabismus, REs, and amblyopia and have periodic screening in schools. The discussion of the various issues is aimed at increasing the awareness and building a support for the cause by creating the knowledge base to treat things on time and acknowledging the severity of the issues. PMID:27679531

  1. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  2. Clinico-epidemiologicalfeatures of dengue fever in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.

  3. Lifestyle of health sciences students at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Alfhaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3 rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.

  4. A need for managed care in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, M H

    2000-04-01

    Is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia getting value for money invested in health? Quality care is being provided throughout health facilities in the Kingdom, however there is minimal control of utilization in all health sectors, consequently leading to abuse and over utilization, particularly in the public sector. Managed care programs have proven effective in reducing unnecessary inpatient and ancillary service utilization by reducing use of expensive procedures and unnecessary, highly specialized services, and shifting to less expensive care options. Health maintenance organizations are the best example of a managed health care model; tracking good performance and cost savings averaging between 20-40% compared to more traditional health plans. Key features of health maintenance organizations include serving a defined population voluntarily enrolled in the health plan; assumption of contractual responsibility and financial risk by plan to provide a range of services, and payment of a fixed periodic payment by the enrollee, independent of the actual use of services. The key characteristic that distinguishes health maintenance organizations from other delivery systems is prepayment for the care that is provided. Preferred Provider Organizations offer discounts for services received from a selected set of physicians and hospitals. Services received by enrollees are not fully reimbursed from this selected list of providers. Preferred Provider Organizations use health maintenance organizations administrative processes for controlling costs but do not include some of the intrinsic cost and quality controls of health maintenance organizations. Review of several studies indicate that patients enrolled in prepaid group practices (managed care organizations) were hospitalized 15-40% less often than those enrolled in fee-for-service health plans.

  5. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alfarraj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its components compared to the neighbouring Gulf country of Bahrain, which was ranked 8th for the same index. While this is still modest in relation to the Saudi government’s expectation concerning its vision for eGovernment implementation for 2010, and the results achieved by the neighbouring Gulf countries such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the eGovernment index, the Saudi government has endeavoured to meet the public needs concerning eGovernment and carry out the implementation of eGovernment properly. Governments may heed the importance of actively launching official government websites – the focus of this study – as the main portals for delivering their online services to all the different categories of eGovernment (including G2C, G2B, and G2G. However, certain Saudi ministries have not given due attention to this vital issue. This is evidenced by the fact that some of their websites are not fully developed or do not yet exist, which clearly impedes that particular ministry from appropriately delivering eServices.

  6. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S

    2016-09-01

    Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  7. Stalled eruption or dike intrusion at Harrat Lunayyir, Saudi Arabia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5

  8. Students' Struggle with First-Year University Mathematics Courses in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…

  9. Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…

  10. Salient Key Features of Actual English Instructional Practices in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…

  11. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  12. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  13. Prevalence of the Emotional (Emo) Subculture among University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…

  14. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  15. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  16. Hanadirella: A new problematic arthropod(?) from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) Tabuk Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The new genus Hanadirella - with the type species H. bramkampi - from the Lower Ordovician (Llanvirn) of central Saudi Arabia represents a segmented organism which appears to have an arthropod affinity. The problematic genus is oval hat-shaped, less than 1 mm in diameter. Its affinity and palaeoecol

  17. 75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub....

  18. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  19. Teacher Evaluation as a Tool for Professional Development: A Case of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Badia Muntazir

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the use of teacher evaluation and appraisal process as a tool for professional development. A group of 30 teachers from seven different nationalities with diverse qualifications and teaching experiences participated in this case study at the English Language Institute (ELI) at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia.…

  20. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  1. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  2. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  3. Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…

  4. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. Three hundred…

  5. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  6. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  7. Qasimia gen. nov., an early Marattia-like fern from the Permian of Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, C.R.; Wagner, R.H.; El-Khayal, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The marattialean fern Qasimia schyfsmae (Lemoigne) gen. et comb. nov. is described from the Late Permian plant bed at Unayzah in central Saudi Arabia. Although no organic matter is preserved, impregnation of the compressions by iron minerals at an early stage of diagenesis has partly mineralised the

  8. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... tubular goods from India and Turkey and LTFV imports of certain oil country tubular goods from India... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  9. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategies. Nevertheless, water resources in Saudi Arabia are under stress and groundwater levels are depleted rapidly due to heavy abstraction that may exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases due to high evaporation rates. The excess use of irrigational water leads to severe soil salinity problems. Applications of remote sensing technique in agricultural practices became widely distinctive and cover multidisciplinary principal interests on both local and regional levels. The most important remote sensing applications in agricultural practices are vegetation indices which are related to vegetation and water especially in an arid environment. Soil salinity mapping in an arid ecosystem using remote sensing data is a demanding task. Several soil salinity indices were implemented and evaluated to detect soil salinity effectively and quantitatively. Thematic maps of soil salinity were satisfactorily produced and assessed.

  10. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  11. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....

  12. The Impact of Bilingualism on the Creative Capabilities of Kindergarten Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…

  13. Assessment of Respiratory Complications Associated with End Stage Renal Disease in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alosayfir Mohammed Abdulrahman S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD is increasing in different parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, particularly Hail Region. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the respiratory complications that associated with ESRD.

  14. Biogenic silica microfossils in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation, Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garming, J.F.L.; Franks, S.G.; Cremer, H.; Abbink, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic silica particles (BSPs) have been discovered in sediments of the Permian - Carboniferous Unayzah Formation of Saudi Arabia. The BSPs are extracted from sediments that are generally barren of macro- or microfossils. BSPs have been found in the Basal Khuff Clastics (BKC), and the Unayzah A, B

  15. Kumaravadivelu's Framework as a Basis for Improving English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…

  16. Risk Matrix for Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time performance of a project is usually a particularly important consideration for the construction parties. Often, the most troublesome construction disputes involve delay and failure to complete the work in the specified time frame. Many variables have an impact upon construction delay in Saudi Arabia. This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. Thirty five delay causes were identified through literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period between design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity and rework.

  17. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  18. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  19. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in the... later than February 7, 2011. The U.S. Department of Commerce will review all applications...

  20. Accreditation and Quality Assurance in Post Secondary Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ALMUSALLAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a diverse system of post-secondary education, and it is expanding rapidly in response to demographic changes and increasing demands for participation. There is also very rapid economic and industrial development and increasing exposure to international competition in many areas of activity. Post-secondary education must continue to expand and standards of education and training that are equivalent to international best practice must be achieved and widely recognized. The standards must be achieved in all institutions and in all programs. These requirements have led the government to establish the National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment as an independent agency for quality assurance and accreditation. The Commission has responsibility for establishing standards, supporting quality improvement, and accreditation and in all post-secondary institutions other than those in defense. Its focus will be on both quality of institutions as a whole, and the quality of education and training programs. Principles underlying the system the Commission is developing include encouraging continuing improvement rather than being satisfied with minimally acceptable standards, encouraging diversity, ensuring cooperation and mutual support among the different agencies involved and designing approaches tailored to Saudi Arabia’s traditions and requirements rather than adopting a system developed elsewhere. In doing this the Commission is drawing on the best ideas we can find elsewhere in the world, but the system we develop will be our own. Pilot programs have been conducted in two universities involving institutional and program self-studies and independent external reviews to trial and refine the procedures involved. Developmental reviews are being carried out in a number of other universities and colleges to provide experience with the new processes. Most higher education institutions conducted initial self-evaluations based

  1. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia

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    Riyadh A. Alzaheb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  2. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  3. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  4. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions.

  5. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  6. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  7. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  8. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all

  9. Hydrogeology of Al-Lith Sabkha, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtan, Abdullah A.; Shehata, William M.

    2003-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, coastal sabkhas cover extensive areas along the coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf in addition to the continental sabkhas scattered in many places inland. Al-Lith sabkha is one of the typical coastal sabkhas located along the Red Sea coast. Sabkhas, in general, pose a number of geotechnical problems and need to be carefully investigated before being urbanized. A generalized geologic section in Al-Lith sabkha indicates a salty crust at the surface followed by yellowish brown silt and silty sand, olive gray silt and sandy silt and bottomed by coralline reefal limestone. Within this succession, there are several isolated lenticular bodies of sandy silt, silty sand and shelly silty sand. The clay minerals constituting the fine-grained portion of the soil are, in decreasing order, kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite in addition to minor chlorite. The depth to groundwater in 17 observation wells ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 m with a maximum fluctuation of 0.60 m between summer and winter. The permeability of the top silt layer was found to be very low with an average of 5.4×10 -4 m/day. A pumping test was performed in a deep well penetrating the coralline limestone. The measured permeability is 1.1×10 2 m/day and the estimated storage coefficient is 4×10 -5. Soil water evaporation was measured using a lysimeter constructed with undisturbed soil samples having different depths to the water level. The rate of evaporation ranges from 2.8 to 27.8 ml/day decreasing with an increase in depth to the water level. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their major anions and cations. Salt concentrations show a general increase toward the sea except for the calcium and carbonates that show a landward increase. The groundwater could be classified as a Cl+SO 4 brine. The salinity of the groundwater was determined at different depths in the pumping well and was found to be low in the top 4 m. It sharply increases until it reaches a value approximately 10 times

  10. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Salameh, Iyad; Abdirizak, Fatima; Alhakeem, Raafat; Algarni, Homoud; El Nil, Osman A.; Mohammed, Mutaz; Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alabdely, Hail M.; Watson, John T.; Gerber, Susan I.

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission. PMID:28322710

  11. How are equity aspects articulated n public health policies in Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Saleh, Faten; Azam, Shadi

    of health, economy and planning, labour, and higher education (The long-term strategy for the Saudi economy, 9th development plan 2010–14, Youth strategy, Saudi strategic plan, Saudi employment strategy, Vision statement of the Ministry of Health, and the E-health strategy). The term equity......Background: Inequities in health exist all over the world showing systematic differences in health between different socioeconomic groups. Healthy public policies (i.e. integrating health perspectives in all sector policies) address inequities in health and are means by which governments show...... their will to promote equity. Saudi Arabia (KSA) is one of the Arab countries that report health equity as part of its mission statement. However, analyses of the equity aspects of public health and social policies are lacking from KSA. The aims of the study were to identify policy documents in KSA relevant to public...

  12. A financial feasibility model of gasification and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidi, Laith A; Omer, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Saudi Arabia is increasingly growing at a fast rate, as it hurtles towards ever increasing urban development coupled with rapid developments and expanding population. Saudi Arabia's energy demands are also rising at a faster rate. Therefore, the importance of an integrated waste management system in Saudi Arabia is increasingly rising and introducing Waste to Energy (WTE) facilities is becoming an absolute necessity. This paper analyzes the current situation of MSW management in Saudi Arabia and proposes a financial model to assess the viability of WTE investments in Saudi Arabia in order to address its waste management challenges and meet its forecasted energy demands. The research develops a financial model to investigate the financial viability of WTE plants utilizing gasification and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) conversion technologies. The financial model provides a cost estimate of establishing both gasification and anaerobic digestion WTE plants in Saudi Arabia through a set of financial indicators, i.e. net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), modified internal rate of return (MIRR), profitability index (PI), payback period, discounted payback period, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and Levelized Cost of Waste (LCOW). Finally, the analysis of the financial model reveals the main affecting factors of the gasification plants investment decision, namely: facility generation capacity, generated electricity revenue, and the capacity factor. Similarly, the paper also identifies facility waste capacity and the capacity factor as the main affecting factors on the AD plants' investment decision.

  13. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

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    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  14. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: Are we off the hook?

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    Ayman A Abdo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV, and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country′s healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease′s clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.

  15. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: are we off the hook?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Ayman A; Sanai, Faisal M; Al-Faleh, Faleh Z

    2012-01-01

    Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject.

  16. Challenges facing postgraduate training in family medicine in Saudi Arabia: Patterns and solutions

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    Yahia M Al-Khaldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper was to show the challenges that are faced by the Family Medicine Training Programmes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as well as suggests appropriate and practical solutions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from 2010 - 2013 using a semi-structured questionnaire to achieve the objective. The questionnaire was designed and completed by the investigators during their visits to accredit the training centres all over the Kingdom. It consisted of questions concerning the trainers′ and trainees′ opinions regarding all the aspects of training. Another tool used was the accreditation checklist, which contained a comprehensive list of training structures and processes mandatory for any training centre. The accreditation checklist and questionnaire were reviewed by the investigators after visiting all the training centres. The challenges were then classified manually and solutions were reviewed as well as approved by the members of the Accreditation Committee. Results: Seventy-five training centres were visited and 250 trainees along with 75 trainers participated in this study. Twenty-five challenges were identified and classified under 6 major groups. The practical solutions to these challenges were discussed with participants and then approved by the investigators. Conclusion: This study showed that Family Medicine Training in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia faces many different challenges. Early identification along with key solutions to these difficulties are extremely important in the efforts to produce a new generation of competent Saudi Family Physicians who can improve the quality of healthcare for the population of Saudi Arabia.

  17. Prevalence of osteoporosis and factors associated with osteoporosis in women above 40 years in the Northern Part of Saudi Arabia

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    Anitha Oommen

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia is higher than osteoporosis in the Saudi women above 40 years in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia. The major cause of low BMD is lack of exercise even though there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 274-278

  18. The Political, Socio-Economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…

  19. THE DYNAMICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION AMONG WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN

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    Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.

  20. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  1. SCIENTIFIC POLICY OF SAUDI ARABIA: INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT

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    T. I. Tyukaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In less than a century of its existence Saudi Arabia has developed from mass illiteracy and lack of education of its population into the current state of complex structure of educational and research institutions and organizations equipped with most modern and advanced technologies and top world specialists in accordance with the highest international standards. It is especially important that the Kingdom has managed to achieve such success in no time. Until lately scientifi c development in Saudi Arabia was mostly concentrated on applied research, especially in the Kingdom’s key economic sphere – energy. Despite the country’s abundant financial resources, science was considerably underfunded and lacked any development strategy. Meanwhile, in the last 15 years the Saudi Kingdom has made a huge leap in scientifi c development with a clear action plan worked out, a solid structure of scientifi c institutes formed and the world experience effi ciently used. The success came with the Saudi authorities’ realization of the importance of scientifi c and technical progress both for the national economy and political positions of the state in the region and in the world. The article aims to analyze the scientifi c policy of Saudi Arabia on the stage of its birth and in the current state by means of studying offi cial documents, statistics and the existing institutes in the scientifi c system of the Kingdom. The author concludes that the key features of the Saudi scientifi c policy are prevailing role of the state, priority of applied over fundamental research and internalization with serious dependency on foreign support in the absence of a national scientifi c tradition.

  2. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

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    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  3. An empirical investigation into the adoption of Software Engineering Practice in Saudi Arabia

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    Khalid Alnafjan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the state of software engineering practice for software industry in Saudi Arabian organizations. The main goal was mainly to gain insight into the ways these organizations are using to adopt software engineering techniques and also the sources of obstacles and difficulties faced by these organizations. To achieve that, we have designed and conducted a survey that measures the adoption of various software engineering practices. Results clearly reveal that there are several weaknesses in applying software engineering practices in Saudi Arabia especially for small organizations.

  4. Gender Clash: Why Is Saudi Arabia So Angry at Sweden?

    OpenAIRE

    Behravesh, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    Far from being essentially a dispute over democratic governance or even human rights, the current Saudi-Swedish row basically represents a clash of state genders, pitting a “masculine” religious autocracy against a “feminine” social democracy.

  5. Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition

  6. Stakeholding as a new development strategy for Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Corneo, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    The transition from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy requires that the Saudi population dramatically increases its level of human capital. This paper argues that noncognitive skills may be a bottleneck in the formation of human capital and proposes a policy to indirectly strengthen those skills. The core of the proposal is a government-financed gift to each Saudi citizen reaching adult age, the SSGY.

  7. CAPD in Dammam Central Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Five-Year Experience

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    Youmbissi Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Natural and human-induced sinkhole hazards in Saudi Arabia: distribution, investigation, causes and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.

  9. Health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary care in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Badrya H; Xiao, Lily D

    2017-03-01

    Previous international studies have indicated that a range of factors influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people were education, past work experiences, and social contact with healthy older people. This article reports on the findings of a literature review in relation to attitudes toward older people among health professionals working in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this narrative literature are reported through 5 themes: the instruments used in the selected studies to measure attitudes toward older people; the instruments used to measure knowledge on ageing; attitudes toward older people; knowledge of the care of older people; and factors that influence knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Further investigation is needed to identify the level of knowledge on ageing, attitudes toward older people, and the factors which affect health professionals' knowledge and attitudes toward older people in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Public perceptions and attitudes to biological risks: Saudi Arabia and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang

    2016-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats.

  11. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  12. Main Controls on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Paleozoic in Central Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Guoping

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is renown for its rich oil and gas resources with the bulk of the reserves reservoired in the Mesozoic.However,the discovery of Paleozoic fields in the late 1980s has encouraged further exploration in the Paleozoic.This paper reviews the salient features of the Paleozoic petroleum geology in central Saudi Arabia and discusses the main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Paleozoic.The Lower Silurian Qusaiba hot shale is the principal source rock for the hydrocarbons discovered in the Ordovician to Permian reservoirs.Of them,the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah and Upper Ordovician Sarah Formations have the best exploration potential.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Unayzah Formation are migration pathways and reservoir petrophysics.The key factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation in the Sarah Formation are reservoir petrophysics and the development of structural traps.

  13. Developing a Test Battery to assess Determinants of Marital Relationship Satisfaction in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Al Tamimi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.

  14. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner: Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  15. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  16. Current Arabian Plate Motion From Campaign GPS Measurements in Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.

    2007-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.

  17. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphologica...

  18. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  19. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-04-15

    Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health.

  20. Effect of Kuwait oil field fires on human comfort and environment in Jubail, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, James J.; Hicks, Neal G.; Thompson, T. Lewis

    1992-03-01

    The plumes from the Kuwait oil field fires reduced hemispheric (total) solar radiation by 26 36% during January June 1991 in Jubail (300 km SE of Kuwait City), Saudi Arabia. Residents feel noticeably cooler even though air temperatures have not been lowered significantly (up to June 1991). These observations support human comfort theories and demonstrate the importance of shade to comfort. The desirability of complete solar radiation measurements, including those of diffuse radiation, is indicated.

  1. End-stage renal disease in Tabuk Area, Saudi Arabia: An epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama El Minshawy; Tawfik Ghabrah; Eman El Bassuoni

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, etiology and risk fac-tors of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. We studied 460 renal replacement therapy patients through a review of medical records and patient interviews and obtained patient demographics, family history, risk factors for ESRD, environmental exposure to toxins, work conditions, social history and causes of death. The estimated prevalence of treated ESRD was 460 per million ...

  2. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayssal; Corman, Shelby; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Haider, Seema; Stephens, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities), treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials), hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay), and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality). Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results Chart-level data were collected for 93 patients with MRSA pneumonia, 50 in Saudi Arabia and 43 in Lebanon. The average age of the patients was 56 years, and 60% were male. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (39%), congestive heart failure (30%), coronary artery disease (29%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%). Patients most frequently had positive cultures from pulmonary (87%) and blood (27%) samples. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, and only one-third of the isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Beta-lactams (inactive therapy for MRSA) were prescribed 21% of the time across all lines of therapy, with 42% of patients receiving first-line beta-lactams. Fifteen percent of patients did not receive any antibiotics that were considered to be MRSA active. The mean hospital length of stay was 32 days, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. Conclusion The treatment for MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon may be suboptimal with inactive therapy prescribed a substantial proportion

  3. Metadata in Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : An Applied Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zain A.Hady

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.

  4. PHACES syndrome in association with airway hemangioma: First report from Saudi Arabia and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami N Alsuwaidan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "PHACES" is a neurocutaneous syndrome that refers to the following associations: Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial malformations, Coarctation of the aorta/Cardiac defects, Eye abnormalities, and Sternal defects. Herein, we report the association of PHACES syndrome with airway hemangioma, a serious association that should not be overlooked. The findings of such an association presented here are the first to be reported from Saudi Arabia.

  5. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

    2014-03-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.

  6. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to ...

  7. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in children with chronic disease in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaber Soad

    2006-01-01

    Background : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen in gastrointestinal disorders. Seroprevalence among asymptomatic and chronically diseased children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was determined to gain insight into its prevalence. Methods : Serum samples obtained from 1432 children; 543 asymptomatic and 889 chronically diseased children (diabetes, chronic asthma, chronic hemolytic anemia, neurological impairment and Down′s syndrome); were tested by ELIZA for H. pylori IgG...

  8. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoudi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study

  9. Erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Al-Turki

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  10. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  11. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global competition in the international business environment has pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  12. Group B strains of human respiratory syncytial virus in Saudi Arabia: molecular and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-04-01

    The genetic variability and circulation pattern of human respiratory syncytial virus group B (HRSV-B) strains, identified in Riyadh during the winters of 2008 and 2009, were evaluated by partial sequencing of the attachment (G) protein gene. The second hypervariable region (HVR-2) of G gene was amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared to representatives of different HRSV-B genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Saudi strains belonged to the genotype BA, which is characterized by 60-nucleotide duplication at HVR-2. Only strains of 2008 were clustered with subgroup BA-IV, while those isolated at 2009 were clustered among the most recent subgroups (particularly BA-X and CB-B). Amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated 18 amino acid substitutions in Saudi HRSV-B strains; among which five are specific for individual strains. Furthermore, two potential N-glycosylation sites at residues 230 and 296 were identified for all Saudi strains, and an additional site at amino acid 273 was found only in Riyadh 28/2008 strain. O-glycosylation was predicted in 42-43 sites, where the majority (no = 38) are highly conserved among Saudi strains. The average ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous mutations (ω) implied stabilizing selection pressure on G protein, with evidences of positive selection on certain Saudi strains. This report provides preliminary data on the circulation pattern and molecular characteristics of HRSV-B strains circulating in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human parainfluenza virus type 3 isolated from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Alshaman, Mohamed S; Amer, Haitham M

    2012-08-01

    Human parainfluenza virus 3 (HPIV-3) is a leading cause of respiratory disease in children worldwide. Previous sequence analyses of the entire virus genome, among different HPIV-3 strains, demonstrated that HN is the most variable gene. There is a dearth of data on HPIV-3 strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this report, HPIV-3 was screened in nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory disease during two successive seasons (2007/08 and 2008/09) using nested RT-PCR. Out of 73 samples collected during 2007/08, seven (9.59%) were positive; while 3 out of 107 samples collected during 2008/09 (2.8%) were positive. Virus isolation in cell culture was successful using HEp2, but not Vero cells. The identity of the isolated viruses was confirmed using immunofluorescence and neutralization assays. To elucidate the genetic characteristics and phylogeny of Saudi HPIV-3 strains, the complete HN gene sequence of two selected Saudi strains was analyzed in comparison to 20 strains isolated by others from different countries worldwide. Both strains showed the highest degree of sequence homology with Indian strains, followed by Chinese and most Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains fell into a distinct Asian lineage. This study is the first in Saudi Arabia to recover HPIV-3 isolates of confirmed identity, and to generate sequence data that may help in understanding virus diversity and evolution.

  14. Causative relationship between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in various regions of Saudi Arabia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A

    2011-01-01

    The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes in Saudi Arabia: A study in the central province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsy, A S; El-Hazmi, M A; Sedrani, S H; Kinhal, M

    1991-03-01

    This study was conducted on 204 plasma samples obtained from Saudis living in the central province of Saudi Arabia, to determine the prevalence of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) phenotypes. The alpha1AT phenotypes were separated by isoelectric focusing on ampholine gels (pH 4-5). The prevalences of PiMM, MS, MZ, SZ, and ZZ were 0.8676, 0.0931, 0.0245, 0.0098, and 0.0049, respectively. The gene frequencies of the alpha1AT variants, i.e.., PiM, PiS, and PiZ, were 0.9265, 0.0515, 0.022, respectively. We describe and compare our results in a Saudi population with those reported for other populations.

  16. A case cluster of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthart, Michael B; Geschwind, Michael D; Qureshi, Shireen; Phielipp, Nicolas; Demarsh, Alex; Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Jansen, Gerard H; Lang, Anthony E; Schonberger, Lawrence B

    2016-10-01

    As of mid-2016, 231 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-the human form of a prion disease of cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy-have been reported from 12 countries. With few exceptions, the affected individuals had histories of extended residence in the UK or other Western European countries during the period (1980-96) of maximum global risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, the possibility remains that other geographic foci of human infection exist, identification of which may help to foreshadow the future of the epidemic. We report results of a quantitative analysis of country-specific relative risks of infection for three individuals diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the USA and Canada. All were born and raised in Saudi Arabia, but had histories of residence and travel in other countries. To calculate country-specific relative probabilities of infection, we aligned each patient's life history with published estimates of probability distributions of incubation period and age at infection parameters from a UK cohort of 171 variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. The distributions were then partitioned into probability density fractions according to time intervals of the patient's residence and travel history, and the density fractions were combined by country. This calculation was performed for incubation period alone, age at infection alone, and jointly for incubation and age at infection. Country-specific fractions were normalized either to the total density between the individual's dates of birth and symptom onset ('lifetime'), or to that between 1980 and 1996, for a total of six combinations of parameter and interval. The country-specific relative probability of infection for Saudi Arabia clearly ranked highest under each of the six combinations of parameter × interval for Patients 1 and 2, with values ranging from 0.572 to 0.998, respectively, for Patient 2 (age at infection × lifetime) and

  17. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-04-01

    We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps

  18. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  19. Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

  20. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  1. The emerging role of respiratory physiotherapy: A profile of the attitudes of nurses and physicians in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mohammedali, Zainab; O’Dwyer, Tom K.; Broderick, Julie M.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Respiratory physiotherapy plays a key role in the management and treatment of patients with respiratory diseases worldwide, yet this specialty is not well established in Saudi Arabia. AIMS: To profile the attitudes among physicians and nurses toward physiotherapists working in respiratory care settings in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted. A questionnaire was developed consisting of 23 items, which was distributed both electronically and in paper form to physicians and nurses working in hospitals and health-care centers in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses working outside of Saudi Arabia, and other health professionals, were excluded from the study. RESULTS: A total of 284 questionnaires were returned (nurses: n = 158; physicians: n = 126). The majority believed that physiotherapists have the skills to be involved in respiratory care (79.9%, n = 226) and that physiotherapists are an important member of the Intensive Care Unit team (90.4%, n = 255). Most respondents (n = 232, 82.9%) felt in need of more information regarding the role of physiotherapy within respiratory care; significantly more nurses than physicians believed they needed additional education (P = 0.002). Specialized physicians were more likely than nonspecialized physicians to refer respiratory patients to physiotherapy (P working in hospitals and health-care facilities in Saudi Arabia. The need for further education for physicians and nurses on the role of physiotherapy in respiratory care was highlighted; this would enable physiotherapy to develop and be further integrated into the respiratory care multidisciplinary team.

  2. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  3. Characterization of Novel Whale Shark Aggregations at Shib Habil, Saudi Arabia and Mafia Island, Tanzania

    KAUST Repository

    Cochran, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring has been successfully used on many elasmobranch species, but no such study has yet been published for the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). In some ways this is surprising as the known whale shark aggregation sites would seem to be ideal targets for this method. For this dissertation, two acoustic studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia and Tanzania. Each was performed in parallel with visual surveys and the Saudi population was also studied using satellite telemetry. Sighting and acoustic data were compared at both sites, and the results were mixed. The acoustic monitoring largely confirmed the results of visual surveys for the Saudi Arabian sharks, including seasonality, residency and a degree of parity and integration between the sexes that is unique to this site. Satellite tracks of tagged Saudi sharks were used to confirm that some animals migrated away from the aggregation site before returning in subsequent seasons, confirming philopatric behavior in this species. In contrast, the acoustic results in Tanzania demonstrated year-round residency of whale sharks in the area, despite seasonal declines in visually estimated abundance. Seasonal changes in habitat selection render the sharks at this site temporarily cryptic to visual sampling. The differing results are compelling because both the philopatric behavior demonstrated in Saudi Arabia and the cryptic residency of the Tanzanian sharks could explain the seasonal patterns in whale shark abundances reported at other aggregation sites. Despite their differences, both sites in this study can be classified as secondary whale shark nurseries and each may be a vital feeding ground for its respective population.

  4. Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes Mellitus Prevention among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem L. Al-Mutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.

  5. Fanconi anemia associated with moyamoya disease in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hawsawi, Zakaria M.; Al-Zaid, Mohamed A.; Barnawi, Ashwaq I.; Yassine, Saadeddine M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a 10-year-old Saudi girl who has Fanconi anemia (FA) and was admitted due to acute hemiplegia, of the right side. She had a previous attack of left side hemiplegia that resolved spontaneously. The brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a cerebrovascular pattern of moyamoya disease. She underwent partially matched related donor stem cell transplantation (SCT), but unfortunately died 3 months later with post SCT complications. The association of moyamoya disease with FA is uncomm...

  6. MIDDLE TO LATE JURASSIC BIOFACIES OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERAINT W. HUGHES

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabian Jurassic carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs were first examined stratigraphically using microfauna. Current microfaunal studies concentrate on the identification and constraint of palaeoenvironmental variations and determination of high-resolution depositional cyclicity of the reservoir carbonates. It is apparent that the environmental sensitivity of benthonic foraminifera provides a potentially valuable technique for the determining subtle variations in the depositional environment and also providing a proxy for sea-level fluctuations.

  7. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    5 Gender Issues, Minority Relations, and Human Rights ............................................................ 7...considerable financial clout and deepening energy ties to major U.S. trading partners in Asia are important factors for U.S. and Saudi decision makers to...a deep and abiding confidence in the kingdom— its religion, its culture , and they’re excited about the future. On the other hand you have those who

  8. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed K. Al-Sadoon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  9. Non prescribed sale of antibiotics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Obeidat Sadek A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.

  10. Lithostratigraphic classification and depositional history of the Permian rocks in Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    Surface and subsurface investigations on the Permian rocks (Khuff Formation) in Al Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia led to the subdivision of these rocks into two formal rock units. The lower is the Sark Formation and the upper is the Al Watah Formation. The Sark Formation consists of carbonates with interbeds of claystones and marl. Its type locality lies south of Unayzah (lat. 26° 02' N and long.44° 00' E). The Al Watah comprises two members, the lower is the Midhnab Shale Member and the upper is the Khartam Limestone Member. The type section of the Al Watah Formation lies at Jal Al Watah (lat. 26° 30'N and long. 44° 02' E). The Sark Formation exhibits facies change along the strike of the Arabian basin. Southeastwards at Al Arid, the environment was coastal marine, while at Al Mulayh the environment was quiet marine shelf, where the facies are fine-grained wackestones. In Al Qasim Province, the environment is open marine platform where the sequence consists of shallowing-upward carbonate cycles which were deposited under subtidal-supratidal conditions. The Al Watah Formation also shows gradual transition from one environment to another along southeast-northwest direction. At Al Arid, the depositional environment is coastal marine which changes northwestwards at Al Mulayh to lagoonal shelf since the facies are mostly of fine-grained dolostones. In Al Qasim Province, deeper open marine is recognized depositing the Midhnab Shale Member in low sea level and the Khartam Limestone Member in submerged platform (subtidal zone).

  11. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Zhiming; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  12. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; McCausland, Wendy A.; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Lu, Zhong; Zahran, Hani M.; Hadidy, Salah El; Aburukbah, Abdallah; Stewart, Ian C. F.; Lundgren, Paul R.; White, Randal A.; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2010-10-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8km long with 91cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  13. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkareem M Albekairy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1 instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2 expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3 offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4 recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.

  14. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Pallister, John S.

    2010-09-26

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshuhail, Abdulrahman

    2011-05-01

    Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

  16. Four new records of mites (Acari: Astigmata phoretic on insects in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed W. Negm

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out to investigate astigmatid mites associated with four unrelated insect species, belonging to four families. The four insect species, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1785 (Diptera: Muscidae, Labidura riparia (Pallas, 1773 (Dermaptera: Labiduridae, Gryllus bimaculatus (DeGeer, 1773 (Orthoptera: Gryllidae, and Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria: Blattidae, collected from different localities in Riyadh, were observed. Four astigmatid mites (Caloglyphus csibbii Eraky, Histiostoma camphori Eraky, Histiostoma pickaxei Eraky and Shoker, and Myianoetus lili Eraky belonging to two families, Acaridae and Histiostomatidae, were recorded on G. bimaculatus, L. riparia, P. americana, and M. domestica, respectively. All recorded mites are considered new to Saudi Arabian mite fauna. One individual of Copronomoia sphaerocerae (Vitzthum (Histiostomatidae mite, previously recorded in Saudi Arabia, was found on M. domestica. For each mite species found, notes on density and attachment sites are given. An identification key, based on deutonymphal stages, for the five mite species reported in this study and other phoretic astigmatid mites previously recorded on insects in Saudi Arabia is provided.

  17. Comparative Arabic and English Literacy: A Study of Female University Students' Practices in Saudi Arabia

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    Islam Ababneh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of Arabic and English literacy skills and practices for Saudi female university students at their homes and at their school as indicated by the students themselves using literacy questionnaires. The study did not evaluate the proficiency of the students in any aspect of the language such as phonology, vocabulary, or grammar but rather compiled students' answers to the availability of literacy resources in English and in Arabic in their homes/school and the students' practices of literacy in both languages. Data was gathered by distributing two types of questionnaires (Arabic and English to 200 students of English major at the department of linguistics and translation at the University of Tabuk, which is a government university in Saudi Arabia. Supporting data of cultural and religious influences on literacy was obtained through the researcher's own notes and observations. The purpose of the questionnaires was to investigate mainly: the students' literacy practices and frequency of using Arabic and English and the literacy infrastructure and literacy resources available to the students at their homes and at their school. The students' answers to the questionnaires indicated that most students interacted using mainly Arabic and very little English at their homes and they used some English at their school, which is related to reading their school academic books, doing homework assignments, and having rare English conversations with their classroom teachers.Keywords: Arabic literacy, English literacy, Saudi Arabia

  18. Changing Pattern of Saudi Arabia's Oil Exports and Broad Prospects for China and Saudi Arabia Cooperation in Petroleum Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia's oil exports Saudi Arabia (hereinafter referred to as Saudi) long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi's 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,

  19. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-10-17

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D Saudi adults.

  20. Studies on coccidia species of genus Eimeria from domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H

    1998-12-01

    Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution.

  1. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Factors of successful women leadership in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kattan, Manal

    2016-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2015. Directores de la Tesis: José Luis Montes Botella y Vasilica Maria Margalina Saudi woman face many typesof sexual segregation, which hinders her opportunity to reach leadership positions, even that there are misconceptions in our society that she is not suitable for leadership, so we try here to focus on this subject in the light of lack of studies which investigate this matter. This paper aims to highlight t...

  3. Disability trends in Saudi Arabia: prevalence and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jadid, Maher Saad

    2014-01-01

    Disability is a major challenge for the Saudi healthcare sector. Data about the incidence and prevalence of impairment and disability and sociodemographic characteristics of people with disabilities are scarce and incomplete and probably underestimate the actual burden of disability. Policies and legislation have supported the equal rights of persons with disabilities, but ineffective implementation of these laws has created a gap between the intended aims and the actual provision of services. Clearly, more research is needed to plan for appropriate management programs, effective implementation of primary prevention strategies, and proper allocation of health resources in this area.

  4. Workforce localisation policies in multi-national enterprises: the determinants of successful implementation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alanezi, Abdullah N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Workforce Localisation policies in Saudi Arabia (commonly known as ‘Saudisation’) have passed their nineteenth year, aiming at replacing foreign employees in the private sector with local employees. The government’s rationale behind the localisation of the workforce includes both the high rate of unemployment amongst Saudi nationals and the massive presence of expatriates in the labo...

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among patients with different gastrointestinal disorders in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed S. Alhussaini

    2017-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen associated with gastritis, peptic ulcers, and an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. The present study was carried out to determine the relationship between this organism with different gastrointestinal ailments.Methods: 150 outpatients referrals to Saudi Arabian Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was recruited in January to June 2015. Each patient was subjected to endoscopic examination. Biopsy specimens we...

  6. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sandeep; Binsaleem, Saud; Al-Homrani, Mohammed; Al-Juhayim, Abdullaziz; Al-Harbi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone's life (92.7%). Body distortion (39%) and fear of health complications (35%) were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.

  8. Health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Al-Manaa, Hamad A.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Aburisheh, Khaled H.; Youssef, Amira M.; Alotaibi, Metib S.; Al-Gamdi, Ali A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess health care services provided to type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and diabetes health care expenditure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was part of a nationwide, household, population based cross-sectional survey conducted at the University Diabetes Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2007 and December 2009 covering 13 administrative regions of the Kingdom. Using patients’ interview questionnaires, health care services data were collected by trained staff. Results: A total of 5,983 diabetic patients were chosen to assess health care services and expenditure. Approximately 92.2% of health services were governmental and the remaining 7.8% were in private services. The mean annual number of visits to physicians was 6.5±3.9 and laboratories was 5.1±3.9. Diabetic patients required one admission every 3 years with a mean admission duration of 13.3±28.3 days. General practitioners managed 85.9% of diabetic cases alone, or shared with internists and/or endocrinologists. Health care expenditure was governmental in 90% of cases, while it was personal in 7.7% or based on insurance payment in 2.3%. Conclusion: Health services and its expenditure provided to diabetic citizens in Saudi Arabia are mainly governmental. Empowerment of the role of both the private sector and health insurance system is badly needed, aside from implementing proper management guidelines to deliver good services at different levels. PMID:26446334

  9. Prevalence of sleep-related accidents among drivers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S BaHammam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of sleepy driving and sleep-related accidents (SRA varies widely, and no data exist regarding the prevalence of sleepy driving in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of sleepy driving, near-misses, and SRA among drivers in Saudi Arabia. Materials And Methods: A questionnaire was developed to assess sleep and driving in detail based on previously published data regarding sleepy driving. The questionnaire included 50 questions addressing socio-demographics, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, driving items, and the Berlin Questionnaire. In total, 1,219 male drivers in public places were interviewed face-to-face. Results: The included drivers had a mean age of 32.4 ± 11.7 years and displayed a mean ESS score of 7.2 ± 3.8. Among these drivers, 33.1% reported at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness. Among those who had actual accidents, 11.6% were attributed to sleepiness. In the past six months, drivers reported the following: 25.2% reported falling asleep at least once during, driving and 20.8% had to stop driving at least once because of severe sleepiness. Young age, feeling very sleepy during driving, and having at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness in the past six months were the only predictors of accidents. Conclusion: Sleepy driving is prevalent among male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Near-miss accidents caused by sleepiness are an important risk factor for car accidents and should be considered as a strong warning signal of future accidents.

  10. Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaifallah A Alenizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.

  11. Demands and challenges for patients with sickle-cell disease requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsultan, Abdulrahman; Jastaniah, Wasil; Al Afghani, Sameera; Al Bagshi, Muneer H; Nasserullah, Zaki; Al-Suliman, Ahmed M; Alabdulaali, Mohammed K

    2016-09-01

    Allogeneic HSCT is the only curative treatment for SCD. In this study, we estimated the number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT. We used the presence of overt stroke, recurrent ACS, and frequent severe pain crisis as indications for HSCT. We calculated the frequencies of these complications among a Saudi SCD cohort of 376 patients with SCD, 250 from SW and 126 from Eastern (E) provinces. We found that 59 (23.6%) of SW patients were transplant candidates compared to 22 (17.4%) from E province. It is estimated that about 61 000 patients with SCD live in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the projected number of Saudi patients with SCD who are candidates for HSCT is 10 536 patients. Of those, 2148 are children. The burden of SCD on HSCT centers in Saudi Arabia is substantial and is difficult currently to meet the demand. We recommend recruiting/training more transplant physicians and nurses, expand current capacity of centers if feasible, and open new transplant centers to make HSCT a practical therapeutic option for patients with severe SCD in Saudi Arabia.

  12. First Report of Necrophagous Insects on Human Corpses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, R A; AlGhufaili, H; Farrukh, A; Aljohani, H; Mashaly, A M A

    2016-11-01

    Necrophagous species of insects provide useful complementary data to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic cases. Here, for the first time, we report on insect specimens collected from human corpses in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. During the study, 14 beetle larvae were collected from the outdoor corpse (case report one) and five flies and seven beetles were collected from the indoor corpse (case report two). Sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the prospective basis of an identification technique. The sequencing focused on a section of the cytochrome oxidase I encoding region of mtDNA. Two beetle species, Dermestes frischii (Kugelann) and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), and one fly species, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were identified. These results will be instrumental in the implementation of a Saudi database of forensically relevant insects.

  13. Prevalence and histopathological characteristics of corneal stromal dystrophies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alzuhairy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This pathological study suggested that MCD was the most common corneal stromal dystrophy that required keratoplasty in Saudi Arabia. Patient with MCD and GCD presented at a significantly younger age than LCD. The clinical diagnosis of MCD is not achieved in all cases likely due to a more severe phenotype in the Saudi population or the presence of corneal scarring that is associated with previous trachoma, which obscures the classical appearance of LCD. We believe that PKP is first-line surgical treatment, especially for MCD because it involves all corneal layers. However, deep stromal involvement and changes in Descemet′s membrane in MCD should be considered when selecting the surgical procedure.

  14. Tuberculosis trends in Saudis and non-Saudis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia--a 10 year retrospective study (2000-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S Abouzeid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. METHODS: A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. RESULTS: There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P = <0.05. All but four provinces (Najran, Riyadh, Makkah, Tabuk showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15-24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P = <0.05. The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries.

  15. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites.

  16. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  17. The application of Shari’ah and international human rights law in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rodiman, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University The present dissertation provides an analytical and comparative study of the application of Islamic law (Shari’ah) and international human rights law in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It provides an analysis of the sources of Islamic law as well as the sources of international law to set the background for analysis and defines the nature of both laws. It also tackles the subject of the domes...

  18. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  19. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PV/Diesel Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Makbul A. M. Ramli; Ayong Hiendro; H. R. E. H. Bouchekara

    2014-01-01

    The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discu...

  20. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms, two new cases from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed G. Turkmani; Abdulaziz H. Al-Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP) is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additiona...

  1. Improvements to Controls Over Cash Are Needed at Army Disbursing Stations in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-09

    and receipt for cash and vouchers on hand. Reporting Structure of the Army’s Disbursing Stations in Kuwait The Army disbursing station at Camp...No. DODIG-2014-057 A P R I L 9 , 2 0 1 4 Improvements to Controls Over Cash Are Needed at Army Disbursing Stations in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia...2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improvements to Controls Over Cash Are Needed at Army

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27413347

  3. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    SERVICk:/.AC 4 L’ 4 .1 LHAHAN SAUDI ARABIA 4A6-6? MA STA~N STATION HANW YCA*IS MONTH PACE __9__-_)__ NOIS IL. S. T.) WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F...TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TOTAL TOTAL (F) 0 2 3 4 .- 7. 9.0- I213 4 -1S. 1.jl7 - 16j19 .20121.22123-24i2S.2 272 292 I 0 *. w.a. 0 P.... 0’ 1 0 1 1TJ- / 4

  4. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-04-01

    Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. © 2014

  5. Pattern of referral of noncancer patients to palliative care in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez M Ghanem

    2011-01-01

    Results : From 474 patients, 20 (4.2% had a noncancer diagnosis. The main reason for the referral of noncancer patients was pain control. The most prevalent diagnoses were sickle cell disease (SCD in 6 (30% patients and peripheral arterial disease (PAD in 5 (25%. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the PC needs of noncancer patients are largely unmet in our region. Further efforts are necessary to advance noncancer PC in Saudi Arabia. The PC needs of patients with SCD and PAD need to be addressed in future research.

  6. Economic development and diabetes prevalence in MENAcountries: Egypt and Saudi Arabia comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif Shalaby; Bauer E Sumpio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions globally,exhibiting the most striking increase in third worldcountries with emerging economies. This phenomena isparticularly evident in the Middle East and North Africa(MENA) region, which has the highest prevalence ofdiabetes in adults. The most concerning indirect costof diabetes is the missed work by the adult populationcoupled with the economic burden of loss of productivity.The major drivers of this epidemic are the demographicchanges with increased life expectancy and lifestylechanges due to rapid urbanization and industrialization.Our focus is to compare MENA region countries,particularly Egypt and Saudi Arabia, in terms of theireconomic development, labor force diversity and theprevalence of diabetes.

  7. Risk factors for amputation in extremities vascular injuries in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wahbi A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Al Wahbi, Salman Aldakhil, Saud Al Turki, Abdulrahman El Kayali, Hussein Al Kohlani , Abdulaziz Al Showmer Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Amputation is most closely associated with blunt, lower limb injuries associated with vascular trauma. These vascular injuries require a special attention to prevent life and limb loss. Patient outcomes can also be improved by organizing vascular trauma data into appropriate systems to facilitate future studies. Keywords: vascular injuries, extremities trauma, amputation, ischemia

  8. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  9. Reconnaissance geology of the Zarghat Quadrangle, sheet 26/40 B, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Zarghat quadrangle is located in the northern Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia between lat 26°30' and 27°00' N. and long 41°00' and 41°30 ' E. The area is underlain by three Precambrian volcanosedimentary units and a range of Precambrian dioritoid and granitoid plutonic intrusive rocks. Paleozoic(?) sandstone crops out in small areas in the northwestern part of the quadrangle, and a lobe of QuaternaryC?) basalt from Harrat Ithnain penetrates the southwest corner of the quadrangle.

  10. Impediments of Activating E-Learning in Higher Education Institutions in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalefah A. K. Al-Masaud

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the real reasons which constraint the application of the E-learning in higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia (Case study: Qassim University)and some suggested solutions. A questionnaire has been designed for the study include 48 paragraphs, divided into 5 parts, the first include the principle information, the second define how the technology can be used in the E-learning, the third deals with how to support the E-learning idea, the fourth part, asking the difficul...

  11. Trends of reported human cases of brucellosis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N

    2016-03-01

    Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44 years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures.

  12. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327

  13. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  14. The Association of Adiposity Indices and Plasma Vitamin D in Young Females in Saudi Arabia

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    Lubna Ibrahim Al Asoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Some evidences indicate its association with metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the current study we aim to study the association of vitamin D level and indicators of adiposity in young Saudi females. Subjects and Methods. 87 young healthy Saudi females were recruited from University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Each subject filled vitamin D questionnaire and had exercise stress test to determine VO2 peak. Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and ratios were determined. Blood was analyzed for 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and differential cholesterol. Results. 25-OH vitamin D/body weight was negatively associated with waist circumference and waist/stature ratio. No significant difference was found between the groups of BMI with regard to the data of questionnaire or 25-OH vitamin D/body weight. Obese and overweight subjects had lower VO2 peak. Conclusion. In young Saudi females we found that the relative value of vitamin D to body weight is a better indicator of vitamin D status particularly in obese subjects and it is negatively associated with adiposity measures of waist circumference and waist/stature ratio.

  15. Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia?

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    Omar A. Al-Mohrej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media′s twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39% were current smokers. The smokers′ population constituted of 746 (92% males, of which 546 (68% had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56% thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55% expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.

  16. Internal medicine residents' perspectives and practice about do not resuscitate orders: survey analysis in the western region of Saudi Arabia

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    Aljohaney A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Aljohaney, Yasser Bawazir Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia regarding the implementation of do not resuscitate (DNR orders to improve future training practices among physicians. Methods: Medical residents involved in training programs in the western region of Saudi Arabia, including Jeddah, Makah, Medinah, and Taif, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey regarding DNR orders. The 16-question survey was distributed to residents in all training programs in the region using surveymonkey.com, and the results were collected and tabulated. Results: Of 364 residents, 157 completed the questionnaire, resulting in a 43% response rate. The study showed that most (66% internal medicine residents in the western region of Saudi Arabia participate in DNR discussions with patients and family or surrogate decision-makers. In addition, 43% were observed by faculty members, and half of them (51.9% reported feeling comfortable during these discussions. Furthermore, most residents believed that additional educational programs would enhance their competence in addressing issues related to DNR discussions. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for a structured curriculum to teach skills relating to end-of-life issues such as DNR orders to residents in the Saudi Arabian medical system. The majority of residents surveyed believe they would benefit from additional training in DNR discussions. Therefore, an evidence-based curriculum providing instruction for improving discussions regarding DNR orders would improve physician confidence and effectiveness in caring for critically ill patients. Keywords: medical residents, do not resuscitate, internal medicine training program, Saudi Arabia

  17. Attitudes of Saudi Nursing Students on AIDS and Predictors of Willingness to Provide Care for Patients in Central Saudi Arabia

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    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception among Saudi nursing students, and to identify predictors of their willingness to provide care for patients with AIDS. A cross-sectional study of 260 baccalaureate nursing students at King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was done using a previously validated instrument. Students’ knowledge percentage mean score (PMS on AIDS was 72.93 ± 10.67 reflecting an average level of knowledge. There were many misconceptions about how AIDS is transmitted, for example, use of same toilets and bathrooms and washing clothes together (24.9%, swimming (53.7%, and coughing and sneezing (49.6%. Nursing students reported an overall negative attitude toward AIDS, with a PMS of 43.48 ± 9.21. The majority of students agreed that AIDS patients should be isolated from other patients (83%, and should not share the room with other noninfected patients (81.8%, and some reported that people living with AIDS deserve what has happened to them (24.7%. After controlling for confounders, students’ poor knowledge and negative attitude were associated only with having never been given nursing education as their primary university education “Stream 2 students” (p = .012 and p = .01, respectively. These findings have implications for development of teaching strategies and curricular approaches for nursing to address this health care issue.

  18. Perceptions of the Educational Contract among Saudi Residents and Western Staff Physicians in Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Rajeh, Saad

    1995-01-01

    A 2-year study investigated the attitudes of 63 Saudi medical residents and their 74 Western clinical teachers concerning the teacher-student relationship. Conflicts in perceptions in the first year were found to be largely resolved in the second year, possibly because of the study itself. (MSE)

  19. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia.

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    Alaboudi, Abdulellah; Atkins, Anthony; Sharp, Bernadette; Balkhair, Ahmed; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Sunbul, Tamara

    Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or 'failed outright' and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar - not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs) across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM). This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires) in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i) the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii) ensuring conformity of

  20. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

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    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  1. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

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    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  2. A new species of the leafhopper genus Naevus Knight, 1970 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Opsiini), from Saudi Arabia.

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    El-Sonbati, Saad A; Wilson, Michael R; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2015-12-22

    The genus Naevus Knight, 1970 is recorded from the mountains of southwestern Saudi Arabia, the first record from the Arabian Peninsula. A new species, Naevus hathali El-Sonbati & Wilson sp. n. is described here, which appears to have an asymmetric aedeagus. An illustrated key to Naevus species is presented to facilitate identification.

  3. Measuring the Efficiency of Public Universities: Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to Examine Public Universities in Saudi Arabia

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    Alabdulmenem, Fahad Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that allot substantial amount of government resources for education. Thus, it is important to measure how these resources are used to generate favorable academic outcomes for its nationals. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used to measure the relative efficiency of 25 public universities in…

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth–Promoting Micrococcus luteus Strain K39 Isolated from Cyperus conglomeratus in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-01-27

    Micrococcus luteus strain K39 is an endophyte bacterium isolated from roots of the desert plant Cyperus conglomeratus collected from the Red Sea shore, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome sequence of strain K39 revealed a number of enzymes involved in salinity and oxidative stress tolerance or having herbicide-resistance activity.

  5. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus Strain AK1, a Thermophile Isolated from a Hot Spring in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Amjad

    2015-06-04

    Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.

  6. Parents' Perceptions of Early Interventions and Related Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Saudi Arabia

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    Alotaibi, Faihan; Almalki, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to examine parents' perceptions of early interventions and related services for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Saudi Arabia. In this study a survey was distributed to a sample of 80 parents with children who have ASD. Parents also were asked open-ended questions to enable them to provide suggestions. The…

  7. English Language Instructors' Perceptions about Technology-Based Language Learning at Northern Border University in Saudi Arabia

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    Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir

    2013-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…

  8. Aptitude Tests and Successful College Students: The Predictive Validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…

  9. A Reciprocal Model of Psychographic Attributes Related to Their Learning among Preparatory Year of Undergraduate Students in West Saudi Arabia

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    Talafha, Feras

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the level of psychographic attributes among the preparatory year students enrolled at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The study sample consists of 209 students chosen with the help of random sampling and questionnaire survey was employed for data collection. Based on the findings, the entire study variables, which are…

  10. Assessment of Training Programs for Elementary Mathematics Teachers on Developed Curricula and Attitudes towards Teaching in Najran-Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Hassan Shawky; Abdulhakeem, Hassan Daker

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the training programs for Mathematics teachers at elementary stage on developed Curricula and attitudes toward teaching at Najran educational administration in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this objective, two instruments were developed, one of them measures the opinions of Mathematics teachers about the training programs…

  11. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  12. The emerging role of respiratory physiotherapy: A profile of the attitudes of nurses and physicians in Saudi Arabia

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    Zainab Al Mohammedali

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Physiotherapy in respiratory care settings was positively regarded by nurses and physicians working in hospitals and health-care facilities in Saudi Arabia. The need for further education for physicians and nurses on the role of physiotherapy in respiratory care was highlighted; this would enable physiotherapy to develop and be further integrated into the respiratory care multidisciplinary team.

  13. Self-Efficacy and ICT Integration into Initial Teacher Education in Saudi Arabia: Matching Policy with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Margaret; Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahman

    2012-01-01

    Success factors for integration of ICTs in higher education teaching and learning reveal a complex mixture of old and new paradigms. A review of the relevant literature and findings from research conducted in Saudi Arabia highlights the importance of actual and perceived self-efficacy within the new paradigms. The research reported reflects these…

  14. The ICT Proficiencies of University Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study to Identify Challenges and Encouragements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageel, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth–Promoting Micrococcus luteus Strain K39 Isolated from Cyperus conglomeratus in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, Feras F.; Ramirez-Prado, Juan S.; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Micrococcus luteus strain K39 is an endophyte bacterium isolated from roots of the desert plant Cyperus conglomeratus collected from the Red Sea shore, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome sequence of strain K39 revealed a number of enzymes involved in salinity and oxidative stress tolerance or having herbicide-resistance activity. PMID:28126944

  16. Correlation Between UpToDate Searches and Reported Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome During Outbreaks in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Anna R; Cao, Bin; Jiang, Terrence; Warner, Amy J; Bonis, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background.  UpToDate is an online clinical decision support resource that is used extensively by clinicians around the world. Digital surveillance techniques have shown promise to aid with the detection and monitoring of infectious disease outbreaks. We sought to determine whether UpToDate searches for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) could be used to detect and monitor MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Methods.  We analyzed daily searches related to MERS in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 3 outbreaks in these cities in 2014 and 2015 and compared them with reported cases during the same periods. We also compared UpToDate MERS searches in the affected cities to those in a composite of 4 negative control cities for the 2 outbreaks in 2014. Results.  UpToDate MERS searches during all 3 MERS outbreaks in Saudi Arabia showed a correlation to reported cases. In addition, UpToDate MERS search volume in Jeddah and Riyadh during the outbreak periods in 2014 was significantly higher than the concurrent search volume in the 4 negative control cities. In contrast, during the baseline periods, there was no difference between UpToDate searches for MERS in the affected cities compared with the negative control cities. Conclusions.  UpToDate search activity seems to be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of MERS in Saudi Arabia.

  17. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

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    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  18. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012

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    Rabia Latif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  20. Serologic association of human herpesvirus eight with posttransplant Kaposi's sarcoma in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qunibi, W; Al-Furayh, O; Almeshari, K; Lin, S F; Sun, R; Heston, L; Ross, D; Rigsby, M; Miller, G

    1998-02-27

    In Saudi Arabia, Kaposi's sarcoma occurs in 4.1% of renal transplant recipients and accounts for 70% of malignancies in this group. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) has been identified in the DNA of many of these patients. The association between HHV8 and Kaposi's sarcoma was investigated further in post-renal transplant Kaposi's sarcoma patients from a tertiary care hospital (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (n = 14), and non-Kaposi's sarcoma controls with renal transplant (n = 18), chronic renal failure (n = 14), other cancers that did not affect renal function (n = 15), and healthy volunteers (n = 15). The median time from transplant to Kaposi's sarcoma was 13 months. A serum sample was assumed to have antibodies to HHV8 if antibody to either p40 or sVCA was detected. The prevalence of HHV8 seroreactivity was 13/14 (93%) in cases, 5/18 (28%) in renal transplants without Kaposi's sarcoma, and 11/62 (18%) in the aggregate control group. HHV8 seroreactivity was significantly more common (p 0.001) among transplant patients with Kaposi's sarcoma than those without this cancer (odds ratio, 33.80; 95% confidence interval, 2.96-904). These findings suggest an etiologic link between HHV8 and Kaposi's sarcoma presumably due to immunologic or cellular factors that influence host-virus interactions.

  1. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Yousef M.

    2016-11-10

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth\\'s rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World\\'s largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom\\'s role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy.

  2. SECONDARY SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION IN SAUDI ARABIA: THE RESULTS OF A MIXED METHODS APPROACH

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    AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  3. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents.

  4. The Role of Learning Styles in the Success of TBLT in EFL Classrooms in Saudi Arabia

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    Badia Hakim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognition of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT in English language learning classes in different contexts, its successful implementation in EFL contexts has attracted insufficient attention. As an offshoot of communicative language teaching, TBLT can provide EFL language learners with ample opportunities to embark on using language for more communicative purposes through interaction and engaging in collaborative tasks. The present study adopts an action research approach to implementing TBLT in a traditional language learning context at a major international university in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it intends to determine the students’ (N = 25 learning styles using Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM and to use varying tasks to tackle the common learning problems such as lack of participation in learning activities and low motivation. The analysis of data from different data collection instruments revealed that applying TBLT approach in this context helped students enhance their interaction with their classmates and teacher and used English for more authentic purposes while performing a series of learning tasks. In addition, the implementation of TBLT in this context motivated students to engage in different learning activities. At the end, implications of the findings for further research are discussed. Keywords: TBLT; FSLSM; action research; EFL; Saudi Arabia

  5. Thermoregulatory and Physiological Responses of Najdi Sheep Exposed to Environmental Heat Load Prevailing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al-Haidary, R. S. Aljumaah, M. A. Alshaikh, K. A. Abdoun*, E. M. Samara, A. B. Okab and M. M. Alfuraiji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermoregulatory and physiological responses of Najdi rams raised under hot summer conditions prevailing in Kingdom Saudi Arabia. The core temperature (Tcore showed circadian rhythm characterized by biphasic achrophases, which were associated with the feeding times during both seasons. Average daily Tcore was significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. However, the amplitudes of the rhythmic oscillation during winter and summer seasons were 0.85 and 0.56C, respectively. Rectal (Tre and skin temperatures (Tsk were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions and exhibited similar patterns during both seasons concurrent with the pattern of temperature humidity index (THI, reaching the maximum values late in the afternoon and the minimum values early in the morning. Respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR showed the same pattern of the thermal parameters and were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. Serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, glucose, sodium and chloride were significantly (P<0.05 increased while those of albumin and calcium were decreased under hot summer conditions. The results obtained from this study indicate that hot summer conditions of Saudi Arabia is thermally stressful to Najdi rams. Therefore, Najdi sheep production under such conditions would require environmental and/or nutritional modification to alleviate the impact of heat stress.

  6. Prediction of municipal water production in touristic Mecca City in Saudi Arabia using neural networks

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    AbdelHamid Ajbar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.

  7. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2016-05-11

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  8. Quantitative estimation of pulegone in Mentha longifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. Is it safe to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2016-03-01

    Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit.

  9. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.

  10. Limited genetic diversity among Plasmodium falciparium isolates using nested PCR in Jazan Area, Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omima; M.Eida; Amany; M.Eida

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Jazan Area of Saudi Arabia measured with highly polymorphic genetic marker, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 2(MSP 2).Methods: Blood samples were collected from 128 clinically suspected patients attending both Jazan and Sabia hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both hospitals reflected urban and rural settings respectively. Analysis of central polymorphic region of MSP 2(3D7 and FC27 allelic families) was performed using nested PCR for malaria patients.Results: For MSP 2 allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 cases(53.3%) carried FC27 type and 14 cases(46.7%) carried 3D7 type, whereas no malaria cases harbored both allelic types. The present study showed that in urban area, 80% of FC27 fragments were 500 bp while in rural area it was 45.5%(P = 0.08). The FC27 400 bp allele was more prevalent in patients from rural than those from the urban area(P = 0.08). The most prevalent infecting 3D7 allele was the 3D7 300 bp in both areas. In the present study, there were no multiple infections.Conclusions: The limited genetic diversity which was observed in Jazan(considered as an endemic area) may be attributed to the small sample size or sustained malaria control program.

  11. Studies on some fish parasites of public health importance in the southern area of Saudi Arabia

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    Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.

  12. Evaluation of hospital-learning environment for pediatric residency in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

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    Waleed H. BuAli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7% out of 120 residents and 37 females and 67 male residents have responded. The residents’ response scored 100 out of 160 maximum score in rating of PHEEM that showed overall learning environment is favorable for training. There were some items in the social support domain suggesting improvements. There was no significant difference between male and female residents. There was a difference among the participant teaching hospitals (p<0.05. Conclusion: The result pointed an overall positive rating. Individual item scores suggested that their social life during residency could be uninspiring. They have the low satisfactory level and they feel racism, and sexual discrimination. Therefore, there is still a room for improvement.

  13. Comparative study on three locally developed live orf virus vaccines for sheep in Saudi Arabia

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    Fahdel M. Housawi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of orf virus infection in Saudi Arabia (SA has been researched since 1990. The results obtained during this period indicate that the disease is widespread, has great economic impact and that no vaccine has been used against it. The present study compares the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three locally developed live orf virus vaccines. Two of them differ in their passage history in Vero cell culture and the third was used as a virulent virus in glycerine buffer. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no similar comparative study has been conducted in the Middle East utilising three types of vaccines prepared from the same virus strain. Selection of the candidate seed orf virus and performance of the quality control tests were as laid out by the OIE for veterinary vaccine production. The vaccine seed virus was a field orf virus isolated from a previous orf outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A simple novel formula was developed to calculate the rate of reduction in the healing time (RHT % in the challenged sheep. This allowed direct comparison of the efficacy of the three types of vaccines employed in the present study. The efficacy of each vaccine was tested on a cohort of local Noemi sheep.

  14. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  15. Geophysical Imaging of Fault Structures Over the Qadimah Fault, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    AlTawash, Feras

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.

  16. Cold Thermal Storage and Peak Load Reduction for Office Buildings in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil Y.Abdel-Shafi; Ramzy R.Obaid; Ibrahim M.Jomoah

    2014-01-01

    This paper involves the investigations of the chilled water and ice cold thermal storage technologies along with the associated operating strategies for the air conditioning (AC) systems of the typical office buildings in Saudi Arabia, so as to reduce the electricity energy consumption during the peak load periods. In Saudi Arabia, the extensive use of AC for indoor cooling in offices composes a large proportion of the annual peak electricity demand. The very high temperatures over long summer periods, extending from May to October, and the low cost of energy are the key factors in the wide and extensive use of air conditioners in the kingdom. This intense cooling load adds up to the requirement increase in the capacity of power plants, which makes them under utilized during the off-peak periods. Thermal energy storage techniques are one of the effective demand-side energy management methods. Systems with cold storage shifts all or part of the electricity requirement from peak hours to off-peak hours to reduce demand charges and/or take advantage of off-peak rates. The investigations reveal that the cold thermal energy storage techniques are effective from both technical and economic perspectives in the reduction of energy consumption in the buildings during peak periods.

  17. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

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    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  18. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.

    2016-04-08

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  19. Students’ Assessment of Campus Sustainability at the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia

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    Ismaila R. Abubakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are major drivers of change in achieving environmental sustainability both within college campuses and beyond campuses in communities at large. However, achieving campus sustainability is not possible without the involvement of students as one of the major stakeholders of a university. Based on survey of 152 students of the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, this study explores students’ assessment of campus sustainability components: curriculum and research; campus operations; and community involvement. The results show that even though the students indicate a great deal of awareness and concern about campus environmental sustainability, they lack interest and willingness to participate in initiatives towards achieving sustainability. Apart from some sustainable landscaping and waste recycling practices, there are few sustainability initiatives in transportation and energy and water conservation on the campus. Offered courses and student projects have also been reported to have modest focus on sustainability. The article concludes by highlighting the roles of incorporating sustainability into campus operations, and training university students in promoting environmental sustainability in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.

  1. Rubella Immunity among Pregnant Women in Jeddah, Western Region of Saudi Arabia

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    Sharifa A. Alsibiani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.

  2. Energy and exergy use in public and private sector of Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincer, I. E-mail: idincer@kfupm.edu.sa; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we deal with the analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the public and private sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses for the public and private sector are undertaken to study the energy and exergy efficiencies. These sectoral efficiencies are then compared, and energy and exergy flow diagrams for the public and private sector over the years are presented, respectively. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the public and private sector are compared for its six sub-sectors, namely commercial, governmental, streets, Mosques, hospitals and charity associations, particularly illustrated for the year 2000. Hospital sub-sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector and government sub-sector the most exergy efficient one. The results presented here provide insights into the sectoral energy use that may assist energy policy makers for the country. It is believed that the present techniques are useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, and that they provide Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.

  3. Anomalous indoor radon concentration in a dwelling in Qatif City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2005-01-01

    An indoor radon survey was carried out recently in nine cities of Saudi Arabia using nuclear track detectors (NTD)-based passive radon detectors. The survey included Qatif City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, where 225 detectors were collected back successfully. It was found that the average indoor radon concentration in the dwellings was 22 +/- 15 Bq m(-3). However, one of the dwellings showed an anomalous radon concentration of 535 +/- 23 Bq m(-3). This finding led to a detailed investigation of this dwelling using active and passive techniques. In the active technique, an AlphaGUARD 2000 PRQ radon gas analyser was used. In the passive technique, CR-39 based passive radon detectors were used in all the rooms of the dwelling. Radon exhalation from the wall and the floor was also measured using the can technique. The active measurement confirms the passive one. Before placing the passive radon detectors in all the rooms of the two-storey building, the inhabitant was advised to ventilate his house regularly. The radon concentration in the different rooms was found to vary from 124 to 302 Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation from the floor and the wall of the room with the anomalous radon concentration was found to vary from 0.5 to 0.8 Bq m(-2) h(-1). These low radon exhalation rates suggest that the anomalous radon concentration is most probably due to underground radon diffusion into the dwelling through cracks and joints in the concrete floor.

  4. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education in Riyadh, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh 11417 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303{+-}57 to 700{+-}38 {mu}Gy y{sup -1} with an average value of 455.1{+-}45 {mu}Gy y{sup -1}. The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212{+-}40 to 490{+-}27 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} with an average value of 318.57{+-}31 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}.{sup 222}Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from {sup 222}Rn and its progeny. The {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean {sup 222}Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 18.4 Bq m{sup -3}. The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46 mSv y{sup -1}.

  5. Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Ferdoas S

    2007-07-01

    Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303+/-57 to 700+/-38microGyy(-1) with an average value of 455.1+/-45microGyy(-1). The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212+/-40 to 490+/-27microSvy(-1) with an average value of 318.57+/-31microSvy(-1).(222)Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from (222)Rn and its progeny. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean (222)Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69Bqm(-3) with an average of 18.4Bqm(-3). The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46mSvy(-1).

  6. An Empirical Investigation into Human Resource Development Practices in Public Telecom Organisations in Saudi Arabia

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    Nasser S. Al-Kahtani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of globalization and technological advancement, the Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing market for telecommunication products and services in the Middle East. Since the human resource is the most important and indeed an essential imperative for an organization to prosper and grow, their development is certainly an issue of concern for the management of any organization who retain them.The present study was aimed to analyse some of these HRD practices which can help the public sector telecom companies of Saudi Arabia to combat the future challenges on the basis of these variables: Quality of Work Life and Welfare Measures, Organizational Development, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal and Rewards and Participative Management. The present study brings out the fact that appropriate HRD Practices provide an essential springboard for enhancing the Satisfaction and Commitment of the employees in the Telecom Industry. Appropriate Practices in HRD are subjective. What is best for one company may not be best for another. ‘Appropriate practices are not a set of discrete actions but rather a holistic approach to management. Thus, to study the appropriateness of the HRD Practices, an attempt was made to identify those HRD practices that are prevalent in the Telecom Sector.

  7. The perception of safety culture among nurses in a tertiary hospital in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonazi, Aisha A; Saeed, Elshazaly; Mohamed, Sarar

    2016-01-01

    Developing a patient safety culture was one of the recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to assist hospitals in improving patient safety. Nurses are the key to safety improvements in hospitals. It is necessary to know their awareness and perception regarding institutional safety climate. The aim of this study is to explore perceptions of patient safety among nursing staff in a tertiary hospital in Central Saudi Arabia in different discipline units. The current study was conducted at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), a tertiary center in Riyadh, Central Saudi Arabia. In November 2014, five hundred nurses were randomly selected to participate in this study. A survey questionnaire with Likert scale was adopted covering characteristics of participants together with their views on patient safety issues. Two hundred and twenty-four participants filled the questionnaire with a response rate of 44.8%. The overall perception of patient safety among participants was (57.9%). The majority (74.1%) thought that the existing system is good at preventing errors and only one third indicated that they have patient safety problems. Most of the participants were happy with the existing patient safety culture including organizational learning/continuous improvement (95.5%), and errors feedback and communication (76.64%). In conclusion, this study showed that perception of patient safety was sub-optimal among nurses and there are several areas for improvement regarding safety culture. PMID:28096559

  8. Projects Delay Factors of Saudi Arabia Construction Industry Using PLS-SEM Path Modelling Approach

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    Abdul RahmanIsmail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of PLS-SEM Path Model of delay factors of Saudi Arabia construction industry focussing on Mecca City. The model was developed and assessed using SmartPLS v3.0 software and it consists of 37 factors/manifests in 7 groups/independent variables and one dependent variable which is delay of the construction projects. The model was rigorously assessed at measurement and structural components and the outcomes found that the model has achieved the required threshold values. At structural level of the model, among the seven groups, the client and consultant group has the highest impact on construction delay with path coefficient β-value of 0.452 and the project management and contract administration group is having the least impact to the construction delay with β-value of 0.016. The overall model has moderate explaining power ability with R2 value of 0.197 for Saudi Arabia construction industry representation. This model will able to assist practitioners in Mecca city to pay more attention in risk analysis for potential construction delay.

  9. Trends in Residential Energy Consumption in Saudi Arabia with Particular Reference to the Eastern Province

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    Farajallah Alrashed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.

  10. Financial Synergy in Mergers and Acquisitions in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.

  11. Comparative sequence analysis of domain I of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 from Saudi Arabia and worldwide isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Abdel-Muhsin, Abdel-Muhsin A; Bin Dajem, Saad M; AlSheikh, Adel Ali H; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2016-04-01

    The apical membrane antigen 1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1) plays a crucial role in erythrocyte invasion and is a target of protective antibodies. Although domain I of PfAMA1 has been considered a promising vaccine component, extensive sequence diversity in this domain could compromise an effective vaccine design. To explore the extent of sequence diversity in domain I of PfAMA1, P. falciparum-infected blood samples from Saudi Arabia collected between 2007 and 2009 were analyzed and compared with those from worldwide parasite populations. Forty-six haplotypes and a novel codon change (M190V) were found among Saudi Arabian isolates. The haplotype diversity (0.948±0.004) and nucleotide diversity (0.0191±0.0008) were comparable to those from African hyperendemic countries. Positive selection in domain I of PfAMA1 among Saudi Arabian parasite population was observed because nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per nonsynonymous site (dN) significantly exceeded synonymous nucleotide substitutions per synonymous site (dS) and Tajima's D and its related statistics significantly deviated from neutrality in the positive direction. Despite a relatively low prevalence of malaria in Saudi Arabia, a minimum of 17 recombination events occurred in domain I. Genetic differentiation was significant between P. falciparum in Saudi Arabia and parasites from other geographic origins. Several shared or closely related haplotypes were found among parasites from different geographic areas, suggesting that vaccine derived from multiple shared epitopes could be effective across endemic countries.

  12. Selected dietary nutrients and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adult males and females in Saudi Arabia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Khan, Nasiruddin; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alothman, Abdulaziz; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2013-11-19

    During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively)) were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF) criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs) of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

  13. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors.

  14. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  15. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession. [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain. [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently.

  16. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dent...

  17. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M.; Abdalla, Omer A.; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A.; Amer, Mahmoud A.

    2017-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it. PMID:28167887

  18. The Emergent Concern of Hepatitis B globally with special attention to Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljarbou, Ahmad N

    2013-11-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis is highly prevalent and creates a substantial burden to healthcare systems globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 350 and 250 million people worldwide are chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection respectively. These two diseases are the cause of significant global mortality and morbidity with approximately 1 million deaths each year attributable to them and their sequelae, liver disease and primary liver cancer. Although the efforts have been met with the long-lasting level of success and holds the promise for large reductions in disease burden in spite of the huge numbers of HBV infected population. The viral hepatitis has also been emerged as a leading public health concern and continues to be major disease burden in the Eastern Mediterranean. The WHO, estimates that approximately 4.3 million persons are infected with HBV in the Region each year. Saudi Arabia has been classified as a country with an intermediate prevalence of HBV showed up to 7% in Saudi children in late 1980s but declined to as low as 0.3% in 1997 since the introduction of universal vaccination of all Saudi children in 1989. In spite of this remarkable decline, the burden of decompensated liver disease secondary to hepatitis B is estimated to increase drastically in the next 40 years as the previously infected children start aging.

  19. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  20. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    Hail Flora by some foreign weeds such as Solanum nigrum, Lactuca serriola and Amaranthus lividus. The presence of these weeds points out the need to monitor the vegetation change in Hail region, and also other regions of Saudi Arabia, in order to elucidate the human impact on the wild plants diversity as human activities change with the fast development in the kingdom.

  1. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Awad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  2. Patterns of psychotropic medication use in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia

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    Alosaimi FD

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers

  3. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

  4. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Gewik, Mohamed M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

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    Mahmoud H. A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA. Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences, whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas.

  6. Diversity of Meq gene from clinical Marek’s disease virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mahmoud H. A.; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M.; Al-Habeeb, Malik A.; Al-Hammady, Yousef M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the genomic features of Meq gene of Marek’s disease virus (MDV) recently circulating in Saudi Arabia (SA). Materials and Methods: Two poultry flocks suffering from mortalities and visceral tumors were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, King Faisal University, SA. Subjected to different diagnostic procedures: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy as well as polymerase chain reaction followed by Meq gene sequence analysis. Results: Case history, clinical signs, and necropsy were suggestive of MDV infection. The Meq gene was successfully detected in liver and spleen of infected chickens. A 1062 bp band including the native Meq ORF in addition to a 939 bp of S-Meq (short isoform of Meq) were amplified from Saudi 01-13 and Saudi 02-13, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids sequences of the amplified Meq genes of both Saudi isolates showed distinct polymorphism when compared with the standard USA virulent isolates Md5 and GA. The sequence analysis of the S-Meq gene showed a 123 bp deletion representing 41 amino acids between two proline-rich areas without any frameshift. The Meq gene encoded four repeats of proline-rich repeats (PRRs sequences), whereas the S-Meq contains only two PRRs. Interestingly, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that both of SA MDV isolates are closely related to the MDV strains from Poland. Conclusion: The two MDV isolates contain several nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in distinct amino acid substitutions. It is suggested that migratory and wild birds, as well as world trading of poultry and its by-products, have a great contribution in the transmission of MDVs overseas. PMID:27397979

  7. Determining the causal relationships among balanced scorecard perspectives on school safety performance: case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training

  8. Injection Safety among Primary Health Care Workers in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

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    AA Ismail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia.Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses.Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between

  9. The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmy, Norah O; Al-Quait, Nouf A; Alami, Amani H; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2012-10-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items examining the types of accessed Arabic drug information, the respondent's demographics, their ability to easily find and understand Arabic drug-related information, and their trustfulness and dependency on such information websites. Of the 422 Arabic speaking adults who answered the questionnaire, 88% stated that they used Arabic websites to answer drug-related questions. Of the respondents, 50% had a bachelor's degree, 44% were young adults, over half were female (60%), and 72% of them have a chronic disease. The ease of retrieving online information was the most common reason (69%) for consulting such websites. Google as a search engine was the most frequently (86%) accessible website. Although respondents reported different drug-related topics in their online searching, the search for adverse effects was the most common (68%). Respondents claimed that they could easily find (65%) and understand (49%) the drug-related information. Although a good number of respondents qualified this type of information as good, double-checking of information on other websites was highly recommended. Trustfulness was one of the important parameters to measure and 205 respondents (55%) claimed that they only trusted half of the information cited. Moreover, around 48% of respondents considered that finding the same information on more than one website increased its trustfulness. Surprisingly, 54% of respondents did not depend on Arabic information websites when making decisions on drug use

  10. Awareness, practices, and barriers regarding smoking cessation treatment among physicians in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jradi, Hoda

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation counseling and therapy provided by physicians play an important role in helping smokers quit. Awareness and practices of the clinical practice guidelines for tobacco dependence (in particular the 5A's: Ask, Assist, Assess, Advise, and Arrange) among physicians and perceived barriers for their implementation is needed to improve care for individuals who smoke/use tobacco products in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted among 124 general and family practitioners in primary health care clinics belonging to 2 major medical centers in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive statistics were reported for all survey variables. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of physicians' use of the 5A's for smoking cessation counseling and therapy. Among the 216 contacted physicians, 124 responded (57.4%). The majority (63.7%) were males, between the ages of 40 and 49 years (52.4%), practicing full-time (95.2%), and had not received smoking cessation training during medical school education or residency training (68.6%). Approximately 85.5% reported some experience with the guidelines (heard, read, or used). Asking (71.8%) and advising (87.9%) were the most implemented for smoking cessation, while assisting (15.3%) and arranging for follow-up (17.7%) were the least implemented. Most (96.0%) did not prescribe pharmacotherapy and 53.2% reported documenting the patient's smoking status. Reported barriers were mostly lack of time (72.6%) and lack of training (66.9%). Awareness of the guidelines, physician's smoking status, perceived competence in ability to provide smoking cessation counseling and therapy, reporting the ineffectiveness of smoking cessation therapy as a barrier, and the perceived benefit of reducing patient's physical symptoms were independently statistically significant predictors of the implementation of the 5A's for smoking cessation therapy. This preliminary study showed that smoking cessation

  11. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Khan, A Sattar; Al Otaibi, F Huzam

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective study aimed to collect data related to the clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia, in one of the tertiary-care centers, King Fahd Hospital Al-Hasa, and to compare it with other regions of Saudi Arabia. Forty-six patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology 1997 criteria (ACR) were collected over a period from January 2004 to December 2008. The results showed an average age of onset of 26.17 (±9.17). The most common clinical features were nonspecific constitutional symptoms (fever, fatigue and malaise) seen in 44 patients (95.7%). Musculoskeletal features seen were mostly arthralgias (91.3%) and arthritis (76.1%). Nephritis was seen in 58.7% and hypertension in 52.2%. Mucocutaneous involvement included oral ulcers (71.7%), hair loss (65.2%), butterfly rashes (67.4%), photosensitivity (47.8%) and discoid lupus (13%). Neurologic manifestations showed psychosis in 17.4%, depression in 15.2% and headache in 28.3%. The most common hematologic presentation was leukopenia (58.7%) followed by hemolytic anemia and anemia of chronic disease (47.8%). Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 44 (95.7%), anti-dsDNA in 38 (42.6%), anti-Ro SSA and La SSB in 38 (82.6%). Anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant were positive in eight (17.4%). Low complement levels (C3 and C4) were seen in 41 (89.1%) of the patients with active disease. The drugs used in treatment were NSAIDs (100%), antimalarials (97.8%), steroids (100%), intermittent cyclophosphamide and other immunosuppressive drugs (71.7%). We found that the age of onset and sex distributions were different from other areas of Saudi Arabia, while clinical manifestations were the same as in other areas. The prognosis of lupus was good overall despite the multi-organ involvement. However, further studies based on larger number of patients are needed.

  12. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia

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    Waleed Al Taweel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.

  13. Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program

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    Al-Ahaideb A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb,1 Hamza M Alrabai,1 Osama A Alrehaili,1 Abdulaziz N Aljurayyan,1 Ranyah M Alsaif,2 Nizar Algarni,1 Hazem M Al-Khawashki,1 Abdulrahman D Algarni1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology: As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results: The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002. The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001. Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents' progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. Keywords: evaluation, medical education, orthopedic board, residency program, training

  14. Deficiencies under plenty of sun: Vitamin D status among adults in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

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    Marwa Tuffaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.

  15. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-11-12

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  16. Innovative Engineering Organizational Excellence Best Practices Through Capturing Tacit Knowledge: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

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    Magd Hesham A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the way tacit knowledge is dealt with in a high turnover business environment through a qualitative research approach in an engineering organization in Saudi Arabia with respect to organizational culture and values and the effect in competitive stance. The study found peer review process and managerial supervisory style to be effective in enabling new employees in a short time with knowledge critical for them to do a successful job, core values, and open door policy to be necessary factors in forming a fertile environment for a quick tacit knowledge harvesting. The study also showed that a good competitive stance and customer satisfaction can be achieved and maintained through implementation of an innovative peer review process. The study revealed that noneffective utilization of knowledge management technical resources was evident in the current study which may impact on achieving competitive advantage.

  17. Prevalence Rate of Intestinal Parasites in Camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in camels was studied in the Riyadh region, central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was carried out over a population of 240 animals which examined their feces by coprological methods. Out of 240 samples of feces examined, 143 cases (59.6% were positive for intestinal parasites of whom 82 were male (34.2% and 61 were female (25.4%. There was a significant difference between male and female (pTrichostrongylus spp. (15.4%, Haemonchus spp. (10.4%, Trichuris spp. (8.8%, Nematodirus spp. (5%, Osrtertagia spp. (2.9% and cestoda: Moniezia expansa (6.7%, Stilesia spp. (3.3% coccidia: Eimeria cameli (7.1%. The high prevalence of intestinal parasites among camels reported during summer season.

  18. Parabolic trough collector power plant performance simulation for an interactive solar energy Atlas of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Mercedes; Frasquet, Miguel; Al Rished, Abdulaziz; Tuomiranta, Arttu; Gasim, Sami; Ghedira, Hosni

    2016-05-01

    The collaboration between the Research Center for Renewable Energy Mapping and Assessment (ReCREMA) at Masdar Institute of Science and Technology and the King Abdullah City for Atomic & Renewable Energy (KACARE) aims to create an interactive web tool integrated in the Renewable Resource Atlas where different solar thermal electricity (STE) utility-scale technologies will be simulated. In this paper, a methodology is presented for sizing and performance simulation of the solar field of parabolic trough collector (PTC) plants. The model is used for a case study analysis of the potential of STE in three sites located in the central, western, and eastern parts of Saudi Arabia. The plant located in the north (Tayma) has the lowest number of collectors with the best production along the year.

  19. First in situ determination of the ground thermal conductivity for boreholeheat exchanger applications in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharqawy, Mostafa H. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Said, S.A.; Mokheimer, E.M.; Habib, M.A.; Badr, H.M.; Al-Shayea, N.A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    The paper deals with the in situ experimental determination of the thermal properties of the underground soil for use in the design of borehole heat exchangers (BHE). The approach is based on recording the unsteady thermal response of a BHE that has been installed for the first time in Saudi Arabia. In this approach, the temperature of the circulating fluid has been recorded at the inlet and outlet sections of the BHE with time following the start of its operation. Severe fluctuations in these temperatures occur at small times (up to 8 h) due to the transient effects inside the borehole and must be excluded. A method has been developed for estimating the time period characterized by these severe fluctuations. The recorded thermal responses together with the line source theory are used to determine the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and the steady-state equivalent thermal resistance of the underground soil. (author)

  20. KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE – AN INITIAL STUDY

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    S. H. Alsultan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al. implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  1. Geotechnical Parameters from Seismic Measurements: Two Field Examples from Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2016-03-18

    © 2016 EEGS. Geotechnical parameters were used to determine subsurface rock quality for construction purposes. We summarize the mathematical relationships used to calculate the geotechnical parameters from P- and S-wave velocities and density values. These relationships are applied to two field examples; the first is a regional seismic study in Egypt and the second is a 2-D seismic profile recorded in Saudi Arabia. Results from both field examples are used to determine the subsurface rock quality and locate zones that should be avoided during construction. We suggest combining all geotechnical parameters into one map using a normalized-weighted relation, which helps to locate the zones with high versus low rock quality for engineering purposes.

  2. Microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone, Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Almadani, Sattam A.; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammad E.

    2016-03-01

    In order to document the microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone in the uppermost part of the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation at Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, central Saudi Arabia, scleractinian corals and rock samples were collected and thin sections were prepared. Coral framestone, coral floatstone, pelloidal packstone, bioclastic packstone, bioclastic wacke/packstone, algal wackestone and bioclastic foraminiferal wacke/packstone were the recorded microfacies types. Cementation, recrystallization, silicification and dolomitization are the main diagenetic alterations affected the aragonitic skeletons of scleractinian corals. All coral skeletons were recrystallized, while some ones were dolomitized and silicified. Microfacies types, as well as the fossil content of sclearctinian corals, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and foraminifera indicated a deposition in environments ranging from shelf lagoon with open circulation in quiet water below wave base to shallow reef flank and organic build up for the uppermost reefal part of the Tuwaiq Formation in the study area.

  3. Identification of potential artificial groundwater recharge zones in Northwestern Saudi Arabia using GIS and Boolean logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Nazzal, Yousef; Ahmed, Izrar; Naeem, Muhammad; Jafri, Muhammad Kamran

    2015-11-01

    Identifying potential groundwater recharge zones is a pre-requisite for any artificial recharge project. The present study focuses on identifying the potential zones of Artificial Groundwater Recharge (AGR) in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Parameters including slope, soil texture, vadose zone thickness, groundwater quality (TDS) and type of water bearing formation were integrated in a GIS environment using Boolean logic. The results showed that 17.90% of the total studied area is suitable for AGR. The identified zones were integrated with the land use/land cover map to avoid agricultural and inhabited lands which reduced the total potential area to 14.24%. Geomorphologically the wadi beds are the most suitable sites for recharge. On the basis of the potential AGR zones closeness to the available recharge water supply (rain water, desalinated sea water and treated waste water) the potential zones were classified as Category A (high priority) and Category B (low priority).

  4. Eimeria auratae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the lizard Mabuya aurata in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousif, M S; AL-Rasheid, K A

    2001-03-01

    Eimeria auratae n. sp. was described from the gall bladder of the lizard Mabuya aurata collected at Al-Hofuf village, eastern region, Saudi Arabia. Morphology of sporulated as well as non-sporulated oocysts were studied. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal 22-31.5x13.5-21.8 (27.7x18.5) microm with smooth brownish-yellow bilayered wall, 1.1 (0.9-1.3) microm. Micropyle, polar granule and oocyst residuum were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal 10.5-12.8x7.5-9 (11.8x8.5) microm. Sporocyst residuum was present but Stieda body was absent. Sporozoites were crescent-shaped, blunt at one end and slightly tapered at the other. Eimeria species from Scincidae were compared.

  5. Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms, two new cases from Saudi Arabia

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    Mohammed G. Turkmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquagenic Wrinkling of the Palms (AWP is a rare dermatologic disease. It was first described four decades ago as a potential test for Cystic Fibrosis (CF by detecting “skin wrinkling” in response to water immersion. We are reporting two cases of AWP diagnosed at Derma Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first case was a 9-year old girl and the second case was a 17-year adolescent male. The second case was associated with palmer hyperhidrosis. Both patients denied any medication use. Additionally, signs and symptoms suggesting CF were lacking. Local dermatologists should be aware of rare conditions such as AWP and lack of previous reports from the region may indicate under-reporting rather than lack of cases.

  6. Micro and macro level of dispute causes in residential building projects: Studies of Saudi Arabia

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    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the common direct and indirect (micro and macro level dispute causes in residential building projects in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire method was used in this research. Randomly distributed questionnaire technique was applied to 120 contractors to evaluate the severity of the identified 29 direct dispute causes and 32 indirect dispute causes. The analysis of the identified causes indicates that the top five severe direct dispute causes are: delay in progress payment by owner, unrealistic contract duration, change orders, poor quality of completed works, and labor inefficiencies respectively. While the top five severe indirect dispute causes are: inadequate contractor’s experience, lack of communication between construction parties, ineffective planning and scheduling of project by contractor, cash problems during construction, and poor estimation practices.

  7. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder in school-aged children in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M J

    2010-09-01

    The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The study collected data from both teachers and parents for 708 primary school pupils attending grades 1-3 (7-9 years old), using DSM-IV criteria of ADHD. The result showed that the overall rate of ADHD was 2.7%, and in particular, the rate of attention types, 2.0%; hyperactive/impulsivity type, 1.4% and combined type, 0.7%. Teachers reported ADHD in a higher frequency than parents. However, applying a combination of reports from teachers and parents, screening of ADHD is likely to be more accurate. These findings highlight the importance of detecting ADHD in pupils at an early age and to develop a specific set of psychological clinical interventions for helping them.

  9. Genetic diversity in the G protein gene of group A human respiratory syncytial viruses circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Farrag, Mohamed A; Amer, Haitham M

    2014-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in children worldwide. The molecular epidemiology and circulation pattern of HRSV in Saudi Arabia is mostly uncharted. In the current study, the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships of HRSV type A strains circulating in Riyadh Province were explored. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory symptoms during the winter-spring seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Among 175 samples analyzed, 39 (22.3 %) were positive for HRSV by one-step RT-PCR (59 % type A and 41 % type B). Propagation of positive samples in HEp-2 cells permitted the recovery of the first Saudi HRSV isolates. Genetic variability among Saudi HRSV-A strains was evaluated by sequence analysis of the complete attachment (G) protein gene. The nucleotide sequence was compared to representatives of the previously identified HRSV-A genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains examined in this study were very closely related at both the nucleotide and amino acid level, and all of them are clustered in the GA2 genotype (and mostly belonged to the NA-1 subtype). A total of 23 mutation sites, 14 of which resulted in an amino acid change, were recorded only in Saudi strains. This is the first report on genetic diversity of HRSV-A strains in Saudi Arabia. Further analysis of strains on a geographical and temporal basis is needed to fully understand HRSV-A circulation patterns in Saudi Arabia.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BIOTYPE Moringa OF SAUDI ARABIA USING RAPD AND ISSR MARKERS

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    Iyan Robiansyah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa peregrina and M. oleifera are the only Moringa species found in Saudi Arabia. Both species are drought resistant and have very high nutritional and medicinal properties. Detection of genetic diversity is of great value for the improvement of nutritional and medicinal value of these plants. The aim of the present study was to characterize a new biotype Moringa observed in Al Bahah Region, Saudi Arabia. We used 11 RAPD and 15 ISSR primers to characterize and compare the new biotype with M. peregrina and M. oleifera. Level of polymorphism generated by each marker was calculated. We also calculate Nei and Li’s coefficient to measure the genetic distance between the studied species. Level of polymorphism generated by RAPD and ISSR was 46% and 57%, respectively. RAPD and ISSR primers revealed that the new biotype shared 55 amplicons (45.08% with both M. peregrina and M. oleifera, 28 amplicons with M. peregrina (22.95%, 21 amplicons (17.21% with M. oleifera, and displayed 18 unshared amplicons (14.75%. Based on RAPD data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.32, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.21 and 0.29, respectively. For ISSR data, genetic distance between M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.5, whereas genetic distance between the new biotype and M. oleifera and M. peregrina was 0.36 and 0.34, respectively. Based on these results we suggested that the new biotype is a hybrid crossbred between M. peregrina and M. oleifera.

  11. Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alam, Mohammed S., E-mail: m.s.alam@bham.ac.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Harrison, Roy M., E-mail: r.m.harrison@bham.ac.uk [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-15

    Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. - Highlights: • Measurements of 14 PAH compounds in vapour and particulate phases at three sites. • Comparison of concentrations across Jeddah and Middle Eastern regions. • Application of positive matrix factorisation to identify possible sources.

  12. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

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    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis(TB is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  13. Analysis of hemoglobin electrophoresis results and physicians investigative practices in Saudi Arabia

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    Syed Riaz Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Riyadh and central province falls in a moderate prevalent zone of hemoglobinopathies in Saudi Arabia. However, it has been observed that the physicians working in Saudi Arabia invariably advise all cases of anemia for hemoglobin electrophoresis (HE. The present work was carried out to study the yield of the HE in Riyadh and the investigative practices of the physicians advising HE. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in the hospitals of King Saud University from 2009 to 2011 in order to assess the yield of HE in referred cases of clinical anemia. Materials and Methods: A total of 1073 cases divided in two groups of males and females had undergone complete blood count and red blood cell morphology. Cellulose acetate HE was performed and all the positive results were reconfirmed on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results were analyzed for the type of hemoglobinopathies. For statistical analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences 15 version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used. Results: A total of 405 males and 668 females blood samples were included in the present study. 116 (28.5% males and 167 (25% females showed an abnormal pattern on HE. The incidence of beta thalassemia trait was higher in females while sickle cell trait was predominantly seen in males. Red cell indices were reduced considerably in thalassemias, but were unaffected in sickle cell disorders, except those which had concurrent alpha trait. The total yield of HE was 26.6% which was much less than expected. Conclusion: The physicians are advised to rule out iron deficiency and other common causes of anemia before investigating the cases for hemoglobinopathies, which employs time consuming and expensive tests of HE and HPLC.

  14. Medication prescribing errors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia

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    Abolfotouh Mostafa A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication errors (MEs are among the most common types of medical errors and one of the most common and preventable causes of iatrogenic injuries. The aims of the present study were; (i to determine the incidence and types of medication prescribing errors (MPEs, and (ii to identify some potential risk factors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia. Findings A five-week retrospective cohort study identified medication errors in the general pediatric ward and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC through the physical inspection of physician medication orders and reviews of patients' files. Out of the 2,380 orders examined, the overall error rate was 56 per 100 medication orders (95% CI: 54.2%, 57.8%. Dose errors were the most prevalent (22.1%. These were followed by route errors (12.0%, errors in clarity (11.4% and frequency errors (5.4%. Other types of errors were incompatibility (1.9%, incorrect drug selection (1.7% and duplicate therapy (1%. The majority of orders (81.8% had one or more abbreviations. Error rates were highest in prescriptions for electrolytes (17.17%, antibiotics (13.72% and bronchodilators (12.97%. Medication prescription errors occurred more frequently in males (64.5%, infants (44.5% and for medications with an intravenous route of administration (50.2%. Approximately one third of the errors occurred in the PICU (33.9%. Conclusions The incidence of MPEs was significantly high. Large-scale prospective studies are recommended to determine the extent and outcome of medication errors in pediatric hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuaiz, AlJohara M.; Gad Mohamed, Ashry; Khoja, Tawfik A. M.; AlSharif, Abdullah; Shaikh, Shaffi Ahamed; Al Mane, Hamad; Aldiris, Abdallah; Hammad, Durdana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68%) women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80) g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was present in 40% (390) women. Mean (±SD) for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17) fL, 26.37 (±6.21) pg, 32.36 (±4.91) g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65)%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76) and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05) were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97) was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24205435

  16. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors in Child Bearing Age Women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    AlJohara M. AlQuaiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured with Coulter Cellular Analysis System using light scatter method. Setting. PHCC. Subjects. 969 (68% women out of 1429 women were included in the analysis. Results. Mean hemoglobin was 12.35 (±1.80 g/dL, 95% CI 12.24–12.46 with interquartile range of 1.9. Anemia (Hb <12 g/dL was present in 40% (390 women. Mean (±SD for MCH, MCV, MCHC, and RDW was 79.21 (±12.17 fL, 26.37 (±6.21 pg, 32.36 (±4.91 g/dL, and 14.84 (±4.65%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that having family history of iron deficiency anemia (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.78–4.76 and infrequent intake of meat (OR 1.54, 95%CI 1.15–2.05 were associated with increased risk of anemia, whereas increasing body mass index (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.97 was associated with reduced risk of anemia. Conclusion. Women should be educated about proper diet and reproductive issues in order to reduce the prevalence of anemia in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in illegal residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Ziad A Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan, aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8% had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85% held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45% had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9% followed by the married ones (40.4%. Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%, whereas women (73.4% cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.

  18. Current trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis molecular epidemiology in Saudi Arabia and associated demographical factors.

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    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright; Al-Habobe, Farah; Shoukri, Mohammed M; Mulder, Arnout; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-06-01

    Data are scarce on demographical factors related to the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia. A study was conducted on 902 clinical isolates to explore current trends in the phylogeography and associated demographical factors of tuberculosis by using spoligotyping and 24 loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. Young male patients (aged 16-29 and 30-44) were predominant in this cohort. The phylogenetic diversity among M. tuberculosis isolates was found high, as almost all known genetic lineages were identified. Delhi/CAS (26.4%), EAI (13.7%) and Haarlem (11.3%) were the most common lineages observed, particularly among the low age groups (16-29 and 30-44 years), whereas elderly patients (>60 years) showed a predominance in the lineages S, Ghana, TUR and Uganda-I. A statistically significant association was observed between gender of the patients and lineages of EAI (p value 0.026) and LAM (p value 0.005). Overall, molecular strain cluster rate was 34.4% with an elevated rate among patients aged below 15 years (43.1%), while cases among the elderly (>60 years) showed the lowest degree of clustering (12.5%). The largest level of clustering was noticed among cases caused by strains of the lineages Haarlem (59.8%), Beijing (55.8%) and LAM (42.8%). The current population structure of M. tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia is highly diverse with significant associations to demography, transmission dynamics and origin of the patients. The difference in genotype distributions among low and high aged patients reflects the ongoing change in the strain population structure in the country.

  19. Emergence of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci at a Teaching Hospital, Saudi Arabia

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    Alotaibi, Fawzia E; Bukhari, Elham E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a major and emerging hospital-acquired pathogen associated with high mortality, particularly among the critically ill and Intensive Care Units (ICUs) patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and demographic and clinical characteristics of VRE among patients admitted to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A study was conducted during the period from September 2014 to November 2015 at King Khalid University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, including in-patients with VRE infection. Data were collected using laboratory results and the medical records of admitted patients and were analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 statistical software. Results: In a one-year period, 231 enterococci were isolated from blood, urine, exudates, sputum, stool, and body fluid. There were 191 (82.7%) vancomycin-sensitive enterococci (VSE) and 40 (17.3%) isolates were VRE. The Enterococcus species included E. faecalis 168 (72.7%), E. faecium, 53 (22.8%) E. gallinarum 5 (2.2%), and E. avium 5 (2.2%). VRE were more significant from blood specimens (P < 0.0001) while VSE were significantly more predominant from urine specimens (P < 0.0001). VRE were more commonly isolated from patients in ICUs and oncology unit (P = 0.0151 and P < 0.001, respectively) while VSE were more predominant in the medical and surgical areas (P = 0.0178 and P = 0.0178, respectively). Conclusions: This study highlights the high prevalence of VRE in the hospital and the association of enterococcal infections with high-risk areas and oncology units, which warrant more studies looking for better management of these infections. PMID:28139519

  20. Bottle characteristics of topical international glaucoma medications versus local brands in Saudi Arabia

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    Nasser Al-Jumaian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What Is Known and Objective: Physical bottle characteristics differ of brand name topical glaucoma medications and local generic equivalents. This study compares the bottle characteristics of international topical glaucoma brands versus local brands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected on bottle drum volume, drop volume, bottle "squeezability," bottle tip diameter, labels and instructions, cap color coding, and clarity of the drug label. Density-based calculations of drops in bottle volume were assessed using an analytic balance. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. A Likert scale-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective opinions of patients on bottle squeezability, clarity of usage and storage instructions, and the consistency of the cap color coding. Results: The volumes of international brands were statistically significantly higher than the local brands (P < 0.001. A number of drops per bottle and tip diameter were comparable between the international local brands. Cap color coding was inconsistent for international and local brands. Patients were dissatisfied with the label font size. Patients reported that the international and local brands were similar in terms of the ease of opening the bottle, instilling a drop, and the clarity of the instructions; but the local brands were subjectively easier to squeeze than international brands. What Is New and Conclusions: This is the first study to compare bottle characteristics of local Saudi Arabia brands with international brands. The bottle characteristics and patient feedback were similar between the local and international topical glaucoma medications. However, there were differences between the local and international brands in drug volume, bottle squeezability. Hence, patient compliance and drop dosage may differ based on the origin of manufacture.

  1. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

  2. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohammad H. Al-Hemairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%, and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA was the commonest (36.5%, followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92% and 30 (36.6%, respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%. Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5% and in 5 (21.7% of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%, high ESR in 45 (54.8%, and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%. Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5% mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52% patients (out of 23 had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9% required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3% required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23% required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients in local public hospitals of Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Omar Hassen Amer; Ibraheem M Ashankyty; Najoua Al Sadok Haouas

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients in Hail, Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 130 patients (69 females and 61 males) in Hail General Hospital. Each sample was examined by direct wet mount microscopic examination using both normal saline and Lugol’s iodine preparation and concentration techniques using salt and formol-ether solutions. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian using modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 45.38% (59 cases). Forty-four (33.84%) were found to be infected with one or more intestinal protozoa, 5 (3.84%) were infected with helminthes and 10 (7.69%) had mixed infection with both helminthes and protozoa. The most common intestinal helminth detected was Ancylostoma duodenale (n=5, 3.84%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia sp. and Trichuris trichiura (n=2 for each species, 1.5%). For intestinal protozoa, the coccidian Cryptosporidium parvum (n=25, 19.23%) was the most common followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n=21, 16.15%), Giardia lamblia (n=15, 11.54%), Entamoeba coli (n=5, 3.85%) and Blastocystis hominis (n=3, 2.30%). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in females was significantly higher than in males (P<0.05). Conclusions: This is the first study highlighting that intestinal parasites are still an important public health problem in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Therefore, health education would be the best way to prevent from intestinal parasite infections which are mainly food borne diseases.

  4. Communication skills in pediatric training program: National-based survey of residents′ perspectives in Saudi Arabia

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    Tariq Alofisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good communication skills and rapport building are considered the cardinal tools for developing a patient-doctor relationship. A positive, healthy competition among different health care organizations in Saudi Arabia underlines an ever increasing emphasis on effective patient-doctor relationship. Despite the numerous guidelines provided and programs available, there is a significant variation in the acceptance and approach to the use of this important tool among pediatric residents in this part of the world. Objective: To determine pediatric residents′ attitude toward communication skills, their perception of important communication skills, and their confidence in the use of their communication skills in the performance of their primary duties. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pediatrics trainee residents working in 13 different hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A standardized self-administered questionnaire developed by the Harvard Medical School was used. Results: A total of 297 residents out of all trainees in these centers participated in the data collection. The 283 (95% residents considered learning communication skills a priority in establishing a good patient-doctor relationship. Thirty four percent reported being very confident with regard to their communication skills. Few residents had the skills, and the confidence to communicate with children with serious diseases, discuss end-of-life issues, and deal with difficult patients and parents. Conclusion: Pediatric residents perceive the importance of communication skills and competencies as crucial components in their training. A proper comprehensive communication skills training should be incorporated into the pediatric resident training curriculum.

  5. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

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    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Seasonal Variation in Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

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    Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Wagner, Thomas; Jamil, Mohsin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal distributions of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities over Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during the time period of 2004-2015 are discussed. Data products from the satellite instrument OMI are used. The results show a large NO2 growth over major cities of both countries, particularly the areas with rapid urbanization. Different seasonal cycles were observed over both countries. Especially, seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 over Pakistan is largely impacted by the photolysis rate, OH radical and monsoon rains in addition to soil emissions, agriculture fires and other anthropogenic activities. While in the case of Saudi Arabia, the seasonal variation in tropospheric NO2 is completely driven by thermal power generation. Furthermore, different regions of Pakistan exhibited different seasonal trends. In the provinces of Punjab (north-east), Khyber Paktunkhwa (north-west) and Sindh (south-east), NO2 columns are maximum in winter and minimum in summer months while a reversed seasonality was observed in the province of Baluchistan (south-west). We compared the observed Spatio-temporal patterns to existing emission inventories and found that for the most populated provinces the NOx emissions are clearly dominated by anthropogenic sources. In these areas also the strongest positive trends were observed. NOx released from soils and produced by lightning both together contribute about 20% for the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, while its contribution in Baluchistan is much stronger (~50%). NOx emissions from biomass burning are negligible. This finding can also explain the observed summer maximum in Baluchistan since the highest lightning activity occurs during the Monsoon season. Our comparison also indicates that the inventories of anthropogenic NOx emissions over Pakistan seem to underestimate the true emissions by about a factor of two.

  7. Diversity of Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Carbapenem Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed H. Al-Agamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC > 256 mg/L. Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB-1 (n=16/34 and oxacillinase (OXA-10 (n=14/34 were the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase and penicillinase, respectively. Verona imipenemase (VIM-1, VIM-2, VIM-4, VIM-11, and VIM-28 and imipenemase (IMP-7 variants were found in metallo-β-lactamase producers. A decrease in outer membrane porin gene (oprD expression was seen in nine isolates, and an increase in efflux pump gene (MexAB expression was detected in five isolates. Six serotypes (O:1, O:4, O:7, O:10, O:11, and O:15 were found among the 34 isolates. The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates, followed by O:15 (nine isolates. PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. Conclusions. These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia.

  8. The pattern of medical errors and litigation against doctors in Saudi Arabia

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    Jamal S AlJarallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse events are frequent in clinical practice, but only a few studies in Saudi Arabia have addressed them. The current study was designed to review the lawsuits against healthcare professionals by analyzing records of the cases dealt with by the Medico-legal Committees (MLC in various provinces in Saudi Arabia, in order to determine the pattern of medical errors and litigations in the country. Materials and Methods: A pre-designed data sheet was used to collect data from the records of the Medical Violation Committee (MVC and the Medical Jurisprudence Committee (MJC. The data sheets consisted of information on details of the cases, details on where the error had occurred, and details of the errors. Results: The review of records revealed 642 cases, most of which were from hospitals run by the Ministry of Health (MOH. The operating room was where most of the errors (20.4% had occurred, followed by the emergency room (18.1%. Surgery was at the top of the specialties (25.1%. Most of the deaths occurred in surgery and obstetrics (about 25% for each, followed by other medical specialties (17%. About half of the lawsuit cases studied (46.5% involved patients belonging to a relatively young age group (20-50 years. Conclusion: Most of the medical error litigations involved surgeons and obstetricians especially in MOH hospitals. The process of litigations and documentation need to be improved, and access to the records for research and education need to be made easier. In addition, there is a need for more prospective field studies.

  9. Knowledge of and Attitude Toward Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Among Psychiatrists in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHadi, Ahmad N.; AlShiban, Abdulrahman M.; Alomar, Majed A.; Aljadoa, Othman F.; AlSayegh, Ahmed M.; Jameel, Mohammed A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to assess psychiatrists' knowledge of and attitudes toward repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Saudi Arabia and to determine the contributing factors. Methods A quantitative observational cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. The sample consisted of 96 psychiatrists in Saudi Arabia. A new valid and reliable questionnaire was developed. Results A total of 96 psychiatrists enrolled in the study, 81% of whom were men. Half of the participants were consultants. The sample mainly consisted of general psychiatrists (65%). The mean age of the participants was 37 years. The results showed that 80% of the psychiatrists had a sufficient level of knowledge about rTMS. Consultants had greater knowledge than residents. Training abroad was not significantly associated with the level of knowledge or the type of attitude. Most psychiatrists (79%) had a positive attitude toward rTMS. Only 53% of the psychiatrists said they would agree to receive rTMS if they experienced a psychotic depressive condition. A minority of psychiatrists (7%) said they would not refer their patients for rTMS. Conclusions Most of the psychiatrists surveyed had good knowledge of and a positive attitude toward rTMS. Those who had a high level of training and experience showed higher levels of knowledge. Articles were reported to be a better source for improving physician knowledge than textbooks. Having a family member or relative who was treated with rTMS positively affected psychiatrists' attitudes toward rTMS. PMID:27564426

  10. Attitudes and perceptions towards HPV vaccination among young women in Saudi Arabia

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    Aneela N Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by effective vaccination. Saudi Food and Drug Administration approved prophylactic HPV vaccine in 2010 for females of 11-26 years. Objectives: To determine the awareness of HPV infection, its health sequel and the attitude and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccine by young women in Saudi Arabia. Dynamics influencing the decision of patients and parents regarding vaccination were assessed to foster effective and strategically focused interventions. Materials and Methods: All patients of Family Medicine department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh were invited to participate in this study from January 2012 to June 2014. A culturally sensitive and specially designed questionnaire was administered using an interview-based model to assess the knowledge, perception, and associated sociodemographic factors of HPV. Results: A total of 325 patients participated as per the inclusion criteria: 87.4% were Saudis, 53.5% had university or higher education and 65.2% were adolescents (age 11-19 years. The questionnaire was answered by participants (50.8% or guardians (49.2%. About 34.5% of the population was aware of HPV infection, and 27.4% were aware of its relation with cervical cancer. However, awareness of the HPV vaccine, perception of its prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease was relatively low (32.3%, Saudis (29.9% versus non-Saudis (48.8% (P = 0.016. More guardians (41.2% were aware of the HPV vaccine and its impact than participants (27.9% (P = 0.01. Higher educational background (43.1% increased the knowledge of HPV compared to less than high school education (24.5% (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-3.76. Nearly 64.3% of participants agreed, and 35.7% refused to receive the HPV vaccine. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception of HPV infection as an sexually transmitted infections and

  11. Imaging of magma intrusions beneath Harrat Al-Madinah in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.; El-Masry, Nabil; Moufti, Mohamed Rashad; Kenedi, Catherine Lewis; Zhao, Dapeng; Zahran, Hani; Shawali, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle beneath Harrat Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia, are obtained by inverting high-quality arrival-time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events recorded by newly installed borehole seismic stations to investigate the AD 1256 volcanic eruption and the 1999 seismic swarm in the study region. Our tomographic images show the existence of strong heterogeneities marked with low-velocity zones extending beneath the AD 1256 volcanic center and the 1999 seismic swarm area. The low-velocity zone coinciding with the hypocenters of the 1999 seismic swarm suggests the presence of a shallow magma reservoir that is apparently originated from a deeper source (60-100 km depths) and is possibly connected with another reservoir located further north underneath the NNW-aligned scoria cones of the AD 1256 eruption. We suggest that the 1999 seismic swarm may represent an aborted volcanic eruption and that the magmatism along the western margin of Arabia is largely attributed to the uplifting and thinning of its lithosphere by the Red Sea rifting.

  12. Characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of propolis from Al-Bahah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnakady, Yasser A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Franke, Raimo; Abutaha, Nael; Ebaid, Hossam; Baabbad, Mohannad; Omar, Mohamed O. M.; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A.

    2017-02-01

    Propolis has been used to treat several diseases since ancient times, and is an important source of bioactive natural compounds and drug derivatives. These properties have kept the interest of investigators around the world, leading to the investigation of the chemical and biological properties and application of propolis. In this report, the chemical constituents that are responsible for the anticancer activities of propolis were analyzed. The propolis was sourced from Al-Baha in the southern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Standard protocols for chemical fractionation and bioactivity-guided chemical analysis were used to identify the bio-active ethyl acetate fraction. The extraction was performed in methanol and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major compounds are triterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 74.0%; steroids, with a relative concentration of 9.8%; and diterpenoids, with a relative concentration of 7.9%. The biological activity was characterized using different approaches and cell-based assays. Propolis was found to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-α-tubulin antibodies and cell cycle analysis indicated that tubulin and/or microtubules are the cellular targets of the L-acetate fraction. This study demonstrates the importance of Saudi propolis as anti-cancer drug candidates.

  13. Sequence Diversity of VP4 and VP7 Genes of Human Rotavirus Strains in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Al-Malky, Mater I R; Alsulaimani, Adnan A A; Abuelsaad, Abdelaziz S A; Mohamed, Imad; Ismail, Ayman K

    2015-12-01

    Group A rotavirus is responsible for inducing severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are used to control the disease in many countries. In the current study, the sequences of human rotavirus G and P types in Saudi Arabia are reported and compared to different relevant published sequences. In addition, the VP4 and VP7 genes of the G1P[8] strains are compared to different antigenic epitopes of the rotavirus vaccines. Stool samples were collected from children under 2 years suffering from severe diarrhea. Screening of the rotavirus-positive samples was performed with rapid antigen detection kit. RNA was amplified from rotavirus-positive samples by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for both VP4 and VP7 genes. Direct sequencing of the VP4 and VP7 genes was conducted and the obtained sequences were compared to each other and to the rotavirus vaccines. Both G1P[8] G1P[4] genotypes were detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the detected strains belong to G1 lineage 1 and 2, P[8] lineage 3, and to P[4] lineage 5. Multiple amino acid substitutions were detected between the Saudi RVA strains and the commonly used vaccines. The current findings emphasize the importance of the continuous surveillance of the circulating rotavirus strains, which is crucial for monitoring virus evolution and helping in predicting the protection level afforded by rotavirus vaccines.

  14. Nationalization Scheme (Nitaqat in Saudi Arabia and the Condition of Filipino Migrant Workers

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    Henelito A. SEVILLA, Jr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of few countries in the developing world that heavily relied on exporting its laborers to sustain its economic growth. Despite attempts by previous administrations to minimize sending Filipino workers abroad by improving working condition at home so that working abroad would no longer be compulsory but optional, many Filipinos continue to leave the country hoping to alleviate their families from poverty. This idea of working abroad has several implications for migrant workers especially in regions where labor policies are not clearly laid down and that rights and welfare of migrant workers are not protected. This paper seeks to elucidate the conditions of Overseas Filipinos Workers (OFWs in Saudi Arabia which strictly implemented “Saudization”2 policy since 2011. In particular, the paper tries to address the following questions: What does “Saudization” (nitaqat mean from Filipinos’ perspectives?; Who are affected by this policy and Why have OFWs been affected by such policy?; How did undocumented or illegal OFWs survive in previous years?; What policies they have implemented to counter it? This paper is centered on its main thesis that Saudi Nationalization policy, which is centered on solving socio-economic problems facing the young and unemployed population in several Gulf countries, has been the driver for these governments to strictly implement such a law and that many migrant workers including Filipinos working on specific areas together with undocumented ones are gravely affected.

  15. Women Health in Saudi Arabia: A review of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Alquaiz, Aljoharah; R Siddiqui, Amna; H Qureshi, Riaz; A Fouda, Mona; A Almuneef, Maha; A Habib, Fawzia; M Turkistani, Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    This is a review of the changing pattern of chronic diseases among women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data from national surveys conducted in KSA, whose results were published between 1996 and 2011 were used. The results showed that over a period of ten years the prevalence of obesity increased in Saudi women from 23.6% to 44.0% and in men from 14.2% to 26.2%; self-reported physical inactivity worsened in both women (from 84.7% to 98.1%) and men (from 43.3% to 93.9%); prevalence of smoking in women increased (from 0.9% to 7.6%), while it declined in men (from 21.0% to 18.7%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly greater in women than men (42.0% versus 37.2%; p women are potentially at a greater risk than a decade ago to develop cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, with a notable increase in obesity compared to men.

  16. The Role of Social Media in Promoting Women's Health Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sara; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Social media has the potential to improve women's health in developing countries through health education and promotion. In the Arab world, women's health interventions are lacking. However, with a high penetration rate of social media in the Arab world, there is good opportunity to utilize social media platforms such as Twitter to promote women's health. In this paper, we analyze the Tweet feeds of Saudi-based Twitter account to promote women's health. A total of 5167 Tweets were extracted and analyzed retrospectively, using NVivo Ncapture between June 2014 and March 2015. There were a total number of 3449 followers by March 20, 2015. Results showed that a majority of the Twitter followers (61%, n=2104) were seeking gynecological information, followed by pregnancy related information (27%, n=931), breast-feeding advice (9%, n=310), and other health related information (3%, n=103). Results also showed an increased level of health awareness and comprehension among Twitter followers. Further research is needed to promote women's health in Saudi Arabia and the Arab world through social media platforms such as Twitter and similar platforms including Instagram, Facebook, and YouTube which are also popular in the Arab world.

  17. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Setouhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS. The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2% of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers.

  18. Origin and development of forensic medicine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Madani, Osama Mohamed; Kharoshah, Magdy Abdel Azim; Zaki, Mamdouh Kamal; Galeb, Sherien Salah; Al Moghannam, Salah Ali; Moulana, Ashraf Abdul Raheem

    2012-06-01

    The medicolegal death investigation system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is unique in the world. It is exclusively derived from Islamic judiciary based on Shari'ah law, which is the definitive Islamic law or doctrine. This law is applied on Saudi citizens as well as foreigners. This is different from other Islamic countries, which have a combination of Islamic and other judiciary systems.The forensic medicine centers in KSA are related administratively to the Ministry of Health (MOH) and its subdivisions in the different governorates. They are concerned with forensic medical examination and autopsy, as well as the clinical forensic medical examination of sexual assault cases, and those injured in civil and criminal cases. The assisting laboratories (forensic histopathology, microbiology, serology, forensic chemistry) are working independently under the funding of MOH, whereas the DNA laboratory and other departments of forensic sciences, for example, counterfeiting and forgery unit are related administratively to the Ministry of Interior represented by the Administration of Criminal Evidences. Efforts concerning crime scene investigations are shared with Administration of Criminal Evidences' crime scene investigators.Forensic medicine education in KSA developed in the past few years after the foundation of Saudi specialty certificate in forensic medicine. The certificate is a postgraduation qualification equivalent to a doctorate degree in forensic medicine and requires completion of a 4-year training program in both MOH- and Ministry of Interior-related departments, as well as passing annual evaluation and examination.This review is aimed at providing in the next decade the medicolegal centers with national forensic specialists throughout the kingdom and granting skillful headships for the next generations. Moreover, this review suggests more scientific associations with the academic universities in the various fields of forensic sciences through academic

  19. Motivations and future practice plans of orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamlan, Nasir; Al-Ruwaithi, Moatazbellah M.; Al-Shraim, Nasir; El-Metwaaly, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to explore the criteria used by graduate students while selecting a career as orthodontists and their future aspirations. Materials and Methods: A list of Saudi Board of Orthodontics (SB-Ortho) residents was obtained from the Central and Western regions of the Kingdom and all orthodontic residents (excluding the 1st year residents) were invited to participate in this survey. Permission to contact the orthodontic residents was obtained from the respective program directors. The final study sample composed of 36 orthodontic residents. Results: About 39% of residents chose orthodontic specialty after graduation, nearly 33% selected the career during the undergraduate education while the rest chose the specialty at other stages. Approximately, 67% of the residents chose orthodontic specialty because it is intellectual challenging. Around 25% of residents choose orthodontic to improve their earning and 39% join orthodontic for job prestige. Around 50% of orthodontic Saudi residents planned to use self-ligating brackets; 63.9% planned to use invisalign; 86.1% plan to use temporary anchorage devices. About 72% of residents plan to use a cone-beam computerized tomography; 89% plan to use a digital imaging program; 39% plan to use indirect bonding; and 28% plan to use lingual orthodontics. More than half of the residents showed interest to participate in the research and about a quarter of them were willing to work in small cities. Conclusions: Most of the orthodontic residents in Saudi Arabia take up this specialty as they felt that it was intellectually challenging. The SB-Ortho program adequately prepares the residents in all the modern aspects of the specialty. PMID:24987645

  20. Breast cancer screening in Saudi Arabia: free but almost no takers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charbel El Bcheraoui

    Full Text Available Mammography ensures early diagnosis and a better chance for treatment and recovery from breast cancer. We conducted a national survey to investigate knowledge and practices of breast cancer screening among Saudi women aged 50 years or older in order to inform the breast cancer national health programs.The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health-care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. Female respondents were asked about knowledge and practices of self and clinical breast exams, as well as mammography.Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Among respondents, 1,135 were women aged 50 years or older and were included in this analysis. About 89% of women reported not having a clinical breast exam in the past year, and 92% reported never having a mammogram. Women living in Al Sharqia had the highest rate of mammography use. Women who were educated, those who had received a routine medical exam within the last two years, and those who were diagnosed with hypertension were more likely to have had a mammogram in the past two years.Our results show very low rates of breast cancer screening in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, a country with free health services. This calls for educational campaigns to improve breast cancer screening. Addressing the barriers for breast cancer screening is a public health imperative.

  1. Frequency and spectrum of Wolcott–Rallison syndrome in Saudi Arabia: a systematic review

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    Abdelhadi M. Habeb

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wolcott–Rallison syndrome (WRS is caused by recessive EIF2AK3 gene mutations and characterized by permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM, skeletal dysplasia, and recurrent hepatitis. The frequency of this rare syndrome is largely unknown. Objectives: To define the frequency and spectrum of WRS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA based on published data. Methods: The Medline database was searched for published articles on WRS. The number of reported cases from KSA was compared to the total number of WRS cases reported worldwide. The genotype and phenotype of WRS patients from KSA were reviewed. Results: Ten articles describing 23 WRS patients from 12 Saudi families from 1995 to 2012 were identified. This figure accounts for 27.7% (23/83 of the patients and 22.2% (12/54 of the families with WRS reported worldwide until January 2013. All Saudi patients with WRS presented with PNDM, and they represent 59% of all PNDM cases from WRS. At reporting, 73% of patients experienced recurrent hepatitis, 56.5% had skeletal abnormalities, and 39.1% of them were dead. There was a variation in the phenotype even between affected siblings. Genetic diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 families with no correlation between the genotype and phenotype. Eight of the nine EIF2AK3 mutations were only reported in these families, and one was shared with a patient from Qatar, a neighboring Arab state. Conclusions: No study on the frequency of WRS has been published. However, the available data indicate that KSA has the largest collection of patients with WRS worldwide, and nine of the identifiable EIF2AK3 mutations appear to be confined to Arabs. Establishing a national or international registry for WRS would provide more reliable data on this rare condition.

  2. Sparse evidence of MERS-CoV infection among animal workers living in Southern Saudi Arabia during 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Alsahly, Ahmad; Masri, Malak Al; Heil, Gary L; Anderson, Benjamin D; Peiris, Malik; Khan, Salah Uddin; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-03-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging viral pathogen that primarily causes respiratory illness. We conducted a seroprevalence study of banked human serum samples collected in 2012 from Southern Saudi Arabia. Sera from 300 animal workers (17% with daily camel exposure) and 50 non-animal-exposed controls were examined for serological evidence of MERS-CoV infection by a pseudoparticle MERS-CoV spike protein neutralization assay. None of the sera reproducibly neutralized the MERS-CoV-pseudotyped lentiviral vector. These data suggest that serological evidence of zoonotic transmission of MERS-CoV was not common among animal workers in Southern Saudi Arabia during July 2012.

  3. Hydrogeochemical survey of groundwater for selected areas in the Arabian Shield and in cover rocks, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, John B.; Miller, W. Roger

    1989-01-01

    In the spring of 1984, a hydrogeochemical survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to test ground water as a sampling medium in exploration for mineral deposits. Eighty-one water samples (mostly from wells) were collected. The samples were analysed for the presence and concentration of major cations and anions, as well as a suite of trace elements. Most of the water samples contained high concentrations of dissolved salts. The majority of the samples showed no significant amounts of the trace elements. A few well-water samples contained moderately anomalous concentrations of zinc, molybdenum, and uranium. These anomalies could be due to salinity effects, contamination, or the proximity of mineral sources. This survey has established some baseline water-chemistry data, especially for the trace metals, which to date have not been reported in ground water in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  4. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  5. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Boshra

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  6. Aerosols and water vapor dynamics over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Dogan, Umran

    2014-05-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contains a vast desert area and the home of some of the largest deserts worldwide. This nature subjects the area to numerous dust storms. This is in addition to local emissions transported from industrial activities. The Arabian Peninsula dust storms have a major impact on air quality and affects dust cycle around the world. The nature of dust also affects air, ground traffics, and human health. Aerosols play a pivotal role in global climate change through their effects on the hydrological cycle and solar energy budget. Recently there have been some trials to study the nature of dust over the kingdom using satellite remote sensing and modeling to investigate the impact of aerosols of natural and anthropogenic origins from both local emissions and long-range transport on the air quality and atmospheric composition, yet a lot more needs to be done. In this study, data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board of Terra and Aqua satellites are used to analyze aerosols properties over the thirteen provinces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 2003 to January 2012. This analysis will help to characterize aerosol and cloud properties, and the seasonal hydrological factors to establish the relative contributions of aerosols derived from different regions to the different Saudi provinces and their impacts on local atmospheric composition and air quality. During this period, we have examined possible nature and anthropogenic/natural aerosols/dust sources. The analysis is based on important parameters including the aerosol optical depth (AOD), fine mode fraction (FMF), cloud properties including cloud top temperature (CTT), cloud top pressure (CTP) and the water vapor column. Correlation between water vapor and AOD was observed over three provinces which could be a result of pollution aerosols rather than dust and is, hence, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Increasing anomalous aerosols pattern

  7. Balance of power theory, implications for the U.S., Iran, Saudi Arabia, and a new arms race

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Randall G.

    2008-01-01

    As a study in the Bush Doctrine of preventive warfare, the conflict in Iraq has been of great interest. However, the unintended consequences and the impact on regional instability also demand attention. There is a balance of power struggle taking place between Iran and Saudi Arabia which, because of Iran's nuclear ambitions, has drawn the attention of the international community and the ire of the United States. As a result, policy makers in Washington are compelled to determine a course of ...

  8. LES FEMMES ET LES " DROITS DE L'HOMME " EN ARABIE SAOUDITE [Women and " Human Rights " in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gérard-François

    2012-01-01

    ISBN 978-2-9529157-7-9 EAN 9782952915779; [The issue of women and "Human Dights" in Saudi Arabia can first be studied in consideration of different statistics. Their analysis is illuminated by a comparison with two countries in the Middle East also benefiting from oil revenue, Iraq and Iran, an Arab-Muslim countries where women's experiences less inequality, Tunisia, and Western countries, France. The study highlights the particular situation of women under human rights as contained in the Un...

  9. Public awareness of colon cancer screening among the general population: A study from the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Yasir Mohammed; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for colon cancer aims at early detection and prompt treatment of the disease. Prior knowledge of the disease will contribute to increased participation. However, barriers to performing screening are not known. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire was presented to patients attending the Outpatient Department of a tertiary hospital in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the background knowledge of colon cancer screening, the diagnostic methods used for that ...

  10. Modeling dependence structure between stock market volatility and sukuk yields: A nonlinear study in the case of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Naifar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the dependence structure between sukuk (Islamic bonds yields and stock market (returns and volatility in the case of Saudi Arabia. We consider three Archimedean copula models with different tail dependence structures namely Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank. This study shows that the sukuk yields exhibit significant dependence only with stock market volatility. In addition, the dependence structure between sukuk yields and stock market volatility are symmetric and linked with the same intensity.

  11. Distribution and periodicity of sandflies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) along different altitudes in Asir Region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Kenawy; H.A. Al Ashry; M. Shobrak

    2015-01-01

    Asir Region in the southwest of Saudi Arabia has been a subject for expansion of agricultural projects, urbanization, which presumably have impact on distribution of phlebotomine sandflies. Few reports are available on sandflies in this region which is an important focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Therefore, this study aimed at updating the species composition, distribution and periodical fluctuation of sandflies in this region. Specimens were monthly collected by the Center for Disease Cont...

  12. Analysis and Comparison of Trends in Extreme Temperature Indices in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1985–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S. Alghamdi; Todd W. Moore

    2014-01-01

    This study employed the time series of thirteen extreme temperature indices over the period 1985–2010 to analyze and compare temporal trends at two weather stations in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The trend analysis showed warming of the local air for the city. Significant increasing trends were found in annual average maximum and minimum temperatures, maximum of minimum temperature, warm nights, and warm days for an urban and a rural station. Significant decreasing trends were detected in the ...

  13. Adoption and Barriers to Adoption of Electronic Health Records by Nurses in Three Governmental Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalli, Azza El.

    2015-01-01

    Although electronic health records (EHRs) have been implemented in many hospitals and healthcare providers benefit from their effective and efficient data processing, their evaluation from nurses has received little attention. This project aimed to assess the adoption and barriers to the use of an EHR system by nurses at three governmental hospitals implementing the same EHR software and functionalities in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The study was a cross-sectional, paper-based questionna...

  14. A detailed study on chemical characterization of essential oil components of two Plectranthus species grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of Plectranthus cylindraceus and Plectranthus arabicus grown in Saudi Arabia were analyzed using gas chromatography techniques (GC–MS, GC–FID, Co-GC, LRI determination, and database and literature searches) using two different stationary phase columns (polar and nonpolar). The analysis led to the characterization of a total of 157 different compounds from both oils. In the oil derived from P. cylindraceus, 79 compounds were identified, whereas 13...

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression among Female Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAHIM, Nahla; AL-KHARBOUSH, Dania; EL-KHATIB, Lamis; AL-HABIB, Ahd; ASALI, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2010–2011. A stratified random sample method was used to sel...

  16. Comparison of incubation period distribution of human infections with MERS-CoV in South Korea and Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virlogeux, Victor; Fang, Vicky J; Park, Minah; Wu, Joseph T; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-10-24

    The incubation period is an important epidemiologic distribution, it is often incorporated in case definitions, used to determine appropriate quarantine periods, and is an input to mathematical modeling studies. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease in the Arabian Peninsula. There was a large outbreak of MERS in South Korea in 2015. We examined the incubation period distribution of MERS coronavirus infection for cases in South Korea and in Saudi Arabia. Using parametric and nonparametric methods, we estimated a mean incubation period of 6.9 days (95% credibility interval: 6.3-7.5) for cases in South Korea and 5.0 days (95% credibility interval: 4.0-6.6) among cases in Saudi Arabia. In a log-linear regression model, the mean incubation period was 1.42 times longer (95% credibility interval: 1.18-1.71) among cases in South Korea compared to Saudi Arabia. The variation that we identified in the incubation period distribution between locations could be associated with differences in ascertainment or reporting of exposure dates and illness onset dates, differences in the source or mode of infection, or environmental differences.

  17. The Transfer of HRM Policies and Practices in American Multinational Hotels in Saudi Arabia (P.155-164

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    Amal Hatem Alkhaldi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global   competition   in   the   international   business   environment has   pushed companies to achieve competitive advantage through mergers, acquisitions and through locating their subsidiaries in less developed counties for cost effectiveness. Consequently, the competitive pressure has increased the significance of human resource management (HRM in multinational companies (MNCs, and MNCs have recognised the significance of the transfer HRM process across borders. This study examines the transfer of HRM policies and practices of US MNCs to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the study is to determine the extent to which US MNCs transfer HRM policies and practices from their Headquarters to their subsidiaries in Saudi Arabia; and identify the factors that facilitate and inhibit HRM transfer. The paper is based on an investigation of the interaction between home-country and host-country effects in determining HRM policies and practices in MNCs in the context of the Middle East. The study adopts a mixed methods approach of documentary analysis, focus group interviews of employees and in depth interviews of key informants in four subsidiaries of US owned international hotel chains located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Keywords: Home  country, host  country, human  resource  managem transfer,Institutional theory, culture conditions.

  18. Imagining the Land of the Two Holy Mosques: The Social and Doctrinal Importance of Saudi Arabia in Indonesian Salafi Discourse

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    Chris Chaplin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Salafi Islam within Indonesia has shifted the imaginary boundaries of Islamic identity. Although relatively small in numbers, Salafis propagate a religious discourse linked to scholars in Saudi Arabia. While it cannot be regarded as merely a type of ‘Saudization’, the kingdom is frequently exemplified as a model for a pious society as well as pragmatic solutions on how to deal with contemporary issues ranging from justice to terrorism. Indeed, Saudi Arabia plays a pivotal part in the Salafi imaginary, balancing a historical Islamic past with a modernist religious present and future. Based on fieldwork conducted from 2011 to 2012 in Yogyakarta, this paper builds upon this premise, offering both a description and an analysis of the importance of the kingdom as a source of educational sponsorship but also, more interestingly, as a source of religious authority and social ideals, articulated within contemporary religious literature and the movement’s study sessions (kajian. More pointedly, I argue that actors use Saudi Arabia to construct an imaginary ideal through which social and religious issues are contemplated and compared to apparent Indonesian ‘social corruption’.

  19. Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, synthesize, and summarize issues and challenges related to the culture and language differences of the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in May 2014 to locate published articles. Two independent researchers in consultation with several experts used 4 electronic databases (ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, PubMed, and Cochrane) to scrutinize articles published from January 2000 - March 2014. Each of the studies was given a quality assessment rating of weak, moderate, or strong, and was evaluated for methodological soundness using Russell and Gregory’s criteria. Results: The online literature search identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Lack of knowledge of non-Muslim nurses or culture in Saudi Arabia, difficulties in achieving cultural competence, and culture shock were documented as cultural difference factors. Issues in language difference include the clarity of language use by health care providers in giving information and providing adequate explanation regarding their activities. Conclusion: The available information provided by this review study shows that there is a communication barrier between patients and health care workers such as healthcare workers demonstrate low cultural competency. Despite the fact that the government provides programs for expatriate healthcare workers, there is a need to further improve educational and orientation programs regarding the culture and language in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25828278

  20. A Study of the Spelling Errors committed by Students of English in Saudi Arabia: Exploration and Remedial Measures

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    Paikar Fatima Mazhar Hameed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The craziness of English spelling has undeniably perplexed learners, especially in an EFL context as in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In these situations, among other obstacles, learners also have to tackle the perpetual and unavoidable problem of MT interference. Sadly, this perplexity takes the shape of a real problem in the language classroom where the English teacher has a tough time rationalizing with the learners why ‘cough’ is not spelt as /kuf/ or ‘knee’ has to do with a silent /k/. It is observed that students of English as second/foreign language in Saudi Arabia commit spelling errors that cause not only a lot of confusion to the teachers but also lower the self-esteem of the students concerned. The current study aims to identify the key problem areas as far as English spelling ability of Saudi EFL learners is concerned. It aims to also suggest remedial and pedagogical measures to improve the learners’ competence in this crucial, though hitherto, nascent skill area in the Saudi education system. Keywords: EFL; error-pattern, spelling instructions, orthography, phonology, vocabulary, language skills, language users

  1. Bio-prospecting of Plants and Marine Organisms in Saudi Arabia for New Potential Bioactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina A.

    2016-12-08

    demonstrates the efficiency of the newly developed pipeline using cell-based phenotypic screening. Anti-cancer potential activity was detected in Juniperus phoenicea. Bioactive potential against the reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV virus was confirmed in Avicennia marina leaves. The organic extracts of Actinomycetes bacterial isolates were found active against West Nile Virus NS3 Protease. Here, promising starting point for the potential of drug discovery of plants and marine organism of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Seroepidemiological survey on Rift Valley fever among small ruminants and their close human contacts in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A M; Ashshi, A M; Asghar, A H; Abd El-Rahim, I H A; El-Shemi, A G; Zafar, T

    2014-12-01

    This study describes a seroepidemiological survey on Rift Valley fever (RVF) among small ruminants and their close human contacts in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 500 small ruminants (126 local, 374 imported) were randomly selected from the sacrifice livestock yards of Al-Kaakiah slaughterhouse, in the holy city of Makkah, during the pilgrimage season 1432 H (4-9 November 2011). In addition, blood samples were collected from 100 local workers in close contact with the animals at the slaughterhouse. An RVF competition multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detecting anti-RVF virus immunoglobulin G (IgG)/ immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and an RVF IgM-specific ELISA were used for serological investigations. In total, 84 (16.8%) of the 500 sacrificial sheep and goats tested seropositive in the competition ELISA but no IgM antibodies were detected in the IgM-specific assay. All seropositive samples, comprising 17.91% of the imported animals and 13.49% of the local ones, were therefore designated positive for anti-RVF virus IgG antibody. Among the local personnel working in close contact with the animals, 9% tested seropositive in the RVF competition ELISA. The study indicates that two factors may increase the likelihood of an RVF outbreak among sacrificial animals and pilgrims: i) the large-scale importation of small ruminants into Saudi Arabia from the Horn of Africa shortly before the pilgrimage season, and ii) the movement of animals within Saudi Arabia, from the RVF-endemic south-western area (Jizan region) to the Makkah region, particularly in the few weeks before the pilgrimage season. From these findings, it is recommended that i) all regulations concerning the import of animals into Saudi Arabia from Africa should be rigorously applied, particularly the RVF vaccination of all ruminants destined for export at least two weeks before exportation, and ii) the movement of animals from the RVF-endemic south-western area (Jizan region) of Saudi

  3. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abou Shady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(CA-MRSA are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureusand MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureusisolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecAand PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL+ isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80 were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  4. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers: a comparative study of two cities in Saudi Arabia and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Hala M; Bakr, Alaa Eldin A; Hashad, Mahmoud E; Alzohairy, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular data on community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are still scarce in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. There is almost no data regarding methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence in both countries. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among outpatients attending primary health care centers in two big cities in both countries. A total of 206 nasal swabs were obtained, 103 swabs from each country. S. aureus isolates were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, presence of mecA and PVL genes, SCCmec-typing and spa typing, the corresponding Multi locus sequence typing clonal complex was assigned for each spa type based on Ridom StaphType database. MRSA was detected in 32% of the Egyptian outpatients while it was found in 25% of the Saudi Arabian outpatients. All MRSA isolates belonged to SCCmec type V and IVa, where some isolates in Saudi Arabia remained nontypeable. Surprisingly PVL(+) isolates were low in frequency: 15% of MRSA Egyptian isolates and 12% of MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. Two novel spa types were detected t11839 in Egypt, and t11841 in Saudi Arabia. We found 8 spa types among 20 isolates from Egypt, and 12 spa types out of 15 isolates from Saudi Arabia. Only two spa types t008 and t223 coexisted in both countries. Four clonal complexes (CC5, CC8, CC22, and CC80) were identified in both Egypt and Saudi Arabia. However, the data collected lacked a representation of isolates from different parts of each country as only one health center from each country was included, it still partially illustrates the CA-MRSA situation in both countries. In conclusion a set of control measures is required to prevent further increase in MRSA prevalence.

  5. Nursing in Saudi Arabia: Reflections on the experiences of South African nurses

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    Colette D. Telford-Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe and reflect on the lived experiences of the South African nurses residing and working in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design with a phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected by means of individual interviews and the personal journals of the nurses who met the sampling criteria. The data analysis was done according to Tesch’s descriptive method (in Creswell 1994. The main theme that emerged was one of ‘cultural diversity’. Sub-themes related to the nurses’ religious/spiritual, environmental, emotional/psychological and professional experiences were also identified. A literature control was undertaken to verify the results. Limitations were highlighted, conclusions were drawn and recommendations relating to nursing research, education and practice were made.

    Opsomming

    Die doel van die studie was om die lewenservarings van Suid-Afrikaanse verpleegkundiges wat in die Koningkryk van Saoedi-Arabië werksaam en woonagtig is, te beskryf en daaroor te besin. 'n Kwalitatiewe, verkennende, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsontwerp of strategie van ondersoek, vanuit 'n fenomenologiese benadering, is vir die doel ingespan. Data is ingesamel aan die hand van individuele onderhoude met deelnemers wat aan die kriteria vir insluiting by die steekproef voldoen het en persoonlike joernale wat deur hierdie deelnemers bygehou is. Data- ontleding is volgens die beskrywende metode van Tesch (in Creswell 1994 gedoen. Die hooftema voortspruitend uit die navorsing was dié van ‘kulturele diversiteit’. Verdere temas ten opsigte van verpleegkundiges se godsdienstige/geestelike, omgewings-, emosionele/psigiese en professionele ervarings is ook geïdentifseer. 'n Literatuurkontrole is onderneem om die navorsingsbevindinge te verifieer. Beperkings is uitgelig, en gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings gerig op verpleegkundige

  6. Sources and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Fine Particles in Rabigh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebare, S. R.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Zeb, J.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution research in Saudi Arabia and the whole of Middle East is at its inception, making air pollution in the region a significant problem. This study presents the first detailed data on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations of Black Carbon (BC), ions, and trace metals at Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, and assesses their sources. Results showed several characteristic aspects of air pollution at Rabigh. Daily levels of PM2.5 and BC showed significant temporal variability ranging from 12.2 - 75.9 µg/m3 and 0.39 - 1.31 µg/m3, respectively. More than 90% of the time, the daily PM2.5 exceeded the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 µg/m3. Sulfate, NO3-, and NH4+ dominated the identifiable components. Trace metals with significantly higher concentrations included Si, S, Ca, Al, Fe, Na, Cl, Mg, K, and Ti, with average concentrations of 3.1, 2.2, 1.6, 1.2, 1.1, 0.7, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4 and 0.1 µg/m3, respectively. Based on the Air Quality Index (AQI), there were 44% days of moderate air quality, 33% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, and 23% days of unhealthy air quality throughout the study period. Two categories of aerosol trace metal sources were defined: anthropogenic (S, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Cd, Sb, and Pb) and naturally derived elements (Si, Al, and Fe). The extent of anthropogenic contribution was estimated by the degree of enrichment of these elements compared to the crustal composition. Soil resuspension and/or mobilization is an important source of "natural" elements, while "anthropogenic" elements originate primarily from fossil fuel combustion and industries. Ni and V correlated strongly pointing to combustion of heavy fuel oil as the likely source. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to obtain information about possible sources. Our study highlights the need for stringent laws on PM2.5 emission control to protect human health and the environment.

  7. Feasibility of using a subsurface intake for SWRO facility, south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Almashharawi, Samir

    2014-07-25

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the largest producer of desalinated water with about 13% of the global desalination capacity. Most of these desalination plants use the open-ocean intakes to deliver raw seawater to the desalination facility. Recently, some of the private desalination plants have shifted to subsurface intake systems, either wells or galleries, in order to obtain better water quality with a minimal environmental impact (e.g. minimal entrainment and impingement). The use of these intake types has improved the raw seawater quality extracted from the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, providing better protection for the membrane component by eliminating/reducing algae, bacteria and organic matter concentrations from the seawater source. One of these desalination plants is located south of Jeddah city which is the second largest city in Saudi Arabia. The plant shifted from an open-ocean intake to beach wells to improve the water quality at the site. Currently, the plant employs 10 vertical wells to extract enough water to produce 10,000 m3/d of product water via the reverse osmosis process. Studies show that quality of seawater significantly improved after shifting to the well system. The use of a larger capacity well system or a seabed gallery intake was investigated at this site for a proposed additional 20,000 m3/d future expansion of the facility. More than 60 sediment samples were collected from the seabed along five different transects in an area of 25,000 m2, starting from shoreline and moving seaward. Grain size analyses, hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage were analyzed in order to determine the characteristic of marine sediments at the studied site. The marine bottom at the selected site contains carbonate sediments which have a high potential of reducing the natural organic matter concentration in the raw seawater. In this study, the laboratory measurements showed that this site has low mud content and moderately high hydraulic conductivity, which

  8. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  9. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

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    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives of the current work were to 1 determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of male college students in KSA and 2 determine the relationship between the students' body weight status and composition and their eating habits. Methods A total of 357 male students aged 18-24 years were randomly chosen from College of Health Sciences at Rass, Qassim University, KSA for the present study. A Self-reported questionnaire about the students' eating habits was conducted, and their body mass index (BMI, body fat percent (BF%, and visceral fat level (VFL were measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software, and the Chi-square test was conducted for variables. Results The current data indicated that 21.8% of the students were overweight and 15.7% were obese. The total body fat exceeded its normal limits in 55.2% of the participants and VFL was high in 21.8% of them. The most common eating habits encountered were eating with family, having two meals per day including breakfast, together with frequent snacks and fried food consumption. Vegetables and fruits, except dates, were not frequently consumed by most students. Statistically, significant direct correlations were found among BMI, BF% and VFL (P Conclusions Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight, obesity and elevated body fat, and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

  10. Pattern of drug overdose and chemical poisoning among patients attending an emergency department, western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad; Jan, Saber; Farahat, Fayssal; Attar, Ahmad; Alsaywid, Basim; Abuznadah, Wesam

    2015-02-01

    Poisoning is a medical emergency that represent a major health problem all over the world. Studies on drug overdose and chemical poisoning are very limited in Saudi Arabia (SA). We aimed to describe the current pattern and assess risk factors of drug overdose and chemical poisoning in King Khalid National Guard hospital, Jeddah, SA. Medical records of patients attended emergency department in King Khalid National Guard hospital during the period from January 2008 to December 2012 due to drug overdose and chemical poisoning were reviewed. A total of 129 cases were included in the study. The majority of the population was Saudi (97.7 %), and almost half of them were females (54.3 %). Children under 12 years were the most affected age group (44.2 %). Drug overdose was the most common cause of poisoning (92.2 %). Analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs represented the highest percentage of used medications (20.4 %). The most commonly reported symptoms were symptoms of the central nervous system (57.4 %) followed by GIT symptoms (41.9 %). Intentional poisoning was reported in 34 cases (26.4 %). Female patients were significantly more likely to attempt suicide than male patients (OR = 7.22, 95 % CI = 1.70, 30.62). Children continue to be at high risk for medication and chemical poisoning. Accessibility to medications at homes encountered for most of poisoning cases among children. Implementing methods to raise public awareness and minimize children access to medications would significantly contribute to reducing burden of this problem on the community.

  11. Customer Satisfaction and Brand Switching Intention: A Study of Mobile Services in Saudi Arabia

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    Mahmoud ABDEL HAMID SALEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to investigate first, the relationship between the customer satisfaction and brand switching intention into the Saudi Arabian mobile-service market, and second, the association of service quality, customer service, service pricing, and value-added services with the customer satisfaction. Because of the difficulty of having a frame for the mobile-service customers from their providers, a convenience sample of 350 online respondents with the proper surveying techniques was used in data analysis and testing of the research hypotheses. The findings of the study confirm a significant negative relationship between customer satisfaction and brand switching intention. A 4% percent of the change in brand switching intention could be explained by the change in the customer satisfaction. Only three variables; customer service, service pricing, and service quality are critical determinants for mobile-service customer satisfaction. Customer service explained about 22%, whereas service pricing and service quality explained about 5% and 1% of the change in customer satisfaction respectively. The practical value of this study could be enabling the mobile-service providers in Saudi Arabia to well understand the determinants of the customer satisfaction and its negative relationship with brand switching intention. They may take these findings into account when setting marketing strategies to differentiate their brands to satisfy the customer needs and wants, to retain the existing customers and to attract new customers. These strategies have a positive effect on the company’s customer satisfaction that deter brand switching intention, hence increase the company’s competitiveness, market share and profitability.

  12. Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmed Mandil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%; food handlers/hospitality workers (20 % and employers (5 %. Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%, but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3% was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6% and chewing tobacco (2.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male, marital status (single, and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. Conclusion: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves.

  13. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre- and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

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    Al Mansour MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 4Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia Background: Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development.Objective and setting: This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013 and second (year 2013–2014 intake (n=26 and 39, respectively were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance.Results: Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items

  14. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  15. 46. Nurses perception of rapid response team in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia

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    Emad Mraweh Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the last 30 years, the goal of improving the survival rate for patients post cardiopulmonary arrest has remained unattainable. This apparent failure to rescue opened the door to devise new strategies to improve patient outcomes at the onset of subtle deterioration, rather than at the point of cardiac arrest. Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI introduced the Rapid Response Team (RRT as one of the six preventative steps to save lives. Nurses’ perceptions of the RRT influenced by the content and process support provided. Nurses are responsible to detect the early signs of deterioration, and activate the RRT service. The aim of this cross sectional descriptive study was to examine nurses’ perceptions about the effect of the RRT and perceived content and process support in managing patient deterioration by using mental model maintenance and building at individual, group and hospital levels in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 300 nurses were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The study findings showed that the overall perceptions about the RRT were high. There was a significant positive correlation between the frequent utilization of the RRT and the perceived content support. The analysis of the open ended questions indicated that there were more advantages to have the RRT service than disadvantages. This study suggested that RRT service is influential in improving nurses’ perceptions about managing Patients’ deterioration. Training program about RRT utilization should include both content and process support, which may enhance building and maintaining mental model.

  16. Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2016-04-07

    Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table.

  17. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  18. Economical Feasibility of Utilizing Photovoltaics for Water Pumping in Saudi Arabia

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    Ahmet Z. Sahin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and water are the two major need of the globe which need to be addressed for the sustenance of the human beings on this planet. All the nations, no matter most populous, developed and developing need to diversify the means and ways of producing energy and at the same time guarding the environment. This study aims at techno economical feasibility of producing energy using PV solar panels and utilizing it to pump-water at Dhahran, Riyadh, Jeddah, Guriat, and Nejran regions in Saudi Arabia. The solar radiation data from these stations was used to generate electricity using PV panels of 9.99 kW total capacity. Nejran region was found to be most economical in terms of minimal payback period and cost of energy and maximum internal rate of return whereas PV power production was concerned. Water-pumping capacity of the solar PV energy system was calculated at five locations based on the PV power production and Goulds model 45J series of pumps. Monthly total and annual total water pumping capacities were determined. Considering the capital cost of combined solar PV energy system and the pump unit a cost analysis of water pumping for a well of 50 m total dynamic head (TDH was carried out. The cost of water pumping was found to vary between 2 and 3 /m3.

  19. Variations in basic demographics consequential to population size of governorate in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khraif, Rshood; Salam, Asharaf Abdul; Potty, Rajaram Subramanian; Aldosari, Ali; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; AlMutairi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia, divided into 5 planning regions, 13 administrative regions and further to 118 governorates (administrative units), has diverse demographic characteristics from one region to another and from one governorate to another. Rural to urban migration and an exodus of immigrants characterize the Kingdom, where development planning depend largely upon local level requirements based on economic activities. An attempt was made to analyze the population characteristics, such as population size, sex ratio, native to foreigner ratio, and households and persons per households by keeping governorate as unit of analysis. Data of two census period (2004 and 2010) was used in order to explore the situation and track the intercensal changes. Large variations in population were observed between governorates and it varied from 3686 to 5,007,886 in 2010. Governorates are divided according to the number of native population demarcating urbanization, modernization and infrastructure. During the intercensal period, the number of small governorates reduced and medium and large sized governorates increased mainly due to population growth. The average population in governorates was increased in total and in the larger governorates during the period. However, we noticed a reduction in the average population size in the small and medium sized governorates. The size of native population in a governorate influences the sex ratio, the native-foreigner ratio and the persons per household as well as the variations within the group of governorates. Analyses of lower level data shall aid not only to understand the situation but also to support local development policies.

  20. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity.

  1. SEROLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS-2 INFECTION IN BACKYARD AND COMMERCIAL POULTRY BIRDS IN SAUDI ARABIA

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    A. N. ALKHALAF

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Serological survey was conducted to detect avian paramyxovirus serotype-2 (APMV-2 antibodies in commercial and backyard bird flocks, using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. Sera were collected from 212 commercial and 56 backyard birds. Age of commercial birds ranged from one-day old to 62 weeks. In the backyard birds, seroprevalence of APVM-2 was 71.42 and 78.57%, whereas this seroprevalence was 52.35 and 60.84% using the HI test and the ELISA, respectively in commercial poultry birds. No antibodies against APMV-2 were detected in 1-5 days old chicks with either test. The HI test showed the highest positive samples (P<0.05 of APMV-2 in 19-35 days age group (58.33%, followed by age group 11-18 weeks (51.35% and 25-62 weeks (47.05%. Similarly, ELISA also showed the highest positive samples of APMV-2 (68.75% in 19-35 days age group (P<0.05, followed by age group 11-18 weeks (62.16% and 25-62 weeks (56.86%. In conclusion, this study indicated the presence of antibodies to APMV-2 among backyard and commercial poultry birds in Saudi Arabia.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Variability within Uromastyx ornata philbyi (Agamidae: Squamata from Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Sayed A. M. Amer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2.4 kbp of mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from 9 individuals of Uromastyx ornata philbyi originating from Taif, Namas, Al-Baha, and Jazan in southwestern Saudi Arabia. The sequenced regions cover eight tRNA genes (tRNAGln, tRNAIle, tRNAMet, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, and tRNATyr and two protein-coding genes (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b. U. ornata philbyi had an insertion of 170 bp length between tRNAGln and tRNAIle genes. The first 128 bp of this insertion was similar to the one identified earlier in U. ornata ornata and can be folded into a stem-and-loop structure, which was less stable in U. ornata philbyi than in U. ornata ornata, or the second tRNAGln gene. The next 42 bp of the insertion was unique in U. ornata philbyi and additionally retained a stable stem-and-loop structure. Most base substitutions found in the sequenced genes were synonymous transitions rather than transversions. Tree analyses supported the sister group relationship between the two U. ornata subspecies and divided U. ornata philbyi into two groups: Taif+Namas group in the east of Sarawat and Al-Baha+Jazan group in the west of Sarawat. These molecular data are in agreement with current classification of U. ornata.

  3. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned.

  4. Epidemiological Pattern of Newly Diagnosed Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Taif, Saudi Arabia

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    Naglaa Mohamed Kamal Alanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Type-1-diabetes mellitus (T1DM is the most commonly diagnosed type of DM in children and adolescents. We aim to identify the epidemiological profile, risk factors, clinical features, and factors related to delayed diagnosis or mismanagement in children with newly diagnosed T1DM in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. Ninety-nine newly diagnosed patients were included in the study along with 110 healthy controls. Patients were classified into 3 groups (I: >2 years, II: 2–>6 years, and III: 6–12 years. Both patients and controls were tested for C-peptide, TSH, and autoantibodies associated with DM and those attacking the thyroid gland. Results. Diabetic ketoacidosis was present in 79.8%. Delayed and missed diagnoses were recorded in 45.5%, with significant correlation to age and district of origin. Severity at presentation showed significant correlation with age and cow’s milk feeding. Group I, those with misdiagnosis or positive DM related autoantibodies, had more severe presentations. The correlation of C-peptide and TSH levels in patients and controls was significant for C-peptide and nonsignificant for TSH. Conclusion. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement are common and account for more severe presentation, especially in young children >2 years. Early introduction of cow’s milk appears to be a risk factor for the development of T1DM.

  5. Perceived and Ideal Body Image in Young Women in South Western Saudi Arabia

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    Atika Khalaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived and ideal body image (BI and associated factors among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 663 university female students. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, BMI, and BI perception (the 9-figure silhouette were obtained. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results. An agreement between actual, perceived, and ideal BI was found in 23% of the participants. Behavioral (activity levels, social (presence of obese parents and fathers’ level of education, and economic factors (households’ monthly income, number of cars in the household, and kind of residence were positively and significantly associated with the desire to be thinner. Similarly, socioeconomic associations (number of sisters and number of cars in the household correlated positively and significantly with the desire to be heavier. Conclusions. The whole family should rather be considered in interventions related to appearance concerns and BI discrepancies. Furthermore, campaigns targeting improvement of adolescents’ physical self-image should be a major priority of the public health sector.

  6. Microzonation Mapping Of The Yanbu Industrial City, Western Saudi Arabia: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Sayed, Sr.; Alarifi, Nassir S.; Lashin, Aref A.

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas along the western coast of Saudi Arabia are susceptible to natural disasters and environmental damages due to lack of planning. To produce a site-specific microzonation map of the rapidly growing Yanbu industrial city, spatial distribution of different hazard entities are assessed using the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP) together with Geographical Information System (GIS). For this purpose six hazard parameter layers are considered, namely; fundamental frequency, site amplification, soil strength in terms of effective shear-wave velocity, overburden sediment thickness, seismic vulnerability index and peak ground acceleration. The weight and rank values are determined during AHP and are assigned to each layer and its corresponding classes, respectively. An integrated seismic microzonation map was derived using GIS platform. Based on the derived map, the study area is classified into five hazard categories: very low, low, moderate high, and very high. The western and central parts of the study area, as indicated from the derived microzonation map, are categorized as a high hazard zone as compared to other surrounding places. The produced microzonation map of the current study is envisaged as a first-level assessment of the site specific hazards in the Yanbu city area, which can be used as a platform by different stakeholders in any future land-use planning and environmental hazard management.

  7. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  8. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk. Dependence Potential and Pattern of Use in Saudi Arabia

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    Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10 to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, reasons for Khat chewing, and DAST-10. Stepwise-logistic regression was used to explore predictors of Khat dependence. Results. The majority of the respondents were married, had a secondary school level of education, were employed, were younger than 35 years old, and were living in rural areas. Many chewers gave more than one reason for using Khat. It was mainly used to increase mental capacity, physical strength, and social entertainment, as well as enhance cheerfulness and orgasms. Statistical modeling of Khat dependence suggested that the most significant predictors were residence (OR = 1.67, P<0.02, frequency of Khat chewing (OR = 4.8, P<0.01, age of starting Khat chewing (OR = 1.15, P<0.01, and time of Khat effect (OR = 1.15, P<0.04. Conclusion. Our study provides important information on the pattern of Khat use and its potential to cause dependence.

  9. Simulating and Forecasting Flooding Events in the City of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghostine, Rabih; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-05-01

    Metropolitan cities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as Jeddah and Riyadh, are more frequently experiencing flooding events caused by strong convective storms that produce intense precipitation over a short span of time. The flooding in the city of Jeddah in November 2009 was described by civil defense officials as the worst in 27 years. As of January 2010, 150 people were reported killed and more than 350 were missing. Another flooding event, less damaging but comparably spectacular, occurred one year later (Jan 2011) in Jeddah. Anticipating floods before they occur could minimize human and economic losses through the implementation of appropriate protection, provision and rescue plans. We have developed a coupled hydro-meteorological model for simulating and predicting flooding events in the city of Jeddah. We use the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model assimilating all available data in the Jeddah region for simulating the storm events in Jeddah. The resulting rain is then used on 10 minutes intervals to feed up an advanced numerical shallow water model that has been discretized on an unstructured grid using different numerical schemes based on the finite elements or finite volume techniques. The model was integrated on a high-resolution grid size varying between 0.5m within the streets of Jeddah and 500m outside the city. This contribution will present the flooding simulation system and the simulation results, focusing on the comparison of the different numerical schemes on the system performances in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. Time-domain electromagnetic tests in the Wadi Bidah District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Vincent J.; Sadek, Hamdy; Smith, Bruce; Tippens, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method was tested in two areas of mineralization in Precambrian rocks in the Wadi Bidah district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Transient-decay voltages in profile mode were measured across the Sha'ab at Tare and Rabathan prospects by use of three transmitterreceiver loop configurations. At the Sha'ab at Tare prospect all of the loop configurations indicated the mineralized zone. Analysis of the coincident loop data at Sha'ab at Tare reveals that gossanous and altered rock of i0 ohm-m resistivity extends to a depth of 35 m, where there is an unweathered, dry mineralized zone of about 1 ohm-m resistivity. The model further suggests that the rocks at a depth of 55 m and below the water table are even less resistive (0. 1 ohm-m). The TDEM method successfully discriminated conductors within from those below the weathered zone at the Rabathan prospect. Conductors below the weathered zone are identified by a lack of transient response in the early part of the transient decay curve, followed by an increasing response in the middle to late parts of the transient decay curve. Results of these limited tests suggest the potential value of integrating TDEM with other geophysical tools in the Kingdom. Recommendations are made to expand these tests into a more comprehensive program that will evaluate the TDEM potential in various geologic environments that are host to mineral deposits of diverse origin.

  11. Prevalence of Some Human Enteroparasites in Commonly Consumed Raw Vegetables in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabre, Refaat M; Shakir, Abdelazim

    2016-04-01

    The problem of parasitic contamination of food, especially fresh vegetables, is not limited to personal hygiene during food preparation but is also widely dependent on the source of the food and the handling it undergoes before it gets to the consumer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate parasitic contamination in eight common raw vegetables in Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 400 samples of raw vegetables obtained from wholesale and retail markets were examined for helminth eggs and larvae and for cysts of different parasites, using standard methods. The prevalence of the parasites was 20.65% in cucumber, 15.76% in cabbage, 14.67% in pea, 14.13% in cress, 13.04% in lettuce, 10.33% in carrot, 8.70% in green onion, and 2.72% in tomato. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P parasite cysts. Parasites are common in vegetables that are frequently eaten raw and, for this reason, may pose a health risk for consumers in Tabuk.

  12. Risk profile of coronary heart disease among the staff members of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohair, Sultan A. L.; Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A. L.; Sharaf, Fawzy; Naeem, Zahid; Midhet, Farid; Homaidan, Homaidan A. L.; Winter, Sandra J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk profile of coronary heart disease (CHD) among the staff members of Qassim University and assess their knowledge in a screening campaign in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among male and female staff at Qassim University campus. All employees of Qassim University were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The study sample size was 233 staff and employees. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 18. The data analysis focused on providing point estimates for the risk factors. Results: The study found that 30% of participants have one or more risk factors for CHD, namely obesity 20.6%, diabetes 10.3%, hypertension 12.4%, dyslipidemia 10.7%, and smokers (11.6%). About 54% of the participants have a family history of at least one chronic disease as a risk factor for CHD. Conclusion: The most common risk factor of CHD among the staff members is obesity by 20.6%. Risk factors for CHD are quite common among Qassim University staff. These findings need to increase the health education and disease promotion program as an important intervention to reduce the occurrence and severity of CHD risk factors and to improve the quality of the life of the staff members of Qassim University.

  13. Soil Erosion Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Wadi Yalamlam Basin, Saudi Arabia

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    Jarbou A. Bahrawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the major environmental problems in terms of soil degradation in Saudi Arabia. Soil erosion leads to significant on- and off-site impacts such as significant decrease in the productive capacity of the land and sedimentation. The key aspects influencing the quantity of soil erosion mainly rely on the vegetation cover, topography, soil type, and climate. This research studies the quantification of soil erosion under different levels of data availability in Wadi Yalamlam. Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques have been implemented for the assessment of the data, applying the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE for the calculation of the risk of erosion. Thirty-four soil samples were randomly selected for the calculation of the erodibility factor, based on calculating the K-factor values derived from soil property surfaces after interpolating soil sampling points. Soil erosion risk map was reclassified into five erosion risk classes and 19.3% of the Wadi Yalamlam is under very severe risk (37,740 ha. GIS and RS proved to be powerful instruments for mapping soil erosion risk, providing sufficient tools for the analytical part of this research. The mapping results certified the role of RUSLE as a decision support tool.

  14. Assessment of Pharmacy Information System Performance in Three Hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, Azza; El-Khafif, Sahar H; Yamani, Wid

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacy information system is one of the central pillars of a hospital information system. This research evaluated a pharmacy information system according to six aspects of the medication process in three hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. System administrators were interviewed to determine availability of functionalities. Then, system users within the hospital were targeted to evaluate their level of usage of these functionalities. The study was cross-sectional. Two structured surveys were designed. The overall response rate of hospital users was 31.7 percent. In all three hospitals studied, the electronic health record is hybrid, implementation has been completed and the system is running, and the systems have computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support. Also, the pharmacy information systems are integrated with the electronic health record, and computerized provider order entry and almost all prescribing and transcription functionalities are available; however, drug dispensing is a mostly manual process. However, the study hospitals do not use barcode-assisted medication administration systems to verify patient identity and electronically check dose administration, and none of them have computerized adverse drug event monitoring that uses the electronic health record. The numbers of users who used different functionalities most or all of the time was generally low. The highest frequency of utilization was for patient administration records (56.8 percent), and the lowest was for linkage of the pharmacy information system to pharmacy stock (9.1 percent). Encouraging users to use different functionalities was highly recommended.

  15. An Evaluation of the Conservation State of Qasr El-Emara, Al-Wajh, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohsen M. SALEH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Qasr El-Emara, located in the center of the old city on Al-Wajh on the Red Sea coast, is an important historical coral building in the north of Saudi Arabia. This research aims to diagnose the current conservation state of Qasr El-Emara and to identify the building materials (stone, mortar, plaster and timber, the construction method and the deterioration and degradation effects on the Qasr El-Emara building. To achieve these objectives, we used a number of investigation and analysis methods, such as: field observations (visual examination, optical microscopy (OM, polarized microscopy (PM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD technique and image analysis (Sigma Scan Pro.5 of SPSS Inc.. The main building materials of Qasr El-Emara were identified as follow: limestone coral (three species, lime, gypsum mortar, two different plaster layers (external and internal lime plaster, and tamarisk wood, used for timbers and dormers. Random rubble (un-coursed was the construction method. The most important aspects of damage we observed were the loss of mortar between the stone blocks, the loss of the external plaster layer, observed especially in the lower part of the building, spread cracks in the plaster layer and in the walls with partial collapses, and surface damage of the timber used for the construction of the main façade.

  16. Tapeworms of rock dove and domestic chicken in Taif area, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrani, Mohammad R; Ashour, Ameen A; Shobrak, M Y

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the tapeworms that parasitize the rock dove Columba livia palastinae and domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus in Taif governorate, Saudi Arabia. A total of 115 rock doves and 105 domestic chicken have been examined. Birds were brought in from the wells and farms inside and outside the city of Taif. In rock doves, the percentage of infection was recorded as Cotugnia digonopora 5.21%, Hymenolepis carioca 10.43%, Raillietina echinobothrida 27.82%, Raillietina tetragona 22.6%. The prevalence of infection recorded in Municipal chicken with different types of tapeworms was Cotugnia digonopora 7.61%, Choanotaenia infundibulum 12.38%, Amoebotaenia sphenoides 7.61%, Raillietina echinobothrida 11.42%, Raillietina tetragona 8.57%, Raillietina (Paroniella) kashiwarensis 4.76%. The overall percentage of infected rock pigeons Columba livia palastinae with tapeworms was 66.1% while the percentage of infected chicken Gallus gallus domestica was 52.3%. The study defined and described this species as classification keys in place.

  17. Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia

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    Khan Z. Jadoon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table.

  18. Exploring the diffusion of tweets designed to raise the road safety agenda in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Yousef A; Sixsmith, Jane

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of understanding the diffusion process in social media such as Twitter as an example of the relationship between new media platforms and health promotion interventions. Evidence-informed tweets were developed, pilot tested and distributed to all followers of the Ministry of Health's Twitter account with the aim of influencing the agenda on road safety in Saudi Arabia. The dissemination pattern and influence of this health communication was assessed. We collected 70 tweets into two groups (29 intervention tweets and 41 additional supported tweets) extracted from the Tweetreach data set and then analysed them using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.Using the concept of innovation/imitation as defined in the Bass Model, we classified retweeting by direct followers as innovation and retweeting by users who were not followers as imitation. In the study, we identify an informative indicator of successful diffusion and propose a novel procedure to measure innovation/imitation coefficients (p and q). We also provided a statistical procedure for evaluating tweet adoption by innovators (influentials) and imitators. In addition, we also assessed the use of message design tools for new media messages. The resulting information can be used to improve public health and health promotion interventions at the levels of planning, design, implementation and evaluation.

  19. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PV/Diesel Energy System in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

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    Makbul A. M. Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential implementation of hybrid photovoltaic (PV/diesel energy system in western region of Saudi Arabia is analyzed in this paper. The solar radiation intensity considered in this study is in the range of 4.15–7.17 kWh/m2/day. The HOMER software is used to perform the technical and economical analysis of the system. Three different system configurations, namely, stand-alone diesel system, and hybrid PV/diesel system with and without battery storage element, will be evaluated and discussed. The analysis will be addressed to the impact of PV penetration and battery storage on energy production, cost of energy, number of operational hours of diesel generators, fuel savings, and reduction of carbon emission for the given configurations. The simulation results indicate that the energy cost of the hybrid PV/diesel/battery system with 15% PV penetration, battery storage of 186.96 MWh, and energy demand of 32,962 MWh/day is $0.117/kWh.

  20. The Expatriate Flow Model - Towards understanding Internet usage in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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    Marie Hattingh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Expatriate adjustment research has identified a number of challenges that expatriates experience when adjusting to the host country. These include spousal influence, cultural training/understanding, fluency in the host language and personality or emotional readiness of the expatriate. These challenges are amplified when it is considered in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which has large cultural distance when compared to an average Western culture and therefore provides a setting for an interesting study. This ongoing study has thus far proposed a theoretical model derived by following Glaser’s Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM. This paper will report on a specific aspect of this proposed model namely the substantive category “degree of flow” which extends the previous discussion of “degree of isolation”. Within the proposed theoretical model, the “degree of flow” experienced by expatriates influences the “degree of isolation” experienced by expatriates. This paper describes how the Flow Theory was operationalized at affective level to aid the understanding of the emotional relationship expatriates in KSA have with the Internet. An expatriate flow model was developed based on the generally accepted three stages of Flow Theory namely: Antecedents to Flow, Experience of Flow and Consequences of Flow.