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Sample records for sauces salix babylonica

  1. Isolation of Secondary Metabolites from the Roots of Salix Babylonica

    Singh, Harpreet; Raturi, Rakesh; Badoni, P. P.

    2017-08-01

    Chemical examination of ethanolic extract of Salix babylonica, root, led to isolation of 2-(Hydroxymethyl) phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside(1) and 2-[(benzoyloxy)methyl]-4-hydroxyphenyl β-D-glucopyranoside 3-Benzoate (2)with previously known compounds β-Sitosterol, kaempferol 7-O-glucoside andapigenin 7-O-galactoside. Compounds 1and 2 had been isolated for the first time from this plant. The structures of the compounds had been elucidated with the help of spectral and chemical studies.

  2. Tratamiento de un efluente textil mediante electrooxidación-Salix babylonica

    Sánchez Sánchez, Hilda Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    A nivel mundial, la industria textil es considerada una de las principales fuentes de descarga que afectan la calidad del agua debido al gran volumen que emplea en sus procesos y al uso de una amplia gama de colorantes sintéticos. En esta investigación se evaluó el tratamiento de un agua residual textil mediante un sistema acoplado de electrooxidación-Salix babylonica usando electrodos DDB. En el estudio, se construyó una celda electroquímica en batch, utilizando 5 electrodos paralelos vertic...

  3. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

    Verónica Loetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  4. Treatment of a Textile Effluent by Electrochemical Oxidation and Coupled System Electooxidation–Salix babylonica

    Alejandra Sánchez-Sánchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from textile wastewater via electrochemical oxidation and a coupled system electrooxidation—Salix babylonica, using boron-doped diamond electrodes was evaluated. Under optimal conditions of pH 5.23 and 3.5 mA·cm−2 of current density, the electrochemical method yields an effective reduction of chemical oxygen demand by 41.95%, biochemical oxygen demand by 83.33%, color by 60.83%, and turbidity by 26.53% at 300 minutes of treatment. The raw and treated wastewater was characterized by infrared spectroscopy to confirm the degradation of pollutants. The wastewater was oxidized at 15-minute intervals for one hour and was placed in contact with willow plants for 15 days. The coupled system yielded a reduction of the chemical oxygen demand by 14%, color by 85%, and turbidity by 93%. The best efficiency for the coupled system was achieved at 60 minutes, at which time the plants achieved more biomass and photosynthetic pigments.

  5. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones

    Verónica LOETTI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Las larvas de N. oligospilus se alimentaron de las hojas de los cuatro clones. Sin embargo, consumieron una proporción significativamente mayor de las hojas de S. babylonica var sacramenta. Estos resultados indican que todos los clones utilizados en los ensayos fueron palatables para el insecto y que S. babylonica var sacramenta es el hospedador preferido para la herbivoría de las larvas.

  6. Densidad y anatomia de la madera en familias mejoradas de sauces en Argentina

    Silvia Monteoliva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue la evaluación de densidad y anatomía de la madera en siete familias de sauces, con vistas a seleccionar clones aptos para la producción de madera para usos sólidos y papel. Se cruzaron progenitores de cinco especies de sauces (S. babylonica, S. alba, S. nigra, S. amygdaloides y S. matsudana, obteniéndose 1800 individuos producto de cruzamientos controlados y polinización abierta, dentro del programa de mejoramiento de sauces del INTA. A los 34 meses se efectuó una primera selección por criterios de crecimiento, sanidad y forma. De esta primera fase de mejoramiento se seleccionaron 218 genotipos sobre los cuales se evaluaron las características anatómicas cuantitativas y la densidad de la madera. Los resultados indican que ninguna familia presenta buenos resultados en todas las propiedades. En una selección priorizando el vigor, la familia 08.09 presentó las siguientes características: buen crecimiento en diámetro (6,1 cm, fibras largas y de pared gruesa (850 µm y 2,22 µm, pocos vasos (94.mm-2 y densidad intermedia a baja (350 kg.m-3. Priorizando el rendimiento, material fibroso e indirectamente la resistencia, las familias 08.01 y 08.07 presentaron: densidad relativamente alta (403 - 397 kg.m-3, fibras largas (836 - 864 µm, vasos pequeños (46 - 45 µm y bajo crecimiento en diámetro (3 - 2,85 cm. Los cruzamientos donde intervienen las especies Salix nigra, S. amygdaloides y S. matsudana se destacaron ya que presentan buenos crecimientos y las mejores combinaciones xilológicas para diferentes destinos industriales.

  7. Soy sauce allergy.

    Sugiura, K; Sugiura, M

    2010-07-01

    Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning. It is important to determine whether inflammation is caused by allergic reactions or histamine poisoning. We determined the volume of histamine in some sauces and performed prick test and laboratory tests. Four patients had positive reactions by prick test after using some sauces. We suspected that histamine caused their symptoms, but nine normal volunteers had negative reactions. Patient's specific IgE score to soy and wheat was class 0. The results showed that the sauce made from soybean and broad bean contained histamine, but histamine in other sauces was not detected. In this study, we confirmed by prick test, four cases of soy sauce allergy, which was caused by some products during brewing. When patients with inflammations around mouth, after a meal containing or using soy sauce, are examined, it should be considered whether dermatitis or cellulites were developed by allergic reaction or by histamine poisoning.

  8. Psychorheology of tartar sauce

    Štern, Petr; Panovská, Z.; Pokorný, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2006), s. 580-596 ISSN 0022-4901 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : emulsions * flavour * psychorheology * rheology * sensory profile * tartar sauce Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2006

  9. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Yoshida, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  10. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  11. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce...

  12. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  13. Salix: A viable option for phytoremediation

    user

    Many animals depend on willows for food. (mostly leaf ... tolerant to deposition and resistant to moderate salinity .... mechanism may enable stabilization of toxic metals ... 'Phytoremediation of Lead, Nickel, and Copper by Salix acmophylla.

  14. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce... with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. “Spaghetti with Meatballs and Sauce” and “Spaghetti with Meat and Sauce,” and similar products shall contain not less than...

  16. Classification of chilli sauces: Multivariate pattern recognition using selected GCMS retention time peaks of chilli sauces samples

    Low, Kah Hin; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain; Mohd Radzi Abas

    2008-01-01

    As a preliminary work on the possibility of separating classes of chili sauces based on taste or customer preferences, organic compounds from different kinds of chili sauces of various brands were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). It was found that these organic compounds do form a basis for separation of different types of sauces. The similarity and dissimilarity of chromatograms due to the organic composition of the chili sauces were explored by multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Both CA and PCA results exhibit four linearly separable classes, namely general sauces, hot sauces, sauces with benzoic acid and sauces with garlic. It was concluded that by using chosen retention peaks in the chromatograms of various sauce samples as multivariate features, CA and PCA can be successfully used to reveal the natural clusters existing in chili sauces according to their organic composition. (author)

  17. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS BY POPULUS AND SALIX

    Young Lee, Keum; Strand, Stuart E.; Doty, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos is one of the commonly used organophosphorus insecticides that are implicated in serious environmental and human health problems. To evaluate plant potential for uptake of chlorpyrifos, several plant species of poplar (Populus sp.) and willow (Salix sp.) were investigated. Chlorpyrifos was taken up from nutrient solution by all seven plant species. Significant amounts of chlorpyrifos accumulated in plant tissues, and roots accumulated higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos than di...

  18. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil fortification in Cambodia: where do we stand to date?

    Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.

  19. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  20. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  1. Starting a Chinese Sauce Company in Helsinki

    Shu, Bing; Shi, Jianan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis is about starting-up a Chinese sauce company in Helsinki. The introduction is about the history of Laoganma company and the missions of a branch company in Helsinki, as well as the aims of the project. The part about market research includes the current situation of Finnish sauce market and a SWOT analysis for a Finnish market entrance. Also, a successful case reflects the developed way for the company. Then, the price and location are defined in the thesis. Sales strategi...

  2. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  3. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  4. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  5. Growth of Populus and Salix Species under Compost Leachate Irrigation

    Tooba Abedi; Shamim Moghaddami; Ebrahim Lashkar Bolouki

    2014-01-01

    According to the known broad variation in remediation capacity, three plant species were used in the experiment: two fast growing poplar’s clones - Populus deltoides, Populus euramericana, and willows Salix alba. Populus and Salix cuttings were collected from the nursery of the Populus Research Center of Safrabasteh in the eastern part of Guilan province at north of Iran. The Populus clones were chosen because of their high biomass production capacity and willow- because it is native in Iran....

  6. Eighteen microsatellite loci in Salix arbutifolia (Salicaceae) and cross-species amplification in Salix and Populus species.

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-07-01

    Salix arbutifolia is a riparian dioecious tree species that is of conservation concern in Japan because of its highly restricted distribution. Eighteen polymorphic loci of dinucleotide microsatellites were isolated and characterized. Among these, estimates of the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.350 to 0.879. Cross-species amplification was successful at 9-13 loci among six Salix species and at three loci in one Populus species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  8. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    Natálya Vidal de HOLANDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory, counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without sensory alteration during the storage period, with olfactory alteration only at the end. The commercial demi-glace sauce remained unchanged until t3 (30 days, from t4 (45 days presented turbid appearance, followed by phase separation and with unpleasant odor in t6 (75 days. The lipid oxidation showed an increased concentration of malonaldehyde at every evaluated time. The artisanal and commercial demi-glace sauces showed a significant difference at t1, t2, t4 and t5, when the artisanal sauce had lower contents of malonaldehyde (18, 23, 36 and 11%, respectively, only at the 30th and 75th days of storage there was significant similarity. The sauces were within the microbiological standards required by the law. Although the artisanal demi-glace sauce does not contain conservatives, its shelf life was similar to the hydrated commercial product.

  9. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  10. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  12. Biochemical Changes in the Fermentation of the Soy Sauce Prepared with Bittern

    Chunqi Mao; Guoqing He; Xinyong Du; Meilin Cui; Shiyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    A new bittern soy sauce was developed; the overall aim of this study was to characterize the quality of the soy sauce. Biochemical changes occurring during experimental soy sauce fermentations were described. Results revealed that, the contents of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars and enzyme activity were slightly lower in soy sauce prepared with bittern than with traditional one. No marked difference in pH was noted between the two types of soy sauce.

  13. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  14. Phytopharmacology and medicinal properties of Salix aegyptiaca L.

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of extracts of Salix family ... Iranian people for its calming effect on heart and possibly its antihypertensive .... cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and even in aging ... with patient's normal activity and are often difficult to stop once the therapy ...

  15. Interaction in Short rotation coppice willow, Salix viminalis genotype mixtures

    Begley, D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCracken, A.R. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]|[Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Dawson, W.M. [Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Seven straight Salix viminalis genotypes with different levels of rust (Melampsora epitea) susceptibility were grown as mono-plots as well as being incorporated into a range of mixtures. Two 3-year harvests (2003 and 2006) were taken. Disease progress was followed on each of the individual genotypes throughout each growing season 2001-2006. In 2003 there were small but significant yield increases from the mixtures compared to the yield of individual components grown as mono-plots. These differences were not evident at the second harvest in 2006. No consistent effect of mixtures on reducing rust on the most susceptible genotype, Salix viminalis '77082' were observed. In some years, e.g. 2003, at certain times during the growing season, significant reductions were observed on Salix viminalis '77082' in certain 3-way mixtures compared to mono-plots. These, however, were not repeated consistently in subsequent years. It was concluded that the current commercial practice in many parts of Europe of planting mixtures as a disease control strategy will only be effective if there is sufficient genetic diversity between the Salix genotypes incorporated into the mixture. (author)

  16. Mycorrhizal symbioses of Salix repens : diversity and functional significance

    Heijden, van der E.W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis investigates the significance of different mycorrhizal fungi, belonging to different functional types (arbuscular mycorrhiza-AM and ectomycorrhiza-EcM), in Salix repens . A comparison between above-ground and below-ground observations on ectomycorrhizal

  17. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of temperature on moromi fermentation of soy sauce with ...

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... temperature of 45°C enhanced the aging of soy sauce, accompanying with lower contents of ethanol ... excretes protease, amylase and other enzymes. These .... produced through the microbial digestion of the starch.

  19. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  20. Nanoscale Phenomena Occurring during Pyrolysis of Salix viminalis Wood

    Aleksandra W. Cyganiuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective utilisation of unique properties of Salix viminalis wood enables preparation of materials of nanotechnologic properties. Thermal decomposition of lignin-cellulose organic matter results in the formation of a nanostructured porous carbon matrix (charcoal. Narrowed pore size distribution (PSD in the subnanometer range allows to consider the charcoals as carbon molecular sieves (CMSs, which are capable of separating even chemically inert gases like neon, krypton, and nitrogen. High tolerance of Salix viminalis to heavy metal ions enables enriching living plant tissues with metal ions like lanthanum and manganese. Such ions may later form LaMnO3 with parallel transformation of plant tissues (organic matter to carbon matrix using a heat treatment. In this way, one gets a hybrid material: a porous carbon matrix with uniformly suspended nanocrystallites of LaMoO3. The crystallites are in the catalytically active phase during the conversion of n-butanol to heptanone-4 with high yield and selectivity.

  1. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    Yang Jingtian; Jin Xinhua; Gu Guoxing; Yun Guichun

    1988-01-01

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both sterilization and improvements in flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. (author)

  2. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... oryzae on the raw material containing a mixture of steam- cooked defatted soybean and ... Contents of total nitrogen and formol titration nitrogen in raw soy sauce were .... process in soy sauce brewing. J. Ferment. Technol.

  3. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduction of salt content of fish sauce by ethanol treatment.

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Ying; He, Xiaoxia; Wang, Dongfeng; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Jiang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Fish sauce is a traditional condiment in Southeast Asia, normally containing high concentration of salt. The solubility of salt is lower in ethanol than in water. In the present study, fish sauce was desalted by ethanol treatment (including the processes of ethanol addition, mixing, standing and rotary evaporation). The salt concentration of fish sauce decreased significantly from 29.72 to 19.72 g/100 mL when the treated ethanol concentration was 21% (v/v). The addition of more than 12% (v/v) of ethanol significantly reduced dry weight, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acids nitrogen content. Besides, the quality of fish sauce remained first grade if no more than 21% (v/v) of ethanol was used. Furthermore, sensory analyses showed that ethanol treatment significantly reduced the taste of salty and the odor of ammonia. This study demonstrates that ethanol treatment is a potential way to decrease salt content in fish sauce, which meanwhile limits the losses of nutritional and sensorial values within an acceptable range.

  5. Suppression of umami aftertaste by polysaccharides in soy sauce.

    Imamura, Miho; Matsushima, Kenichiro

    2013-08-01

    Umami is one of 5 basic tastes that make foods savory and palatable. The umami aftertaste is a long-lasting taste sensation that is important for Japanese broth (dashi) utilized for various Japanese foods. Soy sauce is usually added when making dashi-based dishes; however, different soy sauces produce distinct effects on the umami aftertaste. In this study, we attempted to identify the substances that cause the suppression of the umami aftertaste in soy sauce by combining sensory analysis, size fractionation, chemical analysis, and enzymatic treatment. The suppressive substance was revealed to be polysaccharides with molecular weights between 44900 and 49700. The results of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment suggested that the polysaccharides were cellulose. These results indicate that a type of water-soluble cellulose derived from soybean, wheat, or microorganisms has a suppressive effect on the umami aftertaste of soy sauce. Future studies should focus on developing a strategy that regulates the amount of these polysaccharides generated during soy sauce production, to maintain or enhance the umami aftertaste. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabonomics profiling of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing.

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Wang, Ying; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-03-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce is one of the most popular traditional cured meat products in China. Its taste quality is directly related to primary and secondary metabolites. Herein, the change of metabolite composition of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing was systematically characterised using 1 H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The marinated meat in soy sauce metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 78.6% and 16.6% of variables, respectively. Amino acids, sugars, acetate, succinate, uracil and inosine increased during marinating, while lactate, creatine, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) and anserine decreased (P meat in soy sauce during the late stage of dry-ripening. These findings indicated that the potential of NMR-based metabonomics is of importance for taste quality of marinated meat in soy sauce, which could contribute to a better understanding of the changes of taste compounds in meat products during processing. Shortening the dry-ripening period could be considered to improve the taste quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  9. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  10. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  11. A cross-cultural study of acceptability and food pairing for hot sauces.

    Kim, Hyun-Jee; Chung, Seo-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Nielsen, Belinda; Ishii, Rie; O'Mahony, Michael

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to understand the acceptance levels of hot sauces among consumers from different culinary cultures. Two newly developed hot sauces [fermented red chili pepper with soybean-paste-based sauce(GS) and fermented red chili-pepper-based sauce(KS)] were compared with Tabasco sauce(TB) and Sriracha sauce(SR). Two separate cross-cultural home-use tests(HUTs) were conducted: pizza and cream soup were provided as food items in HUT 1, whereas grilled chicken wings and rice noodle soup were provided in HUT 2. Consumers residing in Denmark, South Korea, and US participated in each HUT (n≅100 per country). Acceptance levels and the reasons for (dis)liking particular hot sauces applied to food systems were assessed. The food items that paired well with different hot sauces when the sauces were applied freely to regular meals were also analyzed among the US and Korean subjects. When the hot-sauce samples were applied to pizza and cream soup, the preferred order of the samples exhibited a cross-cultural agreement (GS = KS > TB). In the case of grilled chicken and rice noodle soup, the acceptance rating was similar for the three types of hot sauces among Koreans, whereas the acceptance was higher for SR among the US subjects for both foodstuffs, while Danish subjects preferred GS and KS over SR. The US subjects did not like hot-sauce samples with sweet and weak spiciness, whereas the Korean and Danish subjects disliked the hot-sauce sample when it was too spicy and not sufficiently sweet. These findings indicate that the matching of particular sauces with specific food items is culture-dependent, and this needs to be considered when trying to export food products such as hot sauce to other countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of salix farmers experiences and attitudes to growing; Utvaerdering av salixodlares erfarenheter och attityder till odling

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, Carina; Olsson, Johanna (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Approximately 16 000 hectares of salix (willow) were planted in Sweden in the early 1990s, driven by subsidies and optimistic market expectations. Today the salix plantations have decreased to approximately 12000 hectares. In this study 29 salix farmers and four entrepreneurs that work with salix harvest were interviewed to find out more about their attitudes to, and experiences of growing salix. Most of the farmers interviewed were not satisfied with their salix plantation. The reasons given were the low profitability and problems with the harvest systems. Key reasons for the low profitability are cited as: old plantations that are planted on poor soil; lack of fertilization; an ineffective organization to taking care of the harvest and to sell the salix chips; and a low price for the salix chips. In addition the system for harvesting needs to be more flexible and there is a need for machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields

  13. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce (moromi, and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format. Keywords: Fish sauce, Chum salmon, Fermentation, Chemical properties, Color

  14. Response of Salix alba L. to heavy metals and diesel fuel ...

    Response of Salix alba L. to heavy metals and diesel fuel contamination. ... Ni and Pb led to reduced accumulation of Pb. Presence of 5 g/kg of diesel fuel in soil significantly increased toxic influence of applied heavy metals by further reducing ... Key words: Cd, Ni, Pb, phytoremediation, phytoextraction, willow, Salix alba.

  15. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

    Amita Bamola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  16. Rapid quantification of iron content in fish sauce and soy sauce: a promising tool for monitoring fortification programs.

    Laillou, Arnaud; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Picq, Christian; Berger, Jacques; Sambath, Pol; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In a number of Southeast Asian countries and China, fish sauce and soy sauce produced at the industrial level are fortified with iron. Unfortunately, the food producers and regulatory agencies implementing fortification programs do not always have the capacity to monitor the programs on an ongoing basis. To assess a new portable device for the quantitative measurement of iron content of fortified sauces that could be used to control fortification levels. The linearity, detection limits, and inter- and intraassay variability of this device were assessed on fish sauce and soy sauce fortified with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); the accuracy of the results was determined by comparing them with the results obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Measurements required a minimum incubation time of 1 hour for iron sulfate or iron fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA. Linearity of the results ranged from 2 to 10 mg iron/L for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and from 1 to 10 mg iron/L for NaFeEDTA, implying the need for proper dilution, as the iron contents of fortified sauce are usually in the range of 150 to 1,000 mg/L. Depending on incubation time, iron compounds, and sauces, the coefficient of variation (CV) of intraassay precision was between 1.5% and 7.6% and the CV of interassay precision was between 2.9% and 7.4%. Comparison with results from atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed high agreement between both methods, with R = 0.926 and R = 0.935 for incubation times of 1 hour and 24 hours, respectively. The Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement between the two methods of +/- 70 mg/L in the range of fortification levels tested (100 to 500 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS; This device offers a viable method for field monitoring of iron fortification of soy and fish sauces after incubation times of 1 hour for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA.

  17. Characterization of fermented seaweed sauce prepared from nori (Pyropia yezoensis).

    Uchida, Motoharu; Kurushima, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kenji; Murata, Yuko; Touhata, Ken; Ishida, Noriko; Niwa, Kentaro; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed. As for their food safety, arsenic was detected at a 0.8 mg/100 g level in total, but inorganic arsenic was not detected (<0.05 mg/100 g) and not regarded as a problem. Allergy-causing substances contained in wheat, soy beans, and crustaceans were not detected (<0.1 mg/100 g) with NSs. These results suggest that the nori sauce has a high potential as a novel nutritional source for humans. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth of Populus and Salix Species under Compost Leachate Irrigation

    Tooba Abedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the known broad variation in remediation capacity, three plant species were used in the experiment: two fast growing poplar’s clones - Populus deltoides, Populus euramericana, and willows Salix alba. Populus and Salix cuttings were collected from the nursery of the Populus Research Center of Safrabasteh in the eastern part of Guilan province at north of Iran. The Populus clones were chosen because of their high biomass production capacity and willow- because it is native in Iran. The highest diameter growth rate was exhibited for all three plant species by the 1:1 treatment with an average of 0.26, 0.22 and 0.16 cm in eight months period for P. euroamericana, P. deltoides and S. alba, respectively. Over a period of eight months a higher growth rate of height was observed in (P and (1:1 treatment for S. alba (33.70 and 15.77 cm, respectively and in (C treatment for P. deltoides (16.51 cm. P. deltoides and S. alba produced significantly (p<0.05 smaller aboveground biomass in (P treatment compared to all species. P. deltoides exhibited greater mean aboveground biomass in the (1:1 treatment compared to other species. There were significant differences (p<0.05 in the growth of roots between P. deltoides, P. euramericana and S. alba in all of the treatments.

  19. Effect of halotolerant starter microorganisms on chemical characteristics of fermented chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce.

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Kawai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Koji; Tanaka, Akira; Nishikiori, Takafumi; Ohta, Tomoki

    2010-05-26

    Chum salmon sauce mash was inoculated with barley koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae ) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii , Candida versatilis , and Tetragenococcus halophilus , in nine different combinations under non-aseptic conditions similar to the industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days. The changes in the chemical components, color, and sensory properties during fermentation were investigated. Free amino acid content was increased, and the browning of fish sauce was enhanced by the usage of barley koji during fermentation. The halotolerant yeast (HTY) produced ethanol and repressed the browning by consumption of reducing sugar. Inoculated Z. rouxii in the fish sauce mash produced 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and 4-hydoxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), and C. versatilis in the fish sauce mash produced 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), known as characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, adding soy-sauce-like flavor to the fish sauce. Thus, inoculation of HTMs and barley koji was effective for conferring the soy-sauce-like flavor and increasing free amino acid and ethanol contents in fish sauce product.

  20. RESISTÊNCIA DO VIMEIRO, Salix spp. (Salicaceae, À PRAGAS E DOENÇAS

    Pedro Boff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a reação de resistência a pragas e doenças de clones locais do vimeiro comum, Salix x rubens, e de espécies introduzidas da Argentina, Chile, Alemanha e França. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo no ciclo de cultivo 2003/2004, em diferentes ecossistemas do Planalto Serrano Catarinense. As avaliações de resistência constaram da estimativa de danos causados pelos insetos e da severidade de doenças foliares. No conjunto de todas as avaliações, os acessos – genótipos introduzidos – EEL_10 (Salix nigra, EEL_08 (Salix sp., EEL_02 (Salix x rubens, EEL_13 (Salix sp., EEL_09 (Salix alba, e EEL_20 (Salix sp. foram os mais resistentes ao ataque de pragas e doenças. Dada a reação diferenciada dos acessos quanto ao ataque de doenças e pragas, as próximas ações de pesquisa devem proceder aos testes de artesanato para verificar a sua adequação à demanda para confecção de peças finas.

  1. Resistência do vimeiro, Salix spp. (Salicaceae, à pragas e doenças.

    Jamille Casa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a reação de resistência a pragas e doenças de clones locais do vimeiro comum, Salix x rubens, e de espécies introduzidas da Argentina, Chile, Alemanha e França. Três experimentos foram conduzidos em campo no ciclo de cultivo 2003/2004, em diferentes ecossistemas do Planalto Serrano Catarinense. As avaliações de resistência constaram da estimativa de danos causados pelos insetos e da severidade de doenças foliares. No conjunto de todas as avaliações, os acessos - genótipos introduzidos - EEL_10 (Salix nigra, EEL_08 (Salix sp., EEL_02 (Salix x rubens, EEL_13 (Salix sp., EEL_09 (Salix alba, e EEL_20 (Salix sp. foram os mais resistentes ao ataque de pragas e doenças. Dada a reação diferenciada dos acessos quanto ao ataque de doenças e pragas, as próximas ações de pesquisa devem proceder aos testes de artesanato para verificar a sua adequação à demanda para confecção de peças finas.

  2. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  3. Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components.

    Kataoka, Shigehiro

    2005-09-01

    The functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) have been studied. Soy sauce promotes digestion, because the consumption of a cup of clear soup containing soy sauce enhances gastric juice secretion in humans. Soy sauce possesses antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella enteritidis, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Soy sauce also contains an antihypertensive component. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor having antihypertensive effects was found in soy sauce. The active compound was identified as nicotianamine, which comes from soybeans. Soy sauce exhibits anticarcinogenic effects. Giving diets containing soy sauce to mice inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach neoplasia. The anticarcinogenic compounds in soy sauce were identified. The flavor components of Japanese style fermented soy sauce, such as 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), which is a characteristic flavor component of Japanese style fermented soy sauce and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) exhibit antioxidant activities and anticarcinogenic effects on BP-induced mice forestomach neoplasia when fed following carcinogen exposure. The feeding of a diet containing 10% soy sauce to male C3H mice for 13 months also reduces the frequency and multiplicity of spontaneous liver tumors. HDMF and HEMF also exhibit anticataract effects in the spontaneous cataract rat (ICR/f rat). Fermented soy sauce contains three tartaric isoflavone derivatives called shoyuflavones. These shoyuflavones were shown to have inhibitory activities against histidine decarboxylase, which produces histamine, a mediator of inflammation, allergy and gastric acid secretion. Soy sauce also exhibits antiplatelet activity. beta-Carbolines were isolated from soy sauce as the active compounds. Soybeans and wheat, which are the

  4. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

    Aymeric Yanitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  5. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea) to Arsenic Stress

    Yanitch, Aymeric; Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect) toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production. PMID:28702037

  6. Radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method for the radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce is described which enables the storage of fish at ambient temperature (28±3 deg C) for a period of six months. The product with low pH could be stabilized with a dose of 5 kGy. A batch of packed cans (consisting of cans of fish with tomato sauce and the control cans) were subjected to a dose in a Cobalt 60 Package Irradiator (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.) at a dose rate of 0.045 kGy min -1 . Biochemical and bacteriological evaluation confirmed the storage stability of the product. The process offers a safe and simple method to preserve white pomfret in a 'heat and serve' form. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  7. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production.

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content) and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce ( moromi ), and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format.

  8. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Crude Extracts of Salix subserrata and ...

    aqueous of Salix subserrata were found to increase the survival time of mice signifi- cantly (P< ... identification and authentication was done using the manual of the Depart- ... Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 for windows software.

  10. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  11. [Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sauce in the southern Chile].

    Schnettler Morales, B; Sepúlveda Bravo, O; Ruiz Fuentes, D; Denegri Coria, M

    2008-03-01

    The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modification in food was generally more important than the brand and purchase price. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished, with the most numerous (49.3%) placing the greatest importance on the presence of genetic modification (GM) in food and rejecting the transgenic product. The second group (39.4%) gave the greatest importance to the brand and preferred tomato sauce with genetically modified ingredients. The smallest segment (11.3%) placed the greatest value on price and preferred transgenic tomato sauce. The three segments prefer the national brand, reject the store brand and react positively to lower prices. The segment sensitive to the presence of GM in food comprised mainly those younger than 35 years of age, single and with no children. The absence of GM in food of vegetable origin is desirable for young consumers in the Araucanía Region, but a significant proportion accepts genetic modification in food (50.7%).

  12. Preliminary tests for Salix sp. tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb)

    Corneanu, Mihaela; Hernea, Cornelia; Butnariu, Monica; Corneanu, Gabriel; Sărac, Ioan; Hollerbach, Wilhelm; Neţoiu, Constantin; Petcov, Andreea Adriana

    2014-05-01

    The species of Salix genus constitute potential sources of germplasm in the prevention of the environment degradation, and offer remedy for about two third from the all degradation types. The majority of the willow species, present a good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, feature which suggest that they manifest a preference for mineral nutrition in comparison with organic one. Thus, many of willow species can be developed on soils with a big amount of minerals and/or radionuclides, being both phytoremediatory species, as well as pioneer ones, contributing to the restoration of soil. Thus, the willow species, posses the capacity for development in degraded areas, natural or anthropic, as swamps, abandoning crops areas, sandy dune, riparian sandy areas, gravels, a.o. In this paper are present some laboratory comparative tests of heavy metals tolerance on four Salix sp. genotypes: clone 202 (Salix alba), hybrid 892 (Salix alba), Inger (Salix viminalis) and Gudrun (Salix viminalis). The genotypes of Salix alba are native from Romania, produced in the Forest Research and Management Institute Bucharest, while the genotypes of Salix viminalis are native from Sweden, but the plant material was produced under license in Romania by REBINA Agrar SRL. As plant material were used one-year-old cuttings (5-10 cm long), with 2-6 buds each. Per genotype, per heavy metal and each of three concentration five replication were used. There were ten experimental variants for each genotype: three concentrations for each of the heavy metals; concentrations selected, in the accordance SR ISO 11269-2/March 1999 and Control (tap water). The cuttings were maintained in metalic solutions for 15 days. In the days 7th and 15th, were performed biometrical observations on: the roots number and length, the shoots number and length, the leaves number/shoot, viability of the shoots. At the end of the experiment the content in heavy metals was determined in roots and shoots (by atomic absorption

  13. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed. - Highlights: • Antioxidant effect of soy sauce on irradiated pork patties was studied. • The soy sauce can retard lipid oxidation of the irradiated pork patties. • A synergistic effect of ascorbic acid for preventing lipid oxidation was observed

  14. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji; Hanya, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. In this study, we estimated that approximately 60% of the glutamate in soy sauce is produced through the glutaminase reaction. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A. sojae. The glutamate concentration in soy sauce prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptant was approximately 60% lower than that in the control strain, whereas it was decreased by approximately 20-30% in the ΔgahA-ΔgahB disruptant. However, the glutamate concentration was unchanged in the soy sauces prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔggtA-Δgls and ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptants. These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce.

  15. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    Jingtian, Yang; Xinhua, Jin; Guoxing, Gu; Guichun, Yun

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both of effects for sterilization and improving flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. All colibacillus in soy sauce were sterilized using 1 kGy radiation dose and total bacteria count in soy sauce can be reduced to below national standard at 5 kGy dose ( 5x10 4count/ml ). But above 10 kGy dose is needed to kill all bacteria in soy sauce. The significant changes on chemical components in soy sauce irradiated at 5-7 kGy dose took place: raduceing-sugar increased by 1-10%, total amount of 18 kinds of free amino acid raised between 3.5-28 %, emerging-sweet smell substances which have low boiling point, such as alchols, aldehydes and esters obviously increased. The taste-specialists from some soy sauce factories concluded that flavour and quality of soy sauce irradiated are better than non-irradiated.

  16. Development of a non-commercial sugar-free barbecue sauce

    The challenge has always been to be able to manufacture a sugar free sauce. A basic barbecue sauce formulation was used to make 5 sugar-free preparations combining selected levels of xanthan gum, modified waxy maize starch, sucralose, and acesulfame-K. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory prope...

  17. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P sauce inoculated with T. halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product.

  18. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57–68%), total flavonoid content

  20. Immobilized soy-sauce yeasts : development and characterization of a new polyethylene-oxide support

    Sluis, van der C.; Mulder, A.N.T.; Grolle, K.C.F.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Schure, ter E.G.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of cells in alginate gel is a widely used mild immobilization procedure. However, alginate gel is not very suitable for use in long-term continuous soy-sauce processes because alginate is sensitive to abrasion and chemically unstable towards the high salt content of soy-sauce medium.

  1. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  2. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce.

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57-68%), total flavonoid content (48-60%), and total antioxidant capacity (49-61%). Similarly, all assays of the sauce containing both 5% and 10% inulin, showed a slight decrease during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces. Higher levels of inulin added to tomato sauce resulted in the greatest decrease in phenolic content, probably because of the interaction between inulin and phenolic compounds. To address the effects of inulin on the global metabolite profile of tomato sauce, an untargeted metabolomics approach was followed. Changes related to the presence of inulin suggest that inulin quenches a subset of unidentified compounds which are present in sauce but not in fruit, suggesting that inulin can contribute to the conservation of fruit properties in tomato sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in soy sauce-marinated and frozen freshwater crabs.

    Kim, Tae Im; Oh, Se-Ra; Dai, Fuhong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Ha, Sang-Do; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) are a source of human paragonimiasis. The viability of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in marinated crabs was investigated in an experimental setting. The PwMc collected from freshwater crayfish were inoculated into freshwater crabs, which were then frozen or marinated in soy sauce. All PwMc in the freshwater crabs were inactivated after freezing for 48 h at -20 °C and after freezing for 12 h at -40 °C. After marinating for 32 days, the survival rate of PwMc in 5% NaCl soy sauce was 50%, in 7.5% NaCl soy sauce it was 33.3%, and in 10.0% NaCl soy sauce it was 31.3%. When marinated for 64 days, all PwMc were inactivated in all experimental groups. These results revealed that freezing and soy sauce marination were detrimental to the survival of PwMc in freshwater crabs. Specifically, freezing crabs for more than 48 h or soaking them in soy sauce containing at least 5.0% NaCl for 64 days can inactivate PwMc. These results can inform the production of the traditional Korean soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs known as gejang.

  4. Genetic variation for characters of importance for growth in Salix viminalis L. Final report; Genetisk variation foer karaktaerer av betydelse foer tillvaext hos Salix viminalis L. Slutrapport

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Gullberg, Urban [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology

    2000-04-01

    The overall goal for this project was to study the genetic variation and the genetic relationships for different growth characters and for water use efficiency (WUE) in Salix viminalis and also to use this knowledge to formulate breeding goals for Salix. Two factorial crossings with Swedish and Polish origin, each with 320 families have been used. Part of the Polish material was used to study the genetic variation for carbon isotope quota. Carbon isotope quota gives a measure of the WUE for the plant. Crossings have been made to change and improve the WUE in Salix viminalis. Construction of a genetic linkage map has started and the map can be used to identify genetic markers for WUE. The results show that most of the growth characters have both additive genetic variation and also a high degree of dominance genetic variation. A strategy in the breeding where both additive and dominance variation can be utilized should be adopted. WUE show mainly additive genetic variation but also a high heritability. This gives great opportunities to improve Salix material for WUE through recurrent selection.

  5. Assessment of Salix spp. pollen availability to insects based on aerobiological investigations

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen and nectar produced by flowers of species from the genus Salix are an important source of food for various insect groups in early spring. Most willows are entomophilous species; however, substantial amounts of airborne Salix pollen can be noted. The aim of the study was to evaluate the content of pollen of this taxon in the air of Lublin (central-east Poland in 2001–2016 and to identify the period of its greatest availability to insects. In 2015, we compared the course of the Salix pollen season in Lublin (51°14'37" N; 22°32'25" E and in the Roztoczański National Park (50°34'57" N; 23°04'24" E, Poland. We found that the date of the pollen season onset fluctuated greatly between March 16 and April 17. The greatest availability of Salix pollen to insects was noted from the end of the first 10-day-period of April to the first 10-day-period of May. The mean annual sum of airborne Salix pollen grains was 833. In Lublin, Salix pollen accounted for ca. 1.25% of the total airborne pollen content of different plant taxa. The investigations have demonstrated a 2-year cycle of Salix pollen abundance. The comparison of the pollen seasons in Lublin and in the Roztoczański National Park indicates that considerably greater amounts of pollen occur in the urban area than in the air of the Roztoczański National Park.

  6. Salix daphnoides: A Screening for Oligomeric and Polymeric Proanthocyanidins

    Stefan Wiesneth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a qualitative analysis of proanthocyanidins (PAs from an aqueous-methanolic extract of Salix daphnoides VILL. bark is described. Procyanidin B1 (1, B2 (2, B3 (3, B4 (4, C1 (5, epicatechin-(4β→8-epicatechin-(4β→8-catechin (6 and epicatechin-(4β→8-epicatechin-(4β→8-epicatechin-(4β→8-catechin (7 have been isolated by a combination of different chromatographic separations on Sephadex® LH-20-, MCI®-, Diol-and RP-18-phases. Mass spectrometry, 1D- and 2D-NMR, circular dichroism and polarimetry were used for their structure elucidation and verification by comparison with the literature. Additionally, two fractions of very polar flavan-3-ols were compared: “regular” polymeric PAs received at the very end of the Sephadex® LH-20 chromatography showing no mobility on silica TLC and “unusual” PAs with the same RF-value but already eluting together with flavonoids in the Sephadex® LH-20 system. These “unusual” PAs were subsequently enriched by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC. 13C-NMR, polarimetry, thiolysis, acid hydrolysis and phloroglucinol degradation were used to characterize both fractions. Differences in the composition of different flavan-3-ol units and the middle chain length were observed.

  7. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  8. Troncos de Salix Humboldtiana en depósitos aluviales del Holoceno tardío, río Sauce Grande (Provincia de Buenos Aires

    Jorge Rabassa

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de este hallazgo, discutir la estratigrafía y la cronología de los sedimentos portadores e intentar la reconstrucción de las características paleoambientales. Para ello, fueron realizados perfiles estratigráficos en las localidades estudiadas, muestreo de las unidades reconocidas, estudio palinológico en doce niveles distintos, muestreo de materiales orgánicos para fechado radiocarbónico y recolección de troncos para su estudio xilològico.

  9. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce.

  10. Characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for reduction of citrulline accumulation during soy sauce fermentation.

    Zhang, Jiran; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the amount of citrulline produced by arginine-consuming bacteria in the moromi mash during soy sauce production. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JY06, a salt-tolerant strain with high arginine consumption ability and low citrulline accumulation capacity, was isolated from moromi mash. The concentration of citrulline was decreased from 26.8 to 5.1 mM and ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, after sterilization, decreased from 97 to 17 μg kg(-1) when B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 was added during fermentation. The aroma of the sauce was improved by increasing the ester content. B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 is a beneficial bacterium that can be used in soy sauce fermentation to eliminate ethyl carbonate and enhance the flavor of the sauce.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation and processing on the quality of chilli sauce

    Norimah Yusof; Latifah Amin; Mohamad Lebai Juri

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal load in dried chilli, the main ingredient in manufacturing chilli sauce, was reduced by two log cycles after gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. After processing into chilli sauce, the microbial load observed in the sauce prepared from irradiated dried chillies was almost similar to the control. The heating stage in the processing of chilli sauce seemed sufficient to decontaminate the raw ingredients. During storage, there was no significant increase in the number of bacteria but some fungal growths were detected after eight months of storage. Reduction in redness (a value) was recorded in the control sample after four months (P=0.05) but not in the treated sample. The differences in the sensory quality between the chilli sauce prepared from irradiated dried chillies and control samples could be detected using the Triangular Test. (author)

  12. Effect of irradiation on shelf life and nutritional quality of sauce buck

    Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing; Han Yan; Wang Xinghai; Bao Jianzhong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum-packed sauce duck were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays, and total bacteria number and nutrition contents of treated samples were determined. The results showed that the sauce duck was irradiated at 6 kGy, and stored at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C, it could be stored for 90 days; and if the sauce duck was firstly processed by pasteurization at 90 degree C ∼ 95 degree C for 30 min, then irradiated at 6 kGy, the shelf life could be prolonged to 120 days at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C. Irradiation could make the sauce duck to meet the commercial hygienic requirement within the shelf life, and would not impact the nutritive value significantly. It is concluded that irradiated sauce duck has the potential commercial application. (authors)

  13. Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-04-10

    An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan.

  14. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  15. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  16. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

    Davorin Kajba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  18. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  19. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10 6 CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10 4 CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality

  20. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  1. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  3. Effects of contaminated soil on the growth performance of young Salix (Salix schwerinii E. L. Wolf) and the potential for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Salam, Mir Md Abdus; Kaipiainen, Erik; Mohsin, Muhammad; Villa, Aki; Kuittinen, Suvi; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Pelkonen, Paavo; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari

    2016-12-01

    Salix schwerinii was tested in a pot experiment to assess plant growth performance i.e., relative height and dry biomass and the potential for heavy metal uptake in soils polluted with chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The soil used in the pot experiment was collected from a landfill area in Finland. Peat soil was added at different quantities to the polluted soil to stimulate plant growth. The plants were irrigated with tap water or processed water (municipal waste water) to further investigate the effects of nutrient loading on plant biomass growth. The soil was treated at two pH levels (4 and 6). The results showed that the addition of 40-70% peat soil at pH 6 to a polluted soil, and irrigation with processed water accelerated plant growth and phytoextraction efficiency. In the pot experiment, Salix grown in chromium, zinc, copper, nickel and total petroleum hydrocarbons -contaminated field soil for 141 days were unaffected by the contaminated soil and took up excess nutrients from the soil and water. Total mean chromium concentration in the plant organs ranged from 17.05 to 250.45 mg kg -1 , mean zinc concentration ranged from 142.32 to 1616.59 mg kg -1 , mean copper concentration ranged from 12.11 to 223.74 mg kg -1 and mean nickel concentration ranged from 10.11 to 75.90 mg kg -1 . Mean chromium concentration in the plant organs ranged from 46 to 94%, mean zinc concentration ranged from 44 to 76%, mean copper concentration ranged from 19 to 54% and mean nickel concentration ranged from 8 to 21% across all treatments. Under the different treatments, chromium was taken up by Salix in the largest quantities, followed by zinc, copper and nickel respectively. Salix also produced a moderate reduction in total petroleum total petroleum hydrocarbons in the polluted soil. The results from the pot experiment suggest that Salix schwerinii has the potential to accumulate significant amounts of chromium, zinc, copper and nickel

  4. Occurrence of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other foods in China between 2002 and 2004.

    Fu, Wu Sheng; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing Guang; Tang, Chang Dong; Miao, Hong; Ma, Jin Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yong Ning

    2007-08-01

    A survey of chloropropanols in soy sauce and some selected foods in China is reported. Thirty-seven traditionally brewed soy sauce samples contained 3-MCPD below the EC maximum limit (ML) of 0.02 mg kg(-1). All soy sauce samples (629) from retailers contained levels of 3-MCPD ranging between HVP). This indicates that the necessary processing changes have been made to decrease levels of chloropropanols in soy sauce. 2-Monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD), 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) and 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (2,3-DCP) were detected in 48.1 19.1 and 3.78% of the soy sauce samples, respectively; the highest levels being 20.3, 8.26 and 0.50 mg kg(-1), respectively. A good linear correlation was found between the amount of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD, with the level of 3-MCPD being generally higher than that of other chloropropanols for the same soy sauce. Acid HVP contained 3-MCPD at a level of 0.010-117.7 mg kg(-1) (on a liquid basis) and 80% of samples contained levels exceeding 1.0 mg kg(-1). In some other foods investigated, relatively high levels of 3-MCPD were found in soy sauce powder, oyster sauce, beef products, instant noodle spices and health foods, ranging from 0.029 to 13.64 mg kg(-1). It is concluded that abnormal levels of 3-MCPD in soy sauce or other foods produced in China may result from acid hydrolysis or the addition of the contaminated acid HVP.

  5. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  6. Salicylates isolated from leaves and stems of Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae); Salicilatos isolados de folhas e talos de Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae)

    Fernandes, Carromberth Carioca [Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC), Rio Branco, AC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Natureza; Cursino, Lorena Mayara de Carvalho; Novaes, Jussival de Abreu Pinheiro; Demetrio, Camilla Avelino; Pereira Junior, Orlando Liborio; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica [Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais; Amaral, Ieda Leao do [Instituto de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Botanica

    2009-07-01

    Salix martiana Leyb. is an endemic species from the Amazon river floodplain areas (varzeas), of the State of Amazonas. Stems and leaves were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and hydro-alcohol and these extracts were fractionated by using conventional chromatographic techniques. The major substances isolated, salicin and trichocarposide (6-0-p-coumaroyl salicin), were determined through analyses of NMR 1D ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) and NMR 2D (gHSQC and gHMBC). These compounds were isolated for the first time in Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae). The percentage of these compounds in S. martiana is very high. The extracts were analyzed for their DPPH antioxidant capacity and the methanolic from the leaves and the hydro-alcoholic from the stems were the more active. (author)

  7. Salicilatos isolados de folhas e talos de Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae Salicylates isolated from leaves and stems of Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae

    Carromberth Carioca Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Salix martiana Leyb. is an endemic species from the Amazon river floodplain areas (varzeas, of the State of Amazonas. Stems and leaves were extracted with dichloromethane, methanol and hydro-alcohol and these extracts were fractionated by using conventional chromatographic techniques. The major substances isolated, salicin and trichocarposide (6-0-p-coumaroyl salicin, were determined through analyses of NMR 1D (¹H and 13C and NMR 2D (gHSQC and gHMBC. These compounds were isolated for the first time in Salix martiana Leyb. (Salicaceae. The percentage of these compounds in S. martiana is very high. The extracts were analyzed for their DPPH antioxidant capacity and the methanolic from the leaves and the hydro-alcoholic from the stems were the more active.

  8. Pelletizing using forest fuels and Salix as raw materials. A study of the pelletizing properties; Pelletering med skogsbraensle och Salix som raavara. En undersoekning av pelleterbarheten

    Martinsson, Lars; Oesterberg, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Three common forest fuels: light thinning material, cull tree and logging residues as well as energy forest fuel (Salix) has been used as fuel pellet materials. Logging residues and Salix were stacked for approximately 6 and 10 months respectively. Parameters varied for each raw material have been the moisture content and the press length of the die. These parameters have been changed to obtain best possible quality, mainly concerning mechanical durability. Pellets were also produced from bark free shavings in order to use as a reference in this study. Physical as well as chemical properties have been compared. It was comparatively easy to press logging residues and Salix into durable pellets and, even with larger press length, the production of pellets was higher than it was for the other raw materials. The density was equal for all pellets while the mechanical durability was better for all tested raw materials compared with the reference material. The fact that all raw materials besides the reference material contains bark which has an improving effect on the degree of hardness. The quality properties were mainly about the same or better for pellets made of light thinning material and cull tree respectively, compared with the reference pellets. However, the ash content was approximately twice as high compared with the reference pellets. The pellets made of logging residues and Salix respectively were of very good quality concerning duration and density but the ash content was approximately 10 times higher than in the reference pellets. Additionally, the nitrogen content was 6-9 times higher compared with the reference pellets.

  9. The effect of nutrient fortification of sauces on product stability, sensory properties, and subsequent liking by older adults.

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Wang, Jianqiu; Collins, Vanessa J; Allen, Victoria J; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    There are potential nutritional and sensory benefits of adding sauces to hospital meals. The aim of this study was to develop nutrient fortified sauces with acceptable sensory properties suitable for older people at risk of undernutrition. Tomato, gravy, and white sauce were fortified with macro- and micronutrients using food ingredients rich in energy and protein as well as vitamin and mineral premixes. Sensory profile was assessed by a trained panel. Hedonic liking of fortified compared with standard sauces was evaluated by healthy older volunteers. The fortified sauces had higher nutritional value than the conventional ones, for example the energy content of the fortified tomato, white sauce, and gravy formulations were increased between 2.5- and 4-fold compared to their control formulations. Healthy older consumers preferred the fortified tomato sauce compared with unfortified. There were no significant differences in liking between the fortified and standard option for gravy. There were limitations in the extent of fortification with protein, potassium, and magnesium, as excessive inclusion resulted in bitterness, undesired flavors, or textural issues. This was particularly marked in the white sauce to the extent that their sensory characteristics were not sufficiently optimized for hedonic testing. It is proposed that the development of fortified sauces is a simple approach to improving energy intake for hospitalized older people, both through the nutrient composition of the sauce itself and due to the benefits of increasing sensorial taste and lubrication in the mouth. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Enrichment of antioxidants from soy sauce using macroporous resin and identification of 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol as key small molecule antioxidants in soy sauce.

    Li, Huipin; Lin, Lianzhu; Feng, Yunzi; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Xiuting; Zhu, Qiyuan; Xiao, Zuobing

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of seven macroporous resins on the antioxidants in soy sauce were investigated. SP-207 and SP-825 resins possessing good adsorption and desorption capacities were studied further. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models were demonstrated to be appropriate to describe the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of antioxidants onto resins. The 60% ethanol eluted fraction from soy sauce purified by SP-825 resin column possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities and contents of typical soy isoflavones, furanones, pyranones, and phenolic acids in soy sauce were determined. These compounds contributed to 50.02% of the total antioxidant activity of the SP-60% fraction. The key small molecule antioxidant compounds in soy sauce were identified as 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol by the antioxidants omission experiments. Additionally, the purified active fraction with high contents of antioxidants from soy sauce could be applied as bioactive ingredient in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Secular trends in salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults, 1997-2011.

    Yu, Lianlong; Li, Suyun; Zhao, Jinshan; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Liansen; Wang, Kebo

    2018-03-01

    Salt and soy sauce are the main ways of sodium intake in Chinese dietary. In this study, we used the data of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys to describe the secular trends of salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults from 1997 to 2011. Trends were tested by multiple linear regression models. During the past 14 years, the consumption of sodium, salt and soy sauce intake values decreased significantly across the six study periods (p sauce intake values decreased by 9.0 g/d among men and 7.3 g/d among women. Similar significant trends were observed in all age groups, activity levels and regions (p < .0001).

  12. Determination and Quantification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Vinegars and Soy Sauces

    Li-Li Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic compound 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF can be formed from sugars under Maillard reaction and caramelization. In order to study the formation regular of HMF in sugary liquid condiment, vinegar and soy sauce were selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the HMF concentrations of various brands of soy sauce and vinegar. The result showed that HMF concentrations were in a range of 0.42 to 115.43 mg/kg for vinegar samples and 0.43 to 5.85 mg/kg for soy sauce samples. The concentrates of HMF were expressed in zero-order kinetics model at 100°C before the maximum HMF generation in all of the tested samples. Longer heating treatment time would reduce the HMF content in tested samples. In addition, HMF content had obviously positive correlation with sugar contents in vinegar samples, but no similar rule was found in soy sauces.

  13. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sauce-type Kimchi.

    Jung, Suk Hee; Park, Joung Whan; Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from naturally fermented sauce-type kimchi. Sauce-type kimchi was prepared with fresh, chopped ingredients (Korean cabbage, radish, garlic, ginger, green onion, and red pepper). The two isolated bacteria from sauce-type kimchi were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rDNA sequencing and tentatively named Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2, respectively. Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 was isolated from the early and middle fermentation stages of sauce-type kimchi whereas Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 was isolated from the late fermentation stage. The resistance of Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 to artificial gastric and bile acids led to bacterial survival rates that were 100% and 84.21%, respectively.

  14. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  16. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  17. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogenetic Relationships between Four Salix L. Species Based on DArT Markers

    Jerzy A. Przyborowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of DArT markers in genotypic identification of willow species and describe genetic relationships between four willow species: Salix viminalis, S. purpurea, S. alba and S. triandra. The experimental plant material comprised 53 willow genotypes of these four species, which are popularly grown in Poland. DArT markers seem to identify Salix species with a high degree of accuracy. As a result, the examined species were divided into four distinct groups which corresponded to the four analyzed species. In our study, we observed that S. triandra was very different genetically from the other species, including S. alba which is generally classified into the same subgenus of Salix. The above corroborates the findings of other authors who relied on molecular methods to reveal that the classification of S. triandra to the subgenus Salix was erroneous. The Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA and the neighbor-joining dendrogram also confirmed the clear division of the studied willow genotypes into four clusters corresponding to individual species. This confirmed the usefulness of DArT markers in taxonomic analyses and identification of willow species.

  19. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    user

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... In the last few years, Beijing Forestry University (China) and the University of Natural Resources and applied Life. Sciences (Austria) have examined the suitabilities and capabilities of soil bioengineering techniques under the local condition of Beijing. One of the plant species used was Salix alba var. tristis.

  20. Cryopreservation of Populus trichocarpa and Salix dormant buds with recovery by grafting or direct rooting.

    Bonnart, Remi; Waddell, John; Haiby, Kathy; Widrlenchner, Mark P; Volk, Gayle M

    2014-01-01

    Methods are needed for the conservation of clonally maintained trees of Populus and Salix. In this work, Populus trichocarpa and Salix genetic resources were cryopreserved using dormant scions as the source explant. We quantified the recovery of cryopreserved materials that originated from diverse field environments by using either direct sprouting or grafting. Scions (either at their original moisture content of 48 to 60% or dried to 30%) were slowly cooled to -35 degree C, transferred to the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen (LNV, -160 degree C), and warmed before determining survival. Dormant buds from P. trichocarpa clones from Westport and Boardman, OR had regrowth levels between 42 and 100%. Direct rooting of cryopreserved P. trichocarpa was also possible. Ten of 11 cryopreserved Salix accessions, representing 10 different species, exhibited at least 40% bud growth and rooting after 6 weeks when a bottom-heated rooting system was implemented. We demonstrate that dormant buds of P. trichocarpa and Salix accessions can be cryopreserved and successfully regenerated without the use of tissue culture.

  1. Cryopreservation of Populus trichocarpa and Salix using dormant buds with recovery by grafting or direct rooting

    Populus trichocarpa and Salix can be successfully cryopreserved by using dormant scions as the source explants. These scions (either at their original moisture content of 48 to 60% or dried to 30%) were slowly cooled to –35 degree Celsius, transferred to the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen (LNV,-160...

  2. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers

  3. Characterization and reactions of a Salix extractive with a unique ring system

    Lawrence Landucci; Sally Ralph; Kolby Hirth

    2003-01-01

    An extractive compound with a novel ring system was isolated from the wood of Salix alba and was given the name Salucci. The compound was primarily identified from the 1D NMR, 2D NMR and LC-MSMS data and the structure investigated through reactions and derivatizations.

  4. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment

    Hyun-Hee Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe2+, Fenton-like (Fe3+, and ozone (O3 oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100–1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O3-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O3 doses (10–90 mg/L. We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1% and COD lowering (64.9% among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O3 oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O3 dose were varied systematically to optimize O3 oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O3 dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%.

  5. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment.

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Gyu-Tae; Jeong, Dae-Woon

    2017-10-07

    To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe 2+ ), Fenton-like (Fe 3+ ), and ozone (O₃) oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100-1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O₃-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O₃ doses (10-90 mg/L). We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O 3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1%) and COD lowering (64.9%) among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O₃ oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O₃ dose) were varied systematically to optimize O₃ oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O₃ dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%).

  6. STUDY OF THE USE OF EDIBLE POWDERS TOMATO SAUCE TECHNOLOGIES

    O. Benderska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Considered the technology for the production of edible powders from vegetable raw materials. The technology for producing powders from berries is developed to produce a high-quality product in which all ingredients of raw materials are stored in a concentrated form.The current trend in nutrition is related to the expansion of the range of functional products whose daily use contributes to the prevention of hypovitaminoses and metabolic disorders, and ultimately to the rehabilitation of the population. New, non-traditional sources of local raw materials, including plant based products, need to be explored and exploited in order to address the issue of instantiate new generation of healthy foods, and the development of technologies for obtaining functionalities. The use of fruit crops, the most source of biologically active substances, is very promising in this direction.The Department of Preservation Technology of the National University Food Technology has conducted a study to enable the use of fruit and berries for food powders. To this end, powder has been obtained from the blueberry berries of ordinary, with the establishment of its physico-chemical properties.The patterns of the influence of the blueberry powder on the functional properties of the foodstuffs were investigated in the example of tomato sauces.Analysis of the results of the studies has shown that a blueberry berry powder can be used in the production of canned and other products not only to enrich their functional ingredients but also to provide them with new technological properties. The food powders received do not contain harmful impurities, have high food value, are easily absorbed by the body, compact and long periods of time. Studies have shown that the blueberry powder is a rich source of vitamins (c acid, β-carotene, tocopherol and can be used successfully in the manufacture of tomato sauces with functional properties.

  7. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  8. Effects of gamma ray radiation sterilization on chemical components of soy sauce

    Daochuan, Yin; Zuren, Zou; Zongtiao, Liu; Jie, Fang

    Soy sauce was treated with γ-ray radiation. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total acids, total nitrogen, reduced-sugar, sodium chloride and 17 free amino acids between the treated and untreated soy sauce. Specialists from some factories tested the samples and no obvious changes in colour and lustre, flavour, sweet smell and liquid appearance could be identified after the treatment.

  9. Effects of gamma ray radiation sterilization on chemical components of soy sauce

    Yin Daochuan; Zou Zuren; Liu Zongtiao; Fang Jie

    1989-01-01

    Soy sauce was treated with γ-ray radiation. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total acids, total nitrogen, reduced-sugar, sodium chloride and 17 free amino acids between the treated and untreated soy sauce. Specialists from some factories tested the samples and no obvious changes in colour and lustre, flavour, sweet smell and liquid appearance could be identified after the treatment. (author)

  10. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  11. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates.

  12. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  13. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role and significance of Salix plantations for energy in Swedish agriculture

    Forsse, L.S.; Ledin, S.; Johansson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    Fifteen years of research and development of energy forestry with Salix species has lead to a firm basis of knowledge concerning the basic biology, stand ecology and production systems of fast growing willows in Sweden. The biology research program continues to emphasize studies of plant biology and diseases as well as areas such as clone/site interactions, mixed clonal plantations and breeding. The technological research and development concentrates on functional and effective machinery for planting, harvesting, etc. Recently Salix plantations for energy production in Sweden have been commercialized. Plantations start with 18,000 cuttings of willow clones per hectare. During the first summer weed control is the most important treatment. Fertilizers are applied to keep a high production level. Crops are harvested during winter at 3--5 year intervals. The average annual production is about 10--12 tonnes DM per hectare. The life of Salix plantations is estimated as 25--30 years. An estimated potential of 300,000 hectares of Salix plantations would result 5% of the energy needs in Sweden. Wood fuel from the conventional forest equals 60 TWh today, with a potential of being doubled within 10--20 years. The economic outcome for the farmer of growing Salix mainly depends on the price of chips and the level of production. A fundamental requirement for establishing plantations is that there is a wood fuel market within a reasonable distance (about 50 km). In a calculation stretching over a period of 24 years with a production level of 12 tonnes DM per hectare and year, and at an interest rate of 6%, the net return is about 1,000--1,500 SEK/ha/yr (about 7 SEK/US$) if simultaneous chipping is used. With separate harvest and chipping and enterprise in this calculation breaks even. Interest in the utilization of sludge, ash, waste water and leakage water as nutrients for energy forests is increasing from local and regional authorities.

  15. Evaluation of Populus and Salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate I. Genotype-specific elemental phytoremediation.

    Zalesny, Ronald S; Bauer, Edmund O

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for the identification and selection of specific tree genotypes that can sequester elements from contaminated soils, with elevated rates of uptake. We irrigated Populus (DN17, DN182, DN34, NM2, NM6) and Salix (94003, 94012, S287, S566, SX61) genotypes planted in large soil-filled containers with landfill leachate or municipal water and tested for differences in inorganic element concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, and Cl) in the leaves, stems, and roots. Trees were irrigated with leachate or water during the final 12 wk of the 18-wk study. Genotype-specific uptake existed. For genera, tissue concentrations exhibited four responses. First, Populus had the greatest uptake of P, K, S, Cu, and Cl. Second, Salix exhibited the greatest uptake of Zn, B, Fe, and Al. Third, Salix had greater concentrations of Ca and Mg in leaves, while Populus had greater concentrations in stems and roots. Fourth, Populus had greater concentrations of Mn and Na in leaves and stems, while Salix had greater concentrations in roots. Populus deltoides x P. nigra clones exhibited better overall phytoremediation than the P. nigra x P. maximowiczii genotypes tested. Phytoremediation for S. purpurea clones 94003 and 94012 was generally less than for other Salix genotypes. Overall, concentrations of elements in the leaves, stems, and roots corroborated those in the plant-sciences literature. Uptake was dependent upon the specific genotype for most elements. Our results corroborated the need for further testing and selecting of specific clones for various phytoremediation needs, while providing a baseline for future researchers developing additional studies and resource managers conducting on-site remediation.

  16. Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in Salix viminalis and its association with defence against insects

    Saarikoski, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1997-09-01

    For successful traditional breeding, the plant material has to be screened for genetic variation for the desired traits. By screening Salix clones for wound-induced proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity and ethylene evolution, it was possible to identify variation for both characters among the Salix clones tested. However, no correlation was observed with insect and pathogen resistance. Since there was no simple relationship between wound-induced ethylene production, accumulation of PI and pest resistance, a more systematic investigation of Salix PIs was begun. A gene (swin1.1) encoding a 21 kDa trypsin inhibitor with characteristics of Kunitz-type of PI was sequenced. The trypsin inhibitor encoded by the isolated swin1.1 gene was shown to be functional in vitro and exhibit specificity for trypsin. It is therefore likely that this PI is involved in the plant defence in Salix, since many insects have trypsin as their major digestive protease. In further support of this view, in bio-tests with poplar the mortality of the first instar larvae (Lymantria dispar) was significantly increased, both after application of the trypsin inhibitor encoded by swin1.1 directly on poplar leaves and after feeding the larvae with transgenic poplar over-expressing the swin1.1 gene. In Salix, the swin1.1 gene was shown to be induced by mechanical wounding, insect feeding and by treatment with the signalling substances salicylic and jasmonic acid. The locally wound-induced response (mechanical and insect) was greater than the systemic response. Other swin1 gene family members were also differentially expressed after the inductive treatment. 187 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Seasonal Dynamics of Water Use Strategy of Two Salix Shrubs in Alpine Sandy Land, Tibetan Plateau.

    Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Guojie; Li, Renqiang

    2016-01-01

    Water is a limiting factor for plant growth and vegetation dynamics in alpine sandy land of the Tibetan Plateau, especially with the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation events and drought caused by climate change. Therefore, a relatively stable water source from either deeper soil profiles or ground water is necessary for plant growth. Understanding the water use strategy of dominant species in the alpine sandy land ecosystem is important for vegetative rehabilitation and ecological restoration. The stable isotope methodology of δD, δ18O, and δ13C was used to determine main water source and long-term water use efficiency of Salix psammophila and S. cheilophila, two dominant shrubs on interdune of alpine sandy land in northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The root systems of two Salix shrubs were investigated to determine their distribution pattern. The results showed that S. psammophila and S. cheilophila absorbed soil water at different soil depths or ground water in different seasons, depending on water availability and water use strategy. Salix psammophila used ground water during the growing season and relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in summer. Salix cheilophila used ground water in spring and summer, but relied on shallow soil water recharged by rain in spring and deep soil water recharged by ground water in fall. The two shrubs had dimorphic root systems, which is coincident with their water use strategy. Higher biomass of fine roots in S. psammophila and longer fine roots in S. cheilophila facilitated to absorb water in deeper soil layers. The long-term water use efficiency of two Salix shrubs increased during the dry season in spring. The long-term water use efficiency was higher in S. psammophila than in S. cheilophila, as the former species is better adapted to semiarid climate of alpine sandy land.

  18. Wastewater sludge fertilization: Biomass productivity and heavy metal bioaccumulation in two Salix species grown in southern Quebec (Canada)

    Teodorescu, T.I.; Labrecque, M.; Daigle, S.; Poisson, G.

    1993-01-01

    More than other kind of trees, fast growing tree species, such as willows, can profit from sludge application. While sludges are good fertilizers, they may also contain heavy metals which could reduce productivity and cause risks to the environment. The main aims of the present research were to study: (1) the production capacity of Salix discolor and Salix viminalis when supplied with various amounts of dried and pelleted sludge; (2) the uptake, and accumulation of heavy metals. Unrooted cuttings were planted on sandy soil in large plastic pots and grown in outdoors for 20-week period. Five doses of sludge were applied: equivalent of 200 (T1), 160 (T2), 120 (T3), 80 (T4) and 40 (T5) kg N per ha. Trees which received the largest amount of sludge showed the best growth results. The stem-branch biomass was significantly higher for Salix viminalis. The relationship between the total yield biomass Y (t/ha) and the rate of fertilization X (kg N/ha) is linear. The regression equations of prediction biomass production were established as following: Salix discolor Y = 1.807 + 0.037X and Salix viminalis Y = 2.578 + 0.042X. For both species, greatest stems-branch biomass per gram of N applied were produced by treatments 1 and 2. The amount of nitrogen per leaf area (N/LA) and per leaf dry weight (N/LW), were higher for Salix viminalis which leads us believe that its photosynthetic activity was better. The transfer coefficient did not vary between the species but was significantly different for Cd and Zn. The plants were able to absorb Cd and Zn but less of Ni, Hg and Cu and Pb. It was concluded that the dried and pelleted sludge can be a good fertilizer. The treatment is beneficial when Salix discolor and particulary Salix viminalis are used as vegetation filters for wastewater sludge purification and production purposes

  19. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  20. Effects of soy sauce on physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breast.

    Kim, H W; Hwang, K E; Song, D H; Kim, Y J; Lim, Y B; Choi, J H; Choi, Y S; Kim, H Y; Kim, C J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy sauce on the physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breasts. Chicken breasts marinated with distilled water (Con), 4% NaCl solution, 4% NaCl and lactic acid solution (pH 4.9), and soy sauce solution (4% salt concentration and pH 4.9) were vacuum tumbled at 3°C for 60 min. The chicken breast marinated with soy sauce solution showed lower lightness and higher redness and yellowness due to the color of the soy sauce. The acidic marinades led to a decrease in pH value of tumbled chicken breast. The acidic marinades increased collagen solubility of sample compared with 4% NaCl solution, resulting in decreased shear force. Water-holding capacity, marination and cooking yields, and solubility of myofibrillar proteins were mainly affected by the presence of salt in the marinade, rather than by pH alternation. Our results suggested that soy sauce marination can improve the tenderness of tumbled chicken breast.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of different types of soy sauce on the formation of heterocyclic amines in roasted chicken.

    Alam Shah, Syifaa; Selamat, Jinap; Haque Akanda, Md Jahurul; Sanny, Maimunah; Khatib, Alfi

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different types of soy sauce and marinating time on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in roasted chicken. Chicken breast samples were marinated with sweet, salty, light and dark soy sauce at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h (control treatment was the chicken without marinade). The concentrations of free amino acids, sugars and creatinine were determined before roasting while HCA concentrations were determined after roasting. All types of soy sauce significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the concentration of HCAs in roasted chicken with increasing marinating time. The highest increment of total concentration of HCAs was found in samples marinated with light soy sauce (887%) followed by dark (375%), salty (193%) and sweet (169%) at 12 h. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) showed a substantial reduction in samples only momentarily marinated with sweet, salty and dark soy sauce (0 h). Free amino acids were found to be more strongly correlated with the formation of HCAs than reducing sugars or creatinine.

  4. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  6. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in basil-containing sauce of pesto

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Al-Ajlouni, Abdalmajeed M.; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment of basil-based pesto sauces containing methyleugenol and related alkenylbenzenes was performed based on their levels detected in a series of pesto sauces available on the Dutch market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) values of alkenylbenzenes as a result of consumption of the

  7. Microfiltration of soy sauce sediment with rotating disk membrane module; Kaitengata enbanmaku module ni yoru shoyuori no roka

    Matsushita, K.; Kanekuni, N.; Nogaki, H.; Itakura, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, A. [TOTO Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1995-01-15

    Soy sauce sediment is formed in pasteurization of raw soy sauce. It is treated as industrial waste, though its main component is soy sauce, because of difficulty in perfect clarification of the suspension. In this paper, we decided a suitable range of pore size of microfiltration and a cut-off level of ultrafiltration to clarify soy sauce sediment and we developed a rotating disk membrane module (RD Module) and compared performance with conventional a multi-tubular membrane module (MT Module). The optimum range to obtain soy sauce of quality was less than a pore size of O.2{mu}m for microfiltration, while ultrafiltration was not suitable for soy sauce sediment. Ultrafiltration was restricted by rejection of colors and nucleic acids and related compounds in soy sauce sediment, rather than rejection of bacteria and ethanol. An RD Module could recover soy sauce of quality and was superior to an MT Module for concentration ratio, but the permeate fluxes of the RD Module decreased under conditions of high revolution as centrifugal forces were exerted on the permeate in the disk membrane. The power consumption of the RD Module was proportional to the cube of number of revolutions and to the fifth power of the radius, so it was found that one of methods for the scale up is to increase the number of disk membranes than increase the radius. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Selecting and utilizing Populus and Salix for landfill covers: implications for leachate irrigation.

    Zalesny, Ronald S; Bauer, Edmund O

    2007-01-01

    The success of using Populus and Salix for phytoremediation has prompted further use of leachate as a combination of irrigation and fertilization for the trees. A common protocol for such efforts has been to utilize a limited number of readily-available genotypes with decades of deployment in other applications, such as fiber or windbreaks. However, it may be possible to increase phytoremediation success with proper genotypic screening and selection, followed by the field establishment of clones that exhibited favorable potential for cleanup of specific contaminants. There is an overwhelming need for testing and subsequent deployment of diverse Populus and Salix genotypes, given current availability of clonal material and the inherent genetic variation among and within these genera. Therefore, we detail phyto-recurrent selection, a method that consists of revising and combining crop and tree improvement protocols to meet the objective of utilizing superior Populus and Salix clones for remediation applications. Although such information is lacking for environmental clean-up technologies, centuries of plant selection success in agronomy, horticulture, and forestry validate the need for similar approaches in phytoremediation. We bridge the gap between these disciplines by describing project development, clone selection, tree establishment, and evaluation of success metrics in the context of their importance to utilizing trees for phytoremediation.

  9. Impact of abiotic factors on frost resistance and cold acclimation in Salix species and clones

    Fircks, H. von [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    The effects of mineral nitrogen, photoperiod and day-night temperature on frost resistance and growth cessation in Salix species and clones are discussed. Increased nitrogen supply and imbalances between nitrogen and other elements might cause extensive frost damage in plants of Salix. Vegetation frosts below -3 deg C reduces the level of annual yield. Although Salix clones differ in resistance to freezing stress, the capacity to recover and grow after frosts are equal essential properties which affect the growth and biomass production of shoots after night frosts in June. Early autumn frosts causing freezing damage not only may delay the onset of growth cessation and cold acclimation, but also affect the winter survival of shoots. Increased nitrogen supply prior to cold acclimation postponed growth cessation and cold acclimation. Differences in nutrient status in plants cause also differences in retranslocation of mineral nutrients. Absence of damaging autumn frosts allow plants irrespective of nitrogen status to develop a frost resistance of at least - 80 deg C. 21 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  10. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp. Bark Water Extract

    Agata Durak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  11. Stock characterization and improvement: DNA fingerprinting and cold tolerance of Populus and Salix clones

    Lin, Dolly; Hubbes, M.; Zsuffa, L. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Tsarouhas, V.; Gullberg, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics; Howe, G.; Hackett, W.; Gardner, G.; Furnier, G. [Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources; Tuskan, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Molecular characterization of advanced-generation pedigrees and evaluation of cold tolerance are two aspects of Populus and Salix genetic improvement programmes worldwide that have traditionally received little emphasis. As such, chloroplast DNA markers were tested as a means of determining multi-generation parental contributions to hybrid progeny. Likewise, greenhouse, growth chamber and field studies were used to assess cold tolerance in Populus and Salix. Chloroplast DNA markers did not reveal size polymorphisms among four tested Populus species, but did produce sequence polymorphisms between P. maximowiczii and P. trichocarpa. Additional crosses between multiple genotypes from each species are being used to evaluate the utility of the detected polymorphism for ascertaining parentage within interspecific crosses. Short-day, cold tolerance greenhouse studies revealed that bud set date and frost damage are moderately heritable and genetically correlated in Populus. The relationship between greenhouse and field studies suggests that factors other than short days contribute to cold tolerance in Populus. In Salix, response to artificial fall conditioning varied among full-sibling families, with the fastest growing family displaying the greatest amount of cold tolerance 26 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Demonstration cultivation of Salix in northern Sweden with a focus on frost resistance; Demonstrationsodling av Salix i Norrland med frosttolerans i fokus

    Soederstroem, Yvonne

    2010-06-15

    This project is part of the Thermal Engineering Research Association's (Vaermeforsk) programme 'Crops from field to energy production' and the goal is to convince growers to begin cultivating Salix in the northern part of Sweden. The project will demonstrate whether it is possible to grow Salix and examine what type of Salix (the report refers to the different types as Tora, Karin and Gudrun) is most frost-resistant and resistant to insects, fungal infections and animals. The project is aimed primarily at landowners and energy companies. The results showed that growth at the demonstration plots was moderate and the establishment rate was considered good. Growth has been uneven across the fields. At Eriksgaard, about 75% of the plants survived the winter. Survival was determined by the number of plants missing and dead. Additional plants were planted at the sites in 2009. No major insect or leaf fungus attacks were noted at either Eriksgaard or Soergaard, but they both experienced grazing from deer and elk. The rating showed that the herbicide treatment was not sufficient on the demonstration fields. For this reason, a comparison of average lengths was performed of Gudrun in Bodum, where the weeds had not grown as much. The comparison showed that the difference in growth was not significant in the autumn 2008, but the plants in Bodum had grown more by autumn 2009. Topping was not performed in the spring 2009 so that the plants would have an opportunity to grow higher than the weeds and the plants would have an opportunity to have a growth spurt. A comparison of Tora, Karin and Gudrun in Roedoen showed moderate growth for the three types. There were variations in the rows and across the field, mostly for Tora and Karin. Gudrun had lower, but more consistent growth across the field. During the summer 2009, survival was rated for the plants in Roedoen. This rating showed that 90% of Tora, 60% of Karin and 70% of Gudrun had survived the winter. The Salix

  13. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Firda, Alfiana Aulia; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  14. Effect of added ingredients on water status and physico-chemical properties of tomato sauce.

    Diantom, Agoura; Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Vittadini, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Different ingredients (guar, xanthan, carboxy methyl cellulose, locust bean gums, potato fiber, milk, potato and soy proteins) were added to tomato sauce to investigate their effect on its physico-chemical properties. The products were characterized in terms of colour, rheological properties (Bostwick consistency, flow behavior and consistency coefficient), water status (water activity, moisture content) and molecular mobility by 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Water activity was significantly decreased only by the addition of potato fiber. Xanthan, locust bean, guar and carboxy methyl cellulose significantly enhanced Bostwick consistency and consistency coefficient. Type of ingredient and concentration significantly affected 1 H NMR mobility indicators. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that only 1 H NMR mobility parameters were able to differentiate the effect of milk protein, xanthan and potato fiber on tomato sauce properties. The information collected in this work provides information to intelligently modulate tomato sauce attributes and tailor its properties for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  16. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180-225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2).

  17. Accumulation of Citrulline by Microbial Arginine Metabolism during Alcoholic Fermentation of Soy Sauce.

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Jiran; Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Zhaohui; Li, Tieqiao; Lu, Liling; Zeng, Weizhu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2018-03-07

    Citrulline, the major precursor of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, is an intermediate catabolite of arginine produced by bacteria present in soy sauce moromi mash. Pediococcus acidilactici is responsible for the formation of citrulline during the lactic acid fermentation process of soy sauce. However, citrulline accumulation during the alcoholic fermentation process and the corresponding bacteria involved have not been identified. Salt-tolerant, arginine-utilizing bacteria were isolated from moromi mash during the alcoholic fermentation process. Under normal cultivation conditions, arginine utilization by these strains did not contribute to citrulline accumulation. However, the conversion of arginine to citrulline by these bacteria increased when cultivated during the alcoholic fermentation process. Additionally, the ethanol-enhanced solubility of free fatty acids in moromi mash stimulated the accumulation of citrulline. Staphylococcus exhibited the highest capability in the conversion of arginine to citrulline.

  18. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  19. Production Time Loss Reduction in Sauce Production Line by Lean Six Sigma Approach

    Ritprasertsri, Thitima; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In all industries, time losses, which are incurred in processing are very important. As a result, losses are incurred in productivity and cost. This research aimed to reduce lost time that occurs in sauce production line by using the lean six sigma approach. The main objective was to reduce the time for heating sauce which causes a lot of time lost in the production line which affects productivity. The methodology was comprised of the five-phase improvement model of Six Sigma. This approach begins with defining phase, measuring phase, analysing phase, improving phase and controlling phase. Cause-and-effect matrix and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were adopted to screen the factors which affect production time loss. The results showed that the percentage of lost time from heating sauce reduced by 47.76%. This increased productivity to meet the plan.

  20. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Communities of broadleaved forest subject to strong pressure from large herbivores underwent degeneration. The relief of this pressure led to regeneration of the community, in which an important role was played by the sallow Salix caprea and other light-seeded pioneer species of tree (Populus tremula, Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Regeneration involving Salix caprea proceeded following the conservatorial protection of the degenerate stands in a reserve and later in Białowieża National Park. The emergence and development of the population of Salix caprea proceeded following the invasion of spruce, which coincided with the period of enhanced animal pressure on broadleaved forest. Salix caprea filled all the gaps in the tree stand arising as a result of the destruction of trees and undergrowth by herbivores (in the years 1892-1915. It also appeared en masse on old, at that time unforested, clearings and felled areas. In these places, Salix caprea created very abundant populations, with particular trees being in good condition, with a habit typical of forest trees and attaining considerable heights. The majority of trees were 50-60 years old at the time of death, although individuals reached 74 years of age. The process of extinction of the sallow population - observed over 19 years on permanent plots and fixed trees - proceeded very quickly, especially in the first decade of observation. It led to the almost complete disappearance of sallow for the forest communities of Białowieża National Park. The death of individual trees is preceded by impairment of their health and reduced annual increments in the 4-9 last years of life. The extinction of the population is associated with the loss of its primary phenological differentiation and with a change in the sex structure of the population from a prevalence of female trees to a near even distribution of the two sexes. The development of the populations of permanent constituents of the forest

  1. KANDUNGAN NATRIUM BEBERAPA JENIS SAMBAL KEMASAN SERTA UJI TINGKAT PENERIMAANNYA (THE SODIUM CONTENT OF SOME CHILLI SAUCES AND ITS SENSORY EVALUATION

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chili sauce is one the spice which is widely used in Indonesia. In making of the sauce, salt is added to increase the palatability of the chili sauce. In the past salt was the only source of sodium, however, nowadays there are some food additives containing sodium such as sodium benzoate becoming the source of sodium. At the moment, the chili sauce are available in the market, and in making those sauces, beside the addition of salt is also some food additive containing sodium were added.  The excessive of sodium intake is related to the risk of hypertension and kidney failure. Objectives: to analyze the sodium contents of 10 kinds of chili sauces available in the market and to evaluate the sensory of the sauce. Methods: Ten samples of chili sauce in various brands were bought from supermarket, and then analyzed its sodium content using the Flame photometer method. Its sensory evaluation was performed by the thirty-two of testers. Results: The sodium content of sauces was shown that the value of the content was varying significantly (p £ 0.05. The highest content was 9.03 mg per gram, and the lowest was 3.82 mg per gram. The others were spread out between the highest and the lowest. Whereas the sensory evaluation of the sauce indicated that the sauce containing the higher content of sodium was tend to be more acceptance than the lower one.  Conclusion: The sodium content of sauces in this study was varying between 9.03 to 3.82 mg per 100 g, whereas the sensory evaluation of the sauces revealed that the sauce which contained the higher content of sodium was more preference by the testers than the lower one. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2: 173-179] Keywords: sodium content, chili sauce, food additives.

  2. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbe participation in aroma production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning that contains various constituents such as amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles that are produced during the long fermentation process. Although studies regarding the correlation between microbes and aroma constituents have been performed, there are no reports about the influences of the microbial products, such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol, during fermentation. Because it is known that these compounds contribute to microbial growth and to changes in the constituent profile by altering the moromi environment, understanding the influence of these compounds is important. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites, is a promising strategy for the deep understanding of constituent contributions to food characteristics. Therefore, the influences of microbes and their products such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol on aroma profiles were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolic profiling. The presence of aroma constituents influenced by microbes and chemically influenced by lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol were proposed. Most of the aroma constituents were not produced by adding ethanol alone, confirming the participation of yeast in aroma production. It was suggested that lactic acid bacterium relates to a key aromatic compound, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone. However, most of the measured aroma constituents changed similarly in both samples with lactic acid bacterium and acids. Thus, it was clear that the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the aroma profile was significant. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  5. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  6. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  7. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  8. Formation and reduction of furan in a soy sauce model system.

    Kim, Min Yeop; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The formation and reduction of furan using a soy sauce model system were investigated in the present study. The concentration of furan fermented up to 30 days increased by 211% after sterilization compared to without sterilization. Regarding fermentation temperature, furan level after 30 days' fermentation was the highest at 30°C (86.21 ng/mL). The furan levels in the soy sauce fermentation at 20°C and 40°C were reduced by 45% and 88%, respectively compared to 30°C fermentation. Five metal ions (iron sulfate, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium sulfate), sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid, dibutyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added in a soy sauce model system. The addition of metal ions such as magnesium sulfate and calcium sulfate reduced the furan concentration significantly by 36-90% and 27-91%, respectively in comparison to furan level in the control sample (psauce model system by 278% and 87%, respectively. In the case of the BHT and BHA, furan formation generally was reduced in the soy sauce model system by 84%, 56%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

    1987-01-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production

  11. Simultaneous quantification of twenty Amadori products in soy sauce using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Tatemichi, Yuki; Nakajima, Ayako

    2017-08-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L. The concentrations of N-ε-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-lysine (Fru-Lys) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-pyroglutamic acid (Fru-pGlu) were the highest among the APs and the level of Fru-pGlu was similar to that of Fru-Lys. Furthermore, fermentation periods of up to six months greatly influenced AP levels in soy sauce but the levels remained constant thereafter. Thermal treatment of soy sauce had little effect on AP levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180–225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2). - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics were studied to identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce. • TL emission was found to be dependent on irradiation doses and blending ratios of the ingredients. • TL technique was found to be successful in detecting irradiation status even after pasteurization. • Inter-laboratory trial gave a clear verdict on irradiation detection potential of TL technique.

  13. The Effect of Soy Sauce Waste in Ration on Performance of Mojosari Duck

    G. A. A. Larasati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to determined the effect of soy sauce waste in ration in the ration on the performance of Mojosari duck. The materials used were 240 of Mojosari which are 20 weeks olds with average body weight 1,385.0 ± 130.85 grams (CV = 9.44%. Feed ingredients used were, rice bran, soybean meal, yellow corn, fish meal, pollard and premix. The design that used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 4 treatments and 6 replications.The treatment applied soy sauce waste at level 5, 7,5 and 10%. The parameters observed were consumption, egg production, feed conversion. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with F test. The results showed that soy sauce waste did not effected on performance (consumption of ration, egg production, ration conversion of Mojosari duck. The conclusion of this research is soy sauce waste be used as feed stuff of Mojosari duck ration until level 10%.

  14. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Data on volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production.

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This article describes the analysis of volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten types of fish sauces were produced from raw salmon materials, including various proportions of flesh, viscera, inedible portion (heads, fins, and backbones), and soft roe, by mixing them with salt and allowing them to ferment for up to three months. The volatile compounds were captured by a solid-phase microextraction method and then applied to GC/MS for separation and identification of the compounds in the fish sauce products. The number of volatile compounds identified in the starting materials varied from 15 to 29 depending on the ingredients. The number of compounds in the final fish sauce products was reduced by 3.4-94.7% of that in the original material. The retention times and names of the identified compounds, as well as their relative peak areas, are provided in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet.

  16. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  19. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.

    Steinhaus, Petra; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-25

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the volatiles isolated from a commercial Japanese soy sauce revealed 30 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096, among which 2-phenylethanol showed the highest FD factor of 4096, followed by 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional), the tautomers 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl- and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDF), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone), all showing FD factors of 1024. Thirteen odorants were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations and odor thresholds in water. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), sotolone (seasoning-like), 4-HEMF (caramel-like), 2-methylbutanal (malty), methional (cooked potato), ethanol (alcoholic), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest OAVs (>200). An aqueous model aroma mixture containing 13 odorants, which had been identified with the highest OAVs, in concentrations that occur in the soy sauce showed a good similarity with the overall aroma of the soy sauce itself. Heat treatment of the soy sauce resulted in a clear change of the overall aroma. Quantitation of selected odorants revealed a significant decrease in sotolone and, in particular, increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-HDMF, and 4-HEMF induced by heating.

  20. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces and mayonnaises

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0¿72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  1. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0-72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  2. Sensory sub-attributes of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces

    Weenen, H.; Jellema, R.H.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2005-01-01

    The sensory components of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces were determined, using multi-variate analysis of the mean sensory ratings obtained from a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) panel. Creamy is a particularly interesting attribute, as it is

  3. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  4. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS OF WILLOW TRIANDRA (SALIX TRIANDRA L., GROWING IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of willow genus are rich in various flavonoids. In 60-e years of the XX century the works of V. A. Kompantsev showed that leaves of willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, contain up to 5% of rutin. The method, which required long sample preparation (extraction of the raw material with TLC, chromatographic layer extraction with methanol, removal of the solvent, dissolution in ethanol, optical density measurements was used. Currently available and simple methods for the determination of rutin in plant material are described. Given that leaves of Salix triandra contain significant amounts of rutin and can be a potential raw material for the creation of medicines on their basis, it is essential to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Salix triandra and its branches.The purpose of this study is determination of the amount of flavonoids in the willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, depending on the place and time of collection.Methods. TLC and the method of differential spectrophotometry were used to study chemical reactions. Results. The presence of flavonoids in various vegetative plant organs was established using qualitative reactions (cyanidin test; boric-citric reaction; the reaction with solution of lead acetate and solution of ammonia. Rutin and quercetin flavonoids in the presence of standard samples were identified using TLC. the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the reaction of flavonoids with aluminum chloride was used for the quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids. It is shown that the greatest quantity of flavonoids amount accumulated in the leaves (up to 3.76%, its value in branches is slightly smaller (up to 3.26%. The branches without leaves have almost 10 times less flavonoids. It was established experimentally that the accumulation of flavonoids in raw material of Salix triandra is dependent on the place and time of

  5. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2011-01-01

    , nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  6. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds influencing Chinese-type soy sauces using GC-MS combined with HS-SPME and discrimination with electronic nose.

    Gao, Lihua; Liu, Ting; An, Xinjing; Zhang, Jinlan; Ma, Xiaoran; Cui, Jinmei

    2017-01-01

    Soy sauce contains a variety of volatiles that are highly valuable to its quality with regard to sensory characteristics. This paper describes the analysis of volatile compounds influencing the flavor quality of Chinese-type soy sauces. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction and electronic nose (E-nose) were applied for identifying the volatile flavor compounds as well as determining their volatile profiles of 12 soy sauces manufactured by different fermentation process. Forty one key volatile components of these 12 soy sauce products, a pure soy sauce and an acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein sample, were compared in semi-quantitative form, and their volatile flavor profiles were analyzed by E-nose. The substantially similar results between hierarchical cluster analysis based on GC-MS data and E-nose analysis suggested that both techniques may be useful in evaluating the flavor quality of soy sauces and differentiating soy sauce products. The study also showed that there were less volatile flavor compounds in soy sauces produced through low-salt solid-state fermentation process, a traditional manufacturing technology and a widely adopted technology in Chinese soy sauce industries. In addition, the investigation suggested that the flavor quality of soy sauce varied widely in Chinese domestic market, and that the present Chinese national standards of soy sauce should be further perfected by the addition of flavor grades of soy sauce in the physical and chemical index. Meanwhile, this research provided valuable information to manufacturers and government regulators, which have practical significance to improve quality of soy sauces.

  8. Evaluation of the phytoremediation potential of the Salix caprea in tailing ponds

    Anca MIHALY-COZMUTA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The goat willow (Salix caprea belongs to the typical pioneer vegetation at former ore mining sites in East and Middle Europe as a result of its high metal-tolerance. Ectomycorrhizal (EM fungi are known to contribute essentially to the tolerance of plants against abiotic stress. We have determined the absorption/ accretion potential of the goat willow related to heavy metals, as well as the growth rhythm of this species in conditions offered by polluted sites, correlated to the presence/ absence of the microbiota in the soil attached to the root. The research unravels how the goat willow (Salix caprea, as a native species can be used in remediation actions of polluted sites based on its high adaptive potential, as well as on its capacity to absorb and accumulate heavy metals. In terms of survival strategy, mycorhrised fungi attached to the polluted soil play a significant part, since they induce plants a certain resistance by diminishing the absorption of heavy metals by the host plant. We suppose that the majority of EM associations of S. caprea, in combination with high portions of metal-chelating organic acids containing fungal partners, contributes essentially to the high tolerance of this species against high metal concentrations in the soil.

  9. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  10. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for production, resistance and tolerance traits in Salix. Final Report

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Bertholdsson, Nils-Ove; Glynn, Carolyn; Weih, Martin; Aahman, Inger [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics

    2004-05-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits, water use efficiency and tolerance/resistance against metals and herbivores have been identified. A hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados-clone (SW901290) and a S. viminalis-clone ('Jorunn') was used for the different studies in this project. The growth response was analyzed in a greenhouse experiment with two water treatments, normal and drought. In addition, three field experiments with contrasting soils and climates were established. QTL specific for each treatment or field environment but also QTL stable over the treatments or field environments were detected. Each QTL explained from 8 to 29 % of the phenotypic variation depending on trait, treatment or field environment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped indicating a common genetic base or tightly-linked QTL. Stable QTL identified for dryweight can be useful tools for early selection in Salix. In a separate greenhouse experiment, with a subset of ten genotypes from the F2 population, we show that genotype is more important than irrigation treatment for production of phenolic substances as well as for resistance to herbivory by P vulgatissima.

  11. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE BIOLOGY OF TUBEROLACHNUS SALIGNUS (GMELIN (STERNORRHYNCHA: APHIDIDAE ON (SALIX ALBA

    Nıhal ÖZDER

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The development time, survivoship and reproduction of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin( Lachninae: Lachnini were studied on Salix alba at fi ve constant temperatures (17.5°C, 20°C, 22.5°C, 25°C and 27.5°C . The developmental time of immature stages ranged from 17.00 days at 17.5°C to 12.21 days at 25°C on Salix alba. The total percentage of survivorship of immature stages varied from 50% and 70% 17.5°C -20°C on S. alba. The largest r m valueoccurred with 0.2540 at 20°C on S. alba. The mean generation time of the population ranged from 13.595 days at 22.5°C to 19.60 days at 17.5°C on S. alba. The optimal temperature for Tuberolachnus salignus was 20°C.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Populus-Salix stands in a semiarid riparian ecosystem

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Stutz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    ??? This study examined the activity, species richness, and species composition of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community of Populus-Salix stands on the Verde River (Arizona, USA), quantified patterns of AMF richness and colonization along complex floodplain gradients, and identified environmental variables responsible for structuring the AMF community. ??? Samples from 61 Populus-Salix stands were analyzed for AMF and herbaceous composition, AMF colonization, gravimetric soil moisture, soil texture, per cent organic matter, pH, and concentrations of nitrate, bicarbonate phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. ??? AMF species richness declined with stand age and distance from and elevation above the channel and was positively related to perennial species cover and richness and gravimetric soil moisture. Distance from and elevation above the active channel, forest age, annual species cover, perennial species richness, and exchangeable potassium concentration all played a role in structuring the AMF community in this riparian area. ??? Most AMF species were found across a wide range of soil conditions, but a subset of species tended to occur more often in hydric areas. This group of riparian affiliate AMF species includes several not previously encountered in the surrounding Sonoran desert. ?? New Phytologist (2006).

  13. DETERMINATION OF RUTIN IN LEAVES OF SALIX TRIANDRA USING THE METHOD OF PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to develop new methods of identification and quantitative determination of rutin in the leaves of Salix triandra L. with thin-layer chromatography. The digital processing of the chromatograms was performed using «Sorbfil Videodensitometer» computer program (Krasnodar. For the chromatography analysis we used plates «Sorbfil» PTSH-P-A-UV, mobile phase: n-butanol-glacial acetic acid-water (4:1:1, detecting reagent – ammonia vapors. The rutin is detected as yellow spots with Rf 0.64±0.02. The detection limit is 0.5 μg/μl. The regression equation has the form: S=4.75×103 m. With the use of this method we found that the composition of rutin in leaves of Salix triandra was in the range 1.81±0.06% on the air-dry raw material (relative standard deviation RSD%=2.5%; the measurement error E=3.12%. The method is sensitive, linear, has a small error, and does not require expensive equipment.

  14. Application of two electrical methods for the rapid assessment of freezing resistance in Salix epichloro

    Tsarouhas, V.; Kenney, W.A.; Zsuffa, L. [University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    2000-09-01

    The importance of early selection of frost-resistant Salix clones makes it desirable to select a rapid and accurate screening method for assessing freezing resistance among several genotypes. Two electrical methods, stem electrical impedance to 1 and 10 khz alternating current, and electrolyte leakage of leaf tissue, were evaluated for detecting freezing resistance on three North America Salix epichloro Michx., clones after subjecting them to five different freezing temperatures (-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 deg C). Differences in the electrical impedance to 1 and 10 kHz, and the ratio of the impedance at the two frequencies (low/high) before and after the freezing treatment (DZ{sub low}, DZ{sub high}, and DZ{sub ratio}, respectively) were estimated. Electrolyte leakage was expressed as relative conductivity (RC{sub t}) and index of injury (IDX{sub t}). Results from the two methods, obtained two days after the freezing stress, showed that both electrical methods were able to detect freezing injury in S. eriocephala. However, the electrolyte leakage method detected injury in more levels of freezing stress (-3, -4, and -5 deg C) than the impedance (-4, and -5 deg C), it assessed clonal differences in S. eriocephala freezing resistance, and it was best suited to correlate electrical methods with the visual assessed freezing injury. No significant impedance or leakage changes were found after the -1 and -2 deg C freezing temperatures. (author)

  15. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Perinatal Consumption of Thiamine-Fortified Fish Sauce in Rural Cambodia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J

    2016-10-03

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P sauce through pregnancy and early lactation had higher eTDP and breast milk thiamine concentrations and their infants had higher eTDP, which was more pronounced in the high group. Thiamine-fortified fish sauce has the potential to prevent infantile beriberi in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02221063.

  17. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  18. Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage.

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Soo-Yoen; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of soy sauce on lipid oxidation and color stability of raw beef patties. Raw beef patties were formulated with four solutions such as NaCl (sodium chloride solution), NaCl/SS (1:1 ratio of sodium chloride and soy sauce solution), SS (soy sauce solution), or SS/A (soy sauce solution combined with 0.05% ascorbic acid) in the same salt concentration. Addition of soy sauce resulted in the decreased pH, lightness, and increased yellowness. Treatment SS/A had the lowest percent of metmyoglobin during storage (Psauce addition were observed in treatments SS and SS/A at the end of the storage period. There were no differences (P>0.05) in free fatty acid concentration at the end of storage. The combined addition of soy sauce and ascorbic acid greatly improved (P<0.05) color stability and retarded lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional value of trace elements in spaghetti sauces and their classification according to the labeled taste using pattern recognition techniques

    Kanias, G.D.; Ghitakou, S.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient trace elements chromium, iron and zinc as well as cobalt, rubidium and scandium were determined in dry spaghetti sauce samples from the Greek market by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results were evaluated according to the new US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), US Adequate Intake (AI), US Reference Values for nutrition labeling (RVNL) and European Union reference values for nutrition labeling (EURV). Moreover, the same data has been used with pattern recognition techniques in order to classify the sauce samples according to their labeled flavor. The evaluation showed that the nutrition rate depends strongly on the reference value under consideration. The spaghetti sauces studied are a good source for the covering of chromium daily AI. The same sauces are poor source for zinc daily needs of the organism (RDA, RVNL), but they are a moderate source for iron daily needs (RDA). The application of cluster analysis, of linear discriminant analysis and of the principal component analysis classified the spaghetti sauce samples according to their labeled taste successfully. In addition using the same techniques, another classification in red and white spaghetti sauces is carried out according to their tomato content. (author)

  20. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  1. Seasonal dynamics and effects of nitrogen supply rate on nitrogen and carbohydrate reserves in cutting-derived Salix viminalis plants

    Lars Bollmark; Lisa Sennerby-Forsse; Tom Ericsson

    1999-01-01

    Nurient storage is an important aspect of resprouting potential and production of Salix viminalis L., a pioneer species used for biomas production in weden. Seasonal dynamics of nitrogen (N), protien, soluble arbohydrates, starches, and lipids were studied in roots, cutting, stems, and leaves during a full growth cycle induced by varying photoperiod...

  2. Salix fication

    SAM

    y related dioe d their hybrid gene pool. repeats, SSR a large numb n closely rela ers that sh our female, t re and Fores ased molecu e of 5.8 poly. 26 were po diversity wa ndex = 0.53 gene differen ypes. It was e and feasib n and breedi le, half sibs sequence rep s, and they a the Southe d New Guine amplif. RAPD) n gene.

  3. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-01-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell

  4. [Effects of the iron fortified soy sauce on improving students' anemia in boarding schools].

    Chen, Di; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Piao, Wei; Tang, Yanbin; Li, Jin; Gao, Jie; Huo, Junsheng

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron fortified soy sauce on improving the anemia of boarding school students. A total of 3029 students of the boarding schools in the 27 provinces in China including 1576 boys and 1453 girls were treat with the iron-fortified soy sauce for 12 months. The concentration of hemoglobin was detected before and after intervention. The statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the anemia rate and the hemoglobin concentration in boarding school students. After the intervention, the average hemoglobin of students were increased from 142.1 g/L to 146.5 g/L compared to the baseline. The boys average haemoglobin concentration increased 6.7 g/L, girls average haemoglobin concentration increased 1.9 g/L. They were significantly higher than those of the baseline (P boarding school students, reduce anemia prevalence of students significantly.

  5. VOC emissions and carbon balance of two bioenergy plantations in response to nitrogen fertilization: A comparison of Miscanthus and Salix.

    Hu, Bin; Jarosch, Ann-Mareike; Gauder, Martin; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Grote, Rüdiger; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from Miscanthus and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission. For this purpose, we determined plant traits, photosynthetic gas exchange and VOC emission rates of the two systems as affected by N fertilization (0 and 80 kg ha -1 yr -1 ). Additionally, we used a modelling approach to simulate (i) the annual VOC emission rates as well as (ii) the OH . reactivity resulting from individual VOC emitted. Total VOC emissions from Salix was 1.5- and 2.5-fold higher compared to Miscanthus in non-fertilized and fertilized plantations, respectively. Isoprene was the dominating VOC in Salix (80-130 μg g -1 DW h -1 ), whereas it was negligible in Miscanthus. We identified twenty-eight VOC compounds, which were released by Miscanthus with the green leaf volatile hexanal as well as dimethyl benzene, dihydrofuranone, phenol, and decanal as the dominant volatiles. The pattern of VOC released from this species clearly differed to the pattern emitted by Salix. OH . reactivity from VOC released by Salix was ca. 8-times higher than that of Miscanthus. N fertilization enhanced stand level VOC emissions, mainly by promoting the leaf area index and only marginally by enhancing the basal emission capacity of leaves. Considering the higher productivity of fertilized Miscanthus compared to Salix together with the considerably lower OH . reactivity per weight unit of biomass produced, qualified the C 4 -perennial grass Miscanthus as a superior source of future

  6. Accumulation of Elements in Salix and Other Species Used in Vegetation Filters with Focus on Wood Fuel Quality

    Adler, Anneli

    2007-07-01

    Woody or herbaceous perennials used as vegetation filters for treatment of different types of wastes can be suitable for production of solid biofuels when their above ground harvestable biomass yield is sufficiently high and when biomass contains appropriate concentrations of minerals with regard to fuel combustion processes. The concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and heavy metals (especially Zn and Cd) in fuel should be low and calcium (Ca) concentrations high to avoid technical problems and environmentally harmful emissions during combustion. Since soil supplementation with essential elements improves biomass yield, a conflict might arise between yield and quality aims. There are various possibilities to influence fuel quality during the growing phase of the life cycle of perennial biomass crops. This study assessed the suitability of two deciduous woody perennials (Salix and Populus) and two summer green herbaceous perennials (Phragmites and Urtica) for phytoremediation in terms of growth and nutrient allocation patterns. Salix and Populus proved suitable as vegetation filters when nutrients were available to plants in near-optimal proportions, but when unbalanced nutrient solutions (wastewater) were applied, stem biomass fraction was strongly reduced. Phragmites was more tolerant to wastewater treatment in terms of plant biomass production and nutrient allocation patterns, so if the N:P ratio of the wastewater is suboptimal, a vegetation filter using Phragmites could be considered. In further studies, a method was developed to determine the proportions of nutrient-rich bark in coppiced Salix, while heavy metal phytoextraction capacity was assessed in two Salix vegetation filters. The relevance of proportion of bark on wood fuel quality and element removal from vegetation filters was also investigated. The concentrations of the elements studied in harvestable Salix shoot biomass were higher, meaning lower wood fuel quality, in plantations where

  7. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Guodong Rao

    Full Text Available Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs. Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  8. Storage properties of irrdiated white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A process involving radiation and heat treatment combined with effective management of pH using tomato sauce was developed for preservation of white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus). This process enhanced the organoleptic acceptability of the product and also ensured its microbiological safety. The processed product was in good edible condition even after a storage of 6 months at ambient temperature. (M.G.B.). 3 tabs

  9. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Aulia Firda Alfiana; Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint ...

  10. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  11. Population dynamics and ecology of Tilapia rendalli in Lago Sauce (Peru)

    Wosnitza-Mendo, C.

    1980-01-01

    This is a practical contribution to development aid in Peru. It was to provide a basis for farming of Lago Sauce and similar lakes and introduce young Peruvian fishery biologists to practical and theoretical work with populations of freshwater fish. Various methods of biomass determination have been compared in order to find out why only small specimens of Tilapia rendalli have been caught and what ichthyobiomass was in the lake.

  12. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Aulia Firda Alfiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  13. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of high pressure treatment on metabolite profile of marinated meat in soy sauce.

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-02-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce was produced using hind leg by washing, rubbing salt, marinating with soy sauce and spices, and air dry-ripening for 15d. The effect of high pressure (HP) (150 and 300MPa for 15min) on the metabolite profiles of products was characterized using 1 H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that the metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 75.4 and 11.9% of variables, respectively. HP treatments increased most of the metabolites, especially PC1, glutamate, sugars, nucleotides, anserine, lactate and creatine compared to the control. The increase of metabolites under HP was not dependent on pressure level except for alanine, lactate, acetate, formate, fumarate, glucose and 5'-IMP. These findings demonstrated that HP treatment at 150MPa was economical to improve the taste of marinated meat in soy sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  19. Uptake and activity concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in Salix viminalis

    Rosen, K.; Fircks, Y. von; Sennerby-Forsse, L.

    1999-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the uptake, internal distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and the effects of K-fertilisation of uptake of 137 Cs in Salix plantations, a K-fertilisation experiment including 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K was performed. Previous studies with K-fertilization in Sweden have mainly dealt with the flow of 137 Cs between soil to plant in annual crops. The aim of this study was study the transfer of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 40 K from soil to plants and to test the following hypothesis: that accumulation of 137 Cs and 90 Sr differs between plant organs, that there is a seasonal variation in uptake and concentration of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and that the availability of K is related to the uptake of 137 Cs. (au)

  20. Production capacity of biomass of the floodpain community of Salix alba L. in southern Moravia

    Diana López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the production capacity of biomass in the seven-year stand of Salix alba L. The communities originated in the process of primary succession in the area of the middle Nové Mlýny reservoir on a newly established island. Already since the first stages, the communities have been monitored. Results have shown that white willow behaves as an R-strategist with fast growth in youth. Moreover, the growth is supported by optimum environmental conditions (soils richly supplied with nutrients and water, long growing season. Accumulated phytomass amounted 102,7 t.ha−1 at the age of 7 years and the yield reached a mean annual increment of 15 t.ha−1.year−1. Communities of white willow rank among highly productive phytocoenoses capable of fixing considerable amounts of carbon and, at the same time fulfilling the function of habitat corridors.

  1. Phytoextraction of initial cutting of Salix matsudana for Cd and Cu.

    Wang, Wen-Wen; Cheng, Liu Ke; Hao, Jie Wei; Guan, Xin; Tian, Xing-Jun

    2016-06-27

    Salix species are widely used as vegetation filters because of their flourishing root system and fast growth rate. However, studies have yet to determine whether the root system functions in vegetable filters with mixed heavy metal (HM) pollution or whether initial cutting participates in the phytoextraction of HMs. This study aims to determine the function of the root system and initial cutting as vegetation filters in the absorption and accumulation of Cd and Cu. Thick (>1 cm in diameter) and fine (phytoextraction capacity of plants. The initial cuttings could also absorb and accumulate HMs in the early growth stages of willow without roots. Cu inhibited the plant absorption and accumulation of Cd and promoted Cd transport to shoots. Cd inhibited the Cu absorption of the root system. Our study provided essential data regarding woody species as vegetation filters of HM pollution.

  2. Significance of stigma receptivity in intergeneric cross-pollination of Salix × Populus

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen–stigma interaction plays an important role in reproductive process and has been continuously studied in many interspecific and intergeneric crossing experiments. The aim of this study was to investigate stigma receptivity (SR of willow in order to determine the most suitable period for its pollination with poplar pollen and improve the effectiveness of Salix × Populus crosses. Tissue samples were examined histologically using light, epifluorescent, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Willow SR was determined by stigma morphological traits, test of pollen germination rate, Peroxtesmo test of peroxidase and esterase activity on stigma surface as well as papilla ultrastructure at anthesis. We have ascertained that the SR duration in willow is short, lasting from 1 to 2 DA. The poplar pollen germination rate on willow stigmas on 1 DA ranged from 26.3 to 11.2%.

  3. New Rust Disease of Korean Willow (Salix koreensis) Caused by Melampsora yezoensis, Unrecorded Pathogen in Korea.

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Yoon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Hoo Hyun; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis , based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S. koreensis . Here, we report a new rust disease of S. koreensis caused by the rust fungus, M. yezoensis , a previously unrecorded rust pathogen in Korea.

  4. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  5. Pollen viability of Salix myrtilloides L. – an endangered species in Poland

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salix myrtilloides L. (swamp willow is the most endangered species among the boreal Salix species in Poland. The number and size of its population have been decreasing constantly since the 1990s. The main aim of the study was to determine the viability of collected S. myrtilloides pollen and optimal conditions for its in vitro germination. The pollen of S. myrtilloides was collected from 25 male individuals from a population growing in the mid-forest peat bog Dekowina (Sobibór Landscape Park in May 2014. Two methods were applied to estimate the viability of fresh and stored pollen: staining pollen with 2% acetocarmine solution and in vitro germinability. Various temperature (11°C, 23°C and light conditions as well as different concentrations of glucose (1%, 2.5%, 5%, or 7.5% were tested for the optimization of in vitro germination. We documented relatively high S. myrtilloides pollen viability. Pollen tube growth was found to be largely affected by both glucose content in the medium and thermal conditions during germination. Fresh pollen germinated most effectively on the medium with 2.5% glucose (stored pollen – in 5% glucose, at 23°C and in the presence of light. We conclude that pollen viability of S. myrtilloides does not seem to be a limiting factor for reproductive success. Moreover, the pollen is not sterile even after storage for 12 months. The S. myrtilloides individuals from the Dekowina peat bog produce viable pollen grains that are able to germinate and therefore it can be used to pollinate other populations present in the Polesie Lubelskie region for gene pool enrichment.

  6. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  7. Iodine stability and sensory quality of fermented fish and fish sauce produced with the use of iodated salt.

    Chanthilath, Boualapha; Chavasit, Visith; Chareonkiatkul, Somsri; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2009-06-01

    Universal salt iodization promotes the use of iodated salt for producing industrial food products, although it might affect product quality and iodine stability. To assess iodine loss during fermentation of fermented fish and fish sauces produced by using iodated salt and the effect on product sensory quality. Fermented fish and fish sauces were produced with iodated rock and grain sea salts (approximately 30 ppm iodine). Fermented fish was prepared from freshwater fish mixed with salt and rice bran and fermented for 6 months at room temperature. Fish sauces were prepared by mixing anchovy with salt and fermenting either exposed to sunlight or in the shade for 12 months. Residual iodine was determined with a spectrophotometer at day 0 and months 1, 3, and 6 for fermented fish and day 0 and months 3, 6, and 12 for fish sauces. After fermentation, the products were tested for sensory acceptability by Laotian and Thai panelists (approximately 50 in each panel) after they were cooked and served in the traditional manner. After fermentation, the level of residual iodine was 7.61 ppm (16% loss) infermented fish, 5.57 ppm (55% loss) in fish sauce prepared with exposure to sunlight, and 9.52 ppm (13% loss) in fish sauce prepared in the shade. Sensory qualities of the products that were produced from fortified and unfortified salts as well as dishes prepared from these products were not significantly different (p > 0.05). It is feasible to produce fermented fish and fish sauces with iodated salt and maintain acceptable iodine levels.

  8. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  9. Effects of long-term Salix cultivation on total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil - a pilot study

    Eriksson, Jan; Ledin, S.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the project was to study how total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil are affected by the large amounts of Cadmium that are removed during the harvesting of Salix. Eight long-term Salix plantations, 8-30 years old, were chosen. At each place soil samples were taken in 4 areas in the stands of Salix and in 4 neighbouring areas with comparable soil conditions, but without Salix (reference areas). Cd in three fractions of different bonding strength were determined in the soil samples. The fractions roughly correspond to the total concentration, the exchangeable fraction, and the fraction dissolved in the soil solution. The result showed a relatively minor effect of the Salix plantation on the total concentrations. In six of eight cases, however, the concentrations tended to be lower in the Salix plantations than in the reference areas. When consideration was given to certain pH differences, the exchangeable, and particularly the most soluble fraction, showed a clear tendency for concentrations to be lower in the Salix stands than in the reference areas.The concentrations in stem samples from growing stands were generally lower than those measured in harvest-mature stems in other studies. The concentrations in foliage were of the same magnitude as those in the stems, implying that there is an important return of Cd to the soil at leaf-fall. The negligible effect on the total content in the soil may depend on uptake occurring both in the topsoil and in the subsoil. Re-circulation via the leaves will also result in redistribution of Cd from the subsoil to the topsoil, compensating the uptake from the topsoil. The conclusion reached was that Salix cultivation results in a reduction of the plant-available Cd in the soil, but the effect is not concentrated to the topsoil. 13 refs, 5 tabs, 4 figs

  10. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  11. Improvement of Fish Sauce Quality by Strain CMC5-3-1: A Novel Species of Staphylococcus sp.

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 isolated from fermented fish sauce at 3 to 7 mo, respectively, showed different characteristics on protein hydrolysis and volatile formation. These Gram-positive cocci were able to grow in up to 15% NaCl with the optimum at 0.5% to 5% NaCl in tryptic soy broth. Based on ribosomal 16S rRNA gene sequences, Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 showed 99.0% similarity to that of Staphylococcus piscifermentans JCM 6057(T) , but DNA-DNA relatedness was sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 740.5 mM, which was higher than that inoculated by the strain CMS5-7-5 (662.14 mM, P sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 showed the highest content of total glutamic acid (P sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 2-methypropanal, contributing to the desirable dark chocolate note. Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 could be applied as a starter culture to improve the umami and aroma of fish sauce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. INVESTIGATION OF FOULING DEPOSIT FORMATION DURING PASTEURIZATION OF CHILI SAUCE BY USING LAB-SCALE CONCENTRIC TUBE-PASTEURIZER

    NUR ATIKA ALI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of fouling deposits obtained from chilli sauce pasteurization. A lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer was used to pasteurize the chilli sauce at 0.712 kg/min and 90±5°C. It was operated for 3 hours. Temperature changes were recorded during pasteurization and the data was used to plot the heat transfer profile and the fouling resistance profile. The thickness of the fouling deposit was also measured and the image was taken for every hour. The fouling deposit was collected at every hour to test its stickiness, hardness and flow behaviour. Proximate analysis was also performed and it shows that the fouling deposit from the chilli sauce is categorized as carbohydrate-based fouling deposits. Activation energy of chilli sauce is 7049.4 J.mole-1 which shows a greater effect of temperature on the viscosity. The hardness, stickiness of fouling deposit and the heat resistance increases as the chilli sauce continuously flows inside the heat exchanger.

  13. Prevalencia y carga parasitaria de helmintos gastrointestinales en gallinas de traspatio (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), en el municipio de El Sauce, departamento de León, Nicaragua

    Olivares, L. Luna; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Rimbaud, E.

    2006-01-01

    Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua......Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua...

  14. The Effect of Trichoderma on Heavy Metal Mobility and Uptake by Miscanthus giganteus, Salix sp., Phalaris arundinacea, and Panicum virgatum

    Malgorzata J. Kacprzak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of land application of biomaterials based on two strains of Trichoderma fungus on phytoremediation processes was studied. Six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were analysed in soil and soil leachate as well as in plant tissues. The translocation index (Ti and metal bioconcentration factors (BCF calculated for the inoculated plants were increased compared to the noninoculated control, except for Pb and Salix sp. Simultaneously, the mobilisation of metals in soil solution as an effect of biomaterials was noted. The highest values of Ti—339% (for Cr, 190% (for Ni, and 110% (for Cu—were achieved for the combination Miscanteus giganteus and Trichoderma MSO1. The results indicated that the application of fungus has positive effects on increasing the biomass, soil parameters (C, N, and P, and solubility of heavy metals in soil and therefore in enhancing phytoextraction for Miscanthus giganteus L., Panicum virgatum L., Phalaris arundinacea L., and Salix sp.

  15. Fast Extraction and Detection of 4-Methylimidazole in Soy Sauce Using Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by HPLC.

    Feng, Zufei; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yingjuan; Ye, Helin

    2017-11-02

    On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the synthesized MMIPs. To evaluate the polymers, batch rebinding experiments were carried out. The binding strength and capacity were determined from the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation. The selective recognition capability of MMIPs was investigated with a reference compound and a structurally similar compound. As a selective pre-concentration sorbents for 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce, the MMIPs showed a satisfied recoveries rate of spiked samples, ranged from 97% to 105%. As a result, the prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce samples.

  16. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH 3 -nitrogen, NH 2 -nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce

  17. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  18. Effects of summer and winter harvesting on element phytoextraction efficiency of Salix and Populus clones planted on contaminated soil.

    Kubátová, Pavla; Száková, Jiřina; Břendová, Kateřina; Kroulíková-Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mercl, Filip; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2018-04-16

    The clones of fast-growing trees (FGTs) were investigated for phytoextraction of soil contaminated with risk elements (REs), especially Cd, Pb, and Zn. As a main experimental factor, the potential effect of biomass harvesting time was assessed. The field experiment with two Salix clones (S1 - (Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis) × S. viminalis, S2 - S. × smithiana) and two Populus clones (P1 - Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2 - P. nigra) was established in April 2009. Shoots of all clones were first harvested in February 2012. After two further growing seasons, the first half of the trees was harvested in September 2013 before leaf fall (summer harvest) and the second half in February 2014 (winter harvest). Remediation factors (RFs) for all clones and all REs (except Pb for clone S1) were higher in the summer harvest. The highest annual RFs for Cd and for Zn (1.34 and 0.67%, respectively) were found for clone S2 and were significantly higher than other clones. Although no increased mortality of trees harvested in the summer was detected in the following season, the effect of summer harvesting on the phytoextraction potential of FGTs clones should be investigated in long-term studies.

  19. Salix response to different flow regimes in controlled experiments: first results

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Dams and water management for hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities alter the natural flow regime of rivers. The new river hydrograph components depend on the type of impoundment and the policy of regulation but such a different flow regime will likely affect the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define sustainable flow releases is to quantify hydrological effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem response. A considerable lack of knowledge still affects the link hydrology-ecology and inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) are consequently still widespread: further research in this direction is urgently required. We present an experiment, which aims to investigate the effects of different water stage regimes on riparian vegetation (salix Viminalis cuttings) development in a temperate region (Switzerland). This work describes the installation setup, together with the first results concerning the first of the two scheduled seasons of campaign. Sixty Salix cuttings were planted in non-cohesive sandy-gravel sediment within 1 meter tall plastic pots installed outside in the EPFL campus. After grouping them in three batteries, the water level within them has been varying following three river regimes simulated by adjusting the water level within the pots by means of an automatic hydraulic system. The three water level regimes reproduce a natural flow regime, a minimum residual flow policy, which only conserves peaks during flooding conditions, and an artificial regime conserving only low frequencies (e.g., seasonality) of the natural dynamic. The natural flow regime of the first battery has been applied for two months to the entire system; the three regimes above said started in June 2012. This triggered a plant response transitory regime, which we monitored by measuring plant growth, soil and atmospheric variables. Particularly, measures concern with branches development leaves photosynthesis and

  20. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  1. Microbiological safety of mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces produced in the United States: a review.

    Smittle, R B

    2000-08-01

    The literature on the death and survival of foodborne pathogens in commercial mayonnaise, dressing, and sauces was reviewed and statistically analyzed with emphasis on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The absence of reports of foodborne illness associated directly with the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and sauces is evidence of their safety. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica die when inoculated into mayonnaise and dressings. Historically, mayonnaise and dressings have been exempt from the acidified food regulations and have justly deserved this status due primarily to the toxic effect of acetic and to a lesser extent lactic and citric acids. These organic acids are inimical to pathogenic bacteria and are effective natural preservatives with acetic being the most effective in killing pathogenic bacteria at the pH values encountered in these products. Statistical analysis on data reported in the literature shows that the most important and significant factor in destroying pathogenic bacteria is pH as adjusted with acetic acid followed by the concentration of acetic acid in the water phase. The reported highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces is 4.4, which is below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for foodborne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The overall conclusion is that these products are very safe. They should remain exempt from the acidified food regulations providing adequate research has been done to validate their safety, and the predominant acid is acetic and reasonable manufacturing precautions are taken.

  2. Metagenomic Profiling of the Bacterial Community Changes from Koji to Mash Stage in the Brewing of Soy Sauce.

    Wang, Hongbin; Wei, Quanzeng; Gui, Shuqi; Feng, Yongrui; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yihan; Lu, Fuping

    2017-12-04

    The improvement of soy sauce fermentation is restricted by the insufficient information on bacterial community. In this study, bacterial communities in the koji and mash stage were compared based on next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 29 genera were identified in the koji stage, while 34 in the mash stage. After koji stage, 7 genera disappeared and 12 new genera appeared in the mash stage. The dominant bacteria were Kurthia, Weissella and Staphylococcus in the koji stage and Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc in the mash stage. The results provided insights into the microbial communities involved in soy sauce fermentation.

  3. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P sauce production.

  4. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy ( Psauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  5. Changes in Postfermentation Quality during the Distribution Process of Anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) Fish Sauce.

    Joung, Byung Chun; Min, Jin Gi

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the changes in quality that can occur during the distribution of nonheated anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) fish sauce after packaging. The pH values of all samples ranged from 5.5 to 5.8, and there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) in pH among the samples during storage regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration. The initial total volatile base nitrogen concentration in all samples after bottling was 115 to 121 mg/100 mL, but this concentration increased gradually with storage time. After 1 year of storage, total volatile base nitrogen concentration had increased to approximately 170% of the initial concentration (166 to 194 mg/100 mL). Amino nitrogen increased slightly during storage but was significantly lower than the increase in amino nitrogen during general anchovy fish sauce fermentation with anchovy flesh. Most of the free amino acids increased slightly during the storage period regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration, but tyrosine and histidine increased and then decreased during the storage period. The histamine concentration of the anchovy fish sauce at a salt concentration of 20% was 43.3 mg/100 mL initially, but after 1 year the histamine concentration was 89.7 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 10°C, 102.6 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 25°C, and 116.8 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 35°C . Changes in putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were similar to those in histamine; concentrations increased about twofold from the initial concentrations after 1 year of storage. However, the rate of increase in putrescine from 4 months after storage was very high, and cadaverine slightly decreased by 12 months of storage. High scores for umami and aroma sensory characteristics were given to samples stored at 10°C, but samples stored 35°C were given high scores for rancid. Despite the overall low scores for aroma and umami for samples stored at 35°C, the quality of the anchovy fish sauce

  6. Analysis of extracellular proteins of Aspergillus oryzae grown on soy sauce koji.

    Liang, Yanchang; Pan, Li; Lin, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae AS 3.951 is widely used in Chinese soy sauce manufacture, but little is known about the profiles of the extracellular proteins from the culture of soybean koji. In this study, we carried out MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of extracellular proteins during koji culture. Besides well-known proteins (TAA and Oryzin), a variety of aminopeptidase and proteases were identical at the proteome level. This suggests that A. oryzae AS 3.951 has a powerful capacity to digest soybean protein.

  7. Population resources of an endangered species Salix lapponum L. in Polesie Lubelskie Region (eastern Poland

    Magdalena Pogorzelec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research, carried out in the years 2011–2013, aimed to evaluate Salix lapponum stands in the peat bogs of Polesie Lubelskie Region as well as to determine the condition of the population and the changes that have taken place since the 1950’s. An inventory carried out in 25 stands of S. lapponum known from the literature shows that the number of its stands has decreased by 80% in Polesie Lubelskie Region. In all the confirmed locations, a decrease in population numbers was also found in relation to the data known from the literature since the 1950’s. In the majority of the population locations that were considered to be extinct, there were no significant changes in habitat conditions, and ecological succession and changes in hydrological conditions could have been the cause of habitat changes only at a few sites. In the light of the study, the preservation of the S. lapponum population in Polesie Lubelskie seems to be impossible if appropriate active conservation measures are not taken immediately. Because area-based conservation, which covers most of the habitats of the studied species, does not bring the expected results, the possibility of ex situ conservation and enlargement of the populations existing in the natural environment in peat bog ecosystems in Polesie should be explored.

  8. Evaluation of Populus and Salix continuously irrigated with landfill leachate II. soils and early tree development.

    Zalesny, Ronald S; Bauer, Edmund O

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminant levels and early tree growth data are helpful for assessing phytoremediation systems. Populus (DN17, DN182, DN34, NM2, and NM6) and Salix (94003, 94012, S287, S566, and SX61) genotypes were irrigated with landfill leachate or municipal water and tested for differences in (1) element concentrations (P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, and Na) of a topsoil layer and a layer of sand in tanks with a cover crop of trees or no trees and (2) height, diameter, volume, and dry mass of leaves, stems, and roots. Trees were irrigated with leachate or water during the final 12 wk of the 18-wk study. Differences in most soil element concentrations were negligible (P > 0.05) for irrigation treatments and cover main effects. Phosphorous, K, Mg, S, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Al concentrations were greater in topsoil than sand (P = 0.0011 for Mg; P tree yield. From a practical standpoint, these results may be used as a baseline for the development of future remediation systems.

  9. Phytoextraction with Salix viminalis in a moderately to strongly contaminated area.

    Tőzsér, Dávid; Harangi, Sándor; Baranyai, Edina; Lakatos, Gyula; Fülöp, Zoltán; Tóthmérész, Béla; Simon, Edina

    2018-02-01

    We tested the suitability of Salix viminalis for phytoextraction with the analysis of selected elements in soil, root, and leaf, and by visual tree condition assessment in an area with varying levels of contamination. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were used to assess the phytoextraction potential of willows. The middle part of the study area was strongly contaminated, while the northern and southern parts were moderately contaminated. We found increasing element concentrations toward deeper layers. Mean concentrations of elements in roots were similar among the three parts, while in leaves the highest concentrations were found in the strongly contaminated part of the study area. Tree condition scores were the lowest in the strongly contaminated part of the study area, which was caused by Al, Ca, K, Mg, Ni, Sr, and Zn concentration. These elements induced leaf disease and leaf feeders. The highest BCF values were found for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in root, and for Cd and Zn in leaves, indicating that S. viminalis had high accumulation potential of these elements. Furthermore, TF values were high for Cd, Mn, Sr, and Zn. Our results also demonstrated that soil element composition has major influence on the condition of S. viminalis individuals. Furthermore, visual condition assessment was found to be a useful tool to assess the phytoextraction potential of trees.

  10. Assembly and comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an economic plant Salix suchowensis

    Ning Ye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Willow is a widely used dioecious woody plant of Salicaceae family in China. Due to their high biomass yields, willows are promising sources for bioenergy crops. In this study, we assembled the complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequence of S. suchowensis with the length of 644,437 bp using Roche-454 GS FLX Titanium sequencing technologies. Base composition of the S. suchowensis mt genome is A (27.43%, T (27.59%, C (22.34%, and G (22.64%, which shows a prevalent GC content with that of other angiosperms. This long circular mt genome encodes 58 unique genes (32 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 3 rRNA genes, and 9 of the 32 protein-coding genes contain 17 introns. Through the phylogenetic analysis of 35 species based on 23 protein-coding genes, it is supported that Salix as a sister to Populus. With the detailed phylogenetic information and the identification of phylogenetic position, some ribosomal protein genes and succinate dehydrogenase genes are found usually lost during evolution. As a native shrub willow species, this worthwhile research of S. suchowensis mt genome will provide more desirable information for better understanding the genomic breeding and missing pieces of sex determination evolution in the future.

  11. Root anatomy and element distribution vary between two Salix caprea isolates with different Cd accumulation capacities

    Vaculík, Marek; Konlechner, Cornelia; Langer, Ingrid; Adlassnig, Wolfram; Puschenreiter, Markus; Lux, Alexander; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the influence of toxic elements on root anatomy and element distribution is still limited. This study describes anatomical responses, metal accumulation and element distribution of rooted cuttings of Salix caprea after exposure to Cd and/or Zn. Differences in the development of apoplastic barriers and tissue organization in roots between two distinct S. caprea isolates with divergent Cd uptake and accumulation capacities in leaves might reflect an adaptive predisposition based on different natural origins. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) revealed that Cd and Zn interfered with the distribution of elements in a tissue- and isolate-specific manner. Zinc, Ca, Mg, Na and Si were enriched in the peripheral bark, K and S in the phloem and Cd in both vascular tissues. Si levels were lower in the superior Cd translocator. Since the cuttings originated from stocks isolated from polluted and unpolluted sites we probably uncovered different strategies against toxic elements. - Highlights: ► We describe responses in roots of S. caprea exposed to Cd and Zn. ► Apoplastic barrier development varied among isolates from differently polluted sites. ► EDX analyses revealed variations of element distributions in root tissues. ► Si weight% was lower in the isolate with a higher Cd translocation capacity. ► S. caprea isolates possessed different strategies to respond to Cd and Zn. - S. caprea altered element distribution and translocation, apoplastic barrier development and root anatomy upon Cd and/or Zn exposure.

  12. Development of a method for testing the susceptibility of Salix alba to Erwinia salicis

    Dingjan-Versteegh, A M; de Kam, M [Institute for Forestry and Urban Ecology, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    Salix is one of the faster growing tree species that has potential for biomass plantations in Europe. This potential, however, is limited by the occurrence of a vascular disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia salicis (Day) Chester. Selection and breeding of disease resistance is hampered by insufficient knowledge of the infection biology and ecology of the pathogen. The availability of specific antisera is of vital importance in the study of the infection biology and in monitoring bacterial populations inside the host. Therefore, one of the aims of the research was to improve the antisera. The composition of the soluble antigens of E. salicis was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and electro-immunoblotting. Antiserum prepared to whole cells of E. salicis mainly contains antibodies to bacterial surface antigens or to soluble antigens. ELISA demonstrated the presence of bacterial soluble antigens in leaves of diseased willow trees and also in leaves of willow shoots which were placed in a solution of bacterial soluble antigens. An inoculation experiment was carried out to ascertain if there is a statistically significant correlation between plant water potential and response to artificial inoculation with E. salicis. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in pathogenicity and virulence of E. salicis, attempts were made to isolate the plasmids of the bacterium, however, it appears that E. salicis does not have plasmids. In collaboration with Ch. Maceau (21), the E. salicis genome was isolated and a genomic library was constructed in E. coli. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Cytospora species from Populus and Salix in China with C. davidiana sp. nov.

    Wang, Yan-Li; Lu, Quan; Decock, Cony; Li, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Xing-Yao

    2015-05-01

    Poplar and willow plantations have become widespread in China, in order to meet national economic and environmental needs. The emergence of several pathogens is enhanced by climatic change and associated human factors. Species of Cytospora are well-known pathogens on poplar and willow, and cause stem cankers and diebacks. In the present study, we conducted a survey of Cytospora species occurring on Populus spp. and Salix spp. in China. We used morphological examination and phylogenetic inferences, based on the DNA sequence data from the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2) and partial β-tubulin gene, to identify six Cytospora species occurring on poplar and willow. Five of these species belonged to known taxa, viz. Cytospora chrysosperma (asexual state of Valsa sordida), Cytospora translucens (asexual state of Leucostoma translucens), Cytospora fugax (asexual state of Valsa salicina), Cytospora atrocirrhata, and Cytospora kantschavelii. Our study yielded a new species, Cytospora davidiana sp. nov., on poplar. The new species is characterized by typical torsellioid conidiomata. An additional Cytospora sp. 1, which formed a distinct clade in the phylogenetic inferences, remains unnamed; the paucity of available materials prevented phenotypical characterization. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Local variability in growth and reproduction of Salix arctica in the High Arctic

    Noémie Boulanger-Lapointe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are heterogeneous because of the strong influences of microtopography, soil moisture and snow accumulation on vegetation distribution. The interaction between local biotic and abiotic factors and global climate patterns will influence species responses to climate change. Salix arctica (Arctic willow is a structuring species, ubiquitous and widespread, and as such is one of the most important shrub species in the High Arctic. In this study, we measured S. arctica reproductive effort, early establishment, survival and growth in the Zackenberg valley, north-east Greenland. We sampled four plant communities that varied with respect to snow conditions, soil moisture, nutrient content and plant composition. We found large variability in reproductive effort and success with total catkin density ranging from 0.6 to 66 catkins/m2 and seedling density from <1 to 101 seedlings/m2. There were also major differences in crown area increment (4–23 cm2/year and stem radial growth (40–74 µm/year. The snowbed community, which experienced a recent reduction in snow cover, supported young populations with high reproductive effort, establishment and growth. Soil nutrient content and herbivore activity apparently did not strongly constrain plant reproduction and growth, but competition by Cassiope tetragona and low soil moisture may inhibit performance. Our results show that local environmental factors, such as snow accumulation, have a significant impact on tundra plant response to climate change and will affect the understanding of regional vegetation response to climate change.

  15. The effect of hydrological regime on the metal bioavailability for the wetland plant species Salix cinerea

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Quataert, Paul; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrological conditions on a site constitute one of the many factors that may affect the availability of potentially toxic trace metals for uptake by plants. Bioavailability of Cd, Mn and Zn in a contaminated dredged sediment-derived soil under different hydrological regimes was determined by measuring metal uptake by the wetland plant species Salix cinerea, both in field circumstances and in a greenhouse experiment. Longer submersion periods in the field caused lower Cd concentrations in leaves and bark. The wetland hydrological regime in the greenhouse experiment resulted in normal Cd and Zn concentrations in the leaves, while the upland hydrological regime resulted in elevated Cd and Zn concentrations in the leaves. Field observations and the greenhouse experiment suggest that a hydrological regime that creates or sustains a wetland is a potential management option that reduces metal bioavailability to willows. This would constitute a safe management option of metal-polluted, willow-dominated wetlands provided that wetland conditions can be maintained throughout the full growing season. - A hydrological regime aiming at wetland creation is a potential management option that favors reducing Cd plant availability in polluted freshwater wetlands

  16. Bayesian modeling of Clostridium perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products.

    Jaloustre, S; Cornu, M; Morelli, E; Noël, V; Delignette-Muller, M L

    2011-04-01

    Models on Clostridium perfringens growth which have been published to date have all been deterministic. A probabilistic model describing growth under non-isothermal conditions was thus proposed for predicting C. perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products cooked and distributed in a French hospital. Model parameters were estimated from different types of data from various studies. A Bayesian approach was proposed to model the overall uncertainty regarding parameters and potential variability on the 'work to be done' (h(0)) during the germination, outgrowth and lag phase. Three models which differed according to their description of this parameter h(0) were tested. The model with inter-curve variability on h(0) was found to be the best one, on the basis of goodness-of-fit assessment and validation with literature data on results obtained under non-isothermal conditions. This model was used in two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations to predict C. perfringens growth throughout the preparation of beef-in-sauce products, using temperature profiles recorded in a hospital kitchen. The median predicted growth was 7.8×10(-2) log(10) cfu·g(-1) (95% credibility interval [2.4×10(-2), 0.8]) despite the fact that for more than 50% of the registered temperature profiles cooling steps were longer than those required by French regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  18. Sequence, taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peptides separated from soy sauce.

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Dong, Yi; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Chen, Huiping; Qiu, Chaoying; Su, Guowan

    2016-09-01

    Five tasty peptides were separated from soy sauce, by sensory-guided fractionation, using macroporous resin, medium-pressure liquid chromatography and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry as ALPEEV, LPEEV, AQALQAQA, EQQQQ and EAGIQ (which originated from glycinin A1bB2-445, glycinin A1bB2-445, cobyric acid synthase, leucine-tRNA ligase and glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, respectively). LPEEV, AQALQAQA and EQQQQ tasted umami with threshold values of 0.43, 1.25 and 0.76mmol/l, respectively. ALPEEV and EAGIQ had minimal umami taste, but ALPEEV, EAGIQ and LPEEV showed umami-enhancement with a threshold estimated at 1.52, 1.94 and 3.41mmol/l, respectively. In addition, the synthetic peptides showed much better sensory taste than mixtures of their constitutive amino acids. It indicated that peptides might play an important role in the umami taste of soy sauce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clustering of commercial fish sauce products based on an e-panel technique

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish sauce is a brownish liquid seasoning with a characteristic flavor that is produced in Asian countries and limited areas of Europe. The types of fish and shellfish and fermentation process used in its production depend on the region from which it derives. Variations in ingredients and fermentation procedures yield end products with different smells, tastes, and colors. For this data article, we employed an electronic panel (e-panel technique including an electronic nose (e-nose, electronic tongue (e-tongue, and electronic eye (e-eye, in which smell, taste, and color are evaluated by sensors instead of the human nose, tongue, and eye to avoid subjective error. The presented data comprise clustering of 46 commercially available fish sauce products based separate e-nose, e-tongue, and e-eye test results. Sensory intensity data from the e-nose, e-tongue, and e-eye were separately classified by cluster analysis and are shown in dendrograms. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicates major three groups on e-nose and e-tongue data, and major four groups on e-eye data.

  20. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  1. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  2. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  4. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi[Bulgogi; Traditional meat products; Irradiation; Safety; Quality

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-12-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10{sup 6} CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10{sup 4} CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality.

  5. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0–40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities. - Highlights: ► No bacterial growth in gamma-irradiated Bulgogi sauce ≥10 kGy or autoclaved sample was observed. ► Viscosity of irradiated sample at 40 kGy was similar to that of autoclaved sample. ► Sensory properties of irradiated sample >10 kGy or autoclaved sample deteriorated.

  6. The potential of two Salix genotypes for radionuclide/heavy metal accumulation. A case study of Rovinari ash pit (Gorj District, Romania)

    Hernea, Cornelia; Neţoiu, Constantin; Corneanu, Gabriel; Crăciun, Constantin; Corneanu, Mihaela; Cojocaru, Luminiţa; Rovena Lăcătuşu, Anca; Popescu, Ion

    2014-05-01

    Thermo Electric Power Plants (TEPP) produce a high amount of ash, that contains heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash is usually stored in ash-pits, in mixture with water and contains U235, Th 234 and their decay products, that are released from the coal matrix, during combustion, as well as heavy metals. Warm weather dried the ash and it can be spread by the wind in surrounded area. This paper presents the results of an experiment with two Salix genotypes, cultivated on an old closed ash-pit, nearby the Rovinari TEPP, in the middle Jiu valley (Gorj District, Romania), in order to evaluate its tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides. Ash analysis revealed the presence of natural radionuclides, beloging from ash and coal dust, as well as of Cs 137, of Chernobil provenance. Radionuclides content over the normal limits for Romania were registered for Th 234, Pb210, U235 and Ra226. The heavy metals level in ash was over the normal limits, but under the alerts limits. In order to establish the woody plants tolerance to heavy metals and radionuclides, it is important to study the seedlings behavior. In this respect Salix alba and Salix viminalis whips and cuttings culture have been establish on Rovinari ash-pit. The observations made on survival and growth rate pointed out the superiority of Salix viminalis behaviour. After a period of three years Salix viminalis registered a 96% survival rate, while in Salix alba annual decreases, reaching to 14%. These results are supported by the radionuclides content in leaves and by the electron microscopy studies. In Salix alba the leaves parenchimatic cells present a low sinthesis activity. The exogenous particles are accumulated in parenchima cells vacuola, the chloroplasts are usually agranal, with few starch grains and mitocondria presents slightly dillated crista. The ultrastructural features of the mature leaf cells, evidenced the natural adaptation of Salix viminalins for development in an environment with a big amount of

  7. Using LC-MS to examine the fermented food products vinegar and soy sauce for the presence of gluten.

    Li, Haili; Byrne, Keren; Galiamov, Renata; Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Bose, Utpal; Howitt, Crispin A; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2018-07-15

    A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products. LC-MS revealed the presence of gluten in malt vinegar, wherein the identified peptides derived from B-, D- and γ-hordein from barley, as well as γ-gliadin, and HMW- and LMW-glutenins from wheat that are known to contain immunopathogenic epitopes. No gluten was detected in the soy sauces examined despite wheat being a labelled ingredient indicating extensive hydrolysis of gluten during soy sauce production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of koji-making with mixed strains on physicochemical and sensory properties of Chinese-type soy sauce.

    Chen, Zhi-Yao; Feng, Yun-Zi; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Mou-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Two kinds of soy sauces were prepared with Aspergillus oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed koji (SSAOM, A. oryzae mouldstarter:Monascus purpureus mouldstarter = 1:2, w/w) respectively. The effects of mixed koji on the essential indices, oxygen radical absorption capacity, color indices, free amino acids and volatile compounds of soy sauce have been studied, followed by a sensory evaluation between SSAO and SSAOM. The contents of non-salt soluble solid, reducing sugar, total acid, total nitrogen and amino nitrogen in SSAOM increased by 21.50%, 9.88%, 15.35%, 5.98% and 41.43%, respectively, compared with the control SSAO, owing to the higher activities of acid protease and glucoamylase in the mixed koji. Moreover, SSAOM showed higher antioxidant activity, higher levels of free amino acids and much more attractive color. Meanwhile, flavor groups such as esters, aldehydes, pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds in SSAOM were also improved. The contents of free amino acids and aroma compounds were consistent with the sensory evaluation. According to descriptive sensory analysis, SSAOM showed higher intensity for sweet and umami attributes; in addition, higher flowery, burnt, fruity and caramel-like attributes were perceived in SSAOM, while SSAO showed higher ethanolic and sour attributes. The investigated soy sauce prepared with mixed koji can be considered as an effective method to accelerate the fermentation process and improve the flavor of soy sauce. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation.

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability

  11. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  13. Monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. In this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bacterial DGGE profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were Weissella cibaria (Weissella confusa, Weissella kimchii, Weissella salipiscis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus iners, or Streptococcus thermophilus), Staphylococcus gallinarum (or Staphylococcus xylosus), and Staphylococcus kloosii. In addition to these bacteria, Tetragenococcus halophilus was also detected in the mash during lactic acid fermentation. The fungal DGGE profile indicated that the fungal microbes in the koji were not only Aspergillus oryzae but also several yeasts. In the mash, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii appeared in the early fermentation stage, Candida etchellsii (or Candida nodaensis) and Candida versatilis were detected at the middle fermentation stage, and Candida etchellsii was detected at the mature fermentation stage. These results suggest that the microbial communities present during the soy sauce manufacturing process change drastically throughout its production. This is the first report to reveal the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process using a culture-independent method. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic.

    Siekacz, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  15. THE TOUCH ANALYSIS IN AN ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF MAYONNAISE SAUCES WITH ADDITION OF A CAVIAR DZHUS

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sauces on the basis of vegetable oils and mayonnaise which are traditionally considered tasty, but not really useful at enrichment by functional additives can be used not only for flavoring decoration of various dishes and salads, but also for increase of their nutrition value. Dzhus received by production of salty granular caviar of a humpback salmon represents a full-fledged complex of the major food factors that can serve as motivation for its use when developing new food, including in the form of a proteinaceous and mineral additive for its additional introduction to compoundings of sauces. In view of existence of a fish smell of a caviar dzhus, it is possible to use it as natural fragrance by production of the wide range of fish products, including emulsion. For an assessment of quality of production, fast and simple the organoleptic (touch method is very convenient. Various content of easily volatile organic compounds in an equilibrium gas phase over tests is established. Samples of a caviar dzhus among themselves and sauces with its addition differ. Distinctions are defined by amount of the brought ingredient. The intensity of a smell of tests determined by the content of easily volatile compounds on which the massif of sensors is adjusted differs. Sauces with an additive of a caviar dzhus have the greatest intensity of a smell in accordance with GOST at its small contents. In a figure form of "a visual print" of the maximum responses of all sensors in the massif distinctions in a chemical composition of an equilibrium gas phase over tests are established. Distinctions in qualitative and quantitative structure of RGF over samples with addition 1,5 and 2,0 of % of a dzhus significantly significant. It is established that addition (on TU and in accordance with GOST in compoundings of sauces results more than 1% of a caviar dzhus in essential distinction as a part of RGF.

  16. Hydrologic control on the root growth of Salix cuttings at the laboratory scale

    Bau', Valentina; Calliari, Baptiste; Perona, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Riparian plant roots contribute to the ecosystem functioning and, to a certain extent, also directly affect fluvial morphodynamics, e.g. by influencing sediment transport via mechanical stabilization and trapping. There is much both scientific and engineering interest in understanding the complex interactions among riparian vegetation and river processes. For example, to investigate plant resilience to uprooting by flow, one should quantify the probability that riparian plants may be uprooted during specific flooding event. Laboratory flume experiments are of some help to this regard, but are often limited to use grass (e.g., Avena and Medicago sativa) as vegetation replicate with a number of limitations due to fundamental scaling problems. Hence, the use of small-scale real plants grown undisturbed in the actual sediment and within a reasonable time frame would be particularly helpful to obtain more realistic flume experiments. The aim of this work is to develop and tune an experimental technique to control the growth of the root vertical density distribution of small-scale Salix cuttings of different sizes and lengths. This is obtained by controlling the position of the saturated water table in the sedimentary bed according to the sediment size distribution and the cutting length. Measurements in the rhizosphere are performed by scanning and analysing the whole below-ground biomass by means of the root analysis software WinRhizo, from which root morphology statistics and the empirical vertical density distribution are obtained. The model of Tron et al. (2015) for the vertical density distribution of the below-ground biomass is used to show that experimental conditions that allow to develop the desired root density distribution can be fairly well predicted. This augments enormously the flexibility and the applicability of the proposed methodology in view of using such plants for novel flow erosion experiments. Tron, S., Perona, P., Gorla, L., Schwarz, M., Laio, F

  17. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  18. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. - Highlights: • SRC willows are a source of biomass and act as carbon (C) sinks. • Biomass allocation was measured in 4 willow genotypes grown in two UK field sites. • The greatest yielding genotype had the greatest below ground biomass at both sites. • Below ground biomass allocation differed by up to 10% between genotypes and 94% between sites. • Environment e.g. wind

  19. Biological diversity of Salix taxa in Cu, Pb and Zn phytoextraction from soil.

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Rutkowski, Paweł; Goliński, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Szentner, Kinga; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Stolarski, Mariusz; Szczukowski, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the efficiency of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction by 145 Salix taxa cultivated in an area affected by industrial activity. Survivability and biomass of plants were also analyzed. The highest Cu, Pb and Zn content in shoots was 33.38 ± 2.91 (S. purpurea × viminalis 8), 24.64 ± 1.97 (S. fragilis 1) and 58.99 ± 4.30 (S. eriocephala 7) mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. In the case of unwashed leaves, the highest content of these metals was 135.06 ± 8.14 (S. purpurea 26), 67.98 ± 5.27 (S. purpurea 45) and 142.56 ± 12.69 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, while in washed leaves it was 106.02 ± 11.12 (S. purpurea 45), 55.06 ± 5.75 (S. purpurea 45) and 122.87 ± 12.33 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, respectively. The differences between the highest and lowest values for Cu, Pb and Zn were 545%, 20500% and 535% in shoots; 2692%, 2560% and 7500% in unwashed leaves; and 3286%, 2221% and 6950% in washed leaves, respectively. S. acutifolia was able to effectively accumulate all three metals jointly, producing shoots that were well developed in both length and diameter when compared with the other tested willows-an ability that would suggest its high suitability for practical application.

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integra Thunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding.

    Cao, Yini; Ma, Chuanxin; Chen, Guangcai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg -1 ) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg -1 notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S. integra roots, while flooding significantly reduced the Cu content, except the 150 mg kg -1 Cu treatment, but the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content on the root surface were both markedly increased relative to non-flooded control. The malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in leaves showed a dose-response upon Cu exposure. Soil flooding enhanced the GSH level, which displayed 4.50-49.59% increases compared to its respective non-flooded treatment, while no difference was evident on MDA contents between the flooding and the non-flooded treatments. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were boosted while the catalase (CAT) was suppressed with increasing Cu exposure dose, and soil flooding reduced the POD and CAT activities. The elevated Cu level caused the evident increases of root calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) concentrations and decreases of root phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Soil flooding increased the concentrations of Fe, S, Na, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) in S. integra root. Taken together, our results suggested S. integra has high tolerance to the joint stress from Cu and flooding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salix alba attenuated oxidative stress in the heart and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Narges Amel Zabihi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of hypercholesterolemia-induced complications. This study evaluated the effects of aspirin and Salix alba hydroethanolic extract on oxidative stress in the heart and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolic and salicin content of S. alba (Sa extract were assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC methods, respectively. Animals were divided into two groups of control (fed with normal chow, and HD (fed with high cholesterol diet for 6 weeks. Then, hypercholesterolemic animals allocated to the following treatment groups: CHO (received HD, Sa extract (HD plus extract 60 and 120 mg/kg, and aspirin (HD plus aspirin 120 mg/kg and received the treatments on a daily basis for 6 weeks. MDA, GSH, and nitrite concentrations as well as the activities of SOD and CAT were evaluated in cardiac and kidney tissues. Results: The scavenging activity, total phenolic content and salicin were 19.1 µg/ml (IC50, 153.75 ± 3.6 mg of gallic acid/g, and 18.03 µg/mg, respectively. In comparison to CHO group, MDA levels were diminished in Sa and ASA groups but GSH levels were improved. NO metabolites increased in the heart of Sa 120 mg/kg group and in the kidney of all Sa and ASA treated groups. SOD activity increased only in the heart of Sa groups and in the kidney of Sa and ASA groups. CAT activity increased in the heart and kidney tissues of all Sa and ASA treated groups. Conclusion: The results showed S. alba extract improved redox homeostasis in heart and kidney tissues of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The extract antioxidant property may be related to its phenolic content.

  2. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    Stefan Dötterl

    Full Text Available In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  3. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    Dötterl, Stefan; Glück, Ulrike; Jürgens, Andreas; Woodring, Joseph; Aas, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward) than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i) to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues) in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii) to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii) to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  4. SRC-willow (Salix viminalis) as a resource for flower-visiting insects

    Reddersen, J. [National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde (Denmark). Dept. of Landscape Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The potential habitat value of commercial short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow plantations for flower-visiting insects was investigated. During 1998-2000, at a single typical intensive Danish farmland site, 11 Salix viminalis plantations were sampled by late April to quantify willow catkin abundance and flower sex. Mean plantation size was 1.1 ha and included one or more of clones: orm, rapp, ulv, jorr, christina and jorrun. Plot-year means of catkin abundance and of proportion of willows flowering were related to the coppicing cycle, i.e. the number of growth years since last harvest of plot ('year' 0-4). In 1998, the ground layer vegetation was sampled. Monitoring flower-visiting insects by means of line-transect counts failed due to the local scarcity of bees. At the plantation scale, flowering was discontinuous across the harvest cycle as it was totally absent in the year immediately following harvest. In successive years (1-4), individual willows flowered frequently and, occasionally, at high abundances, and catkin abundance increased with time. Within 3-4 year of harvest cycle, all plots flowered in most years with most plots exhibiting at least some flowering in any 1 year. Thus, willow catkin abundance was generally high in the total area due to: high frequency of flowering in plots, occasional high flowering abundance, plots not being harvested simultaneously and large total number of willows within plots and landscape. Similarly, flower sex ratio, and thus flower value, varied greatly between plots while variation was damped across plots. Alternative simultaneous flower resources in ground layer vegetation were few except for Dandelion. SRC willow may constitute an important resource for bees, even under the stress of the harvest cycle, and recommendations are given for improving this biodiversity aspect. (author)

  5. Experimental Salix shoot and root growth statistics on the alluvial sediment of a restored river corridor

    Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.; Verones, F.; Francis, R.; Burlando, P.

    2009-12-01

    River restoration projects encompass not only the amelioration of flood protection but also the rehabilitation of the riverine ecosystem. However, the interactions and feedbacks between river hydrology, riparian vegetation and aquifer dynamics are still poorly understood. Vegetation interacts with river hydrology on multiple time scales. Hence, there is considerable interest in understanding the morphodynamics of restored river reaches in relation to the characteristics of vegetation that may colonize the bare sediment, and locally stabilize it by root anchoring. In this paper we document results from a number of ongoing experiments within the project RECORD (Restored CORridor Dynamics, sponsored by CCES - www.cces.ch - and Cantons Zurich and Thurgau, CH). In particular, we discuss both the above and below ground biomass growth dynamics of 1188 Salix cuttings (individual and group survival rate, growth of the longest shoots and number of branches and morphological root analysis) in relation to local river hydrodynamics. Cuttings were organized in square plots of different size and planted in spring 2009 on a gravel island of the restored river section of River Thur in Switzerland. By periodical monitoring the plots we obtained a detailed and quite unique set of data, including root statistics of uprooted samples derived from image analysis from a high-resolution scanner. Beyond describing the survival rate dynamics in relation to river hydrology, we show the nature and strength of correlations between island topography and cutting growth statistics. In particular, by root analysis and by comparing empirical histograms of the vertical root distribution vs satured water surface in the sediment, we show that main tropic responses on such environment are oxytropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. The main factor influencing the survival rate is naturally found in erosion by floods, of which we also give an interesting example that helps demonstrate the role of river

  6. Frost-related dieback of Swedish and Estonian Salix plantations due to pathogenic and ice nucleation-active bacteria

    Cambours, M.A.

    2004-07-01

    During the past decade, important dieback has been observed in short-rotation forestry plantations of Salix viminalis and S. dasyclados in Sweden and Estonia, plantations from which the isolation of ice nucleation-active (INA) and pathogenic bacteria has also been reported. This thesis investigates the connection between bacterial infection and frost as a possible cause for such damage, and the role played by internal and external factors (e.g. plant frost sensitivity, fertilisation) in the dieback observed. Bacterial floras isolated from ten Salix clones growing on fertilised/unfertilised mineral soil or nitrogen-rich organic soil, were studied. Culturable bacterial communities present both in internal necrotic tissues and on the plant surface (i.e. epiphytes) were isolated on two occasions (spring and autumn). The strains were biochemically characterised (with gram, oxidase and fluorescence tests), and tested for ice nucleation-activity. Their pathogenic properties were studied with and without association to a freezing stress. Certain strains were eventually identified with BIOLOG plates and 16S rRNA analysis. A high number of culturable bacterial strains was found in the plant samplings, belonging mainly to Erwinia and Sphingomonas spp.; pathogenic and INA communities being mostly Erwinia-, Sphingomonas- and Xanthomonas-like. The generally higher plant dieback noted in the field on nutrient-rich soils and for frost sensitive clones was found connected to higher numbers of pathogenic and INA bacteria in the plants. We thus confirm Salix dieback to be related to a synergistic effect of frost and bacterial infection, possibly aggravated by fertilisation.

  7. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  8. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  9. Teriyaki sauce with carvacrol or thymol effectively controls Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and indigenous flora in marinated beef and marinade.

    Moon, Hyeree; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Soon Han; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-07-01

    An effective bactericidal cold-marinating method for beef products is described, exploiting the synergism between soy sauce and natural compounds (carvacrol, CV or thymol, TM) to reduce microbiological risks. Beef slices inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium (3.1-3.5logCFU/g) were marinated in a teriyaki sauce with or without CV and TM (0.3 and 0.5%). After 1, 3, and 7days at 4°C, indigenous microflora population, color, lipid oxidation, marinade uptake, and pH of marinated beef and leftover marinade samples were examined. Teriyaki sauce alone did not reduce or inhibit any of the target pathogens or indigenous bacteria, while 0.5% CV- or TM-containing teriyaki sauce inactivated all inocula without recovery within 7days (p0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The pilot study was initiated by the need of a new technology that has been raised from the problem, and by the specifications of requirements, that has been described from the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The need has been crystallized by the energy company Maelarenergi AB, Vaesteraas, in their handling of bio fuel, among many other fuels. The company Maelarenergi AB can see a potential in the use of Salix of a considerable volume. There is a special need by the means of the big volume handling of Salix, since the Salix raw material must be able to be delivered under a longer period or for intermediate storage. 8-9 months could be an adequate storage period. The possibility for intermediate storage could do the flow of fuel raw material to the combined power and heating plant is harmonized to the special requirements of fuel. The storage capability in chipped raw Salix chips is very short and that's why chipped Salix are not going to be a sustainable system combined with the handle of big volume together with portioned inflow to the plant. The production of Salix chips in a system of direct chipping is a very delicate system. The ground conditions with frozen and dry grounds are important for a system with heavy machines. The last years have not given such climate conditions. A big problem with practicability has been coming up. The number of days for contract work during the harvest period without interruption, because of hard conditions, has been decreased to the level that the capacity very considerably falls below what is economical defensible. The needs of larger areas for harvesting during fewer days under good conditions counteract each other. In the 'hot flow' during the harvest when the harvest machine will work with escort vehicles/container transports in the field can be impossible to realize because of for example the breakdown of the soil structure. The organization around 'hot flow system' is a very heavy programme

  11. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  12. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  13. [Effect of fried bacon and parsley sauce on gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy old boys footballer].

    Grønbæk, Henning; Jensen, Mogens Pfeiffer

    2012-12-03

    Knowledge of the importance of diet on gastrointestinal function and symptoms is generally poorly. In recent years, The New Nordic Food Culture is suggested to have favourable effects. Unfortunally there are huge waiting lists at the most popular restaurants, so we investigated the more traditional "Nordic kitchen". There are no previous studies concerning intake of fried bacon and parsley sauce (FBPS) in healthy middle-aged footballers. Non-blinded, non-randomized, crossover study with a questionnaire survey of 18 healthy old boys footballers before and after FBPS intake. Ten players responded to the questionnaire, including one who was not exposed to FBPS. The median intake was 15 pieces of fried bacon (range 12-23), 1.5 dl parsley sauce (range 1-5 dl), and eight potatoes (range 6-30), but no dessert. We found a significantly increased stool frequency and a trend towards change in consistency compared to baseline. We found increased abdominal pain and a decrease in general well-being, but could not demonstrate any impact on complaints from the family. In otherwise healthy old boys footballers the FBPS diet has great impact on a range of gastrointestinal symptoms. FBPS affected stool frequency and abdominal pain, but caused no effect on family complaints. We cannot exclude a dose-response effect or a gender/age phenomenon; and we suggest supplemental dose-response studies and studies including women of all ages. Further, we recommend a detailed dietary assessment before referring patients with gastrointestinal symptoms for invasive procedures like colonoscopy or CT-scanning. none none.

  14. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  15. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao, Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0-40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities.

  16. Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics

    Konlechner, Cornelia; Türktaş, Mine; Langer, Ingrid; Vaculík, Marek; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2013-01-01

    Salix caprea is well suited for phytoextraction strategies. In a previous survey we showed that genetically distinct S. caprea plants isolated from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites differed in their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation abilities. To determine the molecular basis of this difference we examined putative homologues of genes involved in heavy metal responses and identified over 200 new candidates with a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) screen. Quantitative expression analyses of 20 genes in leaves revealed that some metallothioneins and cell wall modifying genes were induced irrespective of the genotype's origin and metal uptake capacity while a cysteine biosynthesis gene was expressed constitutively higher in the metallicolous genotype. The third and largest group of genes was only induced in the metallicolous genotype. These data demonstrate that naturally adapted woody non-model species can help to discover potential novel molecular mechanisms for metal accumulation and tolerance. -- Highlights: ► The transcriptional Zn/Cd response of the willow Salix caprea was quantified. ► Two genotypes from a highly contaminated and a control environment were compared. ► In addition to candidate genes an SSH library revealed over 200 metal induced genes. ► Constitutive upregulation and isolate-specific induction of genes were revealed. ► Willows adapt to environmental Zn/Cd contamination on the transcriptional level. -- Expression analyzes reveal different responses to Cd and Zn exposure of S. caprea genotypes with different heavy metal accumulation abilities

  17. Genome-wide identification and characterization of WRKY gene family in Salix suchowensis.

    Bi, Changwei; Xu, Yiqing; Ye, Qiaolin; Yin, Tongming; Ye, Ning

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins are the zinc finger transcription factors that were first identified in plants. They can specifically interact with the W-box, which can be found in the promoter region of a large number of plant target genes, to regulate the expressions of downstream target genes. They also participate in diverse physiological and growing processes in plants. Prior to this study, a plenty of WRKY genes have been identified and characterized in herbaceous species, but there is no large-scale study of WRKY genes in willow. With the whole genome sequencing of Salix suchowensis, we have the opportunity to conduct the genome-wide research for willow WRKY gene family. In this study, we identified 85 WRKY genes in the willow genome and renamed them from SsWRKY1 to SsWRKY85 on the basis of their specific distributions on chromosomes. Due to their diverse structural features, the 85 willow WRKY genes could be further classified into three main groups (group I-III), with five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II. With the multiple sequence alignment and the manual search, we found three variations of the WRKYGQK heptapeptide: WRKYGRK, WKKYGQK and WRKYGKK, and four variations of the normal zinc finger motif, which might execute some new biological functions. In addition, the SsWRKY genes from the same subgroup share the similar exon-intron structures and conserved motif domains. Further studies of SsWRKY genes revealed that segmental duplication events (SDs) played a more prominent role in the expansion of SsWRKY genes. Distinct expression profiles of SsWRKY genes with RNA sequencing data revealed that diverse expression patterns among five tissues, including tender roots, young leaves, vegetative buds, non-lignified stems and barks. With the analyses of WRKY gene family in willow, it is not only beneficial to complete the functional and annotation information of WRKY genes family in woody plants, but also provide important references to investigate the expansion and evolution of

  18. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    densities in terms of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and the corresponding incident solar radiation energy reaching a shaded water surface (Global Site Factor). Responding to these questions a two year old natural stand of Salix purpurea was monitored. The growth of riparian vegetation and the correlation to solar transmission during different phenological phases are measured periodically with radiation sensors. LAI is investigated using hemispherical photographs. Analysis is done with the software Hemiview and Gap Light Analyser (GLA). Results show discrepancies between analysis with the software programs and measurements. Altogether, the variability and the trends of both are similar: the same daily and annual changes can be seen.

  19. [Effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in adult women].

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.

  20. The effect of pH on the uptake and toxicity of the bivalent weak base chloroquine tested on Salix viminalis and Daphnia magna

    Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    , and therefore a higher toxicity can be expected. The current study examines the pHdependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of the bivalent weak base chloroquine (pKa: 10.47 and 6.33, log KOW 4.67) tested on Salix viminalis (basket willow) and Daphnia magna (water flea). The transpiration rates of hydroponically...

  1. Mycorrhizal associations as Salix repens L. communities in succession of dune ecosystems II Mycorrhizal dynamics and interactions of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Vosatka, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations of Salix repens were studied at 16 sites in different successional stages of dune ecosystems (calcareous-acidic, dry-wet) in the Netherlands. High EcM colonization, low AM colonization, and lack of differences between habitats

  2. Fungal community structure under goat willows (Salix caprea L.) growing at metal polluted site: the potential of screening in a model phytostabilisation study

    Marjana Regvar; Matevz Likar; Andrej Piltaver; Nives Kugonic; Jane E. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Goat willow (Salix caprea L.) was selected in a previous vegetation screening study as a potential candidate for the later-stage phytostabilisation efforts at a heavily metal polluted site in Slovenia. The aims of this study were to identify the fungi colonising roots of S. caprea along the gradient of vegetation succession and...

  3. Enhancement of Saltiness Perception by Monosodium Glutamate Taste and Soy Sauce Odor: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Onuma, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2018-02-26

    Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce. The participants were asked to drink a cup of the stimulus and to evaluate only saltiness intensity in Experiment 1, as well as other sensory qualities in Experiment 2, and temporal brain activity was measured using fNIRS. In Experiment 3, the participants were asked to evaluate saltiness intensity using the time-intensity (TI) method, and the response of the parotid salivary glands was measured using fNIRS. The fNIRS data showed that the added MSG and soy sauce enhanced the hemodynamic response in temporal brain regions, including the frontal operculum, but no effect on the hemodynamic salivary responses was detected. These results indicate that the perceived enhancement of saltiness occurs in the brain region that is involved in central gustatory processing. Furthermore, the results of the sensory evaluations suggest that enhancement of saltiness by the addition of MSG is mainly based on fusion of the salty-like property of MSG and saltiness of NaCl, whereas enhancement by the addition of soy sauce odor is mainly based on modulation of the temporal dynamics of saltiness perception.

  4. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    V. B. Krylova; T. V. Gustova

    2017-01-01

    In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitr...

  5. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Free α-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.

    Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    α-Dicarbonyl (α-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) α-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) α-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant α-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in α-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free α-DC content. These findings suggest that α-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  8. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanumkaeri.re.kr

    2002-07-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH{sub 3}-nitrogen, NH{sub 2}-nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce.

  9. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    Guozhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  10. Optimisation and validation of analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants: application to the analysis of tomato sauces.

    Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Labrador, Agustín; Domínguez, Alba; Peiró, Lluís

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, simultaneous extraction of natural antioxidants (phenols and carotenoids) in complex matrices, such as tomato sauces, is presented. The tomato sauce antioxidant compounds studied were the phenolics hydroxytyrosol, from virgin olive oil, quercetin and its derivatives, from onions, and quercetin-rutinoside as well as the carotenoid, lycopene (cis and trans), from tomatoes. These antioxidant compounds were extracted simultaneously with n-hexane/acetone/ethanol (50/25/25, v/v/v). The phenolics were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and lycopene (cis- and trans-forms) was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After studying the parameters of these methods, they were applied to the analysis of virgin olive oil, fresh onion, tomato concentrate and tomato powder, and commercial five tomato sauces. Subsequently, the results obtained in our laboratory were compared with those from the Gallina Blanca Star Group laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  12. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce.

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Cao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  13. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots water availability. Fine root production (treatments in Salix; i.e., absolute length and biomass production increased in the order: water limited treatment effects were detected for fine roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  14. Indução de calos friáveis em explantes foliares de Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd Induction of friable callus in leaf explants of Salix (Salyx humboldtiana Willd

    Breno Régis Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O salix é uma árvore ornamental adaptada a terrenos úmidos, sendo considerada uma espécie importante para a recomposição de áreas ciliares degradadas. A madeira pode ser empregada na indústria em geral. Apesar de produzir grande quantidade de sementes, estas não possuem alta percentagem de germinação. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o estabelecimento in vitro de salix através da indução e formação de calos friáveis em explantes foliares, visando a uma posterior regeneração de plantas para a propagação massal desta espécie. Explantes foliares foram inoculados em meio de cultura MS (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962, acrescido de diferentes concentrações de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0; 8,0; 10,0 e 12,0mg L-1 e combinações entre ácido naftalenoacético e benzilaminopurina, ambos em concentrações de 0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0mg L-1. Os resultados demonstram que explantes inoculados na ausência de reguladores de crescimento não apresentam a formação de calos friáveis. Significativa produção de calos friáveis (90% é obtida utilizando-se 6,0mg L-1 de ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético. A utilização de concentração individual de ácido naftalenoacético ou benzilaminopurina, além de induzir a calogênese também foi capaz de promover rizogênese.Salix is an ornamental tree adapted to humid soils being considered an important species used in depleted areas. Its wood may be used in all kinds of industries. Although the production of seeds is large, the germination is reduced. The objective of this work was to establish salix in vitro through the induction and formation of friable callus of leaf explants to provide future regeneration of plants for mass propagation of the species. Leaf explants were inoculated in MS medium (MURASHIGE & SKOOG, 1962 supplemented with different concentrations of 2-4-diclorofenoxiacetic acid (0; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0; 6.0; 8.0 and 12.0mg L-1 and combinations

  15. Low-molecular weight fractions of Japanese soy sauce act as a RAGE antagonist via inhibition of RAGE trafficking to lipid rafts.

    Munesue, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Urushihara, Ryouta; Inomata, Kouhei; Saito, Hidehito; Motoyoshi, So; Watanabe, Takuo; Yonekura, Hideto; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) have been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. AGE engage the cell surface receptor for AGE (RAGE), which in turn elicits intracellular signaling, leading to activation of NF-κB to cause deterioration of tissue homeostasis. AGE are not only formed within our bodies but are also derived from foods, endowing them with flavor. In the present study, we assessed the agonistic/antagonistic effects of food-derived AGE on RAGE signaling in a reporter assay system and found that low-molecular weight AGE can antagonize the action of AGE-BSA. Foods tested were Japanese soy sauce, coffee, cola, and red wine, all of which showed fluorescence characteristics of AGE. Soy sauce and coffee contained N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML). Soy sauce, coffee, and red wine inhibited the RAGE ligand-induced activation of NF-κB, whereas cola had no effect on the ligand induction of NF-κB. The liquids were then fractionated into high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions and low-molecular weight (LMW) fractions. Soy sauce-, coffee-, and red wine-derived LMW fractions consistently inhibited the RAGE ligand induction of NF-κB, whereas the HMW fractions of these foods activated RAGE signaling. Using the LMW fraction of soy sauce as a model food-derived RAGE antagonist, we performed a plate-binding assay and found that the soy sauce LMW fractions competitively inhibited AGE-RAGE association. Further, this fraction significantly reduced AGE-dependent monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion from murine peritoneal macrophages. The LMF from soy sauce suppressed the AGE-induced RAGE trafficking to lipid rafts. These results indicate that small components in some, if not all, foods antagonize RAGE signaling and could exhibit beneficial effects on RAGE-related diseases.

  16. Germination and inactivation of Bacillus coagulans and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by high hydrostatic pressure treatment in buffer and tomato sauce.

    Vercammen, Anne; Vivijs, Bram; Lurquin, Ine; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-01-16

    Acidothermophilic bacteria like Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus coagulans can cause spoilage of heat-processed acidic foods because they form spores with very high heat resistance and can grow at low pH. The objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris and B. coagulans spores by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at temperatures up to 60°C and both at low and neutral pH. In a first experiment, spores suspended in buffers at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 were processed for 10min at different pressures (100-800MPa) at 40°C. None of these treatments caused any significant inactivation, except perhaps at 800MPa in pH 4.0 buffer where close to 1 log inactivation of B. coagulans was observed. Spore germination up to about 2 log was observed for both bacteria but occurred mainly in a low pressure window (100-300MPa) for A. acidoterrestris and only in a high pressure window (600-800MPa) for B. coagulans. In addition, low pH suppressed germination in A. acidoterrestris, but stimulated it in B. coagulans. In a second series of experiments, spores were treated in tomato sauce of pH 4.2 and 5.0 at 100 - 800MPa at 25, 40 and 60°C for 10min. At 40°C, results for B. coagulans were similar as in buffer. For A. acidoterrestris, germination levels in tomato sauce were generally higher than in buffer, and showed little difference at low and high pressure. Remarkably, the pH dependence of A. acidoterrestris spore germination was reversed in tomato sauce, with more germination at the lowest pH. Furthermore, HP treatments in the pH 4.2 sauce caused between 1 and 1.5 log inactivation of A. acidoterrestris. Germination of spores in the high pressure window was strongly temperature dependent, whereas germination of A. acidoterrestris in the low pressure window showed little temperature dependence. When HP treatment was conducted at 60°C, most of the germinated spores were also inactivated. For the pH 4.2 tomato sauce, this

  17. Building energetic material from novel salix leaf-like CuO and nano-Al through electrophoretic deposition

    Yin, Yan Jun; Li, Xueming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an energetic material was prepared by depositing nano-Al on CuO arrays via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), which offers a feasible route for nano-Al integration. The morphology and structure of the CuO arrays and Al/CuO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuO arrays were homogenously salix leaf-like structure with a width of ⁓150 to 200 nm. The energy density of Al/CuO composites was approximate to 1454.5 J/g by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) plot and the combustion performance was recorded by a high-speed camera. Moreover, the combustion flames were violent and the whole reaction process only lasted 72.2 ms, indicating that the energy of the Al/CuO nanothermite can be released effectively.

  18. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows

    Yu, X.-Z.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants’ uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2–3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11◦C to 32◦C. Cyanide...

  19. Stem Photosynthesis of Twig and Its Contribution to New Organ Development in Cutting Seedlings of Salix Matsudana Koidz.

    Junxiang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to illustrate the photosynthetic characteristics of current twigs of Salix matsudana Koidz., and clarify the effect of stem photosynthesis on the new organ development in cutting seedlings. Excised twigs were taken as the experimental samples. The response of the stem photosynthesis rate to increasing light intensity and the effective photochemical efficiency of the cross section of the twig were determined. Then, twigs were used as cuttings and exposed to 0, 20, and 100 μmol m−2 s−1 light intensities, respectively, to achieve distinctive stem photosynthetic rates. After 14 days of treatment, stem water and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC content, as well as the biomass and carbon isotopic composition, of new organs in the cutting seedlings under different light treatments were examined. The results showed that the gross photosynthetic rate significantly increased within 400 μmol m−2 s−1 of light intensity, and the maximum rate was approximately 1.27 μmol m−2 s−1. The effective photochemical efficiency of the PSⅡ of the cortex was significantly higher than the inner tissues in the cross section of the twig. When twig cuttings were exposed to different light intensities, stem water and starch content, as well as bud and root biomass, were significantly higher in the cutting seedling subjected to 100 μmol m−2 s−1 than the case treated in darkness; however, the bud δ13C trend was the opposite. Stem photosynthesis played a positive role in the maintenance of stem water and starch supply for the cutting seedlings, and 13C depleted assimilates produced by stem photosynthesis contributed to bud biomass, revealing that stem photosynthesis promotes organ development in cutting seedlings of Salix matsudana.

  20. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and steam-exploded Salix with recirculation of liquid digestate.

    Estevez, Maria M; Sapci, Zehra; Linjordet, Roar; Schnürer, Anna; Morken, John

    2014-04-01

    The effects of recirculating the liquid fraction of the digestate during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of steam-exploded Salix and cow manure were investigated in laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactors. An average organic loading rate of 2.6 g VS L(-1) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days were employed. Co-digestion of Salix and manure gave better methane yields than digestion of manure alone. Also, a 16% increase in the methane yield was achieved when digestate was recirculated and used instead of water to dilute the feedstock (1:1 dilution ratio). The reactor in which the larger fraction of digestate was recirculated (1:3 dilution ratio) gave the highest methane yields. Ammonia and volatile fatty acids did not reach inhibitory levels, and some potentially inhibitory compounds released during steam explosion (i.e., furfural and 5-hydroxy methyl furfural) were only detected at trace levels throughout the entire study period. However, accumulation of solids, which was more pronounced in the recycling reactors, led to decreased methane yields in those systems after three HRTs. Refraining from the use of fresh water to dilute biomass with a high-solids content and obtaining a final digestate with increased dry matter content might offer important economic benefits in full-scale processes. To ensure long-term stability in such an approach, it would be necessary to optimize separation of the fraction of digestate to be recirculated and also perform proper monitoring to avoid accumulation of solids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Storage Conditions on Lycopene Content and Color of Tomato Hot Pot Sauce

    He Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant (k value of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The k value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1 packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The k value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of L⁎, a⁎, and a⁎/b⁎ and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.

  2. Properties of a Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus subtilis EMD4 Isolated from Ganjang (Soy Sauce).

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lee, Jae Yong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Gyoung Min; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A Bacillus species, EMD4, with strong antibacterial activity was isolated from ganjang (soy sauce) and identified as B. subtilis. B. subtilis EMD4 strongly inhibited the growth of B. cereus ATCC14579 and B. thuringiensis ATCC33679. The antibacterial activity was stable at pH 3-9 but inactive at pH 10 and above. The activity was fully retained after 15 min at 80°C but reduced by 50% after 15 min at 90°C. The activity was completely destroyed by proteinase K and protease treatment, indicating its proteinaceous nature. The bacteriocin (BacEMD4) was partially purified from culture supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and QSepharose and Sephadex G-50 column chromatographies. The specific activity was increased from 769.2 AU/mg protein to 8,347.8 AU/mg protein and the final yield was 12.6%. The size of BacEMD4 was determined to be 3.5 kDa by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was similar with that of Subtilosin A. Nucleotide sequencing of the cloned gene confirmed that BacEMD4 was Subtilosin A. BacEMD4 showed bactericidal activity against B. cereus ATCC14579.

  3. 3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP).

    Baer, Ines; de la Calle, Beatriz; Taylor, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge about 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation and detection. Although 3-MCPD is often mentioned with regard to soy sauce and acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), and much research has been done in that area, the emphasis here is placed on other foods. This contaminant can be found in a great variety of foodstuffs and is difficult to avoid in our daily nutrition. Despite its low concentration in most foods, its carcinogenic properties are of general concern. Its formation is a multivariate problem influenced by factors such as heat, moisture and sugar/lipid content, depending on the type of food and respective processing employed. Understanding the formation of this contaminant in food is fundamental to not only preventing or reducing it, but also developing efficient analytical methods of detecting it. Considering the differences between 3-MCPD-containing foods, and the need to test for the contaminant at different levels of food processing, one would expect a variety of analytical approaches. In this review, an attempt is made to provide an up-to-date list of available analytical methods and to highlight the differences among these techniques. Finally, the emergence of 3-MCPD esters and analytical techniques for them are also discussed here, although they are not the main focus of this review.

  4. Social marketing improved the consumption of iron-fortified soy sauce among women in China.

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E(R)), control rural (C(R)), experimental urban (E(U)), and control urban (C(U)). Urban and rural areas in Guizhou province, China. Women 19 to 70 years old (n = 193 in rural areas and n = 179 in urban areas). A mass-media campaign to promote use of FeSS was conducted throughout Guizhou province. In the intervention areas, social marketing strategies using integrated 6 Ps (product, price, place, promotion, policy, and partnership) were implemented from December 2004 to February 2006. Knowledge of FeSS; benefits, barriers, and intention to purchase; availability of FeSS; behaviors regarding purchase and use of FeSS. Analysis of covariance, paired T test and cross-tabulations were used. The alpha level was set at .05. Compared with the baseline, perceived benefits of FeSS, barriers (BARRI) and intention to buy (INTEN) significantly improved within both experimental groups (P marketing of FeSS is feasible and effective to improve knowledge, perception (perceived benefits and overcoming barriers), intention to purchase, and consumption of FeSS among women in Guizhou, China.

  5. Analysis of the membrane fouling on cross-flow ultrafiltration and microfiltration of soy sauce lees; Shoyuhiireden no kurosuforo roka ni okeru fauringu no kaiseki

    Furukakwa, T. [Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, H.; Kokubo, K.; Watanabe, A. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology

    2000-05-10

    Although since the 1980's Japanese soy sauce manufactures have developed cross-flow membrane filtration systems to recover soy sauce from its lees, the mechanisms by which the membrane fouls during filtration have not been theoretically discussed. Calculated flux declines using a theoretical equation developed for cross-flow cake filtration were compared against experimental results involving the filtration of soy sauce lees using polysulfone ultrafiltration and micro filtration membranes. Membrane fouling due to the deposition and intrusion of soy sauce lees was evaluated from the hydraulic resistances of the membrane and the cake layer. Calculated flux declines with time agree with the experimental results. Specific resistance of the cake layer which is an adjustable parameter of the equation, decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. Hydraulic resistance exhibited by the membranes is independent of feed flow velocity. However, the resistance of the cake layers decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. This corresponds to the steady-state flux increase. In conclusion, the main cause of fouling in the filtration of soy sauce lees is cake layer formation. By using the cake filtration model for cross-flow, the flux decline with time during the filtration is capable of being predicted. (author)

  6. Combined effects of high pressure processing and addition of soy sauce and olive oil on safety and quality characteristics of chicken breast meat.

    Kruk, Zbigniew A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  7. The Effect of Used of Soy Sauce Waste in the Ration on Yolk Chemical protein, fat and calcium of Mojosari Laying Duck

    R. D. Jayanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soy sauce waste in the ration on protein, fat and calcium content in the yolk of Mojosari laying duck. The animals used were 240 Mojosari laying ducks at 20 weeks old with the average of body weight were 1,385.0 ± 130.85 g (CV = 9.44%. Feed materials used were corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, wheat pollard, premix and soy sauce waste. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD with 4 treatment and 6 replications so that there were 24 experimental units and each consists 10 ducks. The treatments were soy sauce waste at level T0 : 0%, T1: 5%, T2: 7,5% and T3: 10%. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Significant differences were denoted as P<0.05. There was no significant effect of soy sauce waste protein, fat, and calcium content. The conclusion of this study that soy sauce waste can be used up to 10% without adverse the content of protein, fat, and calcium in Mojosari laying ducks.

  8. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Dedin FR1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The Maillard reaction is complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small. Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Oils were oxidized at 110 oC and determined by the rancimat method and TBA value. The high molecular compounds (MW ≥100 kDa of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index 2.43. Characteristic UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and IR spectra indicated –OH...O groups of β-diketon or combinated C=R=R groups.

  9. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    Zbigniew A. Kruk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w of soy sauce (SS, 10% (w/w of olive oil (OO, and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w (SO were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  10. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  11. Survival strategy of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, to counteract koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, in soy sauce brewing.

    Nishimura, Ikuko; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Oguma, Tetsuya; Koyama, Yasuji

    2018-04-08

    In soy sauce brewing, the results of the fermentation of lactic acid greatly affect the quality of soy sauce. The soy sauce moromi produced with Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 allows the growth of Tetragenococcus halophilus NBRC 12172 but not T. halophilus D10. We isolated and identified heptelidic acid (HA), an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), produced by A. oryzae RIB40 as the growth inhibitor of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria. The growth inhibition of T. halophilus D10 by HA was suggested to be associated with the direct inhibition of GAPDH activity under high salt environment. The difference in the susceptibility to HA among various strains of T. halophilus was caused by the mutations in the gene encoding GAPDH.

  12. Changes in microbial composition and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in crab marinated in soy sauce produced by six manufacturing plants.

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Eun Sook; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Na Young; Cho, Tae Jin; Jo, Jun Il; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Soon Ho; Ha, Sang Do; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the changes in microbiological composition during the production process of crab marinated in soy sauce, potential microbial hazards, potential contamination routes and effective critical control points. Crab and soy sauce samples were obtained from six different manufacturing plants at different stages, and their microbiological content was comprehensively assessed by quantitative and qualitative analyses. The results revealed the following: (1) the final products contained 4.0 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 aerobic plate counts (APCs) and 1.1 log CFU g -1 coliforms, which may have been introduced from the raw materials (the level of APCs in raw crab and soy sauce mixed with other ingredients was 3.8 log CFU g -1 and 4.0 log CFU mL -1 respectively); (2) marination of crab in soy sauce may allow cross-contamination by coliforms; (3) only Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were qualitatively detected in samples at different stages of manufacture (detection rate of 28 and 5.6% respectively), and these bacteria may impact the microbiological quality and safety of crab marinated in soy sauce; and (4) bacterial counts were either maintained or increased during the manufacturing process (suggesting that no particular step can be targeted to reduce bacterial counts). Proper management of raw materials and the marination process are effective critical control points, and alternative interventions may be needed to control bacterial quantity. The results provide important basic information about the production of crab marinated in soy sauce and may facilitate effective implementation of sanitary management practices in related industries and research fields. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of NaFeEDTA-Fortified Soy Sauce on Anemia Prevalence in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Huo, Jun Sheng; Yin, Ji Yong; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Lu, Zhen Xin; Regina, Moench-Pfanner; Chen, Jun Shi; Chen, Chun Ming

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. A systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. After the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of fish sauce aroma-impact compounds using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' power law exponents.

    Pham, A J; Schilling, M W; Yoon, Y; Kamadia, V V; Marshall, D L

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) coupled with Stevens' Power Law. Compounds were separated using GCMS and GCO and were identified with the mass spectral database, aroma perceived at the sniffing port, retention indices, and verification of compounds by authentic standards in the GCMS and GCO. Aromas that were isolated and present in all 4 fish sauce samples at all concentrations included fishy (trimethylamine), pungent and dirty socks (combination of butanoic, pentanoic, hexanoic, and heptanoic acids), cooked rice and buttery popcorn (2,6-dimethyl pyrazine), and sweet and cotton candy (benzaldehyde). All fish sauces contained the same aromas as determined by GCO and GCMS (verified using authentic standard compounds), but the odor intensity associated with each compound or group of compounds was variable for different fish sauce samples. Stevens' Power Law exponents were also determined using this analytical technique, but exponents were not consistent for the same compounds that were found in all fish sauces. Stevens' Power Law exponents ranged from 0.14 to 0.37, 0.24 to 0.34, 0.09 to 0.21, and 0.10 to 0.35 for dirty socks, fishy, buttery popcorn, and sweet aromas, respectively. This demonstrates that there is variability in Stevens' Power Law exponents for odorants within fish sauce samples.

  16. Pennsylvanian and Cisuralian palynofloras from the Los Sauces area, La Rioja Province, Argentina: Chronological and paleoecological significance

    Pasquo, Mercedes di; Azcuy, Carlos L. [University/Organization, CONICET Institute CICyTTP, CICyTTP- CONICET Diamante - CP, Entre Rios (Argentina); Vergel, Maria del M. [INSUGEO-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    Three outcrops of the Libertad and Sauces Formations from the Los Sauces area La Rioja Province, western Argentina, yielded the nine palynoassemblages studied here. Two assemblage zones are defined on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution and ranges of seventy five species of palynomorphs (42 species of spores, 32 pollen taxa and one fungus). Only thirteen species are common to both assemblages and ten species are first records for the Paganzo Basin. Assemblage 1 from the Libertad Formation is dominated by trilete spores of Cristatisporites (lycophyte) and Punctatisporites (pteridophyte). Monosaccate pollen (Coniferales/Cordaitales) is frequently present. Pteridosperms, mostly represented by Cyclogranisporites, are especially abundant in one level together with scarce striate bisaccate pollen grains. Assemblage 2 of the Sauces Formation is dominated by trilete spores related to the Pteridophyta (e.g., Horriditriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites) and Sphenophyta. Monosaccate (Cordaitales/Coniferales) and taeniate and non-taeniate bisaccate pollen grains (Pteridospermales/Coniferales), are equally subordinated. Monosulcate pollen (Cycadophyta) and fungi (Portalites gondwanensis) are rare. Assemblage 1 is mainly Moscovian; assemblage 2 Asselian-Sakmarian. This interpretation is based on correlation of assemblage 1 to the DMb (Mid Pennsylvanian) and assemblage 2 to the FS (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Paganzo Basin (Argentina). The taxonomic composition of the Ahrensisporites cristatus-Crucisaccites monoletus (Mid-Late Pennsylvanian) and the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone (Asselian-Sakmarian) of the Vittatina costabilis (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Parana Basin (Brazil) support this correlation. The continental freshwater depositional setting of this part of the Paganzo Basin is supported by the dominance of terrestrial palynomorphs and phytoclasts, the presence of coal and carbonaceous shales, and the occurrence of plant megafossils

  17. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. HACCP在酿造酱油生产及品质控制中的应用%Application of HACCP in Soy Sauce Production and Quality Control

    陈其钢; 古丽奴尔·吐拉西

    2016-01-01

    It is introduced HACCP management system the way of how to built on the soy sauce and the specific results of the implementation and using the meaning and necessity of soy sauce HACCP management system of quality control .%介绍HACCP管理体系在酿造酱油企业中建立HACCP的具体方法及实施结果,采用HACCP管理体系在酱油品质控制中的意义和必要性。

  19. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  20. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the...

  1. IAA oxidase activity in relation to adventitious root formation on stem cuttings of some forest tree species. [Salix tetrasperma, Populus Robusta, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eucalyptus citriodora

    Bansal, M.P.; Nanda, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    In rooting tests with stem cuttings, IAA oxidase activity was found to be very high in Salix tetrasperma and Populus 'Robusta' both of which rooted profusely, less in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis which rooted but weakly and insignificant in Eucalyptus citriodora, which did not root at all. Proteins extracted from the stem cuttings of E. citriodora inhibited IAA oxidase activity, and also root formation on hypocotyl cuttings of Phaseolus mungo.

  2. Sulfur-aided phytoextraction of Cd and Zn by Salix smithiana combined with in situ metal immobilization by gravel sludge and red mud

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Puschenreiter, Markus; Oburger, Eva; Santner, Jakob; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    As phytoextraction implementation may be limited by metal toxicity and leaching, we investigated the idea of in situ metal immobilization in bulk soil, while increasing metal bioavailability in the rhizosphere. Salix smithiana was grown in a pot experiment on two Cd/Zn polluted soils. Treatments with or without willows included: no additives; gravel sludge + red mud kg −1 ; acidification with S to pH 3.5; and metal immobilization combined with soil acidification. Salix smithiana removed up to 0.78 ± 0.06% total Cd and 0.34% (±0.02) total Zn from the non-treated soils. The phytoextraction efficiency in the S treatments was enhanced by up to ∼50% in response to metal solubility that was magnified by reductive co-dissolution from Mn (IV) and Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides during microbial S oxidation in the willow rhizosphere. The proposed technique proved to enhance phytoextraction efficiency while controlling the risk of metal leaching from the root zone and phytotoxicity. - Highlights: ► Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn using willow (Salix smithiana) was enhanced by elemental sulfur. ► Reductive metals dissolution by microbial S oxidation was magnified in the willow rhizosphere. ► Thus metal bioavailability was high at the location of uptake in the phytoextraction crop. ► Concurrent immobilization by soil amendments can reduce metal leaching from the bulk soil. - Magnified Cd and Zn availability in S-amended rhizosphere of Salix smithiana enhances shoot Cd/Zn removal while metal leaching from the root zone can be reduced by immobilizing soil amendments.

  3. Biological effects of an aqueous extract of Salix alba on the survival of Escherichia coli AB1157 cultures submitted to the action of stannous chloride

    RAPHAEL S S SOUZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannous chloride (SnC12 is used in nuclear medicine as a reducing agent to obtain technetium-99m-radiopharmaceuticals. It have been reported that natural products might reduce the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects related to SnC12. This work evaluated the biological effects of an aqueous extract of Salix alba on the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli AB1157 (wild type cultures submitted to the action of SnC12. E. coli AB1157 cultures (exponential growth phase were collected by centrifugation, washed and resuspended in 0.9%NaCl. Samples were incubated in water bath shaker with: (a SnC12 (25mg/ml, (bSalix alba extract(11.6mg/ml and (cSnC12(25mg/ml + Salix alba extract (11.6mg/ml. Incubation with 0.9% NaCl was also carried out (control. At 60 min intervals, aliquots were withdrawn, diluted, spread onto Petri dishes with solid LB medium and incubated overnight. The colonies formed were counted and the survival fractions calculated. The extract was not able to protect the E. coli cultures against the lesive action of SnC12. The extract also did not interfere with the survival of the cultures. It suggested that the substances present in the Salix alba aqueous extract did not interfere strongly with cellular metabolism and did not alter the survival fractions of E. coli AB 1157. It is speculated that this extract cannot interfere with the generation of free radicals, the possible main agent responsible for SnC12 lesive action.

  4. National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce.

    Juliao, Patricia C; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J

    2013-02-01

    On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Investigators reviewed patients' medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities.

  5. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  6. Adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce using carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal: Isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies.

    Wang, Nan; Jin, Ru-Na; Omer, A M; Ouyang, Xiao-Kun

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a new adsorbent based on carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal (CCN) was developed for the adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce. The prepared adsorbent material was characterized by zeta potential, FT-IR, XRD, and XPS tools. The changes in the morphological structure of the developed CCN surface were evidenced by SEM and TEM. The favorable adsorption conditions were selected by studying the contact time, initial concentration, temperature, and concentration of the used glutamic acid and NaCl. The results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model agrees very well with experimental adsorption data (R 2 =0.9962) with a maximum adsorption capacity 232.56mg/g of Pb(II) at 293.2K. Additionally, data of the adsorption kinetics follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R 2 >0.9990). On the other hand, the thermodynamics studies show that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the developed CCN could be regenerated using acid treatment with a good reusability for Pb(II) adsorption. The results clearly indicated that the synthesized CCN could be effectively applied as a new material for Pb(II) adsorption from fish sauce solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis.

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-07-14

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3-10.0 µg·kg(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg(-1) and recoveries of 87.2%-114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R² > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg(-1). The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis.

  8. Stereoselective Behavior of the Chiral Herbicides Diclofop-Methyl and Diclofop During the Soy Sauce Brewing Process.

    Lu, Yuele; Zhang, Dong; Liao, Yahui; Diao, Jinling; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chiral pesticides are now receiving more and more attention in the food-making process. This experiment studied the enantioselective behavior of diclofop-methyl (DM) and its main metabolite, diclofop (DC), during the soy sauce brewing process. Two kinds of commonly used strains, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces rouxii, were investigated. However, they showed a different degradation ability to the enantiomers of DM and DC. It was observed that (-)-(S)-DM was degraded much faster than (+)-(R)-DM by Saccharomyces rouxii, while no stereoselective degradation was found by Aspergillus oryzae. DC represented a relatively long residue period in this fermentation process and both strains showed a weak degradation ability to DC, especially Saccharomyces rouxii. There was little DC detected in the final product, while most of the DC residues persisted in the lees, which were usually used as animal feeds or discarded into the environment directly as waste. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the soy sauce brewing process concerning pesticide residues both in the final product and byproducts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Performance of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Three Compartments in Removal of COD of Wastewater of Chilly Sauce

    Sumantri Indro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to examine the performance of each compartment of the number of compartments of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR to the COD removal of the chilly sauce wastewater. Three-compartments of ABR were conducted in this experiment with the total volume of 60 l. ABR is very suitable for processing waste water with high content of COD. Wastewater conducted in this research is a degradable chilly sauce synthetic and high content of organic compounds. While the COD parameter is the main parameter to indicate the achievement of wastewater treatment plant. Stepwise in the research starting with the preparation of raw materials such as sample preparation of synthetic wastewater and preparation of activated sludge. Variable used is the time digestion in the ABR, sludge volume (50% and 70%, and initial COD concentrations (6000 – 14000 mg/L. The response is observed up to 7 days process. For a load of organic compounds, the first compartment has high degree of decomposition of organic compounds than 2nd and 3rd, it is shown that the COD removal the second and third compartment increase insignificantly compare the first compartment. As for the different height of the activated sludge indicated that for organic load of of 6170 mg/L up to 14265 mg/L, the first compartment has removal efficiency 79-73%, in the second compartment is 81-75%, 81-77% and third compartment.

  10. Fungal colonization and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica on deglaciated moraines in high-Arctic Canada

    Osono, Takashi; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Hirose, Dai; Uchida, Masaki; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Fungal colonization, succession, and decomposition of leaves and stems of Salix arctica were studied to estimate the roles of fungi in the decomposition processes in the high Arctic. The samples were collected from five moraines with different periods of development since deglaciation to investigate the effects of ecosystem development on the decomposition processes during the primary succession. The total hyphal lengths and the length of darkly pigmented hyphae increased during decomposition of leaves and stems and were not varied with the moraines. Four fungal morphotaxa were frequently isolated from both leaves and stems. The frequencies of occurrence of two morphotaxa varied with the decay class of leaves and/or stems. The hyphal lengths and the frequencies of occurrence of fungal morphotaxa were positively or negatively correlated with the contents of organic chemical components and nutrients in leaves and stems, suggesting the roles of fungi in chemical changes in the field. Pure culture decomposition tests demonstrated that the fungal morphotaxa were cellulose decomposers. Our results suggest that fungi took part in the chemical changes in decomposing leaves and stems even under the harsh environment of the high Arctic.

  11. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change

    Nybakken, L.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO{sub 2} or enhanced temperature? + enhanced CO{sub 2}. The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO{sub 2} increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth. (Author)

  12. [Soil moisture dynamics and water balance of Salix psammophila shrubs in south edge of Mu Us Sandy Land].

    An, Hui; An, Yu

    2011-09-01

    Taking the artificial sand-fixing Salix psammophila shrubs with different plant density (0.2, 0.6, and 0.8 plants x m(-2)) in Mu Us Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration during growth season. There existed obvious differences in the soil moisture dynamics and evapotranspiration among the shrubs. The soil moisture content changed in single-hump-shape with the increase of plant density, and in "S" shape during growth season, being closely correlated with precipitation. The evapotranspiration was the highest (114.5 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.8 plants x m(-1), accounting for 90.8% of the total precipitation during growth season, and the lowest (109.7 mm) in the shrubs with a density 0.6 plants x m(-2) Based on the soil moisture dynamics and water balance characteristics, the appropriate planting density of S. psammophila shrubs in Mu Us Sandy Land could be 0.6 plants x m(-2).

  13. Performance of Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii in short rotation intensive culture under high irrigation

    Fillion, Maud; Brisson, Jacques [Departement de Sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Teodorescu, Traian I.; Labrecque, Michel [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, 4101 Sherbrooke East, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sauve, Sebastien [Departement de chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    On a plantation established in 2004 from stem cuttings at a density of 20,000 trees per hectare, we investigated growth and nutritional plant response to a high hydraulic regime for two species (Salix viminalis and Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii), using a comparative approach with measurements from irrigated and control plots. The plantation was irrigated from June to September 2005 with about 140 mm per day. The equivalent of 120 Kg NO{sub 3}-N, 40 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-P and 85 Kg K{sub 2}O-K per hectare per year was applied by means of irrigation with wastewater. No mortality occurred and stem biomass production of both poplar and willow species were not statistically different on irrigated and control areas. However, S. viminalis revealed to be more tolerant to flooded conditions since these corresponded more closely to its nutritional requirements (foliar concentration of 20 mgN g{sup -1}). The capacity of S. viminalis to withstand waterlogged conditions could play an important role in the sustainability of a plantation for the filtration of effluent at low pollutant concentration. (author)

  14. Simultaneous Quantitation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Soy Sauce and Beer by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry without Ion-Pair Reagents and Derivatization.

    Nomi, Yuri; Annaka, Hironori; Sato, Shinji; Ueta, Etsuko; Ohkura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Homma, Seiichi; Suzuki, Emiko; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive method to analyze several advanced glycation end products (AGEs) simultaneously using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and to apply this method to the quantitation of AGEs in brown-colored foods. The developed method enabled to separate and quantitate simultaneously seven AGEs, and was applied to the determination of free AGEs contained in various kinds of soy sauce and beer. The major AGEs in soy sauce and beer were N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML), N ε -carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and N δ -(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine (MG-H1). Using the developed LC-MS/MS method, recovery test on soy sauce and beer samples showed the recovery values of 85.3-103.9% for CML, 95.9-107.4% for CEL, and 69.5-123.2% for MG-H1. In particular, it is the first report that free CML, CEL, and MG-H1 were present in beer. Furthermore, long-term storage and heating process of soy sauce increased CML and MG-H1.

  15. Isolation and characterization of halophilic lactic acid bacteria acting as a starter culture for sauce fermentation of the red alga Nori (Porphyra yezoensis).

    Uchida, M; Miyoshi, T; Yoshida, G; Niwa, K; Mori, M; Wakabayashi, H

    2014-06-01

    A screening test was conducted for environmental samples to isolate halophilic lactic acid bacteria (HLAB) that can act as a starter in a Nori (Porphyra yezoensis)-sauce culture. After 9 months of incubation of enrichment cultures added with 25 kinds of environmental samples, growth of HLAB-like microorganisms was observed in six cultures salted at a 15% w/w level, including culture samples originally from mesopelagic water taken from 321 m-depth and from mountain snow taken at 2450 m-height. Ten strains were isolated and characterized as Tetragenococcus halophilus based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The isolates were inoculated into a newly prepared Nori-sauce culture and were confirmed to be able to act as a starter culture while three reference strains of T. halophilus obtained from a culture collection could not grow in the same culture. Halophilic lactic acid bacteria strains that can make growth in a highly salted Nori-sauce culture were isolated from environmental samples for the first time. All the isolates were identified as T. halophilus. The isolated strains are expected to be utilized as a starter culture for manufacturing fermented seaweed-sauce, which will be the first fermented food products obtained from algae. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in willow. It is also possible to measure variations between fields. From the physical and chemical parameters in the soil it is difficult to get a decisive picture of which parameters actually have an effect on the yield, especially if you look at one parameter at time. It is often the interplay between many parameters that results in yield variability. One thing that is evident is that if one parameter is critically low or high, for example extremely dry soil, it effects the yield negatively. Because of problems with the equipment, data could only be collected from five fields in order to make this analysis.

  17. Leaf degradation of Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae and invertebrate colonization in a subtropical lake (Brazil Degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd: (Salicaceae e colonização por invertebrados em um lago subtropical (Brasil

    Franko Telöken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate leaf degradation and invertebrate colonization of Salix humboldtiana Willd. in a subtropical shallow lake on the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; METHODS: Litter bags containing 6.85 g of leaves were incubated in the superficial layer of sediment in the littoral region for 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 and 71 days; RESULTS: After 71 days, a loss of 51% of the initial leaf weight was observed (k = 0.0100 d-1. We estimated that it would take 300 days to lose 95% of the initial weight. A total of 16040 organisms and 35 taxa were identified. Caenidae (25.9%, Oligochaeta (19%, Ostracoda (13.8%, Hydracarina (9.8%, Tanypodinae (9.7% and Coenagrionidae (7.7% were the most highly represented taxa. We observed increases in density, richness and diversity of taxa over time, with a stabilizing trend noted in the taxa diversity. Regarding the functional trophic groups (FTGs, gathering-collectors accounted for 57.6% of the community, while predators (25%, scrapers (15.8%, filtering-collectors (0.88% and shredders (0.73% were also represented. The diversity and evenness of the FTGs had stabilized by day 14; CONCLUSIONS: S. humboldtiana detritus provides a favorable habitat for a sufficient duration to support a high density and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. The small percentage of shredders indicates the minor influence of the invertebrate community on the rate of detrital degradation. The main contribution of invertebrates to detrital processing comes from the consumption of fine particulate organic matter by gathering-collectors.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a degradação foliar de Salix humboldtiana Willd. e a colonização pela comunidade de invertebrados aquáticos em um lago raso subtropical, planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil; MÉTODOS: Bolsas de decomposição contendo 6,85 g de folhas foram incubadas na região litorânea, na superfície do sedimento, e retiradas após 1, 4, 7, 14, 32, 47 e 71 dias de decomposi

  18. Cadmium accumulation in Salix in relation to cadmium concentration in the soil; Kadmiumhalten i Salix relaterad till kadmiumhalten i jorden. Studier av olika Salixkloners foermaaga att ta upp kadmium

    Greger, M; Landberg, T [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    1996-05-01

    It has earlier been shown that different clones of Salix accumulate cadmium to a different degree. Moreover, the distribution of cadmium within the plant also differs between clones. If these properties are stable, there will be possibilities to chose clones for different purposes. The aim with this investigation was to find out if the differences between clones were stable and persist even though the clones were collected from different fields. Furthermore, to find out if the differences depend on the soil status and the concentration of cadmium of different soil fractions. The cadmium concentration of stems on different level within a plant and at different age of stems were analysed. The concentration in bark and wood as well as in leaves were examined to increase the knowledge of cadmium distribution within the different clones. The cadmium concentration was always higher in the leaves than in the stems. The difference between leaf content and stem content was highest in those clones which had a high transport to the shoot. The contribution of cadmium to the soil by the leaf shed will therefore be high from the high accumulating and high transporting clones. The conclusions one can draw from this investigation are that the clones possess specific properties to accumulate and transport cadmium, and these properties are independent of where the clones are collected. The differences in cadmium concentration within one clone collected from different fields is therefore to be explained by environmental conditions, other than those studied in this investigation. This work indicates that these unknown environmental factors influence the cadmium accumulation of stems more than the soil conditions and the cadmium level of the soil. It is therefore possible to chose clones with desired properties of cadmium accumulation, while the level of cadmium uptake is determined by the field conditions. 19 refs, 17 figs, 9 tabs

  19. Particle size distribution of ashes and the behaviour of metals when firing Salix in a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB); Askans partikelfraktionsfoerdelning och metallernas beteende vid eldning av Salix i en CFB-panna

    Sfiris, G; Johansson, A [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Valmari, T; Kauppinen, E; Pyykoenen, J; Lyyraenen, J [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    This project is part of the Ash Recovery Programme aimed at establishing the environmental, technical and financial preconditions for returning wood ash to the forest. The programme is funded jointly by NUTEK, Sydkraft and Vattenfall. This report summarises the results of the experimental and modelling work to study the behaviour of the metals (especially Cd and K), after burning Salix in a 3-12 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. The purpose of the study was to determine, using the experimental data, where cadmium and potassium condense, on what size particles they condense, and the decisive parameters governing these processes. Measurements of the fly ash particle size distribution carried out with a Berner Low Pressure Impactor (BLPI), coupled to a pre-cyclone. Samples were collected from three points: in the convection path at 650 deg C, after the convection path but before the secondary cyclone (160 deg C), and after the bag house (150 deg C). Wet chemical sampling was made for Cd, K, Zn and Pb, with three types of sampling equipment: collection of both particles and gas, collection of particles only, and analysis of the gas phase only. Analysis was made of samples from two places in the convection path (650 deg C and 250 deg C). Samples of bed material, bottom ash and fly ash have been subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in addition a few fly ash particles, sampled after the convection path, were subjected to energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Based on experimental results, modelling work was carried out with an equilibrium model and with a general aerosol computer model ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion)

  20. Variations in Metal Tolerance and Accumulation in Three Hydroponically Cultivated Varieties of Salix integra Treated with Lead

    Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Pan, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaoe; Rafiq, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Willow species have been suggested for use in the remediation of contaminated soils due to their high biomass production, fast growth, and high accumulation of heavy metals. The tolerance and accumulation of metals may vary among willow species and varieties, and the assessment of this variability is vital for selecting willow species/varieties for phytoremediation applications. Here, we examined the variations in lead (Pb) tolerance and accumulation of three cultivated varieties of Salix integra (Weishanhu, Yizhibi and Dahongtou), a shrub willow native to northeastern China, using hydroponic culture in a greenhouse. In general, the tolerance and accumulation of Pb varied among the three willow varieties depending on the Pb concentration. All three varieties had a high tolerance index (TI) and EC50 value (the effective concentration of Pb in the nutrient solution that caused a 50% inhibition on biomass production), but a low translocation factor (TF), indicating that Pb sequestration is mainly restricted in the roots of S. integra. Among the three varieties, Dahogntou was more sensitive to the increased Pb concentration than the other two varieties, with the lowest EC50 and TI for root and above-ground tissues. In this respect, Weishanhu and Yizhibi were more suitable for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated soils. However, our findings also indicated the importance of considering the toxicity symptoms when selecting willow varieties for the use of phytoremediation, since we also found that the three varieties revealed various toxicity symptoms of leaf wilting, chlorosis and inhibition of shoot and root growth under the higher Pb concentrations. Such symptoms could be considered as a supplementary index in screening tests. PMID:25268840

  1. Variations in metal tolerance and accumulation in three hydroponically cultivated varieties of Salix integra treated with lead.

    Shufeng Wang

    Full Text Available Willow species have been suggested for use in the remediation of contaminated soils due to their high biomass production, fast growth, and high accumulation of heavy metals. The tolerance and accumulation of metals may vary among willow species and varieties, and the assessment of this variability is vital for selecting willow species/varieties for phytoremediation applications. Here, we examined the variations in lead (Pb tolerance and accumulation of three cultivated varieties of Salix integra (Weishanhu, Yizhibi and Dahongtou, a shrub willow native to northeastern China, using hydroponic culture in a greenhouse. In general, the tolerance and accumulation of Pb varied among the three willow varieties depending on the Pb concentration. All three varieties had a high tolerance index (TI and EC50 value (the effective concentration of Pb in the nutrient solution that caused a 50% inhibition on biomass production, but a low translocation factor (TF, indicating that Pb sequestration is mainly restricted in the roots of S. integra. Among the three varieties, Dahogntou was more sensitive to the increased Pb concentration than the other two varieties, with the lowest EC50 and TI for root and above-ground tissues. In this respect, Weishanhu and Yizhibi were more suitable for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated soils. However, our findings also indicated the importance of considering the toxicity symptoms when selecting willow varieties for the use of phytoremediation, since we also found that the three varieties revealed various toxicity symptoms of leaf wilting, chlorosis and inhibition of shoot and root growth under the higher Pb concentrations. Such symptoms could be considered as a supplementary index in screening tests.

  2. Combined enhancements of temperature and UVB influence growth and phenolics in clones of the sexually dimorphic Salix myrsinifolia

    Nybakken, L.; Hoerkkae, R.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. (Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland))

    2012-08-15

    Although several climatic factors are expected to change simultaneously in the future, the effect of such combined changes on plants have seldom been tested under field conditions. We report on a field experiment with dark-leaved willow, Salix myrsinifolia, subjected to enhancements in ultraviolet-A (UVA), UVB radiation and temperature, setup in Joensuu, Eastern Finland. S. myrsinifolia is a dioecious species, known as an important food plant for many herbivores. Cuttings of eight clones, four of each sex, of dark-leaved willow were planted in the field in spring 2009. In both 2009 and 2010, the total biomass increased significantly with temperature, and in 2010 there was an additive effect of UVB radiation. Both height and diameter increased with temperature in 2009, while the effect on height growth ceased in 2010. Males had greater diameter growth than females in 2010. Most phenolic compounds in the leaves decreased under enhanced temperature in both growing seasons. In 2010, four of six salicylates increased in response to enhanced temperature. Some quercetin derivatives increased under enhanced UVB radiation. Females had higher concentrations of chlorogenic acids than males, and while enhanced temperature reduced chlorogenic acid in females only, luteolins were reduced only in males. In summary, the combined enhancements gave no effects in addition to those that appeared under the single-factor treatments, except for the additive effect of UVB on temperature-increased biomass. The few gender-related differences found in response to climate change do not allow any marked expectations of future climate-induced changes in sex ratios. (Author)

  3. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons.

    Antoine P Pagé

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(apyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls. An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the

  4. Differences in Cd and Zn bioaccumulation for the flood-tolerant Salix cinerea rooting in seasonally flooded contaminated sediments.

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Laing, Gijs Du; Quataert, Paul; Tack, Filip M G

    2005-04-01

    Several authors suggest that a hydrological regime aiming at wetland creation is a potential management option that favours reducing bioavailability for metal-contaminated sites. The hydrological conditions on a site constitute one of the many factors that may affect the availability of potentially toxic trace metals for uptake by plants. Bioavailability of Cd, Mn and Zn on a contaminated dredged sediment landfill (DSL) with variable duration of submersion was evaluated by measuring metal concentrations in the wetland plant species Salix cinerea in field conditions. Longer submersion periods in the field caused lower Cd and Zn concentrations in the leaves in the first weeks of the growing season. Foliar Cd and Zn concentrations at the end of the growing season were highest on the initially flooded plot that emerged early in the growing season. Foliar Zn concentrations were also high at a sandy-textured oxic plot with low soil metal concentrations. Zn uptake in the leaves was markedly slower than Cd uptake for trees growing on soils with prolonged waterlogging during the growing season, pointing at a different availability. Zn availability was lowest when soil was submerged, but metal transfer from stems and twigs to leaves may mask the lower availability of Cd in submerged soils. Especially for Cd, a transfer effect from one growing season to the next season was observed: oxic conditions at the end of the previous growing season seem to determine at least partly the foliar concentrations for S. cinerea through this metal transfer mechanism. Duration of the submersion period is a key factor for bioavailability inasmuch as initially submerged soils emerging only in the second half of the growing season resulted in elevated Cd and Zn foliar concentrations at that time.

  5. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change

    Jones, M.H.; Macdonald, S.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Henry, G.H.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Dioecious plant species and those occupying diverse habitats may present special analytical problems to researchers examining effects of climate change. Here we report the results from two complementary studies designed to determine the importance of sex and habitat on gas exchange and growth of male and female individuals of a dioecious, circumpolar willow, Salix arctica, in the Canadian High Arctic. In field studies, male and female willows from dry and wet habitats were subjected to passively enhanced summer temperature ({approx} to 1.3 deg C) using small open-top chambers over three years. Peak season gas exchange varied significantly by willow sex and habitat. Overall net assimilation was higher in the dry habitat than in the wet, and higher in females than in males. In the dry habitat, net assimilation of females was enhanced by experimental warming, but decreased in males. In the wet habitat, net assimilation of females was substantially depressed by experimental warming, while males showed an inconsistent response. Development and growth of male and female catkins were enhanced by elevated temperature more than leaf fascicles, but leaf fascicle development and growth varied more between the two habitats, particularly in males. In a controlled environment study, male and female willows from these same wet and dry habitats were grown in a 2x2 factorial experiment including 1 x or 2 x ambient [CO{sub 2}] and 5 or 12 deg. C. The sexes responded very differently to the experimental treatments, but we found no effect of original habitat. Net assimilation in males was affected by the interaction of temperature and CO{sub 2}, but in females by CO{sub 2} only. Our results demonstrate (a) significant intraspecific and intersexual differences in arctic willow physiology and growth, (b) that these differences are affected by environmental conditions expected to accompany global climate change, and (c) that sex- and habitat-specific responses should be explicitly

  6. Polyphenols of Salix aegyptiaca modulate the activities of drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, and level of lipid peroxidation.

    Nauman, Mohd; Kale, R K; Singh, Rana P

    2018-03-07

    Salix aegyptiaca is known for its medicinal properties mainly due to the presence of salicylate compounds. However, it also contains other beneficial phytochemicals such as gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin. The aim of the study was to examine the redox potential, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these phytochemicals along with acetylsalicylic acid. The redox potential and antioxidant activity of gallic acid, quercetin, rutin, vanillin and acetylsalicylic acid were determined by oxidation-reduction potential electrode method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. In ex vivo studies, antioxidant activity of these phytochemicals was determined by lipid peroxidation and carbonyl content assay in the liver of mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by protein denaturation method. Six-week old C57BL/6 mice treated with gallic acid (100 mg/kg body weight) and acetylsalicylic acid (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) to investigate their in vivo modulatory effects on the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and level of lipid peroxidation in liver. The order of ability to donate electron and antioxidant activity was found to be: gallic acid > quercetin > rutin > vanillin > acetylsalicylic acid. In ex vivo studies, the similar pattern and magnitude of inhibitory effects of these phytochemicals against peroxidative damage in microsomes and protein carbonyl in cytosolic fraction were observed. In in vivo studies, gallic acid and acetylsalicylic acid alone or in combination, enhanced the specific activities of drug metabolizing phase I and phase II enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes and also inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver. These findings show a close link between the electron donation and antioxidation potential of these phytochemicals, and in turn their biological activity. Gallic acid, quercetin, rutin and vanillin were found to be better electron donors and

  7. Mouthwatering but erosive? A preliminary assessment of the acidity of a basic sauce used in many Indian dishes.

    Ghai, Nandini; Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether some types of Indian cuisine may contain erosive components. Indian dishes were prepared by a previously published method and their pH measured using a pH probe. The results indicated: (i) that some components of Indian cooking, such as tomatoes and red chilli powder, had the potential to erode enamel; (ii) that the pH of some foods was reduced with increasing temperature; and (iii) that all the basic masalas made and tested had a pH of less than 4.5. Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that the basic sauce/masala used in north Indian dishes may have erosive potential. This information could be considered useful when advising patients who eat Indian curries about causes of acid erosion of their teeth.

  8. Analysis of Umami Taste Compounds in a Fermented Corn Sauce by Means of Sensory-Guided Fractionation.

    Charve, Joséphine; Manganiello, Sonia; Glabasnia, Arne

    2018-02-28

    Corn sauce, an ingredient obtained from the fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed corn starch and used in culinary applications to provide savory taste, was investigated in this study. The links between its sensory properties and taste compounds were assessed using a combination of analytical and sensory approaches. The analyses revealed that glutamic acid, sodium chloride, and acetic acid were the most abundant compounds, but they could not explain entirely the savory taste. The addition of other compounds, found at subthreshold concentrations (alanine, glutamyl peptides, and one Amadori compound), contributed partly to close the sensory gap between the re-engineered sample and the original product. Further chemical breakdown, by a sensory-guided fractionation approach, led to the isolation of two fractions with taste-modulating effects. Analyses by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that the fractions contained glutamyl peptides, pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, valine, N-formyl-glutamic acid, and N-acetyl-glutamine.

  9. Structures of Two Yellow Dyes Found in Cucumbers Pickled in Soy Sauce Colored with Tartrazine (Y4).

    Ogawa, Asamoe; Shindo, Tetsuya; Kyoko, Hitomi; Sadamasu, Yuki; Sakamaki, Narue; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2017-01-01

    Two yellow dyes, together with tartrazine (Y4), were found in cucumbers pickled in soy sauce, for which the use of tartrazine is permitted, by TLC, LC-DAD, and LC-MS. The retention times on LC chromatograms and the maximum absorbance wavelengths measured by LC-DAD of the two dyes were different from those of tartrazine. Mass spectra of the dyes indicated that these dyes lacked one sulfonyl group of tartrazine. The presence of two less sulfonated dyes in tartrazine has been reported. Hence, the two less sulfonated dyes were synthesized. The two dyes found in cucumbers were compared with the synthesized dyes by LC-DAD and LC-MS. Since the retention times of the dyes in cucumbers on the LC chromatograms, as well as their LC-DAD spectra and mass spectra, were found to be identical with those of the synthesized dyes, we concluded these dyes are the less sulfonated subsidiary dyes of tartrazine.

  10. An aerobic detoxification photofermentation by Rhodospirillum rubrum for converting soy sauce residue into feed with moderate pretreatment.

    Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Zhu, Wen-You; Tu, Fang; Jiang, Ya; Sun, Chuan-Ze

    2017-09-25

    This paper reports an effective process for converting soy sauce residue into feeds by combining moderate acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100 °C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N 2 , CO 2 , and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein increased from 188 to 362 g kg -1 and the crude fiber decreased from 226 to 66 g kg -1 after fermentation at 0.5 L min -1  L -1 of air flow and a light intensity of 750 lx and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 90% and the crude fiber decreased by 67% after fermentation at 0.6 L min -1  L -1 of air flow and a light intensity of 600 lx Other contents, including crude fat, crude ash, phosphorus, sulfur, sulfur-containing amino acids, sodium chloride, and calcium, were also improved for use as feed. Meantime, some toxic substances, including furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acetic acid, phenol, and cresol, which were produced by the pretreatments, could be removed by 12-32, 5-8, 49-53, 7-8, and 7-8%, respectively; and total sugars, glucose, and xylose could be utilized by 68-69, 71-72, and 63-67% respectively. The quality of soy sauce residue is improved for use as feed and some toxic substances can be decreased via the R. rubrum fermentation.

  11. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; Moore, Kirsten; Tong, Jeffery K T; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Green, Tim J

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether ad libitum consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce over 6 months yields higher erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among women of childbearing age and their children aged 12-59 months compared with control sauce containing no thiamin. In this double-blind, randomized controlled efficacy trial, 276 nonpregnant, nonlactating women (18-45 years of age) and their families in Prey Veng, Cambodia, were randomized to receive 1 of 3 fish sauce formulations: low thiamin concentration (low, 2 g/L), high thiamin concentration (high, 8 g/L), or a control (no thiamin) fish sauce. Baseline (t = 0) and endline (t = 6 months) eTDP were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Fish sauce consumption did not differ between treatment groups (P = .19). In intent-to-treat analysis, women's baseline-adjusted endline eTDP (mean; 95% CI) was higher among women in the low (259; 245-274 nmol/L) and high (257; 237-276 nmol/L) groups compared with control (184; 169-198 nmol/L; P sauce appears to be an efficacious means of improving biochemical thiamin status in nonpregnant, nonlactating women and their children (1-5 years of age) living in rural Cambodia. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02221063. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomonitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Salix matsudana leaves: A comparison with the relevant air content and evaluation of environmental parameter effects

    Zhao, Xiangai; He, Miao; Shang, Haibo; Yu, Hongling; Wang, Hao; Li, Huijie; Piao, Jingyi; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2018-05-01

    Studies on seasonal distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Salix matsudana leaves covering its annual life cycle were carried out in order to evaluate plant leaf response sensitivity to air pollution. Salix matsudana leaves were collected throughout different development phases of plant leaf inclusive of bud break to fallen leaves, covering from spring (May) to autumn (November). Simultaneously, particle and gas samples were collected using a high volume air sampler. Seven different PAHs were determined simultaneously in these samples. The temperature dependence of the partitioning of PAHs in air and plant leaves was investigated and the results were incorporated into a mathematical model. The measured plant/air partition coefficients have been found to be exponentially proportional to the reciprocal temperature, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Furthermore, in order to define the influence of different parameters on PAH adsorption on plant leaves, area and lipid leaf content were also measured. Results demonstrated that temperature plays a very important role in PAHs partitioning and that this value should be carefully considered during sampling, in order to obtain the best correlation between PAHs concentration in air and leaves.

  13. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis. II. Secretion of low molecular weight organic acids to the rhizosphere.

    Magdziak, Z; Kozlowska, M; Kaczmarek, Z; Mleczek, M; Chadzinikolau, T; Drzewiecka, K; Golinski, P

    2011-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment in a phytotron was performed to investigate the effect of two different Ca/Mg ratios (4:1 and 1:10) and trace element ions (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in solution on the efficiency of low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOA) formation in Salix viminalis rhizosphere. Depending on the Ca/Mg ratio and presence of selected trace elements at 0.5mM concentration, the amount and kind of LMWOAs in the rhizosphere were significantly affected. In physiological 4:1 Ca/Mg ratio the following complex of acids was observed: malonic (Pb, Zn), citric, lactic, maleic and succinic (Zn) acids. Under 1:10 Ca/Mg ratio, citric (Cd, Zn), maleic and succinic (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) acids were seen. Additionally, high accumulation of zinc and copper in all systems was observed, with the exception of those where one of the metals was at higher concentration. Summing up, the results indicate a significant role of LMWOAs in Salix phytoremediation abilities. Both effects can be modulated depending on the mutual Ca/Mg ratio. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Salix transect of Europe: variation in ploidy and genome size in willow-associated common nettle, Urtica dioica L. sens. lat., from Greece to arctic Norway.

    Cronk, Quentin; Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Percy, Diana; Leitch, Ilia J

    2016-01-01

    The common stinging nettle, Urtica dioica L. sensu lato, is an invertebrate "superhost", its clonal patches maintaining large populations of insects and molluscs. It is extremely widespread in Europe and highly variable, and two ploidy levels (diploid and tetraploid) are known. However, geographical patterns in cytotype variation require further study. We assembled a collection of nettles in conjunction with a transect of Europe from the Aegean to Arctic Norway (primarily conducted to examine the diversity of Salix and Salix -associated insects). Using flow cytometry to measure genome size, our sample of 29 plants reveals 5 diploids and 24 tetraploids. Two diploids were found in SE Europe (Bulgaria and Romania) and three diploids in S. Finland. More detailed cytotype surveys in these regions are suggested. The tetraploid genome size (2C value) varied between accessions from 2.36 to 2.59 pg. The diploids varied from 1.31 to 1.35 pg per 2C nucleus, equivalent to a haploid genome size of c. 650 Mbp. Within the tetraploids, we find that the most northerly samples (from N. Finland and arctic Norway) have a generally higher genome size. This is possibly indicative of a distinct population in this region.

  15. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce[Gamma irradiation; Fermented anchovy; Color; Flavor compounds; Electronic nose; Sensory evaluation

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  16. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Comparison of Antiobesity Effects Between Gochujangs Produced Using Different Koji Products and Tabasco Hot Sauce in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Shin, Hye-Won; Jang, Eun-Seok; Moon, Byoung-Seok; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared the antiobesity effects between gochujangs prepared using different koji products and Tabasco hot sauce in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD containing four different types of 10% gochujang powder or 0.25% commercial Tabasco sauce powder for 8 weeks. The body weight gain, liver and epididymal and mesenteric fat pad weights, serum leptin levels, and lipogenesis-related mRNA levels of HFD-gochujang supplementation groups were significantly decreased compared with those of the HFD group. In addition, gochujang supplement significantly reduced adipocyte size; hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels; the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis through downregulation of fatty acid synthase, acetly-CoA carboxylase, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. These effects were greater in the gochujang-supplemented groups than the Tabasco hot sauce-supplemented group. The gochujang prepared by nutritious giant embryo rice koji and soybean koji was most effective in terms of antiobesity effects, compared with the other tested gochujangs. In gochujangs, the antiobesity effects are mediated by high levels of secondary metabolites such as isoflavone, soyasaponin, capsaicin, and lysophosphatidylcholine. The current results indicated that the gochujang products have the potential to reduce fat accumulation and obesity.

  18. Effect of Soy Sauce on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Rats and Identification of Flazin as a Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor.

    Li, Huipin; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-15

    This is the first report on the ability of soy sauce to effectively reduce the serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of hyperuricemic rats. Soy sauce was partitioned sequentially into ethyl acetate and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction with strong XOD inhibition effect was purified further. On the basis of xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity-guided purification, nine compounds including 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate, diisobutyl terephthalate, harman, daidzein, flazin, catechol, thymine, genistein, and uracil were obtained. It was the first time that 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate and diisobutyl terephthalate had been identified from soy sauce. Flazin with hydroxymethyl furan ketone group at C-1 and carboxyl at C-3 exhibited the strongest XOI activity (IC50 = 0.51 ± 0.05 mM). According to fluorescence quenching and molecular docking experiments, flazin could enter into the catalytic center of XOD to interact with Lys1045, Gln1194, and Arg912 mainly by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Flazin, catechol, and genistein not only were potent XOD inhibitors but also held certain antioxidant activities. According to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) simulation in silico, flazin had good oral bioavailability in vivo.

  19. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamomum verum Methanolic Extract and Essential Oil: A Study on Bio-preservative in Ketchup Sauce

    Anoosheh Sharifan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural antimicrobial compounds extracted from plants such as cinnamon as preservative to extend the shelf life has gain much attention. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity and bio- preservative potential of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum bark and its oil against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosae and Escherichia coli in ketchup sauce. In order to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of essential oil and methanolic extract from the bark of C. verum, agar dilution method was performed. Then the effective inhibitory concentrations were evaluated on growth of test bacteria in ketchup sauce at 4 °C and room temperature in different storage times (1, 7, 14 and 30 days. In addition, the sensory quality of treated ketchups was assessed. This study showed bacteriostatic effect of the essential oils and methanolic extract on all tested bacteria. The best treatment in ketchup sauce was obtained on days 14 at 4 °C in concentrations of 1500 µg/ml essential oil. In sensory evaluation, the sample containing 1000 µg/ml essential oil had higher score in odor, taste and overall acceptability than other treated samples (P<0.05. This study shows that cinnamon oil is a more potent antimicrobial agent than cinnamon extract and it has the potential to be used as food preservative and is recommended for quality attributes enhancement.

  20. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  1. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia

    Arnaud Laillou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i comply with International Codex; (ii adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii ensure enforcement.

  3. The Making of Salty Soy Sauce From Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens (Study of Saline Concentration of Salt Solution and Duration of Moromi's Fermentation

    Arie Febrianto Mulyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the saline concentration and moromi’s fermentation duration of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce at best organolepticly and determine consumers’ preferences towards Koro Benguk salty soy sauce from the best treatment results. The study was conducted using a randomized design method using two factors: the saline concentration (17%; 20%; and 23% and duration of moromi’s fermentation (2; 3; and 4 weeks. The best treatment results based on the Friedman test was on the saline concentration of 17% and moromi’s fermentation duration was 4 weeks, with the NP value of 1,000; had a preference color level of 5:40 (liked; aroma of 4.30 (rather liked; flavor of 4.55 (rather liked; and viscosity of 5.05 (liked. The obtained protein was 7.14%; and dissolved solids of 27obrix. Consumers’ preferences towards the best treatment showed that product of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce was acceptable to consumers.

  4. Effects of ambient versus reduced UV-B radiation on high arctic ¤Salix arctica¤ assessed by measurements and calculations of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters from fluorescence transients

    Albert, K.R.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2005-01-01

    A UV-B exclusion-experiment was conducted in the high arctic Zackenberg, NE Greenland, in which Salix arctica leaves during most of the growing season were fixed perpendicular to the solar zenith angle, thereby receiving maximal solar radiation. Covered with Teflon and Mylar foil, the leaves...

  5. Caracterización morfométrica de la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande.

    Fernanda Julia Gaspari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande abastece el complejo hidráulico Embalse Paso de las Piedras, comportándose como servicio ambiental primordial para el consumo hídrico de Bahía Blanca. El análisis de las características morfométricas y funcionales de una cuenca hidrográfica a través de parámetros de forma, relieve y red de drenaje, es básico en la modelación hidrológica para determinar el movimiento y captación del agua de lluvia. Estos indicadores pueden apoyar una formulación de un Sistema de Pago por Servicios Ambientales, como estrategia básica de ordenamiento territorial y desarrollo local, centrado en la oferta de agua generada por la cuenca. El objetivo fue caracterizar morfométricamente la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. La metodología aplicada se basó en establecer y analizar los parámetros morfométricos mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica y planillas de cálculo, a partir de un modelo digital del terreno e imágenes satelitales. Los resultados alcanzados definieron que la cuenca posee un área de 1502.6 km2. La longitud axial es de 41.6 km con un ancho promedio de 36.1 km. El Factor de forma (0.87 indica que posee forma alargada, siendo rectangular oblonga según el coeficiente de compacidad de Gravelius (2.8. La longitud del cauce principal es 58.34 km con pendiente media de 0.48 %. La densidad de drenaje es 0.27 km.km-2 y su coeficiente de sinuosidad 1.42. El tiempo de concentración es 11.8 hs. La curva hipsométrica adimensional corresponde a una cuenca con un avanzado grado de desarrollo. Todos estos parámetros facilitan la cuantificación del caudal líquido en la cuenca.

  6. The Effect of Clove Bud, Nigella, Salix Alba and Olive Oil on Wart Treatment in Comparison with Conventional Treatment

    roghaye Jebraili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Jebraili R1, Rezaei K2, Matourianpour H3, Moradi L4, Meshkaat MH5, Tarrahi MJ6 1. Assistant professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Islamic Azad University of Tehran 2. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 4. BSc. Nurse, Haaj Seddiq Health and Treatment Center, Khorramabad 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University 6. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Wart is a common and contagious viral disease of the skin caused by papilloma viruses which leads to aesthetic and psychological problems, and if occurred in touching and pressured parts of the body causes pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Clove bud, Nigella, Salix alba and Olive oil which have wound disinfectant, anesthetic, analgesic and wound healing properties on wart treatment in comparison with the conventional treatment. Materials and methods: This randomized double blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 291 female students selected form guidance and high schools in Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran, during the year 2007. The diagnosis of wart was confirmed by a dermatologist according to the diagnosis criteria. The cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were assigned in 3 study groups randomly. The first group was treated with the conventional treatment (Salicylic acid 16.7%, lactic acid 16.7% in Collodione body, the second group with herbal medicine without acid in olive oil, and the third group with herbal medicine alongside salicylic acid 1% and lactic acid 1% in olive oil. Each group was administered the drugs for 6 weeks. The effects of drugs on lesions were assessed after 4 and 6 weeks and compared among 3

  7. Magnetic metal-organic frameworks for fast and efficient solid-phase extraction of six Sudan dyes in tomato sauce.

    Shi, Xin-Ran; Chen, Xue-Lei; Hao, Yu-Lan; Li, Li; Xu, Hou-Jun; Wang, Man-Man

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction is an effective and useful technique to preconcentrate trace analytes from food samples. In this study, a magnetic trimeric chromium octahedral metal-organic framework (Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101) was fabricated and characterized. Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101 was applied as an adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography to effectively isolate and simultaneously determine six Sudan dyes (Para Red, Sudan I-IV, and Sudan Red 7B) from tomato sauce. Potential factors affecting the MSPE were investigated in detail, and adsorption efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101 was compared with those of conventional adsorbents, such as neutral alumina, HLB, and C 18 . The developed method facilitated the extraction with using only 3 mg of adsorbent in 2 min. In addition, enhancement factors of 50, linear range of 0.01-25 μg/mL, and detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5-2.5 μg/kg were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries for spiked Sudan dyes were in the range of 72.6%-92.9% and 69.6%-91.6%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of ≤9.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tentative Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Budu, a Malaysian Fish Sauce, Using GC-MS

    Yazid Abdul Manap

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Budu is a famous Malaysian fish sauce, usually used as seasoning and condiment in cooking. Budu is produced by mixing fish and salt at certain ratio followed by fermentation for six months in closed tanks. In this study, four commercial brands of Budu were analyzed for their chemical properties (pH, salt content and volatile compounds. The pH of Budu samples ranged from 4.50–4.92, while the salt (NaCl content ranged between 11.80% and 22.50% (w/v. For tentative identification of volatile flavor compounds in Budu, two GC columns have been used, DB-WAX and HP-5MS. A total of 44 volatile compounds have been detected and 16 were common for both columns. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl disulfide, 3-(methylthio-propanal, 3-methylbutanoic acid and benzaldehye have been identified as the aroma-active compounds in Budu due to their lower threshold values.

  9. Anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of siraitia grosvenorii on the spoilage bacteria isolated from sauced pork head meat

    Li, X.; Xu, L. Y.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that optimum extraction condition of active ingredients extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii were described as follows: ethanol concentrations of sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction; the active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus sp, Serratia sp and MIC was 0.125g/mL, 0.0625g/mL, 0.125g/mL and 0.125g/mL. The active constituent of Siraitia grosvenorii has obvious anti-bacteria effect on the spoilage bacteria isolated from Sauced pork head meat and can be used as a new natural food preservation to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  10. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Jose A. Rabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  11. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea.

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation.

  12. Can liming change root anatomy, biomass allocation and trace element distribution among plant parts of Salix × smithiana in trace element-polluted soils?

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2017-08-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are considered to be effective for the phytoremediation of trace elements from contaminated soils, but their efficiency is limited in heavily polluted soils because of poor growth. Liming can be a desirable measure to decrease the plant availability of elements, resulting in improved plant development. Notably, large root area and maximum soil penetration are basic parameters that improve the efficiency of phytoremediation. The impact of soil chemical properties on willow root anatomy and the distribution of trace elements below-ground have rarely been studied. The effect of liming on root parameters, biomass allocation and trace element distribution in non-harvestable (coarse roots, fine roots, stumps) and harvestable plant parts (twigs and leaves) of Salix × smithiana was assessed at the end of a 4-year pot experiment with two trace element-polluted soils that differed in terms of soil pH. Stump biomass predominated in weakly acidic soil. In neutral soil, the majority of biomass was located in fine roots and stumps; the difference from other plant parts was minor. Trace elements were the most concentrated in fine roots. Translocation to above-ground biomass increased as follows: Pb roots roots). Lime application decreased the concentrations of mobile Cd and Zn and related levels in plants, improved biomass production and root parameters and increased the removal of all trace elements in weakly acidic soil. None or minimum differences in the monitored parameters were recorded for dolomite treatments in both soils. The dose and source of liming had crucial effects on root anatomy. Growing willows in limed trace element-polluted soils is a suitable measure for combination of two remediation strategies, i.e. phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and assisted phytostabilization of As and Pb.

  13. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcinogen. The European Union (EU) has set a maximum concentration of 0.02 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set a guidance limit of 1 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP. 1,3-DCP is not an approved food additive, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA) has set a limit at 0.005 mg/kg, which is close to the estimated method detection limit. Currently there are few analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP without derivatization due to differences in their physical chemical properties and reactivity. A new method was developed using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) with direct analysis of the extract without derivatization using gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ). Additionally, a market sampling of 60 soy sauce samples was performed in 2015 to determine if concentrations have changed since the FDA limit was set in 2008. The sampling results were compared between the new QuEChERS method and a method using phenylboronic acid (PBA) as a derivatizing agent for 3-MCPD analysis. The concentrations of 3-MCPD detected in soy sauce samples collected in 2015 (3-MCPD below current regulatory limits PMID:28064506

  14. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-02-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcinogen. The European Union (EU) has set a maximum concentration of 0.02 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set a guidance limit of 1 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP. 1,3-DCP is not an approved food additive, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA) has set a limit at 0.005 mg/kg, which is close to the estimated method detection limit. Currently there are few analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP without derivatization due to differences in their physical chemical properties and reactivity. A new method was developed using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) with direct analysis of the extract without derivatization using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ). Additionally, a market sampling of 60 soy sauce samples was performed in 2015 to determine if concentrations have changed since the FDA limit was set in 2008. The sampling results were compared between the new QuEChERS method and a method using phenylboronic acid (PBA) as a derivatizing agent for 3-MCPD analysis. The concentrations of 3-MCPD detected in soy sauce samples collected in 2015 (3-MCPD below current regulatory limits.

  15. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons.

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Noh, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) and soy sauce (SS) are traditional foods in Asia, which contain antioxidants that have cytoprotective effects on the body. The majority of SS products contain high levels of common salt, consumption of which has been associated with numerous detrimental effects on the body. However, BS may be considered a healthier substitute to common salt. The present study hypothesized that SS made from BS, known as bamboo salt soy sauce (BSSS), may possess enhanced cytoprotective properties; this was evaluated using a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced neuronal cell death rat model. Rat neuronal cells were pretreated with various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) of BSSS, traditional soy sauce (TRSS) and brewed soy sauce (BRSS), and were subsequently exposed to H 2 O 2 (100 µM). The viability of neuronal cells, and the occurrence of DNA fragmentation, was subsequently examined. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with TRSS and BRSS reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neuronal cells pretreated with BSSS exhibited increased cell viability, as compared with non-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, neuronal cells pretreated with 0.01% BSSS exhibited the greatest increase in viability. Exposure of neuronal cells to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, poly (ADP-ribose), cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cytochrome c , apoptosis-inducing factor, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, in all cases. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with BSSS significantly reduced the levels of ROS generated by H 2 O 2 , and increased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, the observed effects of BSSS could be blocked by administration of 10 µM LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. The results of the present study suggested that BSSS may exert positive neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2

  16. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  17. Railway transport and terminal transhipment of Short Rotation Willow Crops. Pre-study; Taagtransport och terminal-hantering av Salix. Foerstudie

    Forsberg, Maya

    2009-07-01

    The overall aim of this pre-study is to contribute to an increased co-handling of biomass from forest and field at terminal and railway transport, in order to find effective transport solutions with regard to costs and environment. The aim of the pre-study is also to get an overall picture of transport of biomass on railway. The objective is to draw conclusions of use for interested parties within the agricultural sector, on what possibilities there are to handle biomass from forestry and agriculture with the same logistical infrastructure. Conclusions are drawn especially with regard to Short Rotation Willow Crops (here Salix) handled as chips or bundles, but also briefly for other energy crops suitable for combustion. Furthermore, the study draws conclusions on how to design effective terminals and related costs. The pre-study is intended as a planning material for a more in-depth study of a mobile terminal solution, with active participation from interested players in the agricultural sector. When considering railway transport and terminal transhipment of large volumes of biomass, there is a clear economical benefit in designing large terminals and making investments in effective handling equipment, in order to get a high use of equipment and a high storage turnover. A more simple and temporary terminal solution may be suitable for smaller flows of biomass, such as agricultural fuels, which need to be collected in different areas according to availability. An intermodal solution, i.e. which involves the transportation of freight in the same type of carrier (a container for example) when changing modes of transportation, is suitable for this purpose. The solution should also build on standardised equipment, involve low terminal investments and flexible and temporary transhipment in different areas near the location of the biomass. For railway transport, the same handling equipment may be used for wood chips and Salix chips, i.e. standardised container systems

  18. The simultaneous separation and determination of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other flavoring with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical and electron impact ionization modes.

    Xu, Xiaomin; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Pinggu; Han, Jianlong; Shen, Xianghong

    2006-02-01

    Both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization (GC-MS-EI) and negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI) modes are reported in this paper for the simultaneous determination of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP), 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) in soy sauce and other flavoring. D(5)-3-MCPD (for 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and d(5)-1,3-DCP (for 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP) were used as the deuterium isotopic labelled internal standards. The feasibility of using heptafluorobutyric anhydride modified with triethylamine (HFBA-Et(3)N) as a new derivatization reagent to replace heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) is proposed. Liquid/liquid extraction with hexane was introduced for high lipid content samples. A small survey was carried out of soy sauces (103 samples) and instant noodles (45 samples) and the applicability of GC-MS-NCI and GC-MS-EI was assessed in these different matrices.

  19. Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Kil, Jeung-Ha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of fermented sesame sauce (FSeS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and H2O2 scavenging assay was used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of FSeS. To investigate the cytoprotective effect of FSeS against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells, the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were measured. RESULTS The ability of FSeS to scavenge DPPH, •OH and H2O2 was greater than that of FSS and AHSS. FSeS also significantly inhibited H2O2-induced (500 µM) oxidative damage in the LLC-PK1 cells compared to FSS and AHSS (P sauces, FSeS also significantly increased cellular CAT, SOD, and GSH-px activities and mRNA expression (P < 0.05). CONCULUSIONS These results from the present study suggest that FSeS is an effective radical scavenger and protects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24741396

  20. Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion for the delivery of starter cultures in reduced-salt moromi fermentation of soy sauce.

    Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha; Linforth, Robert; El Kadri, Hani; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2018-08-15

    This study investigated the application of water-oil-water (W 1 /O/W 2 ) double emulsions (DE) for yeast encapsulation and sequential inoculation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromi stage of soy sauce fermentation with reduced NaCl and/or substitution with KCl. Z. rouxii and T. halophilus were incorporated in the internal W 1 and external W 2 phase of DE, respectively. NaCl reduction and substitution promoted T. halophilus growth to 8.88 log CFU/mL, accompanied with faster sugar depletion and enhanced lactic acid production. Reducing NaCl without substitution increased the final pH (5.49) and decreased alcohols, acids, esters, furan and phenol content. However, the application of DE resulted in moromi with similar microbiological and physicochemical characteristics to that of high-salt. Principal component analysis of GC-MS data demonstrated that the reduced-salt moromi had identical aroma profile to that obtained in the standard one, indicating the feasibility of producing low-salt soy sauce without compromising its quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  2. [Effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China].

    Xu, Zhen-feng; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yuan-bin; Xian, Jun-ren; Wang, Kai-yun

    2009-01-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC), the effects of simulated warming on the growth, leaf phenology, and leaf traits of Salix eriostachya in sub-alpine timberline ecotone of Western Sichuan were studied. The results showed that comparing with the control, the mean air temperature at 1.2 m above the ground throughout S. eriostachya growth season in OTC increased by 2.9 degrees C, while the soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm only increased by 0.4 degrees C. The temperature increase in OTC made S. eriostachya budding advanced and defoliation postponed obviously, and the leaf life-span longer. The leaf and branch growth rates as well as the specific leaf area in OTC increased obviously, whereas the leaf nitrogen concentration decreased significantly. In OTC, the stomata conductance, net photosynthetic rate, photorespiration, and dark respiration rate of S. eriostachya all exhibited an increasing trend. It was suggested that S. eriostachya had stronger capability to adapt to warming, and, under the background of future global climate change, the elevation of S. eriostachya distribution in the timberline ecotone would be likely to ascend.

  3. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L

    Wuytack, Tatiana, E-mail: tatiana.wuytack@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Wuyts, Karen, E-mail: karen.wuyts@ugent.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode (Melle) (Belgium); Van Dongen, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.vandongen@ua.ac.be [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Baeten, Lander, E-mail: lander.baeten@ugent.be [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode (Melle) (Belgium); Kardel, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemeh.kardel@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris, E-mail: kris.verheyen@ugent.be [Laboratory of Forestry, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, B-9090 Gontrode, Melle (Belgium); Samson, Roeland, E-mail: roeland.samson@ua.ac.be [Department of Bioscience Engineering, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO{sub 2} concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. - Highlights: > Leaf characteristics of white willow as possible bio-indicators for air quality. > Fluctuating asymmetry is not a good bio-indicator for monitoring the air quality. > Shadow increases specific leaf area. > NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} change specific leaf area of white willow. - Specific leaf area of S. alba increased with increasing shade and, in less extent, with increasing NO{sub x} and decreasing O{sub 3} concentration, while leaf asymmetry did not respond to air pollution

  4. The effect of air pollution and other environmental stressors on leaf fluctuating asymmetry and specific leaf area of Salix alba L

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Wuyts, Karen; Van Dongen, Stefan; Baeten, Lander; Kardel, Fatemeh; Verheyen, Kris; Samson, Roeland

    2011-01-01

    We aimed at evaluating the effect of low-level air pollution on leaf area fluctuating asymmetry (FAA) and specific leaf area (SLA) of Salix alba L., taking into account other environmental factors. Cuttings were grown in standardized conditions in the near vicinity of air quality measuring stations in Belgium. Variability of SLA and FAA between measuring stations explained 83% and 7.26%, respectively, of the total variability. FAA was not influenced by air pollution or environmental factors such as shading, herbivory, air temperature and humidity. SLA was increased by an increase in shadow, while NO x and O 3 concentrations had only a marginal influence. The influence of SO 2 concentration was negligible. Although our data analysis suggests a relationship between SLA and NO x /O 3 concentration, the absence of a straightforward relationship between FAA and SLA and air pollution still questions the usefulness of these bio-indicators for monitoring air pollution. - Highlights: → Leaf characteristics of white willow as possible bio-indicators for air quality. → Fluctuating asymmetry is not a good bio-indicator for monitoring the air quality. → Shadow increases specific leaf area. → NO x and O 3 change specific leaf area of white willow. - Specific leaf area of S. alba increased with increasing shade and, in less extent, with increasing NO x and decreasing O 3 concentration, while leaf asymmetry did not respond to air pollution

  5. Salix transect of Europe: structured genetic variation and isolation-by-distance in the nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Psylloidea, Hemiptera), from Greece to Arctic Norway

    Wonglersak, Rungtip; Cronk, Quentin; Percy, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The common nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is co-associated with willows (Salix spp.) in riparian habitats across Europe. We sampled the widespread nettle psyllid, Trioza urticae (Linné, 1758), from Urtica in willow habitats on a megatransect of Europe from the Aegean to the Arctic Ocean. The aim of this study was to use an unusually widespread insect to assess the influence of geographic distances and natural geographic barriers on patterns of genetic variation and haplotype distribution. New information Phylogeographic analysis using DNA sequences of two mtDNA regions, COI and cytB, shows that T. urticae specimens are organized into four regional groups (southern, central, northern and arctic). These groups are supported by both phylogenetic analysis (four geographically-based clades) and network analysis (four major haplotype groups). The boundary between southern and central groups corresponds to the Carpathian Mountains and the boundary between the central and northern groups corresponds to the Gulf of Finland. Overall these groups form a latitudinal cline in genetic diversity, which decreases with increasing latitude. PMID:28325977

  6. REQUERIMENTO EM FRIO, DINÂMICA E HETEROGENEIDADE DE DORMÊNCIA DE GEMAS EM RAMOS DE Salix x rubens CULTIVADO EM LAGES, SC

    Tássio Dresch Rech

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A intensidade de dormência e o requerimento em frio do vimeiro (Salix x rubens Shrank foram avaliados pelo método de estacas de gema isolada. As observações foram realizadas em ramos coletados em Lages, SC, a intervalos regulares de 21 dias, de 29/03/2004 a 2/08/2004. A brotação de gemas dos segmentos basal, mediano e distal de ramos do ano foi avaliada na ausência ou após suplementação de frio (500 ou de 1000 horas a 5  3ºC. A brotação de gemas foi avaliada nos estádios: a gemas inchadas; b início da abertura das gemas; c broto alongado e; d broto alongado com folha aberta. A intensidade de dormência das gemas foi crescente da base para a ponta dos ramos e foi máxima em 10 de maio, para todas as regiões do ramo. O tratamento com 500 horas de frio foi efetivo em reduzir o tempo para a brotação, em todas as épocas e posições das gemas no ramo. A avaliação até o aparecimento de folhas abertas foi importante para identificar a real capacidade de brotação das gemas.

  7. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  8. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. To be or not to be a subspecies: description of Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) developing in downy willow (Salix lapponum L.)

    Wallin, Henrik; Kvamme, Torstein; Bergsten, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new subspecies of the European cerambycid Saperda populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) is described: Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. based on specimens from Scandinavia. The male genitalia characters were examined and found to provide support for this separation, as well as differences in morphology, geographical distribution and bionomy. The preferred host tree for the nominate subspecies S. populnea populnea is Populus tremula L., whereas S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. is considered to be monophagous on Salix lapponum L. DNA sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated from Scandinavian specimens of S. populnea populnea and specimens representing S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. The two subspecies were not reciprocally monophyletic and genetic distances in COI were small. All synonyms of S. populnea populnea have been considered, and species similar to S. populnea populnea have been examined, and not found to be related to S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. A male lectotype has been designated for each of the two following synonyms: Cerambyx decempunctatus De Geer, 1775, and Saperda salicis Zetterstedt, 1818. The synonymised species from Asia, S. balsamifera (Motshulsky, 1860), is elevated to subspecies: S. populnea balsamifera stat. n. We end with a discussion on the definition of subspecies under the unified species concept. PMID:29187784

  10. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  11. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore

  12. Usage Proposal of a common urban decorative tree (Salix alba L.) to monitor the dispersion of gaseous mercury: A case study from Turda (Romania).

    Esbrí, J M; Cacovean, H; Higueras, P

    2018-02-01

    Closure of chloralkali plants poses a risk of abandonment of important sources of gaseous mercury. In this work, an assessment has been made of the potential for pollution from one of these plants in the proximity of a densely populated town in central Romania. The work involved a comparison between two major types of monitoring survey: biomonitoring using leaves of a tree common in urban environments; and LUMEX-based gaseous mercury analysis. For biomonitoring, 21 samples from Salix alba L. trees were taken in Turda area. Atmospheric monitoring included two mobile surveys and one at a fixed location. The results from both monitoring systems show similarities in gaseous mercury dispersion patterns, with high mercury contents clearly related to the presence of the chloralkali plant. Particularly high levels were measured in the following situations: (i) in a 'smog' area related with thermal inversion and (ii) during dusk. Direct monitoring suffered from limitations in acquiring information, especially in a medium-long time range, but biomonitoring provided these data and is capable of covering studies on temporary trends or comparative assessments between European cities with contrasting gaseous mercury sources. The thermal speciation of mercury contents indicates that the whole fraction of mercury in leaves corresponds to organic mercury. This finding implies a non-reversible uptake process, which in turn ensures the applicability of this technique to biomonitor long-term exposure. As a conclusion, the assessment of gaseous mercury pollution based on biomonitoring using S. alba has proven to be a useful, reliable and cost-effective methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitrogen-controlled intra- and interspecific competition between Populus purdomii and Salix rehderiana drive primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area.

    Song, Mengya; Yu, Lei; Jiang, Yonglei; Lei, Yanbao; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2017-06-01

    In this study, intra- and interspecific competition were investigated in early successional Salix rehderiana Schneider and later-appearing Populus purdomii Rehder under non-fertilized (control) and nitrogen (N)-fertilized conditions in the Hailuogou glacier retreat area. Our aim was to discover whether N is a key factor in plant-plant competition and whether N drives the primary succession process in a glacier retreat area. We analyzed differences in responses to intra- and interspecific competition and N fertilization between P. purdomii and S. rehderiana, including parameters such as biomass accumulation, nutrient absorption, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic capacity, hydrolysable amino acids and leaf ultrastructure. In the control treatments, S. rehderiana individuals subjected to interspecific competition benefited from the presence of P. purdomii plants, as indicated by higher levels of biomass accumulation, photosynthetic capacity, N absorption, amino acid contents and photosynthetic N-use efficiency. However, in the N-fertilized treatments, P. purdomii individuals exposed to interspecific competition benefited from the presence of S. rehderiana plants, as shown by a higher growth rate, enhanced carbon gain capacity, greater amino acid contents, and elevated water-use efficiency, whereas the growth of S. rehderiana was significantly reduced. Our results demonstrate that N plays a pivotal role in determining the asymmetric competition pattern among Salicaceae species during primary succession. We argue that the interactive effects of plant-plant competition and N availability are key mechanisms that drive primary succession in the Gongga Mountain glacier retreat area. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The role of river hydrology on Salix shoot and root survival statistics on the alluvial sediment of a restored river corridor

    Pasquale, Nicola; Perona, Paolo; Verones, Francesca; Francis, Robert; Burlando, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    In river restoration projects there is considerable interest in understanding the morphodynamics of river reaches in relation to the characteristics of vegetation that may colonize the bare alluvial sediment, and locally stabilize it by root anchoring. Vegetation interacts with river hydrology on multiple time scales, but such interactions are at present still poorly understood. In this contribution, we discuss both the above and below ground biomass growth dynamics of 1188 Salix cuttings (individual and group survival rate, growth of the longest shoots and number of branches and morphological root analysis) in relation to local river hydrodynamics. Cuttings were organized in square plots of different size and planted in spring 2009 on a gravel island of the restored river section of River Thur (Niederneunforn, Canton Thurgau, Switzerland). Cuttings in the plots were monitored regularly, from the beginning of the campaign (March) until the end of the growing season (October). We obtained a detailed and quite unique set of data, which includes, among others, root characteristic statistics obtained from image and high-resolution scanner analysis of carefully uprooted samples. Beyond describing the survival rate dynamics in relation to river hydrology, we show the nature and strength of correlations between island topography, cutting growth statistics and local reach morphodynamics (see also Pasquale et. al.3, session HS 3.1). In particular, by comparing empirical histograms of the vertical root distribution vs. those of the saturated water surface in the sediment, we show that main tropic responses are oxytropism, hydrotropism and thigmotropism. Moreover, by numerical modelling of the local hydrodynamics, we can also identify the spatial distribution of preferential locations of oxytropism and hydrotropism. As far as factors causing mortality are concerned, we also show that erosion by flood is responsible for influencing the spatial and temporal distribution of the

  15. APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce

    Teo, Tang Lin; Gui, Ee Mei; Lu, Ting; Sze Cheow, Pui; Giannikopoulou, Panagiota; Kakoulides, Elias; Lampi, Evgenia; Choi, Sik-man; Yip, Yiu-chung; Chan, Pui-kwan; Hui, Sin-kam; Wollinger, Wagner; Carvalho, Lucas J.; Garrido, Bruno C.; Rego, Eliane C. P.; Ahn, Seonghee; Kim, Byungjoo; Li, Xiuqin; Guo, Zhen; Styarini, Dyah; Aristiawan, Yosi; Putri Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Ebarvia, Benilda S.; Dacuaya, Aaron; Tongson, Alleni; Aganda, Kim Christopher; Junvee Fortune, Thippaya; Tangtrirat, Pradthana; Mungmeechai, Thanarak; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Gündüz, Simay; Yilmaz, Hasibe

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce was coordinated by the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). Ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) participated in the comparison. All the institutes participated in the comparison for benzoic acid, while six NMIs/DIs participated in the comparison for methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben. The comparison was designed to enable participating institutes to demonstrate their measurement capabilities in the determination of common preservatives in soy sauce, using procedure(s) that required simple sample preparation and selective detection in the mass fraction range of 50 to 1000 mg/kg. The demonstrated capabilities can be extended to include other polar food preservatives (e.g. sorbic acid, propionic acid and other alkyl benzoates) in water, aqueous-based beverages (e.g. fruit juices, tea extracts, sodas, sports drinks, etc) and aqueous-based condiments (e.g. vinegar, fish sauce, etc). Liquid--liquid extraction and/or dilution were applied, followed by instrumental analyses using LC-MS/MS, LC-MS, GC-MS (with or without derivatisation) or HPLC-DAD. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for quantification, except in the case of a participating institute, where external calibration method was used for quantification of all three measurands. The assigned Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) were the medians of ten results for benzoic acid, six results for methyl paraben and six results for n-butyl paraben. Benzoic acid was assigned a SCRV of 154.55 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.94 mg/kg, methyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 100.95 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.40 mg/kg, and n-butyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 99.05 mg

  16. LINEAMIENTOS PARA LA FORMULACIÓN DE PAGOS POR SERVICIOS AMBIENTALES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: ALTA CUENCA DEL RÍO SAUCE GRANDE. ARGENTINA

    Gerardo Andrés Denegri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo son: presentar un diagnóstico integral de los principales problemas ambientales generados a partir de la pérdida de suelo por erosión hídrica superficial y exponer los principales lineamientos para la formulación del PSA de la Cuenca Alta del Río Sauce Grande. Metodológicamente se procedió a caracterizar el área en estudio, cuantificar la degradación por erosión hídrica superficial, describir las actividades productivas, conocer los principales consumidores de agua, definir los principales actores del sistema, e identificar los Servicios Ambientales, factibles de ser incluidos en un sistema de PSA. La cuenca presenta procesos erosivos de diferente magnitud y en algunas zonas dificultades en el abastecimiento de agua para la población. Existe un proceso de cambio en el uso de suelo de ganadero a agrícola y a turismo rural. Se concluye que en la cuenca existen condiciones para la implementación de un PSA porque se detectaron dos servicios ambientales factibles de ser pagados: agua y paisaje, con demanda creciente y existen actores e instituciones factibles de ejecutarlo.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and A. oryzae 100-8 strains: Towards the production of different soy sauce flavors.

    Zhao, Guozhong; Hou, Lihua; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Cao, Xiaohong

    2012-07-16

    Aspergillus oryzae plays a central role in soybean fermentation, particularly in its contribution to the flavor of soy sauce. We present a comparative assessment of the intracellular differences between wild-type strain 3.042 and mutant strain A100-8, at the proteome level. 522 different protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, with 134 spots being confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Of these, 451 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). There was at least a two-fold increase for 288 spots, and at least a two-fold decrease for 163 spots, in strain A100-8 when compared to 3.042. Further analysis showed that 63 of the more abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and the citrate cycle; 43 more abundant proteins and 10 less abundant proteins were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism; two of the more abundant proteins were involved in vitamin biosynthesis; and five of the more abundant proteins and four of the less abundant proteins were related to secondary metabolites. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of six typical genes we selected were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there may be a relationship between DEPs and the flavor formation mechanism in A. oryzae. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  19. Social mobilization and social marketing to promote NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in an iron-deficient population through a public-private partnership.

    Wang, Bo; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Lee, Liming

    2009-10-01

    The present pilot project aimed to assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in improving knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and Fe status in an Fe-deficient population. In an uncontrolled, before-after, community-based study, social mobilization and social marketing strategies were applied. The main outcomes included KAP and Hb level and were measured at baseline, 1 year later and 2 years later. One urban county and two rural counties in Shijiazhuang Municipality, Hebei Province, China. Adult women older than 20 years of age and young children aged from 3 to 7 years were selected from three counties to attend the evaluation protocol. After 1 year, most knowledge and attitudes had changed positively towards the prevention and control of anaemia. The percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P children. Social mobilization and social marketing activities had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women, and resulted in marked improvements in Hb levels in both adult women and young children. This should be recommended as a national preventive strategy to prevent and control Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  20. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students

    Masayuki Okuda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66 collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05. A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005. The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05. Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  1. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students.

    Okuda, Masayuki; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-28

    We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students ( n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not ( p for trend trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods ( p for trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  2. Survival of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in raw ready-to-eat crab marinated in soy sauce.

    Cho, T J; Kim, N H; Kim, S A; Song, J H; Rhee, M S

    2016-12-05

    Knowing the survival characteristics of foodborne pathogens in raw ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood is the key to predicting whether they pose a microbiological hazard. The present study examined the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemoliticus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw RTE crab marinated in soy sauce. Inoculated crabs (initial bacterial population=4.1-4.4logCFU/g) were immersed in soy sauce and then stored at refrigeration (5°C) or room temperature (22°C) for up to 28days. At 5°C, all bacteria (except V. parahaemolyticus) survived in crab samples until Day 28 (counts of 1.4, 1.6, 3.1, 3.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively). However, at 22°C, all tested bacteria were more susceptible to the antimicrobial effects of marination. Regardless of temperature, foodborne pathogens attached to crab samples were more resistant to marination than those suspended in soy sauce samples; however, the survival pattern for each species was different. Gram-positive bacteria were most resistant to marination conditions (high salinity, low pH), whereas V. parahaemolyticus was extremely susceptible. Marination is the only antibacterial step in the manufacturing processes; however, the results presented herein reveal that this is not sufficient to inactivate foodborne pathogens. In particular, the survival of pathogens on crabs at refrigeration temperature may pose a major hazard for the consumption of raw RTE seafood. Thus, appropriate decontamination methods and implementation of safety management practices are needed. This study provides predictive microbiological information of foodborne pathogens in raw RTE seafood with marination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  4. EVALUASI POTENSI KECAP MANIS SEBAGAI PEMBAWA FORTIFIKAN NaFeEDTA: TINJAUAN PENGARUH ASUPAN KECAP KEDELAI MANIS HASIL FORTIFIKASI TERHADAP PENINGKATAN BIOAVAILABILITAS ZAT BESI FORTIFIKAN Potency of Sweet Soy Sauce as Vehicle for NaFeEDTA Fortificant: Eff

    Sri Naruki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate potency of sweet soy sauce as vehicle  for �aFeEDTA fortificant, the effect of sweet soy sauce intake on iron bioavailability of NaFeEDTA, was in vivo evaluated. The bioavailability was determined in Spague- Dawley rats using hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them iron-free diet. During the repletion period, iron-depleted rats were fed NaFeEDTA (0.35 mg Fe/day for their iron source of diet, withsweet soy sauce as fortification vehicle. Volume of soy sauce intake was varied from 0.0 to 0.7 mL/day. FeSO .7H O4 2(0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle  was used as reference standard. The bioavailability of iron was expressed ashemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE. The volume of soy sauce intake which resulted in good bioavailabilitywas used for further study. The further study was done to evaluate the iron bioavailability of NaFeEDTA (dosage was varied from 0.175 to 1.4 mg Fe/day with fixed volume of the fortification vehicle intake (0.2 mL/day. Sweet soy sauce and H O were used as fortification vehicle, while FeSO .7H O (0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle was used2 4 2 2as reference standard of fortificant.  The data showed that sweet soy sauce has a good potency  as fortification vehicle for NaFeEDTA. Intake of 0.2 mL of sweet soy sauce/day resulted in HRE of NaFeEDTA as high as HRE of standardFeSO .7H O. Furthermore, in compare with H O vehicle, the soy sauce resulted for higher HRE, higher iron absorp-4 2 2tion, and  higher iron retention, as well. It was found that increased intake of NaFeEDTA made HRE of NaFeEDTA,% A/I, and % R/I decreased. ABSTRAK Pengaruh kecap manis sebagai makanan pembawa terhadap peningkatan bioavailabilitas zat besi fortifikan �aFeEDTA, dievaluasi  secara in vivo, untuk mengetahui potensi kecap manis sebagai pembawa fortifikan tersebut. Bioavailabilitas ditentukan pada tikus Sprague-Dawley, menggunakan metoda deplesi-replesi hemoglobin. Selama

  5. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography���Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcin...

  6. Avocado Consumption Enhances Human Postprandial Provitamin A Absorption and Conversion from a Novel High–β-Carotene Tomato Sauce and from Carrots12

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Young, Gregory S.; Harrison, Earl H.; Francis, David M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high–β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  7. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Effective extraction and simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes from tomato sauce and chili-containing foods using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Wang, Man-Man; Hao, Yu-Lan; Shi, Xin-Ran; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    A simple, effective, and robust magnetic solid-phase extraction method was developed using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles as the adsorbent for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) in foodstuffs. The magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The extraction parameters including extraction time, elution solution, and elution time and volume were investigated in detail. Such magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles based magnetic solid-phase extraction in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and variable wavelength detection gave the detection limits of 3-6 μg/kg for Sudan I-IV in chili sauce, tomato sauce, chili powder, and chili flake samples. The recoveries were 79.6-108% at three spiked levels with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.6 and 4.5-9.6%, respectively. The feasibility was further performed by a comparison with commercial alumina-N. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of Sudan dyes due to its sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Composition and Metabolic Activities of the Bacterial Community in Shrimp Sauce at the Flavor-Forming Stage of Fermentation As Revealed by Metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencings.

    Duan, Shan; Hu, Xiaoxi; Li, Mengru; Miao, Jianyin; Du, Jinghe; Wu, Rongli

    2016-03-30

    The bacterial community and the metabolic activities involved at the flavor-forming stage during the fermentation of shrimp sauce were investigated using metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA gene sequencings. Results showed that the abundance of Tetragenococcus was 95.1%. Tetragenococcus halophilus was identified in 520 of 588 transcripts annotated in the Nr database. Activation of the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase gene expression, in T. halophilus suggests that T. halophilus probably underwent aerobic metabolism during shrimp sauce fermentation. The metabolism of amino acids, production of peptidase, and degradation of limonene and pinene were very active in T. halophilus. Carnobacterium, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium were also metabolically active, although present in very small populations. Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were detected in metatranscriptome sequencing, but not in 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Many minor taxa showed no gene expression, suggesting that they were in dormant status.

  10. IMPACTO DE LOS EVENTOS DE SEQUÍA EN LA REGIÓN DE LA CUENCA HIDROGRÁFICA DE LA LAGUNA SAUCE GRANDE (PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    María E. Carbone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución e intensidad de los extremos hídricos provoca un impacto directo sobre las actividades humanas. Las características particulares de los eventos secos y húmedos ocurridos en la región de la cuenca hidrográfica de la laguna Sauce Grande, durante el período 1971- 2010, se analizan mediante la aplicación del Índice de severidad de sequía de Palmer. El 49% de los casos analizados correspondieron a sequías débiles, e incipientes. Los valores más extremos de eventos secos (-4.31 ocasionaron daños irreparables en los rendimientos de granos, que disminuyeron un 19% respecto al promedio actual. Durante los meses estivales se observaron los casos secos severos y extremos (12%. Se identificaron los períodos secos que mayor injerencia tuvieron sobre la producción agrícola ganadera de la región, sucedidas durante los años 2008 y 2009, la relación existente entre los valores de los índices severos y extremos en la morfometría de la laguna y estuario del río Sauce Grande.

  11. Determination of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in soy sauce by headspace derivatization solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Lee, Maw-Rong; Chiu, Tzu-Chun; Dou, Jianpeng

    2007-05-22

    This study proposes a method for identifying 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in aqueous matrices by using headspace on-fiber derivatization following solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimized SPME experimental procedures for extracting 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in aqueous solutions involved a 85 microm polyacrylate-coated fiber at pH 6, a sodium chloride concentration of 0.36 g mL(-1), extraction at 50 degrees C for 15 min and desorption of analytes at 260 degrees C for 3 min. Headspace derivatization was conducted in a laboratory-made design with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide vapor following solid-phase microextraction by using 3 microL N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide at an oil bath temperature of 230 degrees C for 40 s. This method had good repeatability (R.S.D.s or = 0.9972) for ultrapure water and soy sauce samples that were spiked with two analytes. Detection limits were obtained at the ng mL(-1). The result demonstrated that headspace on-fiber derivatization following solid-phase microextraction was a simple, fast and accurate technique for identifying trace 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in soy sauce.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of 8 kinds of Biogenic Amines in Soy Sauce by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定酱油中的8种生物胺

    邹阳; 赵谋明; 赵海锋

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了高效液相色谱法同时检测酱油中色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺的方法.采用5%三氯乙酸溶液为样品提取溶剂,提取液经丹璜酰氯柱前衍生30 min,最终HPLC进行定性和定量分析.本方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为1.0~50μg/mL,相关系数R2大于0.99,检出限(S/N=3)为0.075~0.3 μg/mL.在添加水平为1.00和5.00 μg/mL时,样品的平均回收率在83%-111%之间,相对标准偏差为0.43%~19.0%.本方法具有线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高等优点,适用于酱油中生物胺的检测.采用本方法对市售10种酱油进行检测,总生物胺含量的范围为50.82~1898.17 μg/mL,其中酪胺、腐胺和苯乙胺是酱油样品中含量最多的生物胺.%An analytical method for simultaneous determination of trypatamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine in soy sauce by HPLC was developed Biogenic amines in soy sauce were extracted with a mixture of 5% TCA, and then derived with dansyl chloride for 30 min, HPLC was used to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was 1.0~50 μg/mL for biogenic amines and the correlation coefficient (R2) was greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.075-0.3 μg/mL. At the spiked levels of 1.00 and 5.00 μg/mL, the average recoveries were 83%~111% with the relative standard deviations of 0.43 %~ 19%. The results showed that the proposed method has a good linearity and sensitivity which is suitable to detect biogenic amines in soy sauce. The established method has been successfully applied to determine biogenic amines in 10 commercial soy sauce samples, and the values of total biogenic amines were in the range of 50.82~1898.17 μg/mL. Tyramine, putrescin and phenylethylamine were found to be predominant amines in soy sauce samples.

  13. Exotic woody plant invaders of the Transvaal

    L. Henderson

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance o ;f exotic, woody plant invaders were recorded in 60% of the quarter degree squares in the study area. Sixty-one invaders were encountered o f which the most important and aggressive were Acacia dealbaia, Populus spp.,  Melia azedarach, Opuntia ficus-indica, Salix babylonica and  Acacia mearnsii. Invasion patterns are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate distribution with environmental factors. Attention is drawn to the areas of greatest invasion and the areas that are liable to show the greatest expansion in the future.

  14. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  15. Does SO{sub 2} fumigation change the chemical defense of woody plants: the effect of short-term SO{sub 2} fumigation on the metabolism of deciduous Salix Myrsinifolia plants

    Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Lavola, A.; Kainulainen, P. [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1995-08-01

    The effect of a moderate increase in atmospheric sulfur dioxide on the production of phenolic secondary chemicals, soluble sugars and phytomass distribution within plants was investigated in six willow ({ital Salix myrsinifolia Salisb}) clones. The plants were cultivated for 3 weeks under 0.11 ppm of SO{sub 2} (300{mu}g m{sup -3}). The production of salicin and chlorogenic acid was significantly reduced under increased SO{sub 2}. However, salicortin, 2{prime}-O-acetylsalicortin, (+)-catechin and two unknown phenolics did not show any clear trend. The increase in SO{sub 2} did not affect the glucose, fructose and sucrose contents. The final weight of the SO{sub 2}-treatment plants was significantly greater than that of the control plants: the leaf, stem and root phytomass was from 14 to 48% greater under increased SO{sub 2}. All the clones showed the same trend, although there was a significant variation in phytomass production. Results indicate, although not consistently, that even a short-term exposure of enhanced atmospheric SO{sub 2} may change moderately the accumulation pattern of willow phenolics. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Potencial biotécnico do sarandi-branco (Phyllanthus sellowianus Müll. Arg. e vime (Salix viminalis L. para revegetação de margens de cursos de água

    Fabrício Sutili Jaques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Even with planning and careful use of natural resources, and specially in the case of water courses, some areas are negatively modified, due to losing of margin or hillside stability, leading to erosions and slides. On this way, revegetation and stabilization techniques are imposing tasks to these areas. Some non expensive and easy biological techniques are already known, resting to investigate the applicability of adequate materials to each area, as well as biotechnical value of local native species. This works deals with investigating, on field situation, the rooting stick capability of two different species, that are common on water courses edges of the studied region: ‘sarandi-branco’ (Phyllanthus sellowianus Müll. Arg. and ‘vime’ (Salix viminalis L.. The experiment was developed on eroded margin of ‘Guarda-mor’ stream, in central area of ‘Rio Grande do Sul’ State, Brazil. The sticks used were from different parts of branches (base, half and tip. Sixty day after planting, the rooting was evaluated, being found a good revegetation capability of both species. On ‘sarandibranco’ sticks, the rooting reached 78%, being significantly higher than on ‘vime’ sticks (69%. To both species, the rooting rose up with the proximity of water level and with increasing diameter of sticks (base > half > tip.

  17. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  18. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  19. Invasive alien woody plants of the Orange Free State

    L. Henderson

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 66% (151/230 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 64 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  Salix babylonica, Populus x  canescens, Acacia dealbata and  Salix fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle pers. comm . The most prominent species (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opunlia ficus-indica, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus spp..  Rosa eglanteria, Pyracantha angustifolia and Acacia dealbata.Little invasion was recorded for most of the province. The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded along the perennial rivers and rocky hillsides in the moist grassland of the eastern mountain region bordering on Lesotho and Natal.

  20. Estudo de toxicologia clínica de um fitoterápico contendo Passiflora incarnata L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Salix alba L. em voluntários saudáveis

    Demétrius F. Nascimento

    Full Text Available O Pasalix® é um produto fitoterápico contendo uma associação de três plantas medicinais: Passiflora incarnata, Salix alba e Crataegus oxyacantha. Sua principal indicação é para o tratamento da ansiedade e insônia. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a toxicologia clínica dessa formulação em voluntários saudáveis. Para isso realizou-se um ensaio clínico não aleatório, aberto, com 24 voluntários sadios do sexo masculino, que receberam ambulatorialmente dois (2 comprimidos revestidos do fitoterápico duas vezes ao dia, durante 28 dias ininterruptos. Os voluntários foram incluídos no estudo somente quando considerados saudáveis após avaliação clínica, exame físico e exames laboratoriais que antecederam o estudo. A avaliação laboratorial incluiu análise hematológica, bioquímica e sorológica. A avaliação clínica e laboratorial foi repetida após a 1ª, 2ª, 3ª e 4ª semanas de tratamento e 7 dias após a última administração. O Pasalix® foi bem tolerado pelos 24 voluntários não apresentando eventos adversos graves. Os exames clínicos, eletrocardiográficos e laboratoriais efetuados antes, durante e após o ensaio não evidenciaram sinais de toxicidade nos diversos órgãos e sistemas avaliados, confirmando a segurança da preparação para utilização em ensaios de eficácia terapêutica.

  1. SIFAT PROOKSIDATIF FORTIFIKAN NaFeEDTA, DENGAN KECAP KEDELAI MANIS SEBAGAI MAKANAN PEMBAWA, DALAM SISTEM BIOLOGIS (TIKUS Oxidative Effect of NaFeEDTA Fortificant in Sweet Soy Sauce as Fortification Vehicle, on Biological System (Rats

    Sri Naruki Naruki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In vivo study about the effect of NaFeEDTA fortificant in sweet soy sauce on TBARS value of plasma and liver, as well as on histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach of Sprague Dawley rats was conducted. The oxida- tive properties were determined using hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. During 42 days of repletion periode, iron-depleted rats were fed iron-free diet. NaFeEDTA was ingested in varied dosage, i.e. from 0.175 to 1.4 mg Fe/day for each rat. Sweet soy sauce H O (0.2 mL/day was used as fortification vehicle and H O (0.2 mL/day as a control.2 2FeSO .7H O fortificant (0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle was used as reference standard. At the end of the reple-4 2 2tion period, TBARS value of either plasma or liver was analized. The histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach were also evaluated. The data showed that NaFeEDTA fortificant in sweet soy sauce had no effect on TBARS value of plasma, but it resulted in increased TBARS value of liver. The histopathologic data showed that NaFeEDTA intake up to 0.35 mg Fe/day did not result in histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach, as well. ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang pengaruh dosis fortifikan NaFeEDTA dalam kecap kedelai manis terhadap angka TBARS plasma dan hati, serta perubahan histopatologik organ hati, usus, dan lambung telah dilakukan pada tikus Sprague Dawley. Evaluasi sifat prooksidatif zat besi dari NaFeEDTA dilakukan dengan metoda deplesi-replesi hemoglobin. Selama peri- ode replesi, tikus yang sebelumnya dibuat anemia, diberi diet basal bebas Fe dan minuman H O. NaFeEDTA diberikan sebagai sumber zat besi, dengan dosis bervariasi, yaitu dari 0,175 sampai dengan 1,40 mg Fe/ekor/hari. Kecap kedelai manis atau H O digunakan sebagai pembawa fortifikan. Fortifikan standar FeSO .7H O (0,35 mg Fe/ekor/hari dalam2 4 2H O digunakan sebagai pembanding. Periode replesi dilakukan selama 42 hari. Pada akhir periode replesi dilakukananalisa angka TBARS

  2. Aspectos microbiológicos e informação nutricional de molho de tomate orgânico oriundo da agricultura familiar Microbiological aspects and nutritional information of organic tomato sauce from family farming

    Jair Martins Maria Cavalcante Melo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de produção orgânico vem crescendo, tanto em área cultivada como em número de produtores e mercado consumidor. Contudo, informações técnico-científicas sobre estes alimentos in natura e processados ainda são incipientes. O tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. desempenha um importante papel para os produtores orgânicos de todo o mundo, em função do retorno financeiro e da grande demanda. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi elaborar um molho de tomate orgânico, aproveitando os saberes dos agricultores, bem como avaliar sua qualidade microbiológica e determinar sua informação nutricional. O molho estudado apresentou 93,45% de umidade, 0,89% de proteínas, 0,13% de lipídeos, 1,50% de cinzas e 4,03% de carboidratos totais. Quanto aos aspectos microbiológicos, o molho apresentou condição sanitária satisfatória, de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, e valor calórico menor do que os molhos comerciais disponíveis no mercado. Os produtos processados foram rotulados e vendidos nas feiras agroecológicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, agregando valor ao tomate e gerando renda aos agricultores familiares.The organic production systems have been raising on cultivated area, producers number and market. However, technical and scientific information about raw and processed material undergoing to organic production system is scarce. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plays an important role for organic producers around the world due to its high profits and market acceptance. The aim of this study was to prepare an organic tomato sauce made from the knowledge of familiar farmers and to assess its microbiological quality and nutritional information. The studied product presented 93.45% of moisture, 0.89% of protein, 0.13% of lipids, 1.5% of ash and 4.03% of total carbohydrates contents. The products showed a satisfactory sanitary condition according to ANVISA and

  3. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Li Jiahua; Sun Yuanyuan; Yin Ying; Ji Rong; Wu Jichun; Wang Xiaorong; Guo Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L -1 medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L -1 medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d -1 pot -1 for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d -1 pot -1 for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  4. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Li Jiahua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yin Ying; Ji Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu Jichun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  5. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by autochthonous willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Li, Jiahua; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong; Guo, Hongyan

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L(-1) medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L(-1) medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate=68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Resprout and survival of willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana), Poplars (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica) cuttings in marly gullies with Southern aspect in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud

    2014-05-01

    In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, a current strategy of bioengineering is developed for trapping sediment in marly gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. It is based on the use of structures in the form of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are recommended here as they proved their efficiency to resprout and survive in such environment. However, these species installed in Southern gullies did not survive in previous experiments, due to the too harsh conditions of solar radiation and drought. We thus decided to test other species, namely black Poplar (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica), which proved their resistance to drought conditions in other experiments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in 2010 in eroded marly gullies in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). We tested two installation modalities: one in spring and a second in autumn. Seventy-eight bioengineering structures (50 in spring and 28 in autumn), among which 32 made with Poplar cuttings and 28 with Tamaris cuttings, as well as 11 structures with purple Willow and 7 with white Willow as controls, were built in 6 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), results first revealed that Willow species succeeded in surviving in gullies in Southern aspect (76 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 52 % for those installed in autumn), which is in contradiction with previous results. Second, Poplar showed a good ability to survive (62 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 33 % for those installed in autumn). Tamaris obtained the worst score with 26 % and 38 % of survival for the cuttings installed in spring and autumn, respectively. Globally, excepted for Tamaris, survival rates were better for the cuttings installed in spring. The bioengineering

  7. Rapid determination of parabens in seafood sauces by high-performance liquid chromatography: A practical comparison of core-shell particles and sub-2 μm fully porous particles.

    Ye, Jing; Cao, Xiaoji; Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Ye; Lu, Yanbin

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the chromatographic performance of superficially porous particles (Halo core-shell C18 column, 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) was compared with that of sub-2 μm fully porous particles (Acquity BEH C18 , 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm). Four parabens, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, were used as representative compounds for calculating the plate heights in a wide flow rate range and analyzed on the basis of the Van Deemter and Knox equations. Theoretical Poppe plots were constructed for each column to compare their kinetic performance. Both phases gave similar minimum plate heights when using nonreduced coordinates. Meanwhile, the flat C-term of the core-shell column provided the possibilities for applying high flow rates without significant loss in efficiency. The low backpressure of core-shell particles allowed this kind of column, especially compatible with conventional high-performance liquid chromatography systems. Based on these factors, a simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was established and validated for the determination of parabens in various seafood sauces using the Halo core-shell C18 column for separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  10. Costos mínimos de compensación y cuantificación de la oferta hídrica en la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande, Argentina

    Claudia Cecilia Carrascal Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estimar los costos de aumentar la oferta de disponibilidad hídrica a través del cambio en las prácticas de uso del suelo, para establecer el monto mínimo de compensación de un futuro Sistema de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales, dentro del territorio perteneciente a la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. Se trabajó en tres etapas: simulación de la infiltración para diferentes tormentas a través de la aplicación del modelo hidrológico HEC-HMS, cálculo de costos de reconversión de sistemas productivos y cálculo del costo del incremento en la disponibilidad de agua. Como resultados se presentan los mapas temáticos necesarios para simular la infiltración y las tablas que muestran esta variación en distintas recurrencias de tormenta y diferentes prácticas de manejo del suelo. Para la recurrencia 1:1 el costo de oportunidad fue de U$S 1.21.m-3, para la recurrencia de 1:3 fue de U$S 0.73.m-3, hasta llegar a la tormenta cuyo costo fue de U$S 0.62.m-3. Se concluye que estos costos permiten apoyar la planificación del recurso hídrico a través de un PSA y que para avanzar se debe realizar una valoración contingente para establecer la disponibilidad a pagar por los usuarios del servicio ambiental de la cuenca.

  11. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  12. Estabilidade de molho de tomate em embalagens metálicas com baixo revestimento de estanho Stability of canned tomato sauce in tinplate cans with a reduced tin layer

    Sílvia Tondella Dantas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de latas de três peças eletrossoldadas com corpo produzido em folha de flandres com camada de estanho de 2,0 g.m-2 no lado interno, contendo 340 g de molho de tomate, foi avaliado por meio da estocagem por 24 meses a 35 °C, tendo sido determinadas periodicamente: a concentração de estanho, ferro e cromo no produto; a condição de vácuo/pressão e a composição gasosa do espaço livre, além da aparência interna da embalagem. A partir dessa avaliação, pode-se concluir que essa embalagem é uma opção viável para 18 meses de estocagem do produto na temperatura ambiente de até 35 °C.The performance of three piece welded cans produced in tinplate with an internal tin layer of 2.0 g.m-2, containing 340 g of tomato sauce, was assessed by means of a storage test carried out for 24 months at 35 °C. The concentrations of tin, iron and chromium in the product, the vacuum/pressure condition and the headspace gas composition were periodically determined, as well as the internal visual appearance of the pack, allowing to conclude that such packaging was a viable option for 18 months of storage of the product from ambient temperature up to 35 °C.

  13. Development of a simple gel permeation clean-up procedure coupled to a rapid disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Sudan I dye in spices and sauces.

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Stevenson, Paul J; Schulz, Claudia; Hartig, Lutz; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-09-01

    Sudan dyes have been found to be added to chilli and chilli products for illegal colour enhancement purposes. Due to the possible carcinogenic effect, they are not authorized to be used in food in the European Union or the USA. However, over the last few years, many products imported from Asian and African countries have been reported via the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union to be contaminated with these dyes. In order to provide fast screening method for the detection of Sudan I (SI), which is the most widely abused member of Sudan dyes family, a unique (20 min without sample preparation) direct disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The assay was based on polyclonal antibodies highly specific to SI. A novel, simple gel permeation chromatography clean-up method was developed to purify extracts from matrices containing high amounts of fat and natural pigments, without the need for a large dilution of the sample. The assay was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The detection capability was determined to be 15 ng g(-1) in sauces and 50 ng g(-1) in spices. The recoveries found ranged from 81% to 116% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation from 6% to 20%. The assay was used to screen a range of products (85 samples) collected from different retail sources within and outside the European Union. Three samples were found to contain high amounts (1,649, 722 and 1,461 ng g(-1)) of SI by ELISA. These results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The innovative procedure allows for the fast, sensitive and high throughput screening of different foodstuffs for the presence of the illegal colorant SI.

  14. 体外产气法研究沙柳混合发酵饲料对绵羊瘤胃内环境参数的影响%Effects of Salix Mixed Fermented Feed on Ruminal Environmental Parameters by in Vitro Gas Production Method

    李满双; 薛树媛; 王超; 王莉梅; 郭天龙; 金海

    2015-01-01

    The current experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Salix mixed fermented feed on ruminal environmental parameters by in vitro gas production method. According to the different proportion of Salix (36.44% and 67.08%), two groups of mixed fermentation feed were made, represented by FF1 and FF2 groups respectively. Each group was added the same number of compound bacteria preparation ( live number≥5×107 CFU/g). Gas production and gas production kinetic parameters in 96 h, and ruminal fermentation char-acteristic indexes in 24 h at different fermentation periods of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 22, 30, 45 and 60 days were determined, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) with the extension of fermentation time, ac-cumulative gas production in 96 h, digestible organic matter content and metabolizable energy were firstly de-creased and then increased. 2) The concentrations of volatile fatty acids and microbial protein were significantly increased ( P<0.05) , while pH, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and butyric acid, and acetic acid/pro-pionic acid were significantly decreased by Salix mixed fermentation feed ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, under in vitro culture condition, the two kinds of Salix mixed fermented feed with the supplemental proportion of Salix of 36.44% and 67.08% can effectively promote rumen microbial fermentation, raise energy utilization efficien-cy and increase the microbial protein synthesis in rumen, and the optimal supplemental proportion of Salix is 36.44% compared with 67.08%.%本试验旨在采用体外产气法研究沙柳混合发酵饲料对绵羊瘤胃内环境参数的影响。按沙柳不同添加量(36.44%和67.08%)调制成2组混合发酵饲料,分别用FF1组和FF2组表示,在各组中添加等量的复合菌剂(活菌数≥5×107 CFU/g),考察发酵饲料在发酵1、3、5、7、10、12、15、22、30、45和60 d时,体外培养96 h的产气量、产气动力学参数和24 h瘤胃发酵

  15. What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Plea of Transport and Logistics Netherlands for a practical and transparent system to calculate societal cost in the transportation sector in order to realize governmental targets for equal treatment of means of transportation; Gelijke monniken, gelijke kappen. Pleidooi van Transport en Logistiek Nederland voor een praktisch en transparant systeem van doorberekening van maatschappelijke kosten in de transportsector om overheidsdoelstellingen te halen bij gelijke behandeling van vervoerswijzen

    Ohm, R.; Poppink, P. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Transport makes an important contribution to our welfare, which is expressed in a large consumer surplus or added value for society. Some people define this consumer surplus as external benefits, if the positive consequences of transport fall to others. But unfortunately transport is also accompanied by negative effects for society. If the causer does not pay all the costs of the negative effects of transport, called external or social costs. These social costs above all lie in the area of air pollution, noise nuisance, land use, cutting through the landscape, accident risk and - in a certain way - also congestion. Just like all the other players, the transport industry has a social responsibility to bear the social costs created. For example compensating victims for damage incurred, like paying emotional damages to surviving relatives of traffic casualties. In an ideal situation, transport will remove all the negative effects by source or end-of-pipe measures, so that the social costs disappear. If we compensate, reduce and remove negative effects by means of charging or standards, we speak of internalisation of the social costs. The best way to internalise the costs is with a 'market model' (Pigou/Coase), but a 'government model' is also possible in certain conditions. Firstly, we will discuss the ideal market model and then we will discuss the government model as the second-best solution. The following points will be discussed: Marginal costs are by definition costs of most expensive measure to achieve objectives; No mode of transport pays all marginal costs; Transport costs rise least with road transport and most with inland shipping; Market model or government model?; Government model will place heavier burdens on rail and inland shipping; In practice, the unpaid bill is lower than in theory; Wishes of industry and society can be combined by politicians; What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander is necessary and feasible

  16. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    In this study, consumer acceptability was considered as a tool of reducing sodium rather than just using it as a final examination of the successfulness of the substitution. This study consisted of 4 experimental steps. First, by gradually reducing the concentrations of NaCl, consumer rejection threshold (CRT) of NaCl in beef soup was examined. Then, the amount of KCl that can increase preference was examined in 2 low sodium beef soups, with sodium concentrations slightly above or below the CRT. Relative saltiness of various KCl and NaCl/KCl mixtures were also measured. Finally, consumers evaluated acceptability and intensities of sensory characteristics for 9 beef soup samples that differed with respect to NaCl content and/or KCl content with/without addition of salty-congruent odor (soy-sauce odor). The results showed that in the "above CRT" system, consumer acceptability as well as sensory profile of low sodium beef soup substituted using KCl had similar profile to the control although saltiness was not fully recovered, whereas in the "below CRT" system, consumer acceptability was not recovered using KCl solely as a substitute. Potential of using salty-congruent odor as a final touch to induce salty taste was observed; however, the results inferred the importance of having almost no artificialness in the odor and having harmony with the final product when using it as a strategy to substitute sodium. Overall, the results of the study implied the importance of considering consumer acceptability when approaching sodium reduction to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. Strategies attempting to reduce sodium contents in food have mainly substituted sodium to the level that provides equivalent salty taste and then examined consumer liking. However, these approaches may result in failure for consumer appeal. This study attempted to consider consumer acceptability as a tool of reducing sodium in beef soup substituted using

  17. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  18. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  19. RESPONSES OF SALIX GOODDINGII AND TAMARIX RAMOSISSIMA TO FLOODING

    Impoundments create artificial shorelines that differ from natural lake shorelines in patterns of water-level fluctuations, flow, sediment transport, and shoreline vegetation dynamics. Shoreline plant communities in the American Southwest often become dominated by mature, senesce...

  20. Sex and the single Salix: considerations for riparian restoration

    Thomas D. Landis; David R. Dreesen; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Most restoration projects strive to create a sustain able plant community but exclusive use of vegetatively propagated material may be preventing this goal. The dioecious willows and cottonwoods of the Salicaceae are widely used in riparian restoration projects. Hardwood cuttings have traditionally been used to propagate these species in nurseries, and live stakes,...

  1. Phytopharmacology and medicinal properties of Salix aegyptiaca L ...

    S. aegyptiaca has recently been shown to have antioxidant, anxiolytic activity and hypocholestrolemic effect. High amounts of phenols and flavonoids such as gallic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, catechin, quercetin as well as salicin, are reported from the leaves of this plant. 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, phenylethyl alcohol, ...

  2. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be

  3. Is Sauce for the Goose Sauce for the Gander? Some Comparative Reflections on Minority Language Planning in North and South.

    Robinson, Clinton D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Compares efforts to support minority languages in the developed, industrialized countries of the north and the developing countries of the southern hemisphere. The article examines whether comparable principles are being applied to minority language planning, and if not, what the underlying reasons for the differences are. (33 references)…

  4. Phytoremediation potential of willow tress for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline

    Corseuil, H.X. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental; Moreno, F.N. [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Palhoca (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e das Engenharias

    2001-07-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminated with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl{sup -1}. Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills. (Author)

  5. Uptake, accumulation and metabolic response of ferricyanide in weeping willows.

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The remediation potential and metabolic responses of plants to ferricyanide were investigated using pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) grown hydroponically in growth chambers and treated with potassium ferricyanide. Positive responses were observed for the plants exposed to cyanide recovered in plant biomass was constant in all treatments, indicating that transport is a major limiting step for the uptake of ferricyanide by plants. The majority of the ferricyanide taken up from the growth media was possibly assimilated during transport through plants. The velocity of the removal processes can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the half-saturation constant (K(M)) and the maximum removal capacity (v(max)) were estimated to be 228.1 mg CN L(-1) and 36.43 mg CN kg(-1) d(-1), respectively, using non-linear regression methods. These results suggest that weeping willows can take up, transport and assimilate ferricyanide; and phytoremediation is an option for cleaning up the environmental sites contaminated with cyanide complexes.

  6. Propagation and conservation of native forest genetic resources of medicinal use by means of in vitro and ex vitro techniques.

    Sharry, Sandra; Adema, Marina; Basiglio Cordal, María A; Villarreal, Blanca; Nikoloff, Noelia; Briones, Valentina; Abedini, Walter

    2011-07-01

    In Argentina, there are numerous native species which are an important source of natural products and which are traditionally used in medicinal applications. Some of these species are going through an intense extraction process in their natural habitat which may affect their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to establish vegetative propagation systems for three native forestal species of medicinal interest. This will allow the rapid obtainment of plants to preserve the germplasm. This study included the following species which are widely used in folk medicine and its applications: Erythrina crista-galli or "seibo" (astringent, used for its cicatrizant properties and for bronchiolitic problems); Acacia caven or "espinillo" (antirheumatic, digestive, diuretic and with cicatrizant properties) and Salix humboldtiana or "sauce criollo" (antipyretic, sedative, antispasmodic, astringent). The methodology included the micropropagation of seibo, macro and micropropagation of Salix humboldtiana and the somatic embryogenesis of Acacia caven. The protocol for seibo regeneration was adjusted from nodal sections of seedlings which were obtained from seeds germinated in vitro. The macropropagation through rooted cuttings of "sauce criollo" was achieved and complete plants of this same species were obtained through both direct and indirect organogenesis using in vitro cultures. The somatic embryogenesis for Acacia caven was optimized and this led to obtain a high percentage of embryos in different stages of development. We are able to support the conservation of native forest resources of medicinal use by means of vegetative propagation techniques.

  7. An investigation of the leaf retention capacity, efficiency and mechanism for atmospheric particulate matter of five greening tree species in Beijing, China.

    Liu, Jinqiang; Cao, Zhiguo; Zou, Songyan; Liu, Huanhuan; Hai, Xiao; Wang, Shihua; Duan, Jie; Xi, Benye; Yan, Guangxuan; Zhang, Shaowei; Jia, Zhongkui

    2018-03-01

    Urban trees have the potential to reduce air pollution, but the retention capacity and efficiency of different tree species for atmospheric particulate matter (PM) accumulation and the underlying mechanism hasn't been well understood. To select tree species with high air purification abilities, the supplementing ultrasonic cleaning (UC) procedure was first introduced into the conventional leaf cleaning methods [single water cleaning (WC) or plus brush cleaning (BC)] for eluting the leaf-retained PM. Further updates to the methodology were applied to investigate the retention capacity, efficiency, and mechanism for PM of five typical greening tree species in Beijing, China. Meanwhile, the particle size distribution of PM on the leaves, the PM retention efficiencies of easily removable (ERP), difficult-to-remove (DRP) and totally removable (TRP) particles on the leaf (AE leaf ), and the individual tree scales were estimated. The experimental leaf samples were collected from trees with similar sizes 4 (SDR) and 14days (LDR) after rainfall. When the leaves were cleaned by WC+BC, there was, on average, 29%-46% of the PM remaining on the leaves of different species, which could be removed almost completely if UC was supplemented. From SDR to LDR, the mass of the leaf-retained PM increased greatly, and the particle size distribution changed markedly for all species except for Sophorajaponica. Pinus tabuliformis retains particles with the largest average diameter (34.2μm), followed by Ginkgo biloba (20.5μm), Sabina chinensis (16.4μm), Salix babylonica (16.0μm), and S. japonica (13.1μm). S. japonica and S. chinensis had the highest AE leaf to retain the TRP and ERP of both PM 1 and PM 1-2.5 , respectively. Conversely, S. babylonica and P. tabuliformis could retain both TRP and ERP of PM 2.5-5 and PM 5-10 , and PM >10 and TSP with the highest AE leaf , respectively. In conclusion, our results could be useful in selecting greening tree species with high air purification

  8. SALIX-2 Simulatie Agenten voor Landschapsarchitectonisch Design in virtual reality (X)

    Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Clerc, V.; Kramer, H.

    2003-01-01

    De ontwikkeling van een driedimensionale computerapplicatie ten behoeve van de landschapsarchitectuur wordt beschreven. De applicatie, een voorbeeld van virtual reality, wordt zowel functioneel als naar implementatie besproken. Ingegaan wordt op de digitale weergave van beplantingen, het

  9. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  10. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, T.; Karlson, U.

    2010-01-01

    . Methods The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different...

  11. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    The vegetation materials may reduce soil erosion and runoff, create space for breeding and habitat and they are commonly used in river ecological engineering. Therefore, it is important to select the soil-bioengineering plant by taking its growth characteristics and the soil solidity of its root system as the major considerations ...

  12. Response of Organ Structure and Physiology to Autotetraploidization in Early Development of Energy Willow Salix viminalis

    Dudits, D.; Torok, K.; Cseri, A.; Paul, K.; Nagy, A.V.; Nagy, B.; Sass, L.; Ferenc, G.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Dobrev, Petre; Vass, I.; Ayaydin, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2016), s. 1504-1523 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : IMAGE-ANALYSIS * WATER -STRESS * PHOTOSYNTHETIC RESPONSES Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  13. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, Tomáš; Karlson, U. G.; Trapp, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2010), s. 1355-1361 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : chlorobenzoic acid * degradation * metabolism * PCB Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2010

  14. Community outreach and education: key components of the Salix consortium's willow biomass project

    Volk, T.A.; Edick, S.; Brown, S.; Downing, M.

    1999-01-01

    This project facilitates the commercialization of willow biomass crops as a locally grown source of renewable energy. The challenge is to simultaneously optimize production and utilization technology, develop farmer interest and crop acreage, and establish stable and reliable markets. The participation of farmers and landowners, businesses, and local and regional governments in the process is essential for success. A three-phased approach elicits this participation: focused outreach and education, active involvement of potential producers of willow biomass crops, and the development of a user-friendly economic and business model that can be used by a variety of stakeholders. Barriers to commercialization have been identified, such as misconceptions about the production system and crop, assurances of a stable and reliable market for the material, and indications that the equipment and infrastructure to grow and process willow biomass crops are in place. Outreach efforts have specifically addressed these issues. As a result target audiences' responses have changed from passive observation to inquiries and suggestions for active participation. This shift represents a significant step towards the goal of making willow biomass crops a viable source of locally produced fuel. (author)

  15. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    user

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. The root ... and the University of Natural Resources and applied Life. Sciences ... The design of the apparatus is ..... In The Supporting. Roots of ... Measurements in Geomechanics. Swets and ...

  16. Application of methyl jasmonate to grey villow (Salix cinerea) attracts insectivorous birds in nature

    Mrázová, Anna; Sam, Kateřina

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-8 ISSN 1872-8855 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-32024P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alpha-Pinene * beta-Ocimene * herbivory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11829-017-9558-9

  17. Earthworm short-term response to dairy wastewater applied to a Salix plantation

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Jørgensen, Uffe; Berg Olsen, Anne

    Odour is one problem in the management of waste water from dairy, thus the organic Thise Dairy has developed an all year round solution releasing the waste water into underground tubes at 30 cm depth in a willow energy crop plantation established in 2013. The wastewater contains 0.3% dry matter...... in the untreated control willow area, were established in Oct. 2017 and considered (non-randomized) blocks. In other words this was a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design. Plots were sampled to estimate earthworm abundance one week before and one week after treatment (map link: goo.gl/tvvMuF). The willow...... was surrounded by an agricultural field with a history of wastewater fertilisation subject to an exploratory sampling. - We found seven species of earthworms in the willow and five in the agricultural soil. Juveniles of A. tuberculata, A. caliginosa, L. herculeus, L. castaneus, are morphologically intrageneric...

  18. Differential expression of genes encoding phosphate transporters contributes to arsenic accumulation in shrub willow (Salix spp.)

    Emily E. Puckett; Michelle J. Serpiglia; Alyssa M. DeLeon; Stephanie Long; Rakesh Minocha; Lawrence B. Smart

    2012-01-01

    Studies of arsenate and phosphate uptake by plants in hydroponic and soil systems indicate a common transport mechanism via the phosphate transporters (PHTs) due to structural similarity of the anions. Typically, the presence of phosphate decreases plant uptake and translocation of arsenate in hydroponic solution. This study quantified arsenic (As) uptake related to...

  19. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C⁻¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  20. Populus (Salicaceae plantations

    Gonzalo M. Romano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque los cultivos forestales son comunidades artificiales, modifican condiciones ambientales que pueden alterar la diversidad fúngica nativa. Se estudiaron los efectos del manejo forestal de una plantación de sauces (Salix y álamos (Populus sobre la biodiversidad de Agaromycetes durante un año en una isla del Delta del Paraná, Argentina. Se midieron el peso seco y el número de basidiomas. Se identificaron 28 especies pertenecientes a los Agaricomycetes: 26 especies de Agaricales, una de Polyporales y una de Russulales. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el manejo forestal de dicha plantación no afecta la abundancia ni la diversidad de basidiomas de Agaricomycetes.

  1. Burn! How implicit and explicit evaluation predict early adolescents' "hot sauce" aggression towards classroom peers

    Lansu, T.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148

  2. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  3. Secret Sauce and Snake Oil: Writing Monthly Reports in a Highly Contingent Environment

    Spinuzzi, Clay

    2010-01-01

    At a search marketing company, each search engine optimization (SEO) specialist writes up to 10 to 12 complex 20-page monthly reports in the first ten business days of each month. These SEO specialists do not consider themselves to be writers, yet they generate these structurally and rhetorically complex reports as a matter of course, while…

  4. Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students

    Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a series of activities they have used with middle-level students. The first set of lessons explores density through the layering of liquids. In the second set, they use some of the same liquids to explore the density of solids. The third set investigates how temperature affects the density of…

  5. Tsunami in the Ionosphere ? a pinch of gravity with a good plasma sauce !

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Ms Lucie; Kherani, Alam; Lognonné, Philippe; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005) and after the recent earthquakes in Sumatra and Chile in 2007. All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. Most of these ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006) via the ocean/neutral atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In addition, the numerical modeling supplies useful helps in the estimation of expected anomalies in the global scale to explore the effect of geomagnetic field in the neutral/plasma coupling (Occhipinti et al., 2008). Here we present an overview of the physical coupling mechanism highlighting the strong ampli- fication mechanism of atmospheric IGW; it allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. This property adds to the increasing coverage of ionospheric sounding measurements, suggests the implication of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., in press.

  6. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  7. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  8. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Lindbom, Jenny Maria; Andreasen, Line Lundberg

    2011-01-01

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined t...

  9. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce ...

    Results showed that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing sugar, total sugar and the brown color were increased. However, pH was decreased during the fermentation period. Furthermore, contents of total free amino acids in low-salt solid-state ...

  10. Impact of Iron Fortification of Soy Sauce on the Micronutrient Status ...

    2003-04-29

    Apr 29, 2003 ... This work is used with the permission of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. .... The serum samples were shipped from Bijie to Beijing on dry ice by airplane and ...... Stand straight with eyes forward. • Measure ...

  11. Argentinean peanut sauce similar to mayonnaise: chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects

    Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare a dressing using blanched Argentinian peanuts, that looks like mayonnaise and that has a patterns of a healthy nourishment. The general composition of the product, as well as the fatty acid composition and stability to oxidation were determined and compared to standard commercial mayonnaise and sunflower oil. A consumer test was performed on the product. The results showed a better nutritional quality of the peanut mayonnaise, due to a lower fat and caloric contents and a higher mono-unsaturated proportion of fatty acids than the other dressings. This product contains fiber and vitamin E, it lacks cholesterol and is low in sodium. The stability to lipid oxidation was similar to that of standard commercial mayonnaise and sunflower oil. Concerning sensorial aspects, the product was well accepted by 71.7 % of the consumer panelists. It responds to healthy-food guidelines and can be used for various purposes.La propuesta de este estudio fue preparar un aderezo usando maní blanchado (pelado argentino, que tenga un aspecto similar a la mayonesa y que tenga características de un alimento sano. La composición porcentual, los ácidos grasos y la estabilidad oxidativa del producto fueron determinadas y comparadas con mayonesa comercial y aceite de girasol. Además un test de aceptabilidad fue realizado sobre dicho producto. Los resultados mostraron mejores cualidades nutricionales en la mayonesa de maní debido a que tiene un menor contenido calórico y graso y una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados que los otros aderezos. Este producto contiene fibras y vitamina E, carece de colesterol y tiene baja concentración de sodio. La estabilidad oxidativa de los lípidos fue similar a la de la mayonesa comercial y al aceite de girasol. Respecto a sus propiedades sensoriales, la mayonesa de maní fue considerada aceptable por el 71,7 % de los consumidores. Este producto responde a las características de un alimento sano y puede ser usado para varios propósitos.

  12. AGUACATE Y SAUCE: Nuevos hospederos del pasador del cafeto, Xylosandrus (Xyleborus morigerus Bland.

    Vélez Angel Raúl

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available El pasador de las ramas del cafeto, Xylosandrus (Xyleborus morigerus Bland , es una de las plagas más severas que afectan al cultivo del cafeto en el mundo. Pertenece al grupo de los escolítidos ambrosiales, grupo de coleópteros diminutos dentro de la familia Scolytidae, el cual se caracteriza porque sus integrantes perforan el duramen de muchos árboles y algunos lo hacen en frutos o semillas, como es el caso de la broca del café. Hypothenemus (Stephanoderes hampei, cuya presencia aún no se ha confirmado en Colombia.

  13. Sensory analysis of passion fruit cake with chocolate sauce for individuals with phenylketonuria

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a recipe of passion fruit cake with chocolate syrup for individuals who have phenylketonuria and evaluate its acceptance. The samples were served to 50 untrained tasters and evaluated by the acceptability test using the nine point hedonic scale. Flavor was the most appreciated attribute by 66% of tasters. The cake had a mean of 7,0 corresponding to "liked moderately" in the hedonic scale and 94% of purchase intent. Therefore, the cake was accepted and would be purchased by the majority of participants.

  14. Estimation of Para Red Dye in Chilli Powder and Tomato Sauces by ...

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    food is strictly prohibited because of its ability to form carcinogenic compounds. Although there were a ... numbers of synthetic dyes available in markets used not only to enhance ..... panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and ...

  15. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  17. Biochemical changes in low-salt fermentation of solid- state soy sauce

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... prepared by growing the koji mold such as Aspergillus oryzae on the raw material containing a mixture of steam- cooked defatted ... incubation, the cultures were stirred and the temperature was lowered to 25°C for the rest of ...

  18. Food Sauces to Understand Volcanoes: a Learning Sequence in Middle School

    Pieraccioni, Fabio; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Gioncada, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Some volcanic processes occur at pressures and temperatures very different from daily experience. Such extreme conditions, unreproducible in the classroom, can lead children to build concepts about volcanic phenomena very different from the reality (Greca & Moreira, 2000; Dove, 1998). The didactic goals of this learning sequence concern the relationships between the viscosity of magmas and types of erupted materials and their consequences on volcano shapes, to favour pupils' comprehension of what a volcano is. Viscosity and its temperature dependence can be easily experimented in class with analogue materials at room temperature (Baker et al., 2004). Our research aims are to observe the development of the thought of pupils of middle schools on volcanic phenomena; this allowed to put in evidence the benefits of this approach and to give suggestions to avoid possible critical points. We have experimented a hands-on learning sequence about volcanoes in four third classes of Tuscan middle schools, for an amount of 95 pupils, 48 females and 47 males. Sharing the principles of constructivism, we think useful that pupils start from their own direct experience for understanding natural phenomena not directly observable. Therefore, we start from the experiences and knowledge of children to build a inquiry-based itinerary (Minner et al., 2010; Pieraccioni et al., 2016). The learning sequence begins with a practical activity in which we employ common and well-known materials to introduce the concept of viscosity in order to relate various kinds of magma to the shape of volcanoes. One of the benefits of this approach is to overcome the problems of introducing complex concepts such as acidity of magmas or silica content, far from the pupils' experience and knowledge. These concepts are often used in Italian middle school textbooks to describe and classify volcanoes. The result is a list of names to learn by heart. On the contrary, by using oil, ketchup, peanut butter or honey, pupils become familiar with concepts such as viscosity, behavior of fluids, magma, lava, slope of flanks and they can begin to comprehend why volcanoes have got differently named forms. REFERENCES Baker D.R., Dalpè C. & Porier G. (2004) - The Viscosities of Food as Analogs for Silicate Melts. Journal of Geoscience Education, 52, 363-367. Dove J. (1998) - Students alternative conceptions in Earth science: a review of research and implications for teaching and learning. Research Papers in Education, 13(2), 183-201. Greca I.M. & Moreira M.A. (2000) - Mental models, conceptual models, and modelling. International Journal of Science Education, 22(1), 1-11. Minner D. D., Levy A. J., & Century J. (2010) - Inquiry-based science instruction—what it is and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years 1984 to 2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 474-496. Pieraccioni F., Finato B., Bonaccorsi E. & Gioncada A. (2016) - The soil in the classroom: a middle school case study. Educational Journal of the University of Patras UNESCO, 3(2), 149 -157.

  19. A stem anatomical investigation of Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae species in Khorassan provinces

    Jamil Vaezi

    2014-04-01

    C. epithymum, C. pedicellata, C. lehmanniana var. lehmanniana and C. babylonica var. babylonica distributed in Khorassan provinces were investigated using the blue toluidine staining. Cross sections were provided by hand. Results showed that anatomical characters including stem diameter, position and distribution of vessels, number and size of vessels and number of parenchymatous layers were effective traits to taxonomically separate the species under study. Furthermore, the anatomical relationship between parasite and its host plant was examined.

  20. Differences in structure of adventitious roots in Salix clones with contrasting characteristics of cadmium accumulation and sensitivity

    Lux, A.; Šottníková, A.; Opatrná, Jana; Greger, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2004), s. 537-545 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Grant - others:Slovak Grant Agency(SK) 1/0100/03; Stockholm University(SE) COST Action 837 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : PLANT-MATERIAL * TOLERANCE * BARRIERS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2004