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Sample records for sauce grande sierras

  1. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  2. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  3. Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    As integral parts of du Toit's (1927) ``Samfrau Geosyncline'', the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) share similar paleoclimatic, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic aspects related to the Late Paleozoic tectono-magmatic activity along the Panthalassan continental margin of Gondwanaland. Late Carboniferou-earliest Permian glacial deposits were deposited in the Sauce Grande (Sauce Grande Formation) and Karoo (Dwyka Formation) basins and Falkland-Malvinas Islands (Lafonia Formation) during an initial (sag) phase of extension. The pre-breakup position of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands on the easternmost part of the Karoo basin (immediately east of the coast of South Africa) is supported by recent paleomagnetic data, lithofacies associations, paleoice flow directions and age similarities between the Dwyka and the Lafonia glacial sequences. The desintegration of the Gondwanan Ice Sheet (GIS) triggered widespread transgressions, reflected in the stratigraphic record by the presence of inter-basinally correlatable, open marine, fine-grained deposits (Piedra Azul Formation in the Sauce Grande basin, Prince Albert Formation in the Karoo basin and Port Sussex Formation in the Falkland Islands) capping glacial marine sediments. These early postglacial transgressive deposits, characterised by fossils of the Eurydesma fauna and Glossopteris flora, represent the maximum flooding of the basins. Cratonward foreland subsidence was triggered by the San Rafael orogeny (ca. 270 Ma) in Argentina and propogated along the Gondwanan margin. This subsidence phase generated sufficient space to accommodate thick synorogenic sequences derived from the orogenic flanks of the Sauce Grande and Karoo basins. Compositionally, the initial extensional phase of these basins was characterized by quartz-rich, craton-derived detritus and was followed by a compressional (foreland) phase characterized by a paleocurrent reversal and dominance of

  4. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  5. Caracterización morfométrica de la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Julia Gaspari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande abastece el complejo hidráulico Embalse Paso de las Piedras, comportándose como servicio ambiental primordial para el consumo hídrico de Bahía Blanca. El análisis de las características morfométricas y funcionales de una cuenca hidrográfica a través de parámetros de forma, relieve y red de drenaje, es básico en la modelación hidrológica para determinar el movimiento y captación del agua de lluvia. Estos indicadores pueden apoyar una formulación de un Sistema de Pago por Servicios Ambientales, como estrategia básica de ordenamiento territorial y desarrollo local, centrado en la oferta de agua generada por la cuenca. El objetivo fue caracterizar morfométricamente la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. La metodología aplicada se basó en establecer y analizar los parámetros morfométricos mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica y planillas de cálculo, a partir de un modelo digital del terreno e imágenes satelitales. Los resultados alcanzados definieron que la cuenca posee un área de 1502.6 km2. La longitud axial es de 41.6 km con un ancho promedio de 36.1 km. El Factor de forma (0.87 indica que posee forma alargada, siendo rectangular oblonga según el coeficiente de compacidad de Gravelius (2.8. La longitud del cauce principal es 58.34 km con pendiente media de 0.48 %. La densidad de drenaje es 0.27 km.km-2 y su coeficiente de sinuosidad 1.42. El tiempo de concentración es 11.8 hs. La curva hipsométrica adimensional corresponde a una cuenca con un avanzado grado de desarrollo. Todos estos parámetros facilitan la cuantificación del caudal líquido en la cuenca.

  6. Search for an annual modulation of dark-matter signals with a germanium spectrometer at the Sierra Grande Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Abriola, D.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Collar, J.I.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Farach, H.A.; Garcia, E.; Gattone, A.O.; Guerard, C.K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Salinas, A.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Data collected during three years with a germanium spectrometer at the Sierra Grande underground laboratory have been analyzed for distinctive features of annual modulation of the signal induced by WIMP dark matter candidates. The main motivation for this analysis was the recent suggestion by the DAMA/NaI Collaboration that a yearly modulation signal could not be rejected at the 90% confidence level when analyzing data obtained with a high-mass low-background scintillator detector. We performed two different analyses of the data: First, the statistical distribution of modulation-significance variables (expected from an experiment running under the conditions of Sierra Grande) was compared with the same variables obtained from the data. Second, the data were analyzed in energy bins as an independent check of the first result and to allow for the possibility of a crossover in the expected signal. In both cases no statistically significant deviation from the null result was found, which could support the hypothe...

  7. LINEAMIENTOS PARA LA FORMULACIÓN DE PAGOS POR SERVICIOS AMBIENTALES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: ALTA CUENCA DEL RÍO SAUCE GRANDE. ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Denegri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo son: presentar un diagnóstico integral de los principales problemas ambientales generados a partir de la pérdida de suelo por erosión hídrica superficial y exponer los principales lineamientos para la formulación del PSA de la Cuenca Alta del Río Sauce Grande. Metodológicamente se procedió a caracterizar el área en estudio, cuantificar la degradación por erosión hídrica superficial, describir las actividades productivas, conocer los principales consumidores de agua, definir los principales actores del sistema, e identificar los Servicios Ambientales, factibles de ser incluidos en un sistema de PSA. La cuenca presenta procesos erosivos de diferente magnitud y en algunas zonas dificultades en el abastecimiento de agua para la población. Existe un proceso de cambio en el uso de suelo de ganadero a agrícola y a turismo rural. Se concluye que en la cuenca existen condiciones para la implementación de un PSA porque se detectaron dos servicios ambientales factibles de ser pagados: agua y paisaje, con demanda creciente y existen actores e instituciones factibles de ejecutarlo.

  8. Análisis comparativo de la composición de tres comunidades de Squamata de la Sierra Grande de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Martori, Ricardo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The differences and similarities of lizard assemblages can be explaned by historical or ecological factors or by the interaction of both. To examine these hypothesis we selected three communities with similar environmental influences in the Sierra Grande de Córdoba (Argentina. The sites selected where: Villa Las Rosas (31°56', 65°03', dep. San Javier on the west side of the Sierra, Tanti (310,22, 64°36' dep. Punilla on the east side of the Sierra and Achiras (33°10', 64°59' dep. Rio Cuarto on the southem extreme of the Sierra. All these sites have more than eight species of lizards. The diversity of each site is described and the novelties, sustitutions and absences for each locality are discussed and compared with three external communities. A phylogenetic hypothesis of the species involved in this study is need to resolve the biogeographic problems.

  9. Fitogeografía de la Sierra Monte Grande, Charcas, San Luis Potosí, México

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    Reyes Agüero J. Antonio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Monte Grande is a small (41.8 km mountain range located at the southernmost part of the northern plateau of Mexico. It has a dry climate and its vegetation is characterized by pinyon woodland, oak scrub and three kinds of xerophytic scrub. Based on its flora of 397 species, we analyzed the historie phytogeography of Monte Grande, using only the taxa (families, genera and species that have a restricted distribution. At the family level, we identified three patterns of distribution: 1 from North America to northern South America; 2 mostly in the American continent; 3 families related to the Mediterranean region. At the genus level, five patterns were identified: 1 endemic of arid and semiarid lands of Mexico and adjacent regions of the United States; 2 from southern United States to Central America; 3 broadly distributed, but highly related to the Antillean region; 4 with Mediterranean relations; 5 disjunct or vicariant between the arid lands of North and South America. At the species level, nine patterns of distribution were identified: 1 septentrional plateau; 2 meridional plateau; 3 all plateaus and adjacent regions; 4 all plateaus-Sierra Madre de Oaxaca; 5 all plateaus-northwestern coast plain; 6 all plateaus-both coastal plains; 7 all plateaus-northeastern coastal plain; 8 Mexican xerophytic region; 9 all plateaus-both sierras Madre. These patterns are unlikely to be accidental, as they agree with recent theories about the process that led to the present landform configuration of the American Continent. On the basis of this interpretation, we postulate a major role of the Caribbean and the Former Mediterranean in the florigenesis of present linages of the arid and semiarid lands of Mexico.La sierra Monte Grande, con una extensión de 41.8 km, se localiza en el sur de la altiplanicie septentrional de México. Tiene un clima seco (8So y en ella prevalecen los matorrales xerófilos, piñonares y encinares. A partir de su flora, compuesta por 397

  10. Sauces for herring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lauer, B.H; Murray, M.C

    1978-01-01

    Heat stable sauces suitable for canning with herring have been developed. These sauces are similar to the types prepared in some European countries, but spiced to suit the European and Canadian preferences...

  11. Soy sauce allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K; Sugiura, M

    2010-07-01

    Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning. It is important to determine whether inflammation is caused by allergic reactions or histamine poisoning. We determined the volume of histamine in some sauces and performed prick test and laboratory tests. Four patients had positive reactions by prick test after using some sauces. We suspected that histamine caused their symptoms, but nine normal volunteers had negative reactions. Patient's specific IgE score to soy and wheat was class 0. The results showed that the sauce made from soybean and broad bean contained histamine, but histamine in other sauces was not detected. In this study, we confirmed by prick test, four cases of soy sauce allergy, which was caused by some products during brewing. When patients with inflammations around mouth, after a meal containing or using soy sauce, are examined, it should be considered whether dermatitis or cellulites were developed by allergic reaction or by histamine poisoning.

  12. Costos mínimos de compensación y cuantificación de la oferta hídrica en la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande, Argentina

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    Claudia Cecilia Carrascal Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estimar los costos de aumentar la oferta de disponibilidad hídrica a través del cambio en las prácticas de uso del suelo, para establecer el monto mínimo de compensación de un futuro Sistema de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales, dentro del territorio perteneciente a la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. Se trabajó en tres etapas: simulación de la infiltración para diferentes tormentas a través de la aplicación del modelo hidrológico HEC-HMS, cálculo de costos de reconversión de sistemas productivos y cálculo del costo del incremento en la disponibilidad de agua. Como resultados se presentan los mapas temáticos necesarios para simular la infiltración y las tablas que muestran esta variación en distintas recurrencias de tormenta y diferentes prácticas de manejo del suelo. Para la recurrencia 1:1 el costo de oportunidad fue de U$S 1.21.m-3, para la recurrencia de 1:3 fue de U$S 0.73.m-3, hasta llegar a la tormenta cuyo costo fue de U$S 0.62.m-3. Se concluye que estos costos permiten apoyar la planificación del recurso hídrico a través de un PSA y que para avanzar se debe realizar una valoración contingente para establecer la disponibilidad a pagar por los usuarios del servicio ambiental de la cuenca.

  13. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu [Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Lab. of Applied Physics; Yoshida, Koji

    1996-12-31

    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  14. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  15. Canned fish bites in tomato sauce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, R.C; Darfler, J.M

    1980-01-01

    Meatballs in tomato sauce are a popular canned convenience product. Since small bite-sized portions of a fish mixture in a creamy sauce had been found to be an acceptable product (Creamy Fish Bites...

  16. Structural and lithological conditioning of the large karst systems of the Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba; Condicionantes estructurales y litologicas de los grandes sistemas karsticos de la Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Guanche, C.; Ramirez Hernandez, R.; Farfan Gonzalez, H.; Estevez Cruz, E.; Ordaz Hernandez, A.; Aldana Vilas, C.

    2016-07-01

    he karst, a complex phenomenon, is governed by a number of variables which dictate its genesis and evolution. Among these variables tectonic settings and lithology play the main role. In Cuba, approximately 65% of the territory is occupied by karst. The Sierra de los Organos, part of Cordillera de Guaniguanico, has some of the largest karstic systems in the country. With the aim of demonstrating the relationship between the spatial and morphological development of the underground karstic systems and the geological structure and lithology of the area, several structural and morphological measurements and field observations have been made. These measurements and observations allowing us to conclude that the karstic processes take place mainly in massive, relatively homogeneous and very thick limestone in the Sierra de los Organos. Moreover, these rocks are characterized by both low porosity and a high degree of fracturing. These karstic forms are also conditioned by the existence of various fracturing systems with general NE-SW and NW-SE orientations. Interception of these fracturing systems provides, as expected, areas with the largest volumes of karstic cavities. (Author)

  17. Criteria for prick test using soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Keiji; Sugiura, Mariko

    2012-05-01

    We previously reported four cases of soy sauce allergy and noted that new criteria are necessary for the prick test. Soy sauce contains histamine and often causes false-positive reactions in the skin tests. It is important to discuss how to interpret the results of prick tests. Eight female patients with soy sauce allergy and four female volunteers as controls were given the prick test using 15 sauces and were evaluated according to nine criteria. The volume of histamine in 15 sauces was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The conventional criteria resulted in nine different reactions. Some of the control subjects showed false-positive reactions according to the conventional criteria. Histamine was detected in 11 sauces and was not detected in four sauces. The positive ratios of these four sauces were low; there were no positive reactions in controls according to the new criteria. Regardless of patients or controls, the positive ratio evaluated using the conventional criteria was higher than that evaluated using the new criteria in the sauces containing histamine. It is difficult to evaluate the results of the prick test using soy sauce with the conventional criteria because the results were different depending on each criterion. Our new criteria are more suitable for evaluating the results of the prick test using soy sauce than the conventional criteria, and they could decrease the number of false-positive reactions. Common diagnostic criteria are needed for prick testing using pseudoallergens. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Antioxidant activity of fish sauces including puffer (Lagocephalus wheeleri) fish sauce measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    Fish sauces are fermented seasonings traditionally used throughout Asia, including Japan. Here, we report on the antioxidant activity of 30 fish sauces, among them a puffer fish sauce developed specifically for this study. To determine the antioxidant activity (i.e., the peroxyl radical elimination capacity) of the fish sauces, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) was measured. ORAC values ranged between 104 µmol (flatfish sauce 1) and 103 µmol (sandfish sauce) trolox equivalent (TE)/100 ml of fish sauce. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50) was measured using electron spin resonance. IC50 values ranged between 0.081% (puffer fish sauce) and 0.653% (sardine fish sauce 7). Puffer fish sauce had a high ORAC value (8,365 µmol TE/100 ml) and the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.081). The relationship between the ORAC and IC50 values of the 30 fish sauces was determined to be intermediate (r =-0.521, p=0.01).

  19. BEHAVIOUR OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FRESH SAUCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Grassi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ready to use fresh sauces are among Ready to Eat foods for which producers need to respect the 100 UFC/g limit for the presence of L. monocytogenes. In the current research a Challenge test was performed on fresh mushroom and cheese sauces. Both were placed at two storage temperatures and the L. monocytogenes potential growth (d was evaluated. Only cheese sauce stored at 8°C showed a δ> 0,5 log10 UFC/g. However, considering the limited initial contamination it can be excluded that the product could reach 100 UFC/g by the expiration date.

  20. Aroma and Uniqueness of Soy Sauce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tadanobu NAKADAI

    2007-01-01

    .... Soy sauce has first become popular in the world as a premiere seasoning for meat dishes, but it can be expected to gain popularity as the best seasoning for fish in the midst of gaining importance...

  1. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil fortification in Cambodia: where do we stand to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.

  2. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned...

  3. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  4. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  5. Immunological functions of soy sauce: hypoallergenicity and antiallergic activity of soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makio

    2005-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of East Asian countries and is available throughout the world. In Japanese soy sauce (shoyu), soybeans and wheat are the two main raw materials, used in almost the same quantity. Proteins of the raw materials are completely degraded into peptides and amino acids by microbial proteolytic enzymes after fermentation, and no allergens of the raw materials are present in soy sauce. In contrast, polysaccharides originating from the cell wall of soybeans are resistant to enzymatic hydrolyses. These polysaccharides are present in soy sauce even after fermentation and termed shoyu polysaccharides (SPS). Soy sauce generally contains about 1% (w/v) SPS and SPS exhibit potent antiallergic activities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, an oral supplementation of SPS is an effective intervention for patients with allergic rhinitis in two double-blind placebo-controlled clinical studies. In conclusion, soy sauce would be a potentially promising seasoning for the treatment of allergic diseases through food because of its hypoallergenicity and antiallergic activity.

  6. Production of Japanese soy-sauce flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.

    2001-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher

  7. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author).

  8. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  9. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    OpenAIRE

    HOLANDA, Natálya Vidal de; GOMES, Joyciane da Silva; SANTOS, Sandra Maria Lopes dos; DAMACENO, Marlene Nunes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory), counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without se...

  10. Diversidad y datos reproductivos de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el bosque mesófilo de montaña de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, México Medium and large mammal diversity and reproductive data in the cloud forest, Biosphere Reserve of Sierra Manantlán, Jalisco-Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aranda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM es uno de los ecosistemas con menor extensión territorial y de los más amenazados en México. Este trabajo presenta datos sobre la riqueza, abundancia relativa, actividad y datos reproductivos de especies de mamíferos medianos y grandes en el BMM ubicado en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán. Entre febrero de 2008 y agosto de 2009, mediante la utilización de fototrampas, se obtuvieron 372 registros independientes que corresponden a 17 especies. Esta información respalda la elección adecuada de método y sitios de monitoreo. Los resultados indican que el ecosistema se encuentra en buen estado de conservación, lo que coincide con lo que en fecha reciente registró la Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Es recomendable establecer acciones de monitoreo a mediano y largo plazo en múltiples sitios, para complementar la evaluación que se ha realizado de este ecosistema en el país.The cloud forest (CF is one of the ecosystems with less surface and the most threatened in Mexico. This paper presents information on the richness, relative abundance, activity and reproductive data of medium and large mammals in the CF located in the Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve. Between February 2008 and August 2009, we used camera-traps with which we obtained 372 independent records, corresponding to 17 species. We believe this data supports an appropriate choice of method and monitoring sites; but also data on richness, abundance and reproduction of the species indicate that the ecosystem is properly preserved in the area, which is consistent with recently reported Conabio. Therefore we recommend establishing monitoring activities in the medium and long term in multiple sites, which could complement the assessment that has been undertaken at national level in this ecosystem.

  11. Effect of temperature on moromi fermentation of soy sauce with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was learned that as the aging of moromi took place, the pH level was decreased from pH 7 to 4.88. Also, the soy sauce had lower concentration of ethanol when higher temperature was used in moromi fermentation but the difference of temperature did not show significantly effect on total nitrogen content in soy sauce.

  12. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálya Vidal de HOLANDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory, counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without sensory alteration during the storage period, with olfactory alteration only at the end. The commercial demi-glace sauce remained unchanged until t3 (30 days, from t4 (45 days presented turbid appearance, followed by phase separation and with unpleasant odor in t6 (75 days. The lipid oxidation showed an increased concentration of malonaldehyde at every evaluated time. The artisanal and commercial demi-glace sauces showed a significant difference at t1, t2, t4 and t5, when the artisanal sauce had lower contents of malonaldehyde (18, 23, 36 and 11%, respectively, only at the 30th and 75th days of storage there was significant similarity. The sauces were within the microbiological standards required by the law. Although the artisanal demi-glace sauce does not contain conservatives, its shelf life was similar to the hydrated commercial product.

  13. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  14. Effect of temperature on moromi fermentation of soy sauce with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Soy sauce is produced by two-steps fermentation processes, namely koji fermentation and moromi fermentation. In this study, different ... teins into peptides and amino acids while amylase enzymes will hydrolyze starch ... supplied to the fermentation broth, the changes and pro- duction of flavor in soy sauce ...

  15. Degradation of wheat allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makio; Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Tanabe, Soichi

    2004-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of East Asian countries and is available throughout the world. Wheat and soybeans are the 2 main raw materials of soy sauce, and soy sauce also contains a high concentration of salt. Since wheat allergy is considered a serious problem globally, it is significant to examine the allergenicity of soy sauce. In this study, by immunoblotting, inhibition ELISA and direct ELISA using sera from 5 children with wheat allergy, it was clearly demonstrated that wheat allergens were degraded into amino acids and peptides losing the IgE-binding ability in both salt-soluble and salt-insoluble fractions of soy sauce during fermentation. Furthermore, no wheat allergen was detected in 10 items of commercial soy sauce in Japan, by inhibition ELISA or direct ELISA using the sera of patients. In the brewing process of soy sauce, first salt-insoluble wheat allergen was solubilized to salt water during the koji stage (mold cultivation and enzyme production), and second both the resultant salt-solubilized and initially salt-soluble wheat allergens were completely degraded during the moromi stage (fermentation) by microbial proteolytic enzymes. Therefore, it was concluded that no wheat allergen is contained in soy sauce.

  16. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. 319.306 Section 319.306 Animals and Animal Products... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.306 Spaghetti...

  18. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author).

  19. Biochemical Changes in the Fermentation of the Soy Sauce Prepared with Bittern

    OpenAIRE

    Chunqi Mao; Guoqing He; Xinyong Du; Meilin Cui; Shiyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    A new bittern soy sauce was developed; the overall aim of this study was to characterize the quality of the soy sauce. Biochemical changes occurring during experimental soy sauce fermentations were described. Results revealed that, the contents of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars and enzyme activity were slightly lower in soy sauce prepared with bittern than with traditional one. No marked difference in pH was noted between the two types of soy sauce.

  20. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  1. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  2. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  3. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Persistence of Aflatoxin During the Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maing, Il-Young; Ayres, J. C.; Koehler, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    Aflatoxin was produced by Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 but not by A. oryzae during fermentation of soy sauce. Little aflatoxin was degraded within 6 weeks unless Lactobacillus delbrueckii also was present. PMID:4736791

  5. Compositional fingerprint of soy sauces via hydrophobic surface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Victoria; Salmen, Paul; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the interaction of soy sauces with hydrophobic surfaces has been analyzed. Hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers on gold or silicon dioxide were used to harvest conditioning layers from soy sauce products with varying amounts of additives. The data was compared to adsorption of soy protein and glutamic acid as common ingredients. Spectral ellipsometry revealed that all tested sauces led to the formation of thin overlayers on hydrophobic surfaces. Products with less additives yielded adlayers in the same thickness range as pure soy protein. In contrast, sauces with more ingredients create distinctly thicker films. Using water contact angle goniometry, it is shown that all adlayers render the substrate more hydrophilic. Infrared spectroscopy provided a deeper insight into the adlayer chemistry and revealed that the adlayer composition is dominated by protein rich components. X-ray reflectivity on selected films provided further insight into the density profiles within the adlayers on the molecular scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  7. Biochemical changes in low-salt fermentation of solid- state soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Biochemical changes during the aging of the soy sauce mash were investigated. ... sauce, we studied some bio-chemical changes during the ..... Physical and chemical changes in fermented peanut and soybean pastes.

  8. Returnees in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudena Skran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over ten years of brutal civil war displaced approximately4.5 million people, about half Sierra Leone’s population.After the conflict ended in 2001, UNHCR facilitated theparticipation of both returnee refugees and returnee IDPsin community-level reconstruction projects.

  9. Sierra University in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis, Francisco Manuel Orozco

    2003-01-01

    Sierra University was designed to promote the development of the mountain communities in the State of Sonora, Mexico. The university offers high school graduates an opportunity to pursue their studies in their home region, in order to stimulate economic development and contribute to social cohesion in the highlands area. The university is equipped…

  10. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...

  11. Sensory properties and consumer perception of wet and dry cheese sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica L; Yates, Michele D; Drake, MaryAnne

    2009-08-01

    Flavor and texture lexicons and consumer perception for 2 cheese sauce categories, wet and dry, were determined and compared. Commercial and prototype, as well as homemade, wet (n = 24) and dry cheese sauces (n = 14) were evaluated by a trained descriptive panel (n = 9). Consumer acceptance testing was conducted on representative wet sauces (10) and dry sauces (8) on different days (n = 122 consumers each day). Cheese sauces were served over pasta for consumer testing. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the collected data. Flavor and cheese flavor liking were highly correlated with overall liking for both wet and dry sauces. Salty taste was a key driver of liking for both cheese sauce categories. Flavor attributes of wet sauces that contributed most to higher acceptance were beefy/brothy, sweet/caramelized, and free fatty acid. Liking of dry sauces was driven by Alfredo sauce specific flavors such as onion/garlic and herbal for 2 of the consumer clusters, but beefy/brothy and free fatty acid were drivers for the traditional macaroni and cheese consumers. The impact of color/appearance and texture attributes had only a minor influence on consumer liking. By knowing what drives liking in wet and dry cheese sauces, researchers and product developers can more easily develop cheese sauces that appeal to all categories of consumers.

  12. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  13. Suppression of umami aftertaste by polysaccharides in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Miho; Matsushima, Kenichiro

    2013-08-01

    Umami is one of 5 basic tastes that make foods savory and palatable. The umami aftertaste is a long-lasting taste sensation that is important for Japanese broth (dashi) utilized for various Japanese foods. Soy sauce is usually added when making dashi-based dishes; however, different soy sauces produce distinct effects on the umami aftertaste. In this study, we attempted to identify the substances that cause the suppression of the umami aftertaste in soy sauce by combining sensory analysis, size fractionation, chemical analysis, and enzymatic treatment. The suppressive substance was revealed to be polysaccharides with molecular weights between 44900 and 49700. The results of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment suggested that the polysaccharides were cellulose. These results indicate that a type of water-soluble cellulose derived from soybean, wheat, or microorganisms has a suppressive effect on the umami aftertaste of soy sauce. Future studies should focus on developing a strategy that regulates the amount of these polysaccharides generated during soy sauce production, to maintain or enhance the umami aftertaste. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabonomics profiling of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Wang, Ying; Cao, Jinxuan

    2017-07-31

    Marinated meat in soy sauce is one of the most popular traditional cured meat products in China. Its taste quality is directly related to primary and secondary metabolites. Herein, the change of metabolite composition of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing was systematically characterised using (1) H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The marinated meat in soy sauce metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 78.6% and 16.6% of variables, respectively. Amino acids, sugars, acetate, succinate, uracil and inosine increased during marinating, while lactate, creatine, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) and anserine decreased (P sauce during the late stage of dry-ripening. These findings indicated that the potential of NMR-based metabonomics is of importance for taste quality of marinated meat in soy sauce, which could contribute to a better understanding of the changes of taste compounds in meat products during processing. Shortening the dry-ripening period could be considered to improve the taste quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Reduction of salt content of fish sauce by ethanol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Ying; He, Xiaoxia; Wang, Dongfeng; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Jiang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Fish sauce is a traditional condiment in Southeast Asia, normally containing high concentration of salt. The solubility of salt is lower in ethanol than in water. In the present study, fish sauce was desalted by ethanol treatment (including the processes of ethanol addition, mixing, standing and rotary evaporation). The salt concentration of fish sauce decreased significantly from 29.72 to 19.72 g/100 mL when the treated ethanol concentration was 21% (v/v). The addition of more than 12% (v/v) of ethanol significantly reduced dry weight, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acids nitrogen content. Besides, the quality of fish sauce remained first grade if no more than 21% (v/v) of ethanol was used. Furthermore, sensory analyses showed that ethanol treatment significantly reduced the taste of salty and the odor of ammonia. This study demonstrates that ethanol treatment is a potential way to decrease salt content in fish sauce, which meanwhile limits the losses of nutritional and sensorial values within an acceptable range.

  17. Grandes remolques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available El empleo creciente del material pesado auxiliar en la construcción de obras de ingeniería civil ha motivado la fabricación de grandes plataformas, capaces de transportar toda clase de maquinaria auxiliar. En general, este tipo de maquinaria requiere medios de transporte, pues su circulación por carreteras es lenta, obstructiva y cara, siempre que se trate de grandes distancias, caso presente en la mayoría de ocasiones en que se exige un traslado de esta maquinaria de una a otra obra.

  18. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  19. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  20. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  1. Rapid quantification of iron content in fish sauce and soy sauce: a promising tool for monitoring fortification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Picq, Christian; Berger, Jacques; Sambath, Pol; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In a number of Southeast Asian countries and China, fish sauce and soy sauce produced at the industrial level are fortified with iron. Unfortunately, the food producers and regulatory agencies implementing fortification programs do not always have the capacity to monitor the programs on an ongoing basis. To assess a new portable device for the quantitative measurement of iron content of fortified sauces that could be used to control fortification levels. The linearity, detection limits, and inter- and intraassay variability of this device were assessed on fish sauce and soy sauce fortified with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); the accuracy of the results was determined by comparing them with the results obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Measurements required a minimum incubation time of 1 hour for iron sulfate or iron fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA. Linearity of the results ranged from 2 to 10 mg iron/L for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and from 1 to 10 mg iron/L for NaFeEDTA, implying the need for proper dilution, as the iron contents of fortified sauce are usually in the range of 150 to 1,000 mg/L. Depending on incubation time, iron compounds, and sauces, the coefficient of variation (CV) of intraassay precision was between 1.5% and 7.6% and the CV of interassay precision was between 2.9% and 7.4%. Comparison with results from atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed high agreement between both methods, with R = 0.926 and R = 0.935 for incubation times of 1 hour and 24 hours, respectively. The Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement between the two methods of +/- 70 mg/L in the range of fortification levels tested (100 to 500 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS; This device offers a viable method for field monitoring of iron fortification of soy and fish sauces after incubation times of 1 hour for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA.

  2. Grandes cocinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García de Castro, Emilio

    1957-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describen en este artículo una serie de aparatos para grandes cocinas, vistos por los autores durante un rápido viaje por Alemania. Aprovechando los datos obtenidos se analizan brevemente las necesidades de una gran cocina moderna, comentando los planos de las instalaciones en varios hoteles o instituciones de todo el mundo. La mayoría de la información.

  3. African Journals Online: Sierra Leone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. The Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research publishes papers in all fields of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences including Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Dental Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Pharmaceutical ...

  4. Characterization of fermented seaweed sauce prepared from nori (Pyropia yezoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Motoharu; Kurushima, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kenji; Murata, Yuko; Touhata, Ken; Ishida, Noriko; Niwa, Kentaro; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed. As for their food safety, arsenic was detected at a 0.8 mg/100 g level in total, but inorganic arsenic was not detected (sauce has a high potential as a novel nutritional source for humans. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salt reduction in foods using naturally brewed soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Stefanie; Mojet, Jozina; Shimojo, Ryo

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be associated with a decrease in consumer acceptance. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether or not it would be possible to reduce the NaCl content in standard Western European foods by replacing it with naturally brewed soy sauce. Three types of foods were investigated: salad dressing (n = 56), soup (n = 52), and stir-fried pork (n = 57). In the 1st step, an exchange rate (ER) by which NaCl can be replaced with soy sauce without a significant change in the overall taste intensity was established per product type, by means of alternative forced choice tests. In the 2nd step, the same consumers evaluated 5 samples per product type with varying NaCl and/or soy sauce content on pleasantness and several sensory attributes. The results showed that it was possible to achieve a NaCl reduction in the tested foods of, respectively, 50%, 17%, and 29% without leading to significant losses in either overall taste intensity or product pleasantness. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with naturally brewed soy sauce without lowering the overall taste intensity and to reduce the total NaCl content in these foods without decreasing their consumer acceptance. Health concerns related to salt consumption cause an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, the development of foods with reduced salt content without decreasing the consumer acceptance is an important challenge for the food industry. A new possible salt reduction approach is described in the present article: The replacement of salt with naturally brewed soy sauce.

  6. Effect of halotolerant starter microorganisms on chemical characteristics of fermented chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Kawai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Koji; Tanaka, Akira; Nishikiori, Takafumi; Ohta, Tomoki

    2010-05-26

    Chum salmon sauce mash was inoculated with barley koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae ) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii , Candida versatilis , and Tetragenococcus halophilus , in nine different combinations under non-aseptic conditions similar to the industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days. The changes in the chemical components, color, and sensory properties during fermentation were investigated. Free amino acid content was increased, and the browning of fish sauce was enhanced by the usage of barley koji during fermentation. The halotolerant yeast (HTY) produced ethanol and repressed the browning by consumption of reducing sugar. Inoculated Z. rouxii in the fish sauce mash produced 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and 4-hydoxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), and C. versatilis in the fish sauce mash produced 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), known as characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, adding soy-sauce-like flavor to the fish sauce. Thus, inoculation of HTMs and barley koji was effective for conferring the soy-sauce-like flavor and increasing free amino acid and ethanol contents in fish sauce product.

  7. Grand folly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    ... of the year access is impossible due to the high snows of the Kaibab Plateau. Therefore the people, bless them, are few, and backpackers with guns are free to be obnoxious. Each year, 90 percent of the 4.6 million tourists who visit Grand Canyon National Park gather on the South Rim, which is more easily accessed and friendlier to the family in the sedan. This produces a condition of overcrowding that explains why, to a lover of wildness and solitude, the South Rim is such a wretched place to visit....

  8. Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shigehiro

    2005-09-01

    The functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) have been studied. Soy sauce promotes digestion, because the consumption of a cup of clear soup containing soy sauce enhances gastric juice secretion in humans. Soy sauce possesses antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella enteritidis, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Soy sauce also contains an antihypertensive component. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor having antihypertensive effects was found in soy sauce. The active compound was identified as nicotianamine, which comes from soybeans. Soy sauce exhibits anticarcinogenic effects. Giving diets containing soy sauce to mice inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach neoplasia. The anticarcinogenic compounds in soy sauce were identified. The flavor components of Japanese style fermented soy sauce, such as 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), which is a characteristic flavor component of Japanese style fermented soy sauce and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) exhibit antioxidant activities and anticarcinogenic effects on BP-induced mice forestomach neoplasia when fed following carcinogen exposure. The feeding of a diet containing 10% soy sauce to male C3H mice for 13 months also reduces the frequency and multiplicity of spontaneous liver tumors. HDMF and HEMF also exhibit anticataract effects in the spontaneous cataract rat (ICR/f rat). Fermented soy sauce contains three tartaric isoflavone derivatives called shoyuflavones. These shoyuflavones were shown to have inhibitory activities against histidine decarboxylase, which produces histamine, a mediator of inflammation, allergy and gastric acid secretion. Soy sauce also exhibits antiplatelet activity. beta-Carbolines were isolated from soy sauce as the active compounds. Soybeans and wheat, which are the

  9. Sierra Nevada Subregional Boundary - Sierra Nevada Conservancy [ds542

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sierra Nevada Conservancy (SNC) boundary. The boundary was mapped to correspond with statute AB 2600 (2004) and as re-defined in AB 1201 (2005). Work on the boundary...

  10. Occurrence of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other foods in China between 2002 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wu Sheng; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing Guang; Tang, Chang Dong; Miao, Hong; Ma, Jin Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yong Ning

    2007-08-01

    A survey of chloropropanols in soy sauce and some selected foods in China is reported. Thirty-seven traditionally brewed soy sauce samples contained 3-MCPD below the EC maximum limit (ML) of 0.02 mg kg(-1). All soy sauce samples (629) from retailers contained levels of 3-MCPD ranging between instant noodle spices and health foods, ranging from 0.029 to 13.64 mg kg(-1). It is concluded that abnormal levels of 3-MCPD in soy sauce or other foods produced in China may result from acid hydrolysis or the addition of the contaminated acid HVP.

  11. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  12. Sierra Meadows Project [ds4

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Recognizing Montane Meadows and Quaking Aspen communities are a rare and valuable resource to plant and animal species in the Sierra Nevada, this project represents...

  13. Sierra Leone - Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    When Sierra Leone emerged from its long civil war at the beginning of 2002, it had many pressing needs for recovery and reconstruction. As a consequence, Sierra Leone was one of the largest beneficiaries of foreign aid as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and aid per capita. Since then, as peace has been consolidated, the level of external assistance has gradually declined from 15.5 ...

  14. Development of a Sauce Using Gymnema sylvestre Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. A. N. Perera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant derived products have attracted enormous attention due to their diverse range of biological and therapeutic properties. Gymnema sylvestre is an underutilized medicinal herb that is widely distributed in different parts of the world. It is rich in phytochemicals with antidiabetic and antiobesity properties; however, it is less popular due to its bitter taste. This study was focused on developing a sauce using leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. The most acceptable composition (17.2% water, 4.8% vinegar, 3.2% sweet potato, 2.6% chili, 2.0% sugar, 2.0% cinnamon, 2.0% cardamom, 1.8% ginger, 1.8% garlic, 1.2% onion, 1.2% salt, 0.1% citric acid, and 0.1% sodium benzoate of the sauce was with 60% leaf extract. Final product contains 73.54% ± 1.68 moisture, 19.92% ± 2.59 carbohydrate, 2.98% ± 0.44 ash, 2.61% ± 0.58 protein, 0.88% ± 0.05 fiber, and 0.05% ± 0.01 fat. The total flavonoid content was 243.67 ± 8.57 µ moles of rutin equivalent, total phenolic content was 65.44 ± 0.51 µ moles of gallic acid equivalent, and % of inhibition of DPPH of total antioxidant capacity was 43.70 ± 0.72. Sauce formulated with 1000 ppm sodium benzoate had six weeks of shelf life. The results showed that development of a sauce from G. sylvestre leaves is an effective way of delivering the health benefits to the potential consumers.

  15. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P Fish sauce inoculated with T. halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product.

  17. Immobilized soy-sauce yeasts : development and characterization of a new polyethylene-oxide support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Mulder, A.N.T.; Grolle, K.C.F.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Schure, ter E.G.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of cells in alginate gel is a widely used mild immobilization procedure. However, alginate gel is not very suitable for use in long-term continuous soy-sauce processes because alginate is sensitive to abrasion and chemically unstable towards the high salt content of soy-sauce medium.

  18. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in soy sauce, a fermented seasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, S; Hara-Kudo, Y; Kumagai, S

    1998-06-01

    We studied five Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in soy sauce which was incubated at 4, 18, or 30 degrees C after inoculation. The cell numbers of E. coli O157:H7 decreased to an undetectable level (soy sauce samples at 30 degrees C, but did not decrease in the 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.0) control solution under the same conditions. Soy sauce reduced the cell numbers of bacteria at 18 degrees C to a lesser extent than at 30 degrees C, but to a greater extent than at 4 degrees C. Components of soy sauce such as 10% or 16% NaCl, 5% ethanol, lactic acid, or acetic acid at pH 4.5, sodium benzoate (0.6 g/kg), or p-hydroxybenzoic acid n-butyl ester (0.05 g/liter) caused a reduction of the E. coli O157:H7 population at 30 degrees C, and the anti-E. coli O157:H7 effect of each component was less than that of soy sauce. The fate of E. coli O157:H7 cells in a buffered solution containing various components of soy sauce resembled that in soy sauce at 30 degrees C, which demonstrated the importance of the combination of the soy sauce components for its anti-E coli O157:H7 action.

  19. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57–68%), total flavonoid content

  20. Development of a non-commercial sugar-free barbecue sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenge has always been to be able to manufacture a sugar free sauce. A basic barbecue sauce formulation was used to make 5 sugar-free preparations combining selected levels of xanthan gum, modified waxy maize starch, sucralose, and acesulfame-K. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory prope...

  1. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingtian, Yang; Xinhua, Jin; Guoxing, Gu; Guichun, Yun

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both of effects for sterilization and improving flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. All colibacillus in soy sauce were sterilized using 1 kGy radiation dose and total bacteria count in soy sauce can be reduced to below national standard at 5 kGy dose ( 5x10 4count/ml ). But above 10 kGy dose is needed to kill all bacteria in soy sauce. The significant changes on chemical components in soy sauce irradiated at 5-7 kGy dose took place: raduceing-sugar increased by 1-10%, total amount of 18 kinds of free amino acid raised between 3.5-28 %, emerging-sweet smell substances which have low boiling point, such as alchols, aldehydes and esters obviously increased. The taste-specialists from some soy sauce factories concluded that flavour and quality of soy sauce irradiated are better than non-irradiated.

  2. Inactivation of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in soy sauce-marinated and frozen freshwater crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Im; Oh, Se-Ra; Dai, Fuhong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Ha, Sang-Do; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) are a source of human paragonimiasis. The viability of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in marinated crabs was investigated in an experimental setting. The PwMc collected from freshwater crayfish were inoculated into freshwater crabs, which were then frozen or marinated in soy sauce. All PwMc in the freshwater crabs were inactivated after freezing for 48 h at -20 °C and after freezing for 12 h at -40 °C. After marinating for 32 days, the survival rate of PwMc in 5% NaCl soy sauce was 50%, in 7.5% NaCl soy sauce it was 33.3%, and in 10.0% NaCl soy sauce it was 31.3%. When marinated for 64 days, all PwMc were inactivated in all experimental groups. These results revealed that freezing and soy sauce marination were detrimental to the survival of PwMc in freshwater crabs. Specifically, freezing crabs for more than 48 h or soaking them in soy sauce containing at least 5.0% NaCl for 64 days can inactivate PwMc. These results can inform the production of the traditional Korean soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs known as gejang.

  3. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  4. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji; Hanya, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. In this study, we estimated that approximately 60% of the glutamate in soy sauce is produced through the glutaminase reaction. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A. sojae. The glutamate concentration in soy sauce prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptant was approximately 60% lower than that in the control strain, whereas it was decreased by approximately 20-30% in the ΔgahA-ΔgahB disruptant. However, the glutamate concentration was unchanged in the soy sauces prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔggtA-Δgls and ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptants. These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce.

  5. Biochemical changes in low-salt fermentation of solidstate soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce was prepared with defatted soy bean and wheat bran. Biochemical changes during the aging of the soy sauce mash were investigated. Results show that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing sugar, total ...

  6. Biochemical changes in low-salt fermentation of solid- state soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce was prepared with defatted soy bean and wheat bran. Biochemical changes during the aging of the soy sauce mash were investigated. Results show that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing ...

  7. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce was prepared with defatted soy bean and wheat bran. Biochemical changes during the aging of the soy sauce mash were investigated. Results showed that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids,.

  8. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce was prepared with defatted soy bean and wheat bran. Biochemical changes during the aging of the soy sauce mash were investigated. Results showed that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing sugar, total ...

  9. Soy sauce and its umami taste: a link from the past to current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Selamat, Jinap; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2010-04-01

    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.

  10. Characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for reduction of citrulline accumulation during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the amount of citrulline produced by arginine-consuming bacteria in the moromi mash during soy sauce production. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JY06, a salt-tolerant strain with high arginine consumption ability and low citrulline accumulation capacity, was isolated from moromi mash. The concentration of citrulline was decreased from 26.8 to 5.1 mM and ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, after sterilization, decreased from 97 to 17 μg kg(-1) when B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 was added during fermentation. The aroma of the sauce was improved by increasing the ester content. B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 is a beneficial bacterium that can be used in soy sauce fermentation to eliminate ethyl carbonate and enhance the flavor of the sauce.

  11. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce.

  12. Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-04-10

    An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan.

  13. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  14. (13)C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Yuan, Bin; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-02

    It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  15. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  16. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  17. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  19. Modeling interfacial fracture in Sierra.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Arthur A.; Ohashi, Yuki; Lu, Wei-Yang; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Foulk, James W.,; Reedy, Earl David,; Austin, Kevin N.; Margolis, Stephen B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes computational efforts to model interfacial fracture using cohesive zone models in the SIERRA/SolidMechanics (SIERRA/SM) finite element code. Cohesive surface elements were used to model crack initiation and propagation along predefined paths. Mesh convergence was observed with SIERRA/SM for numerous geometries. As the funding for this project came from the Advanced Simulation and Computing Verification and Validation (ASC V&V) focus area, considerable effort was spent performing verification and validation. Code verification was performed to compare code predictions to analytical solutions for simple three-element simulations as well as a higher-fidelity simulation of a double-cantilever beam. Parameter identification was conducted with Dakota using experimental results on asymmetric double-cantilever beam (ADCB) and end-notched-flexure (ENF) experiments conducted under Campaign-6 funding. Discretization convergence studies were also performed with respect to mesh size and time step and an optimization study was completed for mode II delamination using the ENF geometry. Throughout this verification process, numerous SIERRA/SM bugs were found and reported, all of which have been fixed, leading to over a 10-fold increase in convergence rates. Finally, mixed-mode flexure experiments were performed for validation. One of the unexplained issues encountered was material property variability for ostensibly the same composite material. Since the variability is not fully understood, it is difficult to accurately assess uncertainty when performing predictions.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  1. Enrichment of antioxidants from soy sauce using macroporous resin and identification of 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol as key small molecule antioxidants in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Lin, Lianzhu; Feng, Yunzi; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Xiuting; Zhu, Qiyuan; Xiao, Zuobing

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of seven macroporous resins on the antioxidants in soy sauce were investigated. SP-207 and SP-825 resins possessing good adsorption and desorption capacities were studied further. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models were demonstrated to be appropriate to describe the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of antioxidants onto resins. The 60% ethanol eluted fraction from soy sauce purified by SP-825 resin column possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities and contents of typical soy isoflavones, furanones, pyranones, and phenolic acids in soy sauce were determined. These compounds contributed to 50.02% of the total antioxidant activity of the SP-60% fraction. The key small molecule antioxidant compounds in soy sauce were identified as 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol by the antioxidants omission experiments. Additionally, the purified active fraction with high contents of antioxidants from soy sauce could be applied as bioactive ingredient in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes) sauce in reducing hydroxyl radical damage to DNA assessed using the apurinic/apyrimidinic site method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Makino, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Tomio; Fukuda, Nami; Tamaru, Miki; Okubo, Yasue; Maeda, Toshimichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Shiba, Tsuneo

    2007-09-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are frequently observed DNA lesions when cells are exposed to hydroxyl radicals. We developed a new method for measurement of the antioxidative activity of foods using the occurrence frequency of AP sites on DNA. Combined with the electron spin resonance (ESR) method as a standard method, we examined whether fish and soy sauces including puffer fish [Takifugu rubripes (Temminck et Schlegel)] sauce could protect DNA from damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. The results showed that the ratios of DNA protection by puffer fish sauce, salmon fish sauce, sandfish fish sauce (Shottsuru), colorless soy sauce, squid fish sauce (Ishiru), dark color soy sauce and light color soy sauce were 68.9, 67.0, 60.1, 49.7, 34.1, 28.2 and -4.4%, respectively. Puffer, salmon, and sandfish fish sauces showed high ratios of DNA protection against hydroxyl radicals. On the other hand, IC(50) values of hydroxyl radical scavenging of the puffer, salmon, sandfish, squid fish sauces and colorless, dark and light color soy sauces were 0.20, 0.09, 4.16, 0.26% and 0.28, 0.14 and 0.18%, respectively. Though the puffer fish sauce exhibited the highest level of DNA protection among the examined samples and a high hydroxyl radical scavenging capability, a correlation between the radical scavenging capability and DNA protection against hydroxyl radicals among the examined fish and soy sauces was not found.

  3. Determination and Quantification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Vinegars and Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic compound 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF can be formed from sugars under Maillard reaction and caramelization. In order to study the formation regular of HMF in sugary liquid condiment, vinegar and soy sauce were selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the HMF concentrations of various brands of soy sauce and vinegar. The result showed that HMF concentrations were in a range of 0.42 to 115.43 mg/kg for vinegar samples and 0.43 to 5.85 mg/kg for soy sauce samples. The concentrates of HMF were expressed in zero-order kinetics model at 100°C before the maximum HMF generation in all of the tested samples. Longer heating treatment time would reduce the HMF content in tested samples. In addition, HMF content had obviously positive correlation with sugar contents in vinegar samples, but no similar rule was found in soy sauces.

  4. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sauce-type Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk Hee; Park, Joung Whan; Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from naturally fermented sauce-type kimchi. Sauce-type kimchi was prepared with fresh, chopped ingredients (Korean cabbage, radish, garlic, ginger, green onion, and red pepper). The two isolated bacteria from sauce-type kimchi were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rDNA sequencing and tentatively named Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2, respectively. Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 was isolated from the early and middle fermentation stages of sauce-type kimchi whereas Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 was isolated from the late fermentation stage. The resistance of Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 to artificial gastric and bile acids led to bacterial survival rates that were 100% and 84.21%, respectively.

  5. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH resins, while the pseudo-second-order kinetics model accurately described the XAD-16 and HP-2 MGL resins. Furthermore, the adsorption processes of the peptides followed the Freundlich model. The XAD-16 resin was the most effective resin for the enrichment of peptides due to its high adsorption and total desorption capacities. Interestingly, the umami peptides were enriched in the deionized water fraction. This study provides new insights into exploring performance and separation characteristics of macroporous resins on soy sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  7. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  8. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Secular trends in salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianlong; Li, Suyun; Zhao, Jinshan; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Liansen; Wang, Kebo

    2017-06-28

    Salt and soy sauce are the main ways of sodium intake in Chinese dietary. In this study, we used the data of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys to describe the secular trends of salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults from 1997 to 2011. Trends were tested by multiple linear regression models. During the past 14 years, the consumption of sodium, salt and soy sauce intake values decreased significantly across the six study periods (p sauce intake values decreased by 9.0 g/d among men and 7.3 g/d among women. Similar significant trends were observed in all age groups, activity levels and regions (p < .0001).

  10. Optimum Digestive Conditions for Determination of Total Nitrogen in Soy Sauce by Kjeldahl Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shintaro NOZAWA; Kenichi SAKAIDA; Tadanao SUZUKI; Akemi YASUI

    2006-01-01

      The determination of total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method using traditional digestion and distillation, or using block digestion and steam distillation, has been studied as a candidate...

  11. Judgment of pure fermented soy sauce by fluorescence resonance energy transfer of OPA-tryptophan adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, You-Syuan; Hsieh, Bo-Chuan; Cheng, Tzong-Jih; Chen, Richie L C

    2015-07-01

    Tryptophan was detected with a flow-injection manifold after reacting with mM order of fluorogenic o-phthalaldehyde (OPA)/thiol reagent (pH 10.0) in the carrier stream (0.63 mL/min). Based on the intra-molecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer of OPA-tryptophan adduct, the difference in fluorescence intensity obtained at 280 and 300 nm excitation was used to detect tryptophan content with satisfactory precision (CVtryptophan will decompose during manufacturing non-fermented soy sauce by acid-hydrolysis procedure, the method was used to discriminate pure fermented soy sauces, adulterated soy sauces and chemical soy sauces in less than 5 min. The ratio of tryptophan to total amino acid content served as the index for the judgment, and the results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  14. Effects of gamma ray radiation sterilization on chemical components of soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Daochuan; Zou Zuren; Liu Zongtiao; Fang Jie (Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Application of Atomic Energy in Agriculture)

    1989-01-01

    Soy sauce was treated with {gamma}-ray radiation. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total acids, total nitrogen, reduced-sugar, sodium chloride and 17 free amino acids between the treated and untreated soy sauce. Specialists from some factories tested the samples and no obvious changes in colour and lustre, flavour, sweet smell and liquid appearance could be identified after the treatment. (author).

  15. Expression of key hydrolases for soy sauce fermentation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzuki, Masanobu; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Koyama, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Several key hydrolases in soy sauce fermentation such as proteases, peptidases, and glutaminases are supplied by Aspergillus sojae or Aspergillus oryzae. The genes encoding these hydrolases were successfully expressed in salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. These transformants are expected to supply extra hydrolases during soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  17. Effects of gamma ray radiation sterilization on chemical components of soy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daochuan, Yin; Zuren, Zou; Zongtiao, Liu; Jie, Fang

    Soy sauce was treated with γ-ray radiation. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total acids, total nitrogen, reduced-sugar, sodium chloride and 17 free amino acids between the treated and untreated soy sauce. Specialists from some factories tested the samples and no obvious changes in colour and lustre, flavour, sweet smell and liquid appearance could be identified after the treatment.

  18. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  19. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Hee Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe2+, Fenton-like (Fe3+, and ozone (O3 oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100–1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O3-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O3 doses (10–90 mg/L. We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1% and COD lowering (64.9% among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O3 oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O3 dose were varied systematically to optimize O3 oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O3 dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%.

  1. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Gyu-Tae; Jeong, Dae-Woon

    2017-10-07

    To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe(2+)), Fenton-like (Fe(3+)), and ozone (O₃) oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100-1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O₃-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O₃ doses (10-90 mg/L). We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1%) and COD lowering (64.9%) among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O₃ oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O₃ dose) were varied systematically to optimize O₃ oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O₃ dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%).

  2. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  3. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates.

  4. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; La Rosa, Laura Alejandra De; Díaz, José Alberto López; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    ... (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper) were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat...

  5. Analysis of obsidian sources in the southern Sierra Madre occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, J.A.; Hayashida, F.M.

    1994-12-31

    From 1991 to 1993, field surveys and geologic sampling were conducted in the region of the southern Sierra Madre Occidental in the states of Durango, Zacatecas, and Jalisco, Mexico, to investigate three previously unreported sources of obsidian or volcanic glass. The source areas are Huitzila-La Lobera, Llano Grande, and Nochistlan. Obsidian`s importance as a raw material in premodern societies for the production of tools and articles of adornment is well documented, particularly for Mesoamerica. Investigation of northern mesoamerican obsidian offers new data on these little known sources located to the north of the more thoroughly studied sources of the Mexican Neovolcanic chain. Neutron activation analysis was used to characterize the materials.

  6. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  7. Sierra/SM theory manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, Nathan Karl

    2013-07-01

    Presented in this document are the theoretical aspects of capabilities contained in the Sierra/SM code. This manuscript serves as an ideal starting point for understanding the theoretical foundations of the code. For a comprehensive study of these capabilities, the reader is encouraged to explore the many references to scientific articles and textbooks contained in this manual. It is important to point out that some capabilities are still in development and may not be presented in this document. Further updates to this manuscript will be made as these capabilites come closer to production level.

  8. Cretin Memory Flow on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scott, H. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The Cretin iCOE project has a goal of enabling the efficient generation of Non-LTE opacities for use in radiation-hydrodynamic simulation codes using the Nvidia boards on LLNL’s upcoming Sierra system. Achieving the desired level of accuracy for some simulations require the use of a vary large number of atomic configurations (a configuration includes the atomic level for all electrons and how they are coupled together). The NLTE rate matrix needs to be solved separately in each zone. Calculating NLTE opacities can consume more time than all other physics packages used in a simulation.

  9. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of temperature on the stability of various peptidases during peptide-enriched soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeharu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Uchida, Riichiro

    2012-03-01

    We previously developed a peptide-enriched soy sauce-like seasoning called Fermented Soybean Seasoning (FSS) with high-temperature fermentation, and we have reported the antihypertensive effects of FSS. Seryl-tyrosine (Ser-Tyr) and glycyl-tyrosine (Gly-Tyr) were identified from FSS as active constituents in the antihypertensive effects. They were found to be particularly enriched in FSS; more so than in regular soy sauce. In the present study, we clarified one of the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of these bioactive peptides during high temperature soy sauce brewing. Crude enzyme extracts were prepared from model soy sauce mash (moromi) fermented at various temperatures. Leucine aminopeptidase-I, II, and seryl-tyrosine hydrolytic activity were found to decrease in the moromi incubated at the fermentation temperature of FSS whereas almost no decrease was observed in that of regular soy sauce. The concentrations of ACE inhibitory peptides, Ser-Tyr and Gly-Tyr, in the moromi incubated at high temperature were revealed to be higher than those at low temperature through quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. These results suggested that the peptidases responsible for degrading low molecular weight bioactive peptides were inactivated during the high temperature fermentation, thus, these peptides would be likely to remain in the high temperature fermentation. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of soy sauce on physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Hwang, K E; Song, D H; Kim, Y J; Lim, Y B; Choi, J H; Choi, Y S; Kim, H Y; Kim, C J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy sauce on the physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breasts. Chicken breasts marinated with distilled water (Con), 4% NaCl solution, 4% NaCl and lactic acid solution (pH 4.9), and soy sauce solution (4% salt concentration and pH 4.9) were vacuum tumbled at 3°C for 60 min. The chicken breast marinated with soy sauce solution showed lower lightness and higher redness and yellowness due to the color of the soy sauce. The acidic marinades led to a decrease in pH value of tumbled chicken breast. The acidic marinades increased collagen solubility of sample compared with 4% NaCl solution, resulting in decreased shear force. Water-holding capacity, marination and cooking yields, and solubility of myofibrillar proteins were mainly affected by the presence of salt in the marinade, rather than by pH alternation. Our results suggested that soy sauce marination can improve the tenderness of tumbled chicken breast.

  12. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Identification of a gamma-irradiated ingredient (garlic powder) in Korean barbeque sauce by thermoluminescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Lee, Jeongeun; Kim, Kyong-Su; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was applied to identify gamma-irradiated garlic powder in Korean barbeque sauce before and after pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min), when blended in different ratios (1%, 3%, and 5%). The sauce sample with nonirradiated garlic powder gave a background glow curve. However, the sample blended with irradiated ingredient (1 and 10 kGy) showed typical TL glow curves at temperatures of 150 to 200 °C. The identification properties of sauce samples were more influenced by blending ratios than by irradiation doses, showing that 3% and 5% added samples produced glow curves at 150 to 250 °C. After pasteurization of the samples containing the irradiated ingredient, TL glow intensity decreased but did not change its shape or temperature range. As a result, the pasteurization of Barbeque sauces containing irradiated ingredients had reduced TL glow intensity, but the shape and temperature range of glow curve were still able to provide information required for confirming irradiation treatment. To monitor the irradiated food in international market, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis is considered most promising identification technique because of its sensitivity and long-term stability. In this study the applicability of TL analysis to detect an irradiated ingredient (garlic powder) added in low quantity to a food matrix (sauce) was investigated. The effect of processing (pasteurization) on TL results was also evaluated. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Los granitos peraluminosos de las Sierras de Vinquis, Cerro Negro y Zapata (Sierras Pampeanas, provincia de Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina, M. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The studied plutons are close to several batholiths of this region, as Sierra de Mazán and other, but with some mineralogical peculiarities. The magmatic cordierite, common in proximate places, is scarce, as sillimanite, while the andalusite is very rare, with few tourmaline. Fluorite and allanite are also typical accasories only in the granites of the Sierra de Zapata. All plutons are peraluminous of potassic tendency, with cortical affinity.The interpretation of the geochemical values distinguishes between granites of different maturity, emplaced under a predominant influence of active margin for Cerro Negro and Vinquis, while the batholith of Zapata has, below these concepts, a marked feature of within plate.The mineralogical associations suggest that the granites of Cerro Negro and Vinquis were emplaced to pressures of 2 kb or less and temperature of 650º C, while the granites of Zapata had done under conditions of lesser pressure, between 1.5 and 2.0 kb and lower temperature, 600-650º C.A grandes rasgos, los plutones estudiados tienen semejanzas con otros del entorno regional, tal como los de la Sierra de Mazán, pero con peculiaridades mineralógicas. La cordierita magmática, que en lugares próximos es muy abundante, es aquí escasa, al igual que la sillimanita, mientras que la andalucita es muy rara y la turmalina poco frecuente. La fluorita y allanita son accesorios comunes y de cierta abundancia sólo en los granitos de la Sierra de Zapata.Todos los plutones son peralumínicos y de tendencia potásica, con neta afinidad cortical. El estudio estadístico de datos geoquímicos seleccionados, permite diferenciar agrupaciones que tienen un reflejo satisfactorio en los plutones caracterizados, por encima de las variaciones de facies. La interpretación de los valores geoquímicos distingue granitos de desigual madurez, emplazados bajo una influencia predominante de margen activo o intraplaca de características continentales, en

  15. Microfiltration of soy sauce sediment with rotating disk membrane module; Kaitengata enbanmaku module ni yoru shoyuori no roka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, K.; Kanekuni, N.; Nogaki, H.; Itakura, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, A. [TOTO Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1995-01-15

    Soy sauce sediment is formed in pasteurization of raw soy sauce. It is treated as industrial waste, though its main component is soy sauce, because of difficulty in perfect clarification of the suspension. In this paper, we decided a suitable range of pore size of microfiltration and a cut-off level of ultrafiltration to clarify soy sauce sediment and we developed a rotating disk membrane module (RD Module) and compared performance with conventional a multi-tubular membrane module (MT Module). The optimum range to obtain soy sauce of quality was less than a pore size of O.2{mu}m for microfiltration, while ultrafiltration was not suitable for soy sauce sediment. Ultrafiltration was restricted by rejection of colors and nucleic acids and related compounds in soy sauce sediment, rather than rejection of bacteria and ethanol. An RD Module could recover soy sauce of quality and was superior to an MT Module for concentration ratio, but the permeate fluxes of the RD Module decreased under conditions of high revolution as centrifugal forces were exerted on the permeate in the disk membrane. The power consumption of the RD Module was proportional to the cube of number of revolutions and to the fifth power of the radius, so it was found that one of methods for the scale up is to increase the number of disk membranes than increase the radius. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Antihypertensive and natriuretic effects of less-sodium soy sauce containing gamma-aminobutyric acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Jun; Fukuda, Satoshi; Satoh, Takuya; Tsuji, Ryouhei; Saito, Makoto; Obata, Akio; Matsuyama, Asahi; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Kawasaki, Terukazu

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of less-sodium soy sauce containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). When SHRs were given a diet with less-sodium soy sauce containing GABA (GABA-rich soy sauce group) for 6 weeks, the systolic blood pressure decreased as compared with that in rats fed diets with less-sodium soy sauce or a solution of salt. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and positive Na balance were reduced, and the urinary Na excretion tended to increase in the GABA-rich soy sauce group. Vascular hypertrophy of the thoracic aorta and the coronary and renal interlobular arteries tended to reduce in the GABA-rich soy sauce group. These results suggest that inhibition of Na retention by natriuresis, as a result of inhibition of RSNA by the GABA in the soy sauce contributed to the antihypertensive effect of GABA in the SHRs. Intake of less-sodium soy sauce containing GABA might help to reduce overall cardiovascular risk.

  17. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Survival of acute hypernatremia due to massive soy sauce ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, David J; Borek, Heather A; Syverud, Scott A; Holstege, Christopher P

    2013-08-01

    Intentional massive sodium chloride ingestions are rare occurrences and are often fatal. There are a variety of treatment recommendations for hypernatremia, ranging from dialysis to varying rates of correction. We report a case of acute severe hypernatremia corrected with rapid free-water infusions that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. A 19-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department in a comatose state with seizure-like activity 2 hours after ingesting a quart of soy sauce. He was administered 6 L of free water over 30 min and survived neurologically intact without clinical sequelae. Corrected for hyperglycemia, the patient's peak serum sodium was 196 mmol/L, which, to our knowledge, is the highest documented level in an adult patient to survive an acute sodium ingestion without neurologic deficits. Emergency physicians should consider rapidly lowering serum sodium with hypotonic intravenous fluids as a potential management strategy for acute severe hypernatremia secondary to massive salt ingestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. KANDUNGAN NATRIUM BEBERAPA JENIS SAMBAL KEMASAN SERTA UJI TINGKAT PENERIMAANNYA (THE SODIUM CONTENT OF SOME CHILLI SAUCES AND ITS SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryana Purawisastra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chili sauce is one the spice which is widely used in Indonesia. In making of the sauce, salt is added to increase the palatability of the chili sauce. In the past salt was the only source of sodium, however, nowadays there are some food additives containing sodium such as sodium benzoate becoming the source of sodium. At the moment, the chili sauce are available in the market, and in making those sauces, beside the addition of salt is also some food additive containing sodium were added.  The excessive of sodium intake is related to the risk of hypertension and kidney failure. Objectives: to analyze the sodium contents of 10 kinds of chili sauces available in the market and to evaluate the sensory of the sauce. Methods: Ten samples of chili sauce in various brands were bought from supermarket, and then analyzed its sodium content using the Flame photometer method. Its sensory evaluation was performed by the thirty-two of testers. Results: The sodium content of sauces was shown that the value of the content was varying significantly (p £ 0.05. The highest content was 9.03 mg per gram, and the lowest was 3.82 mg per gram. The others were spread out between the highest and the lowest. Whereas the sensory evaluation of the sauce indicated that the sauce containing the higher content of sodium was tend to be more acceptance than the lower one.  Conclusion: The sodium content of sauces in this study was varying between 9.03 to 3.82 mg per 100 g, whereas the sensory evaluation of the sauces revealed that the sauce which contained the higher content of sodium was more preference by the testers than the lower one. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2: 173-179] Keywords: sodium content, chili sauce, food additives.

  20. Production Time Loss Reduction in Sauce Production Line by Lean Six Sigma Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritprasertsri, Thitima; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In all industries, time losses, which are incurred in processing are very important. As a result, losses are incurred in productivity and cost. This research aimed to reduce lost time that occurs in sauce production line by using the lean six sigma approach. The main objective was to reduce the time for heating sauce which causes a lot of time lost in the production line which affects productivity. The methodology was comprised of the five-phase improvement model of Six Sigma. This approach begins with defining phase, measuring phase, analysing phase, improving phase and controlling phase. Cause-and-effect matrix and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were adopted to screen the factors which affect production time loss. The results showed that the percentage of lost time from heating sauce reduced by 47.76%. This increased productivity to meet the plan.

  1. [Effects of the iron fortified soy sauce on improving students' anemia in boarding schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Piao, Wei; Tang, Yanbin; Li, Jin; Gao, Jie; Huo, Junsheng

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron fortified soy sauce on improving the anemia of boarding school students. A total of 3029 students of the boarding schools in the 27 provinces in China including 1576 boys and 1453 girls were treat with the iron-fortified soy sauce for 12 months. The concentration of hemoglobin was detected before and after intervention. The statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the anemia rate and the hemoglobin concentration in boarding school students. After the intervention, the average hemoglobin of students were increased from 142.1 g/L to 146.5 g/L compared to the baseline. The boys average haemoglobin concentration increased 6.7 g/L, girls average haemoglobin concentration increased 1.9 g/L. They were significantly higher than those of the baseline (P sauce could be effective for the improvement the hemoglobin level of boarding school students, reduce anemia prevalence of students significantly.

  2. Effect of added ingredients on water status and physico-chemical properties of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Vittadini, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Different ingredients (guar, xanthan, carboxy methyl cellulose, locust bean gums, potato fiber, milk, potato and soy proteins) were added to tomato sauce to investigate their effect on its physico-chemical properties. The products were characterized in terms of colour, rheological properties (Bostwick consistency, flow behavior and consistency coefficient), water status (water activity, moisture content) and molecular mobility by (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Water activity was significantly decreased only by the addition of potato fiber. Xanthan, locust bean, guar and carboxy methyl cellulose significantly enhanced Bostwick consistency and consistency coefficient. Type of ingredient and concentration significantly affected (1)H NMR mobility indicators. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that only (1)H NMR mobility parameters were able to differentiate the effect of milk protein, xanthan and potato fiber on tomato sauce properties. The information collected in this work provides information to intelligently modulate tomato sauce attributes and tailor its properties for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180-225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2).

  4. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  5. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  6. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jefferson, D. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  8. 27 CFR 9.120 - Sierra Foothills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Boundary. The Sierra Foothills viticultural area is located in portions of the counties of Yuba, Nevada... and Yuba counties to the point south of Ruef Hill where the western border of the Tahoe National...

  9. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  10. Determination and Quantification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Vinegars and Soy Sauces

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Li Zhang; Ying Sun; Yu-Yu Zhang; Bao-Guo Sun; Hai-Tao Chen

    2017-01-01

    The organic compound 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be formed from sugars under Maillard reaction and caramelization. In order to study the formation regular of HMF in sugary liquid condiment, vinegar and soy sauce were selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the HMF concentrations of various brands of soy sauce and vinegar. The result showed that HMF concentrations were in a range of 0.42 to 115.43 mg/kg for vinegar samples and 0.43 to 5.85 mg/kg for ...

  11. Grand Hotel prijutil hudozhnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Raadioajakirjanik Lea Veelmaa lindistas "Kunstikanali" 2004. a. esimese saate Grand Hotel Viljandis. Saatekülaliseks oli maalikunstnik Andres Tolts. Toltsi kaheksa akrüülmaali on eksponeeritud hotelli fuajees ja restoranis

  12. Site fidelity of the declining amphibian Rana sierrae (Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Matthews; Haiganoush Preisler

    2010-01-01

    From 1997 to 2006, we used mark–recapture models to estimate the site fidelity of 1250 Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frogs (Rana sierrae) in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA, during their three main activity periods of overwintering, breeding, and feeding. To quantify site fidelity, the tendency to return to and reuse previously occupied...

  13. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  14. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-03-16

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  15. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  16. Isolation and identification of the umami enhancing compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the key compounds that account for the umami taste of soy sauce, a typical Japanese soy sauce, Koikuchi Shoyu, was separated by preparative chromatography, and the umami enhancing fractions were screened on the basis of an umami intensity of a 6.0 mM monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution. Liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS), 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) studies of the umami enhancing fractions led to the identification of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)pyroglutamic acid (Fru-pGlu), N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)valine (Fru-Val), N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)methionine (Fru-Met), pyroglutamylglutamine (pGlu-Gln), and pyroglutamylglycine (pGlu-Gly). Although all the compounds identified were at sub-threshold concentrations in the soy sauce, a taste reconstitution experiment revealed that they contributed part of the umami taste of the soy sauce.

  17. Metabolic profiling approach to explore compounds related to the umami intensity of soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shinya; Nakajima, Ayako; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Sato, Tsuneo; Uchida, Riichiro; Obata, Akio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-07-23

    A metabolic profiling approach was employed to explore the compounds that affect the intensity of umami taste in soy sauce. Twenty-five kinds of soy sauces were analyzed using GC-MS and LC-MS, wherein measurement data for 427 compounds were obtained. The umami taste intensity of each soy sauce sample was also quantitated by sensory evaluation and a projection to latent structure (PLS) regression analysis was conducted using the compounds' measurements and umami taste intensity data. Variable importance for the projection (VIP) value obtained via PLS was used for the estimation of the relevance for umami taste intensity. N-(1-Deoxyfructos-1-yl)glutamic acid (Fru-Glu) had the highest VIP value, and addition of Fru-Glu to soy sauce increased umami taste intensity better than glutamic acid at the same concentration as confirmed by sensory evaluation. This study showed that the combination of metabolic profiling approach and sensory evaluation can be used effectively to determine compounds related to taste.

  18. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Sensory sub-attributes of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Jellema, R.H.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2005-01-01

    The sensory components of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces were determined, using multi-variate analysis of the mean sensory ratings obtained from a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) panel. Creamy is a particularly interesting attribute, as it is

  20. Estimation of Para Red Dye in Chilli Powder and Tomato Sauces by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of grinded chilli powder samples and tomato sauce samples were collected from various localities of Karachi city. All the samples were estimated for the presence of para red which is an azo dye and more specifically belongs from the group of sudan dyes. According to the regulation of various governmental ...

  1. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  3. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

    1987-08-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production.

  4. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayanamitr, A; Bhumiratana, A; Flegel, T W; Glinsukon, T; Shinmyo, A

    1987-01-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production. PMID:2444160

  5. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0¿72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  6. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0-72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  7. The Effect of Soy Sauce Waste in Ration on Performance of Mojosari Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. A. Larasati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to determined the effect of soy sauce waste in ration in the ration on the performance of Mojosari duck. The materials used were 240 of Mojosari which are 20 weeks olds with average body weight 1,385.0 ± 130.85 grams (CV = 9.44%. Feed ingredients used were, rice bran, soybean meal, yellow corn, fish meal, pollard and premix. The design that used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 4 treatments and 6 replications.The treatment applied soy sauce waste at level 5, 7,5 and 10%. The parameters observed were consumption, egg production, feed conversion. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with F test. The results showed that soy sauce waste did not effected on performance (consumption of ration, egg production, ration conversion of Mojosari duck. The conclusion of this research is soy sauce waste be used as feed stuff of Mojosari duck ration until level 10%.

  8. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  10. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Estimation of Para Red Dye in Chilli Powder and Tomato Sauces by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: A number of grinded chilli powder samples and tomato sauce samples were collected from various localities of Karachi city. All the samples were estimated for the presence of para red which is an azo dye and more specifically belongs from the group of sudan dyes. According to the regulation of various ...

  13. Formation and reduction of furan in a soy sauce model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Yeop; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The formation and reduction of furan using a soy sauce model system were investigated in the present study. The concentration of furan fermented up to 30 days increased by 211% after sterilization compared to without sterilization. Regarding fermentation temperature, furan level after 30 days' fermentation was the highest at 30°C (86.21 ng/mL). The furan levels in the soy sauce fermentation at 20°C and 40°C were reduced by 45% and 88%, respectively compared to 30°C fermentation. Five metal ions (iron sulfate, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium sulfate), sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid, dibutyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added in a soy sauce model system. The addition of metal ions such as magnesium sulfate and calcium sulfate reduced the furan concentration significantly by 36-90% and 27-91%, respectively in comparison to furan level in the control sample (psauce model system by 278% and 87%, respectively. In the case of the BHT and BHA, furan formation generally was reduced in the soy sauce model system by 84%, 56%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous quantification of twenty Amadori products in soy sauce using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Tatemichi, Yuki; Nakajima, Ayako

    2017-08-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L. The concentrations of N-ε-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-lysine (Fru-Lys) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-pyroglutamic acid (Fru-pGlu) were the highest among the APs and the level of Fru-pGlu was similar to that of Fru-Lys. Furthermore, fermentation periods of up to six months greatly influenced AP levels in soy sauce but the levels remained constant thereafter. Thermal treatment of soy sauce had little effect on AP levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Petra; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-25

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the volatiles isolated from a commercial Japanese soy sauce revealed 30 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096, among which 2-phenylethanol showed the highest FD factor of 4096, followed by 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional), the tautomers 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl- and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDF), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone), all showing FD factors of 1024. Thirteen odorants were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations and odor thresholds in water. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), sotolone (seasoning-like), 4-HEMF (caramel-like), 2-methylbutanal (malty), methional (cooked potato), ethanol (alcoholic), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest OAVs (>200). An aqueous model aroma mixture containing 13 odorants, which had been identified with the highest OAVs, in concentrations that occur in the soy sauce showed a good similarity with the overall aroma of the soy sauce itself. Heat treatment of the soy sauce resulted in a clear change of the overall aroma. Quantitation of selected odorants revealed a significant decrease in sotolone and, in particular, increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-HDMF, and 4-HEMF induced by heating.

  16. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  17. Development of fermented sauce-based salads : assessment of safety and stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonestroo, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Sauce-based delicatessen salads, composed of solid ingredients, such as potatoes, vegetables, fish, meat and an oil-in-water emulsion containing acidulants (acetic and lactic acids) and chemical preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acids) can be subject to microbial and chemical changes and

  18. Changes in fatty acid composition and lipid profile during koji fermentation and their relationships with soy sauce flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Chen, Zhiyao; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Haifeng; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-09-01

    Evolution of lipids during koji fermentation and the effect of lipase supplementation on the sensory properties of soy sauce were investigated. Results showed that total lipids of the koji samples were in the range of 16-21%. The extracted lipid of initial koji consisted mainly of triacylglycerols (TAGs, >98%), followed by phospholipids (PLs), diglycerides (DAGs), monoacylglycerols (MAGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). As the fermentation proceeded, peroxide value of the lipids decreased while carbonyl value increased (psoy sauce, especially enhanced (psoy sauce's characteristic taste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Bjälkander O; Bangura L; Leigh B; Berggren V; Bergström S; Almroth L

    2012-01-01

    Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the world, and yet little i...

  1. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds influencing Chinese-type soy sauces using GC-MS combined with HS-SPME and discrimination with electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihua; Liu, Ting; An, Xinjing; Zhang, Jinlan; Ma, Xiaoran; Cui, Jinmei

    2017-01-01

    Soy sauce contains a variety of volatiles that are highly valuable to its quality with regard to sensory characteristics. This paper describes the analysis of volatile compounds influencing the flavor quality of Chinese-type soy sauces. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction and electronic nose (E-nose) were applied for identifying the volatile flavor compounds as well as determining their volatile profiles of 12 soy sauces manufactured by different fermentation process. Forty one key volatile components of these 12 soy sauce products, a pure soy sauce and an acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein sample, were compared in semi-quantitative form, and their volatile flavor profiles were analyzed by E-nose. The substantially similar results between hierarchical cluster analysis based on GC-MS data and E-nose analysis suggested that both techniques may be useful in evaluating the flavor quality of soy sauces and differentiating soy sauce products. The study also showed that there were less volatile flavor compounds in soy sauces produced through low-salt solid-state fermentation process, a traditional manufacturing technology and a widely adopted technology in Chinese soy sauce industries. In addition, the investigation suggested that the flavor quality of soy sauce varied widely in Chinese domestic market, and that the present Chinese national standards of soy sauce should be further perfected by the addition of flavor grades of soy sauce in the physical and chemical index. Meanwhile, this research provided valuable information to manufacturers and government regulators, which have practical significance to improve quality of soy sauces.

  2. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P fish sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  4. Grand Mal Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Withdrawal syndromes Using or withdrawing from drugs, including alcohol Risk factors Risk factors for grand mal seizures include: ... that affect electrolyte balance Illicit drug use Heavy alcohol use ... or others. You might be at risk of: Falling. If you fall during a seizure, ...

  5. Assumptions and Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    definition that is applicable today, noting that grand strategy: Encompasses the decisions of a given state about its overall secu- rity—the threat...offering instead an expla- nation that draws upon Western secular and materialist (i.e., socio-economic) understandings of the individual. Yet such

  6. GPS Imaging of Sierra Nevada Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in the scope and precision of GPS networks across California and Nevada have allowed for uplift of the Sierra Nevada to be observed directly. Much of the signal, in the range of 1 to 2 mm/yr, has been attributed to lithospheric scale rebound following massive groundwater withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley in southern California, exacerbated by drought since 2011. However, natural tectonic deformation associated with long term uplift of the range may also contribute to the observed signal. We have developed new algorithms that enhance the signal of Sierra Nevada uplift and improve our ability to interpret and separate natural tectonic signals from anthropogenic contributions. We apply our new Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series and a inverse distance-weighted median spatial filtering and Delaunay-based interpolation to despeckle the rate map. The resulting spatially continuous vertical rate field is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, and omits isolated features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates. The resulting vertical rate field for California and Nevada exhibits regionally coherent signals from the earthquake cycle including interseismic strain accumulation in Cascadia, postseismic relaxation of the mantle from recent large earthquakes in central Nevada and southern California, groundwater loading changes, and tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Uplift of the Sierra Nevada extends from the Garlock Fault in the south to an indefinite boundary in the north near the latitude of Mt. Lassen to the eastern Sierra Nevada range front in Owen's Valley. The rates transition to near zero in the southern Walker Lane. The eastern boundary of uplift coincides with the highest strain rates in the western Great Basin, suggesting higher normal fault slip rates and a component of tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

  7. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce)

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla; Gilberto Mercado-Mercado; Laura Alejandra De La Rosa; José Alberto López Díaz; Abraham Wall-Medrano; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper) were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phe...

  8. The Special Court for Sierra Leone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this article is the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the extent to which it can be said that the Special Court has already challenged, or will, in the future, challenge the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. In this regard, an analysis is undertaken of the Special Court......'s Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence and practice to date, in order to determine its treatment of gender-based crimes and whether it can be said that the Special Court for Sierra Leone challenges the tradition of impunity for gender-based crimes. Udgivelsesdato: december 2004...

  9. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  10. Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Soo-Yoen; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of soy sauce on lipid oxidation and color stability of raw beef patties. Raw beef patties were formulated with four solutions such as NaCl (sodium chloride solution), NaCl/SS (1:1 ratio of sodium chloride and soy sauce solution), SS (soy sauce solution), or SS/A (soy sauce solution combined with 0.05% ascorbic acid) in the same salt concentration. Addition of soy sauce resulted in the decreased pH, lightness, and increased yellowness. Treatment SS/A had the lowest percent of metmyoglobin during storage (Psauce addition were observed in treatments SS and SS/A at the end of the storage period. There were no differences (P>0.05) in free fatty acid concentration at the end of storage. The combined addition of soy sauce and ascorbic acid greatly improved (P<0.05) color stability and retarded lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  12. Perinatal Consumption of Thiamine-Fortified Fish Sauce in Rural Cambodia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J

    2016-10-03

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P sauce through pregnancy and early lactation had higher eTDP and breast milk thiamine concentrations and their infants had higher eTDP, which was more pronounced in the high group. Thiamine-fortified fish sauce has the potential to prevent infantile beriberi in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02221063.

  13. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE SIERRA OF SONORA UNDER THE SCHEME UMAFOR. CASE STUDY: SIERRA ALTA AND SIERRA LA MADERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the use and value of natural resources from a social, sustainable and legal perspective, under the scheme of Sustainable Forest Management Units (UMAFOR by its Spanish acronym. Two participatory workshops were carried out in March 2010, one in UMAFOR Sierra La Madera and another in UMAFOR Sierra Alta, belonging to the Sierra de Sonora. An adaptation of “Problems, Causes and Consequences” of Ramírez-García (2004 methodology was used to discuss issues such as conservation, productive activities, society, laws, research and support programs. The objective was to analyze challenges and opportunities in the Sierra de Sonora under this management scheme. The ratting of natural resource for inhabitant and producers was documented based in ecosystems type and its value for use. Economic value was the most important for productive and non productive use; however, there are opportunities to transit from traditional to sustainable activities. Local producers are interested in linking whit research centers and consultants to get support for diversification of productive activities. It is possible to have changes according to sustainable development; UMAFOR is an alternative to achieve those changes.

  14. Special grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2017-06-01

    We discuss new-type grand unified theories based on grand unified groups broken into their special subgroups, as well as their regular subgroups. In the framework, when we construct 4-dimensional (4D) chiral gauge theories, i.e., the Standard Model (SM), 4D gauge anomaly cancelation restricts the minimal number of generations of the 4D SM Weyl fermions. We show that in a 6-dimensional (6D) SU(16) gauge theory on M^4× T^2/\\mathbb{Z}_2, one generation of the SM fermions can be embedded into a 6D bulk Weyl fermion. For the model including 3 chiral generations of the SM fermions, the 6D and 4D gauge anomalies on the bulk and fixed points are canceled out without exotic 4D chiral fermions.

  15. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  16. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MHRL

    Water factory workers used a variety of water treatment methods to purify their products; hand-tied sachets generally used only cloth filters to purify the water, and often stored water in open containers. Conclusions: Improved quality of commercial water products would improve health in Sierra Leone. Keywords: Geographic ...

  17. β-carboline derivatives and diphenols from soy sauce are in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Parkin, Kirk L

    2011-03-23

    A murine hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cellular bioassay was used to guide the isolation of phase II enzyme inducers from fermented soy sauce, using quinone reductase (QR) as a biomarker. A crude ethyl acetate extract, accounting for 8.7% of nonsalt soluble solids of soy sauce, was found to double relative QR specific activity at 25 μg/mL (concentration required to double was defined as a "CD value"). Further silica gel column fractionation yielded 17 fractions, 16 of which exhibited CD values for QR induction of QR activity corresponded to dose-dependent increases in cellular levels of NAD[P]H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 protein by these four QR inducers. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the ability of β-carboline-derived alkaloids to induce phase II enzymes.

  18. LA GRANDE DESCENTE

    CERN Multimedia

    The first endcap disc of CMS being lowered slowly and carefully 100 m underground into the experimental cavern. The disc is one of 15 large pieces to make the grand descent.  The uniquely shaped slice, 16 m high, about 50 cm thick weighs 400 tonnes. The two HF that were lowered earlier in November can also be seen in the foreground and background.  

  19. Isolation and Analysis of Molds from Soy Sauce Koji in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T. W.; Glinsukon, T.; Somporan, W.

    1980-01-01

    Five different isolates of Aspergillus and one of Mucor were compared with a Japanese commercial strain of Aspergillus oryzae for proteolytic activity on wheat bran substrate. One isolate of Aspergillus with superior protease production, identified as Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris, showed no detectable aflatoxin production on glutinous rice or soybean substrate. Preliminary tests using this fungus as a koji mold in a traditionally operated factory resulted in a soy sauce superior in quality to that usually produced. Images PMID:16345516

  20. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    NODA, FUMIO; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  1. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of high pressure treatment on metabolite profile of marinated meat in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-02-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce was produced using hind leg by washing, rubbing salt, marinating with soy sauce and spices, and air dry-ripening for 15d. The effect of high pressure (HP) (150 and 300MPa for 15min) on the metabolite profiles of products was characterized using (1)H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that the metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 75.4 and 11.9% of variables, respectively. HP treatments increased most of the metabolites, especially PC1, glutamate, sugars, nucleotides, anserine, lactate and creatine compared to the control. The increase of metabolites under HP was not dependent on pressure level except for alanine, lactate, acetate, formate, fumarate, glucose and 5'-IMP. These findings demonstrated that HP treatment at 150MPa was economical to improve the taste of marinated meat in soy sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial composition during Chinese soy sauce koji-making based on culture dependent and independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Qian, Yu-lin; Ji, Feng-di; Chen, Jing-yu; Han, Bei-zhong

    2013-05-01

    Koji-making is a key process for production of high quality soy sauce. The microbial composition during koji-making was investigated by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to determine predominant bacterial and fungal populations. The culture-dependent methods used were direct culture and colony morphology observation, and PCR amplification of 16S/26S rDNA fragments followed by sequencing analysis. The culture-independent method was based on the analysis of 16S/26S rDNA clone libraries. There were differences between the results obtained by different methods. However, sufficient overlap existed between the different methods to identify potentially significant microbial groups. 16 and 20 different bacterial species were identified using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. 7 species could be identified by both methods. The most predominant bacterial genera were Weissella and Staphylococcus. Both 6 different fungal species were identified using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. Only 3 species could be identified by both sets of methods. The most predominant fungi were Aspergillus and Candida species. This work illustrated the importance of a comprehensive polyphasic approach in the analysis of microbial composition during soy sauce koji-making, the knowledge of which will enable further optimization of microbial composition and quality control of koji to upgrade Chinese traditional soy sauce product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial communities in fish sauce mash using culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Youhei; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Shozen, Kei-ichi; Funatsu, Yasuhiro; Takano, Takashi; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    In fish sauce production, microorganisms are associated with the fermentation process; however, the sequential changes in the bacterial communities have never been examined throughout the period of fermentation. In this study, we determined the bacterial floras in a fish sauce mash over 8 months, using three different culture media and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. During the first 4 weeks, viable counts of non-halophilic and halophilic bacteria decreased and were dominated by Staphylococcus species. Between 4 and 6 weeks, halophilic and highly halophilic bacterial counts markedly increased from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g, and the predominant species changed to Tetragenococcus halophilus. The occurrence of T. halophilus was associated with an increase of lactic acid and a reduction of pH values. In contrast, non-halophilic bacterial counts decreased to 10(6) cfu/g by 6 weeks with Bacillus subtilis as the dominant isolate. Clone library analysis revealed that the dominant bacterial group also changed from Staphylococcus spp. to T. halophilus, and the changes were consistent with those of the floras of halophilic and highly halophilic isolates. This is the first report describing a combination approach of culture and clone library methods for the analysis of bacterial communities in fish sauce mash.

  7. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  9. Analysis of the correlation between dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces by using metabolomics-based component profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Shiga, Kazuki; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Uchida, Riichiro; Obata, Akio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-07-01

    Characterizing the relationships between the components and taste differences among soy sauces can help evaluate and improve the quality of soy sauces. Although previous studies have reported that certain taste-active dipeptides, the relationships between taste differences and dipeptides of soy sauces are unknown. Therefore, our objective in this study was to investigate the correlations between the dipeptides and the taste differences among soy sauces. To analyze the dipeptides, we constructed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Based on this method, we detected 237 dipeptides, the largest number ever detected in soy sauce research. Next, orthogonal projections to latent structures regressions were performed. The data matrix of components, including dipeptides and other low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components obtained from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), served as explanatory variables (366 in total), whereas a sensory data matrix obtained using quantitative descriptive analysis served as the response variable. The accuracy of models for the sweetness and saltiness differences constructed using the LC/MS/MS and GC/MS data matrix were higher than did models constructed using only the GC/MS data matrix. As a result of investigation of the correlation between the dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces by using variable importance in the projection (VIP) score, many dipeptides showed the high correlation with taste differences. Specifically, Ile-Gln, Pro-Lys, Ile-Glu, Thr-Phe, and Leu-Gln showed the high VIP score on sweet differences. This study is the first report that reveals the correlations between the dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  11. Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alcides-Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyse the integration of information systems and information technology resources in the municipal planning of 14 small cities of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The research methodology consisted of a multiple case study together with a convenient non-probabilistic sample chosen through a research protocol. The results demonstrate the difficulties of these cities to organise the municipal data as well as their struggle for accessibility of information and planning for management and control.

  12. Grand Challenge Problem 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Balacheff, Nicolas; Bottino, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    Small and medium sized research labs (SMLs) are dominating European TEL research. This is justified by the great numbers of countries and regions in Europe needing to develop a research and innovation competence to facilitate the diverse educational systems contextualized in various institutional...... settings across Europe. However, to strengthen the various research practices and to develop a common scientific language on TEL research the Grand Challenge Problem is to establish a vivid network and a community of practice among the research labs. TELEARC (Technology Enhanced Learning European Advanced...

  13. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  14. Escuela bioclimática y sustentable : Secundaria nº 39 - Villa de Antofagasta de la Sierra - Catamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Waler, Érika; Agüero, Matías; Watkins, María Gabriela; Mansilla, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el proyecto y la construcción de una escuela realizada en la Villa de Antofagasta de la Sierra (latitud: -26°06’, longitud: 67°41’ y altura sobre el nivel del mar: 3440mts), localidad ubicada en la provincia de Catamarca, de clima árido andino puneño, con grandes amplitudes térmicas y altos niveles de irradiación solar. La imagen de la Villa, en su conjunto, preserva los valores culturales y patrimoniales de los lugareños. El objetivo de éste proyecto es utilizar e...

  15. Assessment of the microbiological safety of salad vegetables and sauces from kebab take-away restaurants in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, R J; Little, C L; Sagoo, S; Mithani, V; McLauchlin, J; de Pinna, E

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the microbiological safety of salad vegetables and sauces served in kebab take-away restaurants. Comparison with published microbiological guidelines revealed that 4.7% of 1213 salad vegetable samples were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality due to Escherichia coli and/or Staphylococcus aureus levels at > or =10(2) cfu g(-1). Another 0.3% of salad samples were of unacceptable quality due to S. aureus at > or =10(4) cfu g(-1) (2 samples) or the presence of Salmonella Kentucky (1 sample). Cucumber was the most contaminated salad vegetable with regards to unsatisfactory levels of E. coli (6.0%) or S. aureus (4.5%). Five percent of 1208 sauce samples were of unsatisfactory microbiological quality due to E. coli, S. aureus at > or =10(2) cfu g(-1) and/or Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp. at > or =10(4) cfu g(-1). A further 0.6% of sauce samples were of unacceptable quality due to Bacillus spp. (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis) at > or =10(5) cfu g(-1) or the presence of Salmonella Agbeni (1 sample). More samples of chili sauce (8.7%) were of unsatisfactory or unacceptable microbiological quality than any other sauce types. The results emphasize the need for good hygiene practices in kebab take-away restaurants handling these types of ready-to-eat products.

  16. Comparative Study of Quality Characteristics of Korean Soy Sauce Made with Soybeans Germinated Under Dark and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Dae Park

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL, whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS. The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FOULING DEPOSIT FORMATION DURING PASTEURIZATION OF CHILI SAUCE BY USING LAB-SCALE CONCENTRIC TUBE-PASTEURIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ATIKA ALI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of fouling deposits obtained from chilli sauce pasteurization. A lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer was used to pasteurize the chilli sauce at 0.712 kg/min and 90±5°C. It was operated for 3 hours. Temperature changes were recorded during pasteurization and the data was used to plot the heat transfer profile and the fouling resistance profile. The thickness of the fouling deposit was also measured and the image was taken for every hour. The fouling deposit was collected at every hour to test its stickiness, hardness and flow behaviour. Proximate analysis was also performed and it shows that the fouling deposit from the chilli sauce is categorized as carbohydrate-based fouling deposits. Activation energy of chilli sauce is 7049.4 J.mole-1 which shows a greater effect of temperature on the viscosity. The hardness, stickiness of fouling deposit and the heat resistance increases as the chilli sauce continuously flows inside the heat exchanger.

  18. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  19. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  20. The Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Northern Arizona and the Grand Canyon are captured in this pair of MISR images from December 31, 2000 (Terra orbit 5525). The left-hand image is a true color view from the nadir (vertical) camera. The right-hand image is a stereo composite generated using data from MISR's vertical and 46-degree-forward cameras. Viewing the stereo image in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. To facilitate stereo viewing, the images have been oriented with north at the left.In addition to the Grand Canyon itself, which is visible in the western (lower)half of the images, other landmarks include Lake Powell, on the left, and Humphreys Peak and Sunset Crater National Monument on the right. Meteor Crater appears as a small dark depression with a brighter rim, and is just visible along the upper right-hand edge. Can you find it?MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Prevalencia y carga parasitaria de helmintos gastrointestinales en gallinas de traspatio (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), en el municipio de El Sauce, departamento de León, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, L. Luna; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Rimbaud, E.

    2006-01-01

    Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua......Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua...

  2. Diversidad de mamíferos de la Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla, México Diversity of mammals in the Natural Reserve Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Monroy-Vilchis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva Natural Sierra Nanchititla (RNSN, por su extensión, es la segunda área natural protegida del Estado de México; sin embargo, se desconoce gran parte de su biodiversidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar su diversidad mastofaunística. Se utilizó el trampeo directo para la colecta de mamíferos pequeños y trampas-cámara para el estudio de los mamíferos medianos y grandes. Se calculó la diversidad a partir del índice de Margalef, y se evaluaron la dominancia y la equidad mediante los índices de Simpson y Shannon-Wiener, respectivamente. Se registraron 53 especies de mamíferos; 3 de ellas son el primer registro estatal, 10 son endémicas de México y 4 las considera en alguna categoría de vulnerabilidad el gobierno mexicano. En la zona habitan 5 de las 6 especies de felinos de México. La composición mastofaunística de la RNSN fue comparada con la de la sierra Purépecha, Michoacán, con la que comparte el 38% de las especies. De acuerdo con el índice de Jaccard, la similitud entre ambas es baja. Considerando los resultados, la importancia de la RNSN con respecto a su diversidad mastofaunística es evidente, así como la necesidad de delinear estrategias para su conservación.The Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (SNNR is the second largest natural protected area in the State of Mexico, however its biodiversity is largely unknown. The aim of this research was to estimate its mammalian diversity. Direct trapping was used to capture small mammals and camera-trapping for the study of medium and large mammals. Diversity was calculated from Margalef's index, dominance and equity were evaluated through Simpson's and Shannon-Wiener indexes, respectively. Fifty three species were registered, 3 of them are the first record for the State of Mexico, 10 are endemic to Mexico and 4 are considered in some category of vulnerability by the Mexican government. The area is inhabited by 5 of the 6 Mexican felid species. The

  3. Establishing an enteric bacteria reference laboratory in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark

    2014-06-09

    In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Fast Extraction and Detection of 4-Methylimidazole in Soy Sauce Using Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zufei; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yingjuan; Ye, Helin

    2017-11-02

    On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the synthesized MMIPs. To evaluate the polymers, batch rebinding experiments were carried out. The binding strength and capacity were determined from the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation. The selective recognition capability of MMIPs was investigated with a reference compound and a structurally similar compound. As a selective pre-concentration sorbents for 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce, the MMIPs showed a satisfied recoveries rate of spiked samples, ranged from 97% to 105%. As a result, the prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce samples.

  6. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  7. Fast Extraction and Detection of 4-Methylimidazole in Soy Sauce Using Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zufei Feng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM were used to characterize the synthesized MMIPs. To evaluate the polymers, batch rebinding experiments were carried out. The binding strength and capacity were determined from the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI equation. The selective recognition capability of MMIPs was investigated with a reference compound and a structurally similar compound. As a selective pre-concentration sorbents for 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce, the MMIPs showed a satisfied recoveries rate of spiked samples, ranged from 97% to 105%. As a result, the prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce samples.

  8. Alambradas en la sierra : un sistema agrario en Mexico : la sierra de Coalcoman

    OpenAIRE

    Cochet, Hubert

    1991-01-01

    Los relieves escarpados de la Sierra Madre del Sur, el clima tropical seco, la escasez de vías de comunicación y la ausencia casi total de tierras cultivables convierten al suroeste del estado de Michoacán en una tierra desprovista de ventajas notables y todavía poco poblada. Instalados en el corazón de la sierra desde tiempos muy remotos, estos campesinos indígenas habían sufrido la usurpación progresiva de sus tierras por los ganaderos venidos del norte, gente de piel más clara. Así, la inv...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Central Region Energy Team assesses oil and gas resources of the United States. The onshore and State water areas of the United States comprise 71...

  10. La importancia de ser grande

    OpenAIRE

    Baisre, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Se responde a las preguntas ¿por qué los mamíferos marinos son los animales más grandes del planeta?, ¿Por qué los peces no pueden ser más grandes?. Éstas y otras interrogantes son respondidas de forma sencilla y clara.

  11. Densidad y anatomia de la madera en familias mejoradas de sauces en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Monteoliva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue la evaluación de densidad y anatomía de la madera en siete familias de sauces, con vistas a seleccionar clones aptos para la producción de madera para usos sólidos y papel. Se cruzaron progenitores de cinco especies de sauces (S. babylonica, S. alba, S. nigra, S. amygdaloides y S. matsudana, obteniéndose 1800 individuos producto de cruzamientos controlados y polinización abierta, dentro del programa de mejoramiento de sauces del INTA. A los 34 meses se efectuó una primera selección por criterios de crecimiento, sanidad y forma. De esta primera fase de mejoramiento se seleccionaron 218 genotipos sobre los cuales se evaluaron las características anatómicas cuantitativas y la densidad de la madera. Los resultados indican que ninguna familia presenta buenos resultados en todas las propiedades. En una selección priorizando el vigor, la familia 08.09 presentó las siguientes características: buen crecimiento en diámetro (6,1 cm, fibras largas y de pared gruesa (850 µm y 2,22 µm, pocos vasos (94.mm-2 y densidad intermedia a baja (350 kg.m-3. Priorizando el rendimiento, material fibroso e indirectamente la resistencia, las familias 08.01 y 08.07 presentaron: densidad relativamente alta (403 - 397 kg.m-3, fibras largas (836 - 864 µm, vasos pequeños (46 - 45 µm y bajo crecimiento en diámetro (3 - 2,85 cm. Los cruzamientos donde intervienen las especies Salix nigra, S. amygdaloides y S. matsudana se destacaron ya que presentan buenos crecimientos y las mejores combinaciones xilológicas para diferentes destinos industriales.

  12. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  13. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy ( Psauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  14. [Edible and medical application of pasta ulmi, salt, black curd beans, vinegar and thick sauce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-ping

    2010-03-01

    Pasta ulmi, salt, black curd beans, vinegar and thick sauce recorded in the book of Jijiupian (emergency chapter), written by SHI You in the Western Han dynasty could be used as condiments. For example, pasta ulmi tastes spicy, salt tastes salty, black curd beans taste bitter while vinegar tastes acidic. All of them also have high medical values, which were described as materia medica in the early classic literature of materia medica. The dual-purpose for both medicine and food reflected the characteristics of combination of food nutrition and diet-therapy as well as the important connotation of isogeny of medicine and food at early stage of the development of medicine.

  15. Sexual violence in post-conflict Sierra Leone: Obstacles to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the high prevalence of sexual violence during the decade-long armed conflict in Sierra Leone has been investigated and reported on extensively, very little is known about the nature and extent of sexual violence during Sierra Leone's post-conflict transition. The purpose of this paper was to explore narratives ...

  16. Exchange rates, petroleum prices and price determination in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effects of monetary environment, exchange rate movement and petroleum prices on domestic prices in Sierra Leone by estimating a hybrid model of inflation. The empirical results showed that petroleum product prices, exchange rate as well as monetary factors determined inflation in Sierra Leone ...

  17. Sickle cell disease in Sierra Leone: a neglected problem | Roberts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... complicated by severe anemia and another with an adverse blood transfusion event. Conclusion: The clinical outcomes in this series highlight the need for a more comprehensive provision of care for SCD patients in Sierra Leone. Keywords: Sickle cell disease, Sierra Leone, survival, anaemia, haemoglobinopathy ...

  18. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: who are the decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to identify decision makers for FGM and determine whether medicalization takes place in Sierra Leone. Structured interviews were conducted with 310 randomly selected girls between 10 and 20 years in Bombali and Port Loko Districts in Northern Sierra Leone. The average age of the girls ...

  19. Assessing unmet anaesthesia need in Sierra Leone: a secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Anesthesiology (Rm 3C444), University of Utah Medical Center Salt Lake City, USA. 2. Department of Surgery, Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. 3. Department of Anæsthesiology Connaught Hospital Freetown, Sierra Leone. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the unmet anaesthesia need in a low ...

  20. Military Interventions in Sierra Leone: Lessons from a Failed State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    18 Child Soldiers ...................................................................... 20 Summary...a de­ cade of brutal civil wars, the use of child soldiers , and widespread atroci­ ties. Sierra Leone was labeled one of the classic examples of the...bizarre RUF ideology, then used as child soldiers to commit further atrocities. Life in Sierra Le­ one, already primitive, descended into an

  1. Reconstruction, Peacebuilding and Elections in Post-war Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article interrogates reconstruction, peacebuilding and elections in postwar Sierra Leone. It observes that while significant progress has been made, Sierra Leone's long-term stability remains questionable due to a number of issues, including poor socioeconomic growth, the increasing political exclusion of women, ...

  2. Research Brief: Impacts of Extreme Fires in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Long

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from PSW considered the effects of severe wildfire in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range in a recent synthesis that focused on promoting resiliency of forests and the societies connected to them. Fire is indispensable to maintaining the health and productivity of most forests in the Sierra Nevada, and fires can also rejuvenate aquatic systems by...

  3. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research (SLJBR) is a peer review Journal published by the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown. The Journal is conceived to allow healthcare professionals and researchers express their views and also communicate ...

  4. Identifying the drivers of liking by investigating the reasons for (dis)liking using CATA in cross-cultural context: a case study on barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-Hye; Gwak, Mi-Jin; Chung, Seo-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Ok; O'Mahony, Michael; Ishii, Rie; Bae, Ye-Won

    2015-06-01

    The present study cross-culturally investigated the drivers of liking for traditional and ethnic chicken marinades using descriptive analysis and consumer taste tests incorporating the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Seventy-three Koreans and 86 US consumers participated. The tested sauces comprised three tomato-based sauces, a teriyaki-based sauce and a Korean spicy seasoning-based sauce. Chicken breasts were marinated with each of the five barbecue sauces, grilled and served for evaluation. Descriptive analysis and consumer taste tests were conducted. Consumers rated the acceptance on a hedonic scale and checked the reasons for (dis)liking by the CATA method for each sauce. A general linear model, multiple factor analysis and chi-square analysis were conducted using the data. The results showed that the preference orders of the samples between Koreans and US consumers were strikingly similar to each other. However, the reasons for (dis)liking the samples differed cross-culturally. The drivers of liking of two sauces sharing relatively similar sensory profiles but differing significantly in hedonic ratings were effectively delineated by reasons of (dis)liking CATA results. Reasons for (dis)liking CATA proved to be a powerful supporting method to understand the internal drivers of liking which can be overlooked by generic descriptive analysis. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi[Bulgogi; Traditional meat products; Irradiation; Safety; Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-12-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10{sup 6} CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10{sup 4} CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality.

  6. en la sierra de la Culebra (Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ramos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Sierra de la Culebra se presenta como un espacio de profundas transformaciones en su fi sonomía vegetal a lo largo de una prolongada evolución temporal. El agente causante de estos cambios ha sido el ser humano, que, de manera directa o indirecta, ha eliminado las especies forestales, o facilitado la sustitución de unas especies forestales por otras, creando así un medio de alta estabilidad de la vegetación. Se estudia aquí el resultado de esta dinámica de la vegetación en dos momentos signifi cativos de la evolución, el siglo XVIII y el siglo XX. En la primera fecha nos encontramos con un paisaje vegetal ya ampliamente modelado por el hombre, con un predominio de los matorrales de brezo, a través de la implantación de una determinada estructura económica. Mientras que en la segunda mitad del siglo XX serán agentes externos al espacio serrano los que fuerzan una nueva dinámica, a partir de la introducción de nuevas especies forestales, las coníferas, hasta ese momento ajenas al devenir histórico de la Sierra. Esta nueva orientación que se da al espacio de la Sierra está en relación con una estructura económica distinta a la que tradicionalmente se había puesto en práctica en la zona.

  7. Grand slam on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.

  8. Etude du "Grand Meaulnes" (Study of "Le Grand Meaulnes")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingue, Francois

    1976-01-01

    This article describes a study of the novel "Le Grand Meaulnes" following a new methodology for directed reading consisting of three phases: introductory, analytical, and creative. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  9. Sequence, taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peptides separated from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Dong, Yi; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Chen, Huiping; Qiu, Chaoying; Su, Guowan

    2016-09-01

    Five tasty peptides were separated from soy sauce, by sensory-guided fractionation, using macroporous resin, medium-pressure liquid chromatography and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry as ALPEEV, LPEEV, AQALQAQA, EQQQQ and EAGIQ (which originated from glycinin A1bB2-445, glycinin A1bB2-445, cobyric acid synthase, leucine-tRNA ligase and glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, respectively). LPEEV, AQALQAQA and EQQQQ tasted umami with threshold values of 0.43, 1.25 and 0.76mmol/l, respectively. ALPEEV and EAGIQ had minimal umami taste, but ALPEEV, EAGIQ and LPEEV showed umami-enhancement with a threshold estimated at 1.52, 1.94 and 3.41mmol/l, respectively. In addition, the synthetic peptides showed much better sensory taste than mixtures of their constitutive amino acids. It indicated that peptides might play an important role in the umami taste of soy sauce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bayesian modeling of Clostridium perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaloustre, S; Cornu, M; Morelli, E; Noël, V; Delignette-Muller, M L

    2011-04-01

    Models on Clostridium perfringens growth which have been published to date have all been deterministic. A probabilistic model describing growth under non-isothermal conditions was thus proposed for predicting C. perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products cooked and distributed in a French hospital. Model parameters were estimated from different types of data from various studies. A Bayesian approach was proposed to model the overall uncertainty regarding parameters and potential variability on the 'work to be done' (h(0)) during the germination, outgrowth and lag phase. Three models which differed according to their description of this parameter h(0) were tested. The model with inter-curve variability on h(0) was found to be the best one, on the basis of goodness-of-fit assessment and validation with literature data on results obtained under non-isothermal conditions. This model was used in two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations to predict C. perfringens growth throughout the preparation of beef-in-sauce products, using temperature profiles recorded in a hospital kitchen. The median predicted growth was 7.8×10(-2) log(10) cfu·g(-1) (95% credibility interval [2.4×10(-2), 0.8]) despite the fact that for more than 50% of the registered temperature profiles cooling steps were longer than those required by French regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquorice and soy sauce, a life-saving concoction in a patient with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H; Bhattacharya, B; Verma, V; McCulloch, A J; Smellie, W S A; Heald, A H

    2007-07-01

    Addison's disease is a relatively common disorder to endocrinologists, but is rare and potentially fatal when presenting acutely. Treatment now involves replacement of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids with synthetic compounds, although historically patients took common salt and plant-based preparations. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman who self-treated undiagnosed Addison's disease for several years with soy sauce and liquorice sticks. She presented with a four-week history of decreased energy, malaise and postural dizziness. Our patient described an unusual diet of liquorice sticks and soy sauce, consuming around 46 g of salt per week. There was a family history of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Physical examination was unremarkable, although subsequent investigation confirmed Addison's disease. Liquorice provided glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid, which act on 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. In this case, the net effect was potentiation of glucocorticoid action on renal mineralocorticoid receptors in the context of failing adrenocortical steroid production. The case highlights the importance of taking a dietary history to aid diagnosis.

  12. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  13. Isolation and identification of a humanTRPV1 activating compound from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshida, Mayu; Matsuura, Yasunori; Hotta, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2017-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was identified as a receptor of capsaicin, which is a pungent ingredient in hot red peppers. Due to its relevance for nociception, a physiological and pharmacological study of TRPV1 has also been developed. Therefore, it is important to enrich scientific knowledge regarding the TRPV1 activating or inhibiting compounds. In this study, we fractionated soy sauce based on the human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) activity using column chromatography and purified 5-(9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-yl)-2-furanmethanol (perlolyrine) as an hTRPV1-activating compound. Additionally, perlolyrine activates the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (hTRPA1). The EC50 of hTRPV1 and hTRPA1 were 2.87 and 1.67 μmol L(-1), respectively. HPLC quantification of soy sauces showed that they contain 2.22-12.13 μmol L(-1) of perlolyrine. The sensory evaluation revealed that perlolyrine has taste modification effect. The results of this study, for the first time, suggest that perlolyrine induces the activation of hTRPV1 and hTRPA1.

  14. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  15. Identification and characterization of the aroma-impact components of Thai fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-03-18

    Comprehensive analysis of the potent odorants in Thai premium fish sauce samples was accomplished by use of complementary volatile isolation methods combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry. Odorants of intermediate and low volatility were determined by direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (DSE-SAFE) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Meanwhile, static headspace dilution analysis (SHDA) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (H-SPME) were used to determine the highly volatile odorants. Results of AEDA indicated the importance (log3FD factor≥6) of five acidic odorants (butanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, and 2-phenylacetic acid) and four neutral/basic odorants (3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, phenylacetaldehyde, and o-aminoacetophone). Results of SHDA indicated the predominant (log3FD factors≥5) headspace odorants were methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid. Concentrations for 21 odorants were determined by stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA), and their odor-activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Among these, methanethiol, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl trisulfide, 3-(methylthio)propanal, and butanoic acid had the highest OAVs (>500). Results of aroma recombination and omission studies revealed the importance of acids, aldehydes, and sulfur-containing compounds to the overall aroma of the Thai fish sauce.

  16. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  17. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some

  18. Monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. In this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bacterial DGGE profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were Weissella cibaria (Weissella confusa, Weissella kimchii, Weissella salipiscis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus iners, or Streptococcus thermophilus), Staphylococcus gallinarum (or Staphylococcus xylosus), and Staphylococcus kloosii. In addition to these bacteria, Tetragenococcus halophilus was also detected in the mash during lactic acid fermentation. The fungal DGGE profile indicated that the fungal microbes in the koji were not only Aspergillus oryzae but also several yeasts. In the mash, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii appeared in the early fermentation stage, Candida etchellsii (or Candida nodaensis) and Candida versatilis were detected at the middle fermentation stage, and Candida etchellsii was detected at the mature fermentation stage. These results suggest that the microbial communities present during the soy sauce manufacturing process change drastically throughout its production. This is the first report to reveal the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process using a culture-independent method. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of koji-making with mixed strains on physicochemical and sensory properties of Chinese-type soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yao; Feng, Yun-Zi; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Mou-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Two kinds of soy sauces were prepared with Aspergillus oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed koji (SSAOM, A. oryzae mouldstarter:Monascus purpureus mouldstarter = 1:2, w/w) respectively. The effects of mixed koji on the essential indices, oxygen radical absorption capacity, color indices, free amino acids and volatile compounds of soy sauce have been studied, followed by a sensory evaluation between SSAO and SSAOM. The contents of non-salt soluble solid, reducing sugar, total acid, total nitrogen and amino nitrogen in SSAOM increased by 21.50%, 9.88%, 15.35%, 5.98% and 41.43%, respectively, compared with the control SSAO, owing to the higher activities of acid protease and glucoamylase in the mixed koji. Moreover, SSAOM showed higher antioxidant activity, higher levels of free amino acids and much more attractive color. Meanwhile, flavor groups such as esters, aldehydes, pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds in SSAOM were also improved. The contents of free amino acids and aroma compounds were consistent with the sensory evaluation. According to descriptive sensory analysis, SSAOM showed higher intensity for sweet and umami attributes; in addition, higher flowery, burnt, fruity and caramel-like attributes were perceived in SSAOM, while SSAO showed higher ethanolic and sour attributes. The investigated soy sauce prepared with mixed koji can be considered as an effective method to accelerate the fermentation process and improve the flavor of soy sauce. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability

  3. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  4. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. 319.309 Section 319.309 Animals and Animal Products... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with...

  5. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  6. Petrological and geochemical characterization of the plutonic rocks of the Sierra de La Aguada, Province of San Luis, Argentina: Genetic implications with the Famatinian magmatic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cristofolini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a synthesis on the geology of the crystalline complex that constitute the Sierra de la Aguada, San Luis province, Argentine, from an approach based on field relations, petrologic and structural features and geochemical characteristic. This mountain range exposes a basement dominated by intermediate to mafic calcalkaline igneous rocks and peraluminous felsic granitoids, both emplaced in low to medium grade metamorphic rocks stabilized under low amphibolite facies. All this lithological terrane has been grouped in the El Carrizal-La Aguada Complex. Field relations, petrographic characterization and geochemical comparison of the plutonic rocks from the study area with those belonging to the Ordovician Famatinian suit exposed in the Sierra Grande de San Luis, suggest a genetic and temporal relation linked to the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc.

  7. THE TOUCH ANALYSIS IN AN ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF MAYONNAISE SAUCES WITH ADDITION OF A CAVIAR DZHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sauces on the basis of vegetable oils and mayonnaise which are traditionally considered tasty, but not really useful at enrichment by functional additives can be used not only for flavoring decoration of various dishes and salads, but also for increase of their nutrition value. Dzhus received by production of salty granular caviar of a humpback salmon represents a full-fledged complex of the major food factors that can serve as motivation for its use when developing new food, including in the form of a proteinaceous and mineral additive for its additional introduction to compoundings of sauces. In view of existence of a fish smell of a caviar dzhus, it is possible to use it as natural fragrance by production of the wide range of fish products, including emulsion. For an assessment of quality of production, fast and simple the organoleptic (touch method is very convenient. Various content of easily volatile organic compounds in an equilibrium gas phase over tests is established. Samples of a caviar dzhus among themselves and sauces with its addition differ. Distinctions are defined by amount of the brought ingredient. The intensity of a smell of tests determined by the content of easily volatile compounds on which the massif of sensors is adjusted differs. Sauces with an additive of a caviar dzhus have the greatest intensity of a smell in accordance with GOST at its small contents. In a figure form of "a visual print" of the maximum responses of all sensors in the massif distinctions in a chemical composition of an equilibrium gas phase over tests are established. Distinctions in qualitative and quantitative structure of RGF over samples with addition 1,5 and 2,0 of % of a dzhus significantly significant. It is established that addition (on TU and in accordance with GOST in compoundings of sauces results more than 1% of a caviar dzhus in essential distinction as a part of RGF.

  8. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  9. Teriyaki sauce with carvacrol or thymol effectively controls Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and indigenous flora in marinated beef and marinade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeree; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Soon Han; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-07-01

    An effective bactericidal cold-marinating method for beef products is described, exploiting the synergism between soy sauce and natural compounds (carvacrol, CV or thymol, TM) to reduce microbiological risks. Beef slices inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium (3.1-3.5logCFU/g) were marinated in a teriyaki sauce with or without CV and TM (0.3 and 0.5%). After 1, 3, and 7days at 4°C, indigenous microflora population, color, lipid oxidation, marinade uptake, and pH of marinated beef and leftover marinade samples were examined. Teriyaki sauce alone did not reduce or inhibit any of the target pathogens or indigenous bacteria, while 0.5% CV- or TM-containing teriyaki sauce inactivated all inocula without recovery within 7days (p0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Home Cooking and Phenolics: Effect of Thermal Treatment and Addition of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on the Phenolic Profile of Tomato Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; Rinaldi de Alvarenga, José Fernando; Torrado, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2014-04-09

    Tomato products are a key component of the Mediterranean diet, which is strongly related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular events. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45, and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Concentration of phenolics in the tomato sauces decreased during the cooking process, with the exception of caffeic acid and tyrosol. The main degradation observed was the oxidation of quercetin, since the hydroxy-function at the C-ring of this flavonoid is not blocked by a sugar moiety, unlike rutin. Higher levels of virgin olive oil in tomato sauce seemed to enhance the extraction of phenolic compounds from the tomato, leading to higher phenolic contents in the sauces. Thus, the food matrix containing the phenolic compounds plays a crucial role in determining their accessibility.

  11. Interaction of an Introduced Predator with Future Effects of Climate Change in the Recruitment Dynamics of the Imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog (Rana sierrae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    I Lacan; Kathleen R. Matthews; K.V. Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Between-year variation in snowpack (from 20 to 200% of average) and summer rainfall cause large fluctuations in volume of small lakes in the higher elevation (> 3000 m) Sierra Nevada, which are important habitat for the imperiled Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog, Rana sierrae. Climate change (global warming) is predicted to increase these...

  12. Sierra Leone: A pilot humanitarian investigation.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On recom- mandc d'instituer certaines mesures de controle, tellcs que l'appli- cation residuelle d'insecticidc en méme temp que l'integration dc methodes dc controle dans le systeme de soins de snnte primaire, car les punaises sont une source de grande irritation e t de nuits sans sommeil qui pourraient conduire au stress.

  13. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far?north region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far?north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indi...

  14. Population size, survival, growth, and movements of Rana sierrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Halstead, Brian J.; Link, William

    2013-01-01

    Based on 2431 captures of 757 individual frogs over a 9-yr period, we found that the population of R. sierrae in one meadow–stream complex in Yosemite National Park ranged from an estimated 45 to 115 adult frogs. Rana sierrae at our relatively low elevation site (2200 m) grew at a fast rate (K = 0.73–0.78), had high overwintering survival rates (44.6–95%), lived a long time (up to 16 yr), and tended to be fairly sedentary during the summer (100% minimum convex polygon annual home ranges of 139 m2) but had low year-to-year site fidelity. Even though the amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) has been present in the population for at least 13 yr, there was no clear downward trend as might be expected from reports of R. sierrae population declines associated with Bd or from reports of widespread population decline of R. sierrae throughout its range.

  15. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. M. Lamin

    Human Rights Watch. 2003). Serious countrywide interventions against HIV commenced ..... August 2008, Mexico City, Mexico. NAS/MOHS. 2002. “HIV/AIDS. SEROPREVALENCE AND BEHAVIORAL RISK. FACTOR SURVEY IN SIERRA LEONE, ...

  16. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophilic lactic acid bacteria on the growth of osmophilic yeasts was investigated. It was recognized that osmophilic shoyu yeasts such as Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis were inhibited by a metabolite produced by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria (belonging to Pediococcus halophilus) in brine fermentation of shoyu. The primary inhibitor was considered to be acetic acid, although lactic acid was slightly inhibitory. PMID:16345625

  17. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decreased from 35.22 to 6.32% with no significant effect on spore viability. The dry spores could be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature for at least 3 months. Images PMID:16346427

  18. A Bradford multiplexing method for protein estimation in fermented foods: Soy sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteins for foods, in addition to providing nutrition, should also possess specific functional properties that facilitate processing and serve as the basis of product performance. Soy protein is a major component of the diet of food and is increasingly important in the human diet. Hence, here in the present article, we are focusing a rapid and easy method for quantitative determination of total protein content with multiplex samples in any food products such as soy sauce or other traditional fermented foods. We described a bioassay procedure (Bradford method for the evaluation of total protein content in foods. This method involves measurement of the protein efficiency ratio under standardized conditions. The experiment will provide researchers a scientific way to determine pretentious quality of variety of foods and/or health supplements.

  19. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mouse forestomach neoplasia by dietary soy sauce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, H.; Storkson, J.M.; Nagahara, A.; Pariza, M.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Japanese-style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) contains anticarcinogenic activity. ICR mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing shoyu. 2 wks later a regimen consisting of 2 doses (p.o.) of benzo(a)pyrene per wk for 4 wks was begun, to initiate forestomach neoplasia. 23 wks later the animals were sacrificed, forestomach neoplasms counted and histologically confirmed. Shoyu produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in neoplasms, which appeared maximal when shoyu was present at 20% of the diet. Exposure to nitrite neither enhanced nor diminished the anticarcinogenic effect. Shoyu was found to contain antioxidant activity which may be related to the observed anticarcinogenic effect. Surprisingly mouse forestomach ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was induced by shoyu, due in part to high sodium chloride content. Since ODC induction appears to be an early and possibly obligatory event in tumor promotion, the inhibition of neoplasia by shoyu probably occurs at a later step.

  20. Key compounds contributing to the fruity aroma characterization in Japanese raw soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-10-01

    In order to clarify the aroma characteristics of raw soy sauce (RS), the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis to the aroma concentrate from a RS revealed 76 aroma peaks, of which 25 peaks showed fruit-like aromas. Furthermore, the head space aromatic compounds of RS were analyzed with 32 peaks detected. Ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 4-methylpentanoate were detected with higher flavor dilution factor (FD factor) than other aroma compounds by aroma extract dilution analysis. Quantitative analysis suggested that these compounds were common in all RS samples tested in this study, and were present at higher concentrations than their perception thresholds. The concentrations and the FD factors of these compounds were significantly decreased during the heating of the RS. Fruitiness is one of the key aroma characteristics of RS and the ethyl esters identified in this study are the key components contributing to this distinct aroma.

  1. Adhesive joint and composites modeling in SIERRA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Yuki; Brown, Arthur A.; Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Chambers, Robert S.; Foulk, James W., III (.,; )

    2005-11-01

    Polymers and fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites play an important role in many Defense Program applications. Recently an advanced nonlinear viscoelastic model for polymers has been developed and incorporated into ADAGIO, Sandia's SIERRA-based quasi-static analysis code. Standard linear elastic shell and continuum models for fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites have also been added to ADAGIO. This report details the use of these models for advanced adhesive joint and composites simulations carried out as part of an Advanced Simulation and Computing Advanced Deployment (ASC AD) project. More specifically, the thermo-mechanical response of an adhesive joint when loaded during repeated thermal cycling is simulated, the response of some composite rings under internal pressurization is calculated, and the performance of a composite container subjected to internal pressurization, thermal loading, and distributed mechanical loading is determined. Finally, general comparisons between the continuum and shell element approaches for modeling composites using ADAGIO are given.

  2. Diversity of plasmids encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus spp. isolated from Japanese fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2011-07-15

    Nineteen isolates of histamine producing halophilic bacteria were isolated from four fish sauce mashes, each mash accumulating over 1000 ppm of histamine. The complete sequences of the plasmids encoding the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA), which is harbored in histamine producing bacteria, were determined. In conjunction, the sequence regions adjacent to hdcA were analyzed to provide information regarding its genetic origin. As reference strains, Tetragenococcus halophilus H and T. muriaticus JCM10006(T) were also studied. Phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified all isolates as T. halophilus, a predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR, Southern blot, and complete plasmid sequencing) of the histamine producing isolates confirmed that all the isolates harbored approximately 21-37 kbp plasmids encoding a single copy of the hdc cluster consisting of four genes related to histamine production. Analysis of hdc clusters, including spacer regions, indicated >99% sequence similarity among the isolates. All of the plasmids sequenced encoded traA, however genes related to plasmid conjugation, namely mob genes and oriT, were not identified. Two putative mobile genetic elements, ISLP1-like and IS200-like, respectively, were identified in the up- and downstream region of the hdc cluster of all plasmids. Most of the sequences, except hdc cluster and two adjacent IS elements, were diverse among plasmids, suggesting that each histamine producers harbored a different histamine-related plasmid. These results suggested that the hdc cluster was not spread by clonal dissemination depending on the specific plasmid and that the hdc cluster in tetragenococcal plasmid was likely encoded on transformable elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  4. Metabolite profiling of soy sauce using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of correlation with quantitative descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Sano, Atsushi; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Obata, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauces, produced from different ingredients and brewing processes, have variations in components and quality. Therefore, it is extremely important to comprehend the relationship between components and the sensory attributes of soy sauces. The current study sought to perform metabolite profiling in order to devise a method of assessing the attributes of soy sauces. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) data for 24 soy sauce samples were obtained from well selected sensory panelists. Metabolite profiles primarily concerning low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components were based on gas chromatography with time-of-flightmass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). QDA data for soy sauces were accurately predicted by projection to latent structure (PLS), with metabolite profiles serving as explanatory variables and QDA data set serving as a response variable. Moreover, analysis of correlation between matrices of metabolite profiles and QDA data indicated contributing compounds that were highly correlated with QDA data. Especially, it was indicated that sugars are important components of the tastes of soy sauces. This new approach which combines metabolite profiling with QDA is applicable to analysis of sensory attributes of food as a result of the complex interaction between its components. This approach is effective to search important compounds that contribute to the attributes. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  6. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao, Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0-40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities.

  7. Functional Requirements for SIERRA Version 1.0 Beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDWARDS, HAROLD C.; STEWART, JAMES R.; TAYLOR, LEE M.

    1999-10-01

    The objective of the SIERRA framework is to provide a common software infrastructure for massively parallel computational mechanics applications. The SIERRA framework consolidates the mechanics-independent computational services required by a diverse set of mechanics applications into a shared framework. Consolidation of these computational services eliminates their redundant development and maintenance efforts and streamlines the coupling of independently developed computational mechanics capabilities into integrated multi-mechanics applications.

  8. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Garth M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  9. Preliminary flora of the Sierra Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; George M. Ferguson; George Yatskievych; Beatriz E. Loyola-Reina; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; John L. Anderson; Stephen F. Hale; Sky Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra Bacadéhuachi in east-central Sonora is the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO), located east of Bacadéhuachi, Municipio de Bacadéhuachi, 34 km east of the Chihuahua border, and 165 km south of the Arizona border. The vegetation ranges from lowland foothills thornscrub up through desert grassland to oak woodland and pine-oak forest...

  10. Acciones políticas y proyectos económicos en Guanajuato frente al conflicto de la Sierra Gorda 1847-1852

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Armando Preciado de Alba

    2009-01-01

    Las revoluciones europeas de 1848 inquietaron a grandes sectores de la clase política mexicana pues fueron percibidas como un peligro para el orden social. Asimismo, en esos años, conflictos regionales como la Guerra de Castas y la rebelión en la Sierra Gorda amenazaban con trascender al ámbito nacional. Las autoridades guanajuatenses trataron de impulsar acciones políticas y económicas para controlar a la población. El artículo aborda el proyecto para la construcción de un presidio en la po...

  11. Membrane filtration of Sudan orange G on a cellulose acetate membrane filter for separation-preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination in water, chili powder, chili sauce and tomato sauce samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALOthman, Zeid A; Unsal, Yunus E; Habila, Mohamed; Shabaka, Azza; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2012-08-01

    A simple membrane filtration procedure for separation-enrichment of Sudan orange G is presented. The method is based on the adsorption of Sudan orange G on a cellulose acetate filter and its elution from the membrane with 10 mL of ethanol. Sudan orange G in the eluent was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 388 nm. The effect of analytical conditions, including pH, flow rates and eluent, sample volume, type of membrane for quantitative preconcentration and separation of Sudan orange G were examined. The influences of matrix components on Sudan orange G recoveries were studied. The preconcentration factor was 125. The detection limit was 4.9 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 4.3%. The presented procedure was applied to chili powder, chili sauce, tomato sauce, powdered beverage and water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The arginine deiminase pathway of koji bacteria is involved in ethyl carbamate precursor production in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Fang, Fang; Chen, Jian; Du, Guocheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a group 2A carcinogen generated from a few precursors in many fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. Citrulline, urea, carbamoyl phosphate, and ethanol are common precursors detected in fermented foods. In this study, citrulline was proved to be the main EC precursor in soy sauce, which was found to be accumulated in moromi mash period and correlated with the utilization of arginine by koji bacteria. Six koji isolates belonging to three genera were identified to be able to accumulate citrulline via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. Among these strains, only Pediococcus acidilactici retained high activities in synthesis and accumulation of citrulline in the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride. These results suggested that P. acidilactici is responsible for the accumulation of citrulline, one of the EC precursors, in the process of soy sauce fermentation. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the Breakdown Behavior on Chinese Traditional Stewed Pork with Brown Sauce: Physical Properties Using Microstructural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengyong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential physics differences of Chinese traditional stewed pork during mastication were investigated. Ten subjects chewed and expectorated the fat and lean layers of stewed pork with brown sauce at different stages of mastication. The produced boluses were analyzed for their physical properties. The results suggested the subjects’ saliva secretion and moisture content of the boluses during mastication increased significantly depending on subjects and food types studied (P<0.05 and led to increase of bolus apparent particle size because of saliva uptake. Bolus first peak force tended to decrease significantly, whereas bolus flowability increased significantly during mastication (P<0.05. Further, microstructure of boluses revealed series processing was conducted by comminution, aggregation, hydration, and dilution. The boluses ready-to-swallow possessed a higher flowability and a homogenetic matrix. Therefore, the changes in physics and microstructure of bolus contributed to dynamic texture perception of traditional Chinese stewed pork with brown sauce.

  14. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Grand challenges are among the most complex problems for modern societies. Many governments and foundations provide substantial resources to encourage the search for solutions. Due to the significance of these problems, organizations often form partnerships in what we call search consortia to eng...... that advocacy groups benefit search consortia, particularly when consortia exhibit a high dispersion of technological knowledge and when they are inexperienced....

  15. Thomas Moran: "The Grand Canyon."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for introducing students in grades four through six to Thomas Moran's painting, "The Grand Canyon." The goal of the lesson is to illustrate the importance of the American West as a subject for artists in the nineteenth century. (JDH)

  16. Grand Rounds in Pediatric Nephrology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol. 8 (2011), Article ID C101204, 4 pages doi:10.4303/cmch/C101204. Case Presentation. Grand Rounds in Pediatric Nephrology. Elisabeth M. Hodson. Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia. Address correspondence to Elisabeth M. Hodson, ...

  17. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A. Rabi; Evelyne Derens-Bertheau; Elisabeth Morelli; Isabelle Trezzani-Harbelot

    2014-01-01

    Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point). In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient ...

  18. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zeroorder model

    OpenAIRE

    Derens Bertheau, Evelyne; Morelli, Elisabeth; Trezzani-Harbelot, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point). In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown...

  19. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  20. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  1. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Cao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  2. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce. PMID:25945335

  3. Comparative genomic analysis of Aspergillus oryzae strains 3.042 and RIB40 for soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua; Cao, Xiaohong

    2013-06-17

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 (Chinese strain) is a close relative of A. oryzae RIB40 (Japanese strain), which is the important agent used for soy sauce fermentation. The genome of A. oryzae 3.042 was sequenced and compared with A. oryzae RIB40 in an attempt to understand why different soy sauce flavors are produced by these strains. The A. oryzae 3.042 chromosome is 36,547,279bp and contains 11,399 protein-encoding genes. MUMmer analysis revealed that the genomes of A. oryzae 3.042 and RIB40 are mostly collinear. Genome sequence data and comparative analysis of the two strains identified several strain-specific genes that encode putative proteins involved in cell growth, salt tolerance, environmental resistance and flavor formation. A. oryzae 3.042 showed stronger potential for mycelial growth. Some genes unique to A. oryzae RIB40 were related to salt tolerance, especially genes for K(+) transport, while others were associated with ester formation and amino acid metabolism, which likely contribute to flavor formation. In conclusion, comparative genome analysis provided insights into the different genetic traits of the two A. oryzae strains. The unique genes that we found in A. oryzae would make sense to the soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, Hong-Sun; Park, Byoung-Jun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2002-07-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25°C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH 3-nitrogen, NH 2-nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce.

  5. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanumkaeri.re.kr

    2002-07-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH{sub 3}-nitrogen, NH{sub 2}-nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce.

  6. Optimisation and validation of analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants: application to the analysis of tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Labrador, Agustín; Domínguez, Alba; Peiró, Lluís

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, simultaneous extraction of natural antioxidants (phenols and carotenoids) in complex matrices, such as tomato sauces, is presented. The tomato sauce antioxidant compounds studied were the phenolics hydroxytyrosol, from virgin olive oil, quercetin and its derivatives, from onions, and quercetin-rutinoside as well as the carotenoid, lycopene (cis and trans), from tomatoes. These antioxidant compounds were extracted simultaneously with n-hexane/acetone/ethanol (50/25/25, v/v/v). The phenolics were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and lycopene (cis- and trans-forms) was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After studying the parameters of these methods, they were applied to the analysis of virgin olive oil, fresh onion, tomato concentrate and tomato powder, and commercial five tomato sauces. Subsequently, the results obtained in our laboratory were compared with those from the Gallina Blanca Star Group laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  8. Free α-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    α-Dicarbonyl (α-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) α-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) α-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant α-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in α-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free α-DC content. These findings suggest that α-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Micellar Liquid Chromatography Determination of Spermine in Fish Sauce after Derivatization with 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Liang Chin-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the selective determination of the levels of spermine in anchovy sauce after derivatization with 3,5 dinitrobenzoyl chloride. The micellar liquid chromatographic separation proposed here uses a C18 column (125×4.6 mm, followed by detection of spermine derivative at 260 nm. Elution of the analyte was performed using a mobile phase of 0.15 M SDS-4% (v/v 1-pentanol-pH 7 running under isocratic mode at 25°C. Validation parameters were linearity (2–100 μg/mL, R2>0.999, detection and quantification limits (0.4 and 1.2 μg/mL, resp., precision (less than 3.6%, accuracy (93.3–101.1%, and robustness (less than 4.8%. These results are in agreement with the requirements of the FDA guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to the monitorization of spermine formation in unsalted and salted fish sauce samples. The suggested methodology was found useful in routine analysis of spermine in fish sauce samples.

  10. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P bound proteinases from Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation.

  11. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Online preconcentration in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for sensitive determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruixia; Li, Wenhua; Yang, Lirong; Jiang, Yixiu; Xie, Tianyao

    2011-02-15

    A sensitive method of online preconcentration followed by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) is evaluated as a novel approach for the determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in soy sauce. The online preconcentration technique, namely field-enhanced sample injection, coupled with CE-C(4)D were successfully developed and optimized. In order to reduce the complex matrix interference resulting from the constituents of soy sauce, a suitable sample clean-up procedure was also investigated for real sample pretreatment. Under optimized conditions, sorbic acid and benzoic acid were well separated within 10 min, and the detection limits were 0.05 μM (5.6 μg L(-1)) and 0.08 μM (9.8 μg L(-1)), respectively. The accuracy was tested by spiking 10.0 mg L(-1) and 100.0 mg L(-1) of standards in the soy sauce samples, and the recoveries were 95-99%, respectively. Results of this study show a great potential for the proposed method as a tool for the fast screening of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interplay between grand unification and supersymmetry in

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-21

    /fulltext/pram/086/02/0231-0244. Keywords. Grand unification; supersymmetry. Abstract. Some aspects of minimal supersymmetric renormalizable grand unified theories are reviewed here. These include some constraints on ...

  14. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 2 (1) pp. 28-31 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -31, June ... University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 3Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Division of. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Lagos, ..... Antiretroviral Therapy and. HIV/hepatitis B Virus Co-infection. Clin Infect Dis.

  15. Low-molecular weight fractions of Japanese soy sauce act as a RAGE antagonist via inhibition of RAGE trafficking to lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munesue, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Urushihara, Ryouta; Inomata, Kouhei; Saito, Hidehito; Motoyoshi, So; Watanabe, Takuo; Yonekura, Hideto; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) have been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. AGE engage the cell surface receptor for AGE (RAGE), which in turn elicits intracellular signaling, leading to activation of NF-κB to cause deterioration of tissue homeostasis. AGE are not only formed within our bodies but are also derived from foods, endowing them with flavor. In the present study, we assessed the agonistic/antagonistic effects of food-derived AGE on RAGE signaling in a reporter assay system and found that low-molecular weight AGE can antagonize the action of AGE-BSA. Foods tested were Japanese soy sauce, coffee, cola, and red wine, all of which showed fluorescence characteristics of AGE. Soy sauce and coffee contained N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML). Soy sauce, coffee, and red wine inhibited the RAGE ligand-induced activation of NF-κB, whereas cola had no effect on the ligand induction of NF-κB. The liquids were then fractionated into high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions and low-molecular weight (LMW) fractions. Soy sauce-, coffee-, and red wine-derived LMW fractions consistently inhibited the RAGE ligand induction of NF-κB, whereas the HMW fractions of these foods activated RAGE signaling. Using the LMW fraction of soy sauce as a model food-derived RAGE antagonist, we performed a plate-binding assay and found that the soy sauce LMW fractions competitively inhibited AGE-RAGE association. Further, this fraction significantly reduced AGE-dependent monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion from murine peritoneal macrophages. The LMF from soy sauce suppressed the AGE-induced RAGE trafficking to lipid rafts. These results indicate that small components in some, if not all, foods antagonize RAGE signaling and could exhibit beneficial effects on RAGE-related diseases.

  16. Epithermal uranium deposits in a volcanogenic context: the example of Nopal 1 deposit, Sierra de Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Angiboust, S.; Fayek, M.; Camacho, A.; Allard, T.; Agrinier, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Peña Blanca molybdenum-uranium field (Chihuahua, Mexico) exhibits over 100 airborne anomalies hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs (44 Ma) overlying the Pozos conglomerate and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Uranium occurrences are associated with breccia zones at the intersection of two or more fault systems. Periodic reactivation of these structures associated with Basin and Range and Rio Grande tectonic events resulted in the mobilization of U and other elements by meteoric fluids heated by geothermal activity. Trace element geochemistry (U, Th, REE) provides evidence for local mobilization of uranium under oxidizing conditions. In addition, O- and H-isotope geochemistry of kaolinite, smectite, opal and calcite suggests that argillic alteration proceeded at shallow depth with meteoric water at 25-75 °C. Focussed along breccia zones, fluids precipitated several generations of pyrite and uraninite together with kaolinite, as in the Nopal 1 mine, indicating that mineralization and hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tuffs are contemporaneous. Low δ34S values (~ -24.5 ‰) of pyrites intimately associated with uraninite suggest that the reducing conditions at the origin of the U-mineralization arise from biological activity. Later, the uplift of Sierra Pena Blanca resulted in oxidation and remobilization of uranium, as confirmed by the spatial distribution of radiation-induced defect centers in kaolinites. These data show that tectonism and biogenic reducing conditions can play a major role in the formation and remobilization of uranium in epithermal deposits. By comparison with the other uranium deposits at Sierra Pena Blanca and nearby Sierra de Gomez, Nopal 1 deposit is one of the few deposits having retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  17. Ammonia at Blodgett Forest, Sierra Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-11-06

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a two week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx} 2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  18. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  19. The KASCADE-grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemer, J; Apel, W D; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bozdog, H; Daumiller, K; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J C; Cossavella, F; Souza, V de; Finger, M [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M; Chiavassa, A; Cantoni, E; Di Pierro, F [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Brancus, I M [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M; Buchholz, P [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany)], E-mail: Johannes.Bluemer@ik.fzk.de (and others)

    2008-07-15

    KASCADE-Grande is an extensive air shower array co-located with the original KASCADE air shower experiment at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. The multi-detector system allows to investigate the energy spectrum, composition, and anisotropies of cosmic rays in the energy range extended up to 10{sup 18} eV. An overview on the performance of the apparatus and first results are presented.

  20. Cassini's Grand Finale Science Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda

    2017-10-01

    After 13 years in orbit, the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn ended in a science-rich blaze of glory. Cassini returned its final bits of unique science data on September 15, 2017, as it plunged into Saturn's atmosphere satisfying planetary protection requirements. Cassini's Grand Finale covered a period of roughly five months and ended with the first time exploration of the region between the rings and planet.The final close flyby of Titan in late April 2017 propelled Cassini across Saturn’s main rings and into its Grand Finale orbits; 22 orbits that repeatedly dove between Saturn’s innermost rings and upper atmosphere making Cassini the first spacecraft to explore this region. The last orbit turned the spacecraft into the first Saturn upper atmospheric probe.The Grand Finale orbits provided highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and in-situ sampling of the ring particle composition, Saturn's atmosphere, plasma, and innermost radiation belts. The gravitational field was measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet, winds in the deeper atmosphere, and mass of the rings. The magnetic field provided insight into the physical nature of the magnetic dynamo and structure of the internal magnetic field. The ion and neutral mass spectrometer sampled the upper atmosphere for molecules that escape the atmosphere in addition to molecules originating from the rings. The cosmic dust analyzer directly sampled the composition from different parts of the main rings for the first time. Fields and particles instruments directly measured the plasma environment between the rings and planet.Science highlights and new mysteries gleaned to date from the Grand Finale orbits will be discussed.The research described in this paper was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2017

  1. The KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, A.F.; Bekk, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Universitaet Siegen, Fachbereich Physik, Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus South, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F., E-mail: dipierr@to.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - Campus North, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuhrmann, D. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich Physik, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2010-08-21

    KASCADE-Grande is the enlargement of the KASCADE extensive air shower detector, realized to expand the cosmic ray studies from the previous 10{sup 14}-10{sup 17} eV primary energy range to 10{sup 18} eV. This is performed by extending the area covered by the KASCADE electromagnetic array from 200x200 to 700x700 m{sup 2} by means of 37 scintillator detector stations of 10 m{sup 2} area each. This new array is named Grande and provides measurements of the all-charged particle component of extensive air showers (N{sub ch}), while the original KASCADE array particularly provides information on the muon content (N{sub {mu}}). Additional dense compact detector set-ups being sensitive to energetic hadrons and muons are used for data consistency checks and calibration purposes. The performance of the Grande array and its integration into the entire experimental complex is discussed. It is demonstrated that the overall observable resolutions are adequate to meet the physical requirements of the measurements, i.e. primary energy spectrum and elemental composition studies in the primary cosmic ray energy range of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV.

  2. A comparative intervention trial on fish sauce fortified with NaFe-EDTA and FeSO4+citrate in iron deficiency anemic school children in Kampot, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfils, Philippe; Monchy, Didier; Weinheimer, Heike; Chavasit, Visith; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Schümann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Inhabitants of agrarian villages of rural Cambodia suffer from high prevalences of iron deficiency and anemia in the context of a monotonous diet. To compare the efficacy and safety of placebo Khmer fish sauce to that of 10 mL of fish sauce containing 10 mg of iron, added to daily school meals either as NaFe-EDTA or as FeSO4+ citrate. 140 students aged 6-21 years were enrolled in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial. They were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups, and followed for 21 weeks during which 114 school meals seasoned with 10 mL of fish sauce were consumed by each participant. Changes in the concentrations of hemoglobin (hb), serum ferritin (SF), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and in body weight and standing height were determined. Prevalences of vomiting, diarrhea, and acute respiratory infections were monitored weekly. Both iron-fortified fish sauces increased hb and SF concentrations significantly as compared to placebo. No significant differences were observed between FeSO4+citrate and NaFe-EDTA fortification, regarding mitigation of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) or regarding CRP, growth, infections, or side-effects. Iron-fortified Khmer fish sauce added to Khmer food is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification in children and adolescents. FeSO4+citrate and NaFe-EDTA show equivalent efficacy and safety.

  3. Presence of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, a precursor of a mutagenic nitroso compound, in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K; Ochiai, M; Saitô, H; Tsuda, M; Suwa, Y; Nagao, M; Sugimura, T

    1983-01-01

    After treatment with nitrite, Japanese soy sauce was strongly mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without S9 mixture. Two precursors of the mutagen were isolated from Japanese soy sauce, and these were identified as (-)-(1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid [(-)-(1S,3S)-MTCA] and its stereoisomer (-)-(1R,3S)-MTCA. After treatment with nitrite, 1-mg samples of these compounds induced 17,400 and 13,000 revertants of TA100, respectively, without S9 mixture. Quantitative analysis of various kinds of soy sauces produced in Japan showed the presence of 82-678 micrograms of MTCA per ml. The mutagenicities of these compounds with nitrite accounted for 16-61% of the total mutagenicity of soy sauce with nitrite. Most soy sauces produced in the United States were less mutagenic than those produced in Japan and little, if any, of these two precursors of the mutagen was found in them. A major reaction product of (-)-(1S,3S)-MTCA and nitrite was a compound having a nitroso substitution at position N-2, but this compound was not mutagenic. Thus, the mutagen(s) formed from (-)-(1S,3S)-MTCA and nitrite was a minor product(s), and its specific mutagenic activity must be very high. Images PMID:6574460

  4. Antihypertensive effect of peptide-enriched soy sauce-like seasoning and identification of its angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeharu; Sano, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Chikata, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Emiko; Uchida, Riichiro

    2010-01-27

    We have developed a peptide-enriched soy sauce-like seasoning termed Fermented Soybean Seasoning (FSS), by modifying the process of soy sauce brewing. The FSS has a 2.7-fold higher concentration of total peptides than regular soy sauce. The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of FSS (IC(50) = 454 microg/mL) was greater than that of regular soy sauce (IC(50) = 1620 microg/mL). The FSS demonstrated antihypertensive effects both in spontaneously hypertensive rats and in Dahl salt-sensitive rats during continuous feeding. The ACE inhibitory substances were purified from FSS by reversed-phase chromatography. Ala-Trp IC(50) = 10 microM; Gly-Trp IC(50) = 30 microM; Ala-Tyr IC(50) = 48 microM; Ser-Tyr, IC(50) = (67 microM; Gly-Tyr, IC(50) = 97 microM; Ala-Phe, IC(50) = 190 microM; Val-Pro, IC(50) = (480 microM; Ala-Ile, IC(50) = 690 microM; Val-Gly, IC(50) = 1100 microM; and a nicotianamine, IC(50) = 0.26 microM. [corrected] The concentrations of these substances in the FSS were revealed to be higher than that of regular soy sauce through quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis.

  5. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew A. Kruk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w of soy sauce (SS, 10% (w/w of olive oil (OO, and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w (SO were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  6. Analysis of the membrane fouling on cross-flow ultrafiltration and microfiltration of soy sauce lees; Shoyuhiireden no kurosuforo roka ni okeru fauringu no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukakwa, T. [Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, H.; Kokubo, K.; Watanabe, A. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology

    2000-05-10

    Although since the 1980's Japanese soy sauce manufactures have developed cross-flow membrane filtration systems to recover soy sauce from its lees, the mechanisms by which the membrane fouls during filtration have not been theoretically discussed. Calculated flux declines using a theoretical equation developed for cross-flow cake filtration were compared against experimental results involving the filtration of soy sauce lees using polysulfone ultrafiltration and micro filtration membranes. Membrane fouling due to the deposition and intrusion of soy sauce lees was evaluated from the hydraulic resistances of the membrane and the cake layer. Calculated flux declines with time agree with the experimental results. Specific resistance of the cake layer which is an adjustable parameter of the equation, decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. Hydraulic resistance exhibited by the membranes is independent of feed flow velocity. However, the resistance of the cake layers decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. This corresponds to the steady-state flux increase. In conclusion, the main cause of fouling in the filtration of soy sauce lees is cake layer formation. By using the cake filtration model for cross-flow, the flux decline with time during the filtration is capable of being predicted. (author)

  7. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedin FR1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The Maillard reaction is complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small. Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Oils were oxidized at 110 oC and determined by the rancimat method and TBA value. The high molecular compounds (MW ≥100 kDa of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index 2.43. Characteristic UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and IR spectra indicated –OH...O groups of β-diketon or combinated C=R=R groups.

  8. Combined effects of high pressure processing and addition of soy sauce and olive oil on safety and quality characteristics of chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Zbigniew A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  9. The Effect of Used of Soy Sauce Waste in the Ration on Yolk Chemical protein, fat and calcium of Mojosari Laying Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Jayanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soy sauce waste in the ration on protein, fat and calcium content in the yolk of Mojosari laying duck. The animals used were 240 Mojosari laying ducks at 20 weeks old with the average of body weight were 1,385.0 ± 130.85 g (CV = 9.44%. Feed materials used were corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, wheat pollard, premix and soy sauce waste. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD with 4 treatment and 6 replications so that there were 24 experimental units and each consists 10 ducks. The treatments were soy sauce waste at level T0 : 0%, T1: 5%, T2: 7,5% and T3: 10%. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Significant differences were denoted as P<0.05. There was no significant effect of soy sauce waste protein, fat, and calcium content. The conclusion of this study that soy sauce waste can be used up to 10% without adverse the content of protein, fat, and calcium in Mojosari laying ducks.

  10. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneil, Adam; Abel, Jason; Reynolds, Mary G; Lash, Rr; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana D; Robert, Willie; Lungay, Victor K; Goba, Augustine; Moses, Lina M; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin; Bausch, Daniel G

    2011-10-28

    Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  11. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goba Augustine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. Findings To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. Conclusions These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  12. Structure of the Sierra de Lujar (Alpujarride Complex, Betic Cordillera

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    Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sierra de Lujar constitutes one of the best examples of fold superposition of the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera (S Spain. In this paper, the members of its Triassic carbonate series have been used for the first time to obtain the cartography of the Sierra de Lujar, providing knowledge of the two folding systems, the older trending E-W and the younger (far better represented, NNE-SSW. The most important fold is a large reverse syncline with a convex axis towards the SE, forming part of the S and E edges of this sierra; contrarily, the vergence is towards the N in the southern sector and towards the W in the eastern sector. The interior of the Sierra de Lujar bears a succession of NNE-SSO anticlinal and synclinal folds, some with reverse limbs. The vergences fluctuate, even within the same fold. Folds of an E-W system crop out only in the SW sector of the Sierra de Lujar and verge to the S. The unit of the Sierra de Lujar (Lujar-Gádor unit is overthrust by the Escalate unit (which is a duplication of the Lujar unit and by other upper units, formed here by schists. The W edge of the Sierra de Lujar is affected by a large normal fault that sinks the Escalate unit there. The E-W folds were coetaneous with the thrusting of the units, while those in the NNE-SSW direction formed at the onset of the westward shift of the Internal Betic-Rif Zone.La Sierra de Lújar constituye uno de los mejores ejemplos de superposición de pliegues de la Zona Interna Bética. Su estructura se ha determinado a partir del primer mapa en el que se han distinguido los diferentes tramos de su serie triásica carbonatada. Los pliegues NNE-SSO son los más abundantes y se superponen a otros de dirección E-O. Los bordes S y E de esta sierra corresponden en parte a un gran sinclinal invertido vergente hacia su interior y que continúa en la Sierra de La Joya pero con distinta vergencia. En el interior de la sierra hay numerosos anticlinales y sinclinales de direcci

  13. Kinematics of the Sierra Nevada and Oregon Crustal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, J. J.; McCaffrey, R.; Sella, G.

    2004-12-01

    Northern California contains the intersection of the NW moving Sierra Nevada block and the clockwise rotating Oregon block. Adding to the tectonic complexity of the region are the interactions of the Pacific plate, Basin and Range, California Coast Ranges, Mendocino fracture zone, San Andreas fault and the Juan de Fuca plate. Our research focuses on how the interactions of these features influence the motions of the Oregon and Sierra Nevada blocks. We processed Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected during the 1998 and 1999 National Geodetic Survey High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) surveys and by us in 2003. Our preliminary analysis of the velocity field indicates that the Oregon crustal block is rotating clockwise relative to the Sierra Nevada block around a pole approximately west of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Our future work involves finding a more exact location of the relative pole rotation between the blocks, the degree of rotation, and how this motion is being taken up.

  14. The Effects of Storage Conditions on Lycopene Content and Color of Tomato Hot Pot Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant (k value of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The k value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1 packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The k value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of L⁎, a⁎, and a⁎/b⁎ and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.

  15. Improving the hydrolysis efficiency of soy sauce residue using ultrasonic probe-assisted enzymolysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Yijie; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic probe-assisted enzymolysis technology was developed to improve the hydrolysis efficiency of soy sauce residue (SSR). The effects of enzyme type and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters on the hydrolysis degree of SSR were studied firstly to obtain the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Then the effects of ultrasound on protease activity and structure of SSR were investigated to elucidate the acting mechanism of ultrasound. Finally, the ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis modes were designed and compared, and the hydrolysates from SSR were characterized to evaluate their further application. The results showed that a hydrolysis degree of 15.53% could be obtained under the optimum enzymolysis conditions: enzyme amount 6000U/g, pH 7.8, temperature 50°C, the ratio of substrate to water phase 1:20, hydrolysis time 4h. Increasing ultrasound treatment time or power could reduce substrate size and consequently enhance the catalytic surface area. Prolonging ultrasound treatment time had a negative influence on enzyme activity, but low ultrasound power was helpful for increasing the enzyme activity. Ultrasound pretreatment of SSR followed by enzymatic hydrolysis increased the hydrolysis degree by 47.6%. When the ultrasound was applied directly to enzymolysis process, the hydrolysis degree of SSR exhibited an increase of 33.0%. The hydrolysates from SSR exhibited good antioxidant activities, and had a potential use as a functional ingredient in food or feed industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ines; de la Calle, Beatriz; Taylor, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge about 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation and detection. Although 3-MCPD is often mentioned with regard to soy sauce and acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), and much research has been done in that area, the emphasis here is placed on other foods. This contaminant can be found in a great variety of foodstuffs and is difficult to avoid in our daily nutrition. Despite its low concentration in most foods, its carcinogenic properties are of general concern. Its formation is a multivariate problem influenced by factors such as heat, moisture and sugar/lipid content, depending on the type of food and respective processing employed. Understanding the formation of this contaminant in food is fundamental to not only preventing or reducing it, but also developing efficient analytical methods of detecting it. Considering the differences between 3-MCPD-containing foods, and the need to test for the contaminant at different levels of food processing, one would expect a variety of analytical approaches. In this review, an attempt is made to provide an up-to-date list of available analytical methods and to highlight the differences among these techniques. Finally, the emergence of 3-MCPD esters and analytical techniques for them are also discussed here, although they are not the main focus of this review.

  17. Properties of a Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus subtilis EMD4 Isolated from Ganjang (Soy Sauce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lee, Jae Yong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Gyoung Min; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A Bacillus species, EMD4, with strong antibacterial activity was isolated from ganjang (soy sauce) and identified as B. subtilis. B. subtilis EMD4 strongly inhibited the growth of B. cereus ATCC14579 and B. thuringiensis ATCC33679. The antibacterial activity was stable at pH 3-9 but inactive at pH 10 and above. The activity was fully retained after 15 min at 80°C but reduced by 50% after 15 min at 90°C. The activity was completely destroyed by proteinase K and protease treatment, indicating its proteinaceous nature. The bacteriocin (BacEMD4) was partially purified from culture supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and QSepharose and Sephadex G-50 column chromatographies. The specific activity was increased from 769.2 AU/mg protein to 8,347.8 AU/mg protein and the final yield was 12.6%. The size of BacEMD4 was determined to be 3.5 kDa by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was similar with that of Subtilosin A. Nucleotide sequencing of the cloned gene confirmed that BacEMD4 was Subtilosin A. BacEMD4 showed bactericidal activity against B. cereus ATCC14579.

  18. TECNOLOGÍA DE CAZA EN LA QUEBRADA DE ANTOFALLA, DEPARTAMENTO ANTOFAGASTA DE LA SIERRA, CATAMARCA / Hunting technology in the Antofalla Valley, Antofagasta de la Sierra Department, Catamarca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Alejandro Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de cacería de camélidos silvestres han sido relevantes para la reproducción de las poblaciones humanas en los Andes Centro-Sur durante los últimos 12000 años aproximadamente. Para la materialización de esta práctica, son relevantes las armas utilizadas para poder dar muerte a las presas pretendidas. Una alternativa para interpretar el tipo de arma es a través de la información obtenida del análisis de las puntas de proyectil líticas registradas mediantes metodologías disciplinarias. Como caso de estudio utilizamos los datos obtenidos de la prospección intensiva y sistemática desarrollada en la quebrada de Antofalla, ubicada en el Departamento Antofagasta de la Sierra, Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. Para evaluar las características de esta tecnología nos centraremos en tres grandes aspectos: las características tecno-morfológicas de estos instrumentos, la asignación a distintos tipos de armas y sus posibles asignaciones cronológicas, los espacios donde fueron registrados estos especímenes, en relación con las características de los paisajes cinegéticos.   Palabras clave: Tecnología; cacería; camélidos; armas; paisaje.   Abstract The hunting practice of wild camelids has been relevant for the reproduction of human populations in the South Central Andes for the last 12000 years. An important aspect for the materialization of this practice, are the weapons used in order to kill the alleged preys. In this paper we shall introduce the different weapons used by human populations, mainly, through the information obtained from the analysis of of lithic projectile points. As a case study we will retake the information obtained from the intensive and systematic prospection developed at the Antofalla ravine, located in the Departamento Antofagasta de la Sierra, Provincia de Catamarca. In order to evaluate the features of this technology, we will focus on three aspects: the techno-morphological characteristics

  19. The geodynamic evolution of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drobe, M; Lopez de Luchi, M; Steenken, A

    2011-01-01

    Whole-rock geochemical analyses using major and trace elements in combination with the Sm–Nd and Pb–Pb isotope systems, together with SHRIMP age dating on metasedimentary rocks from the Sierras de Chepes, the Sierras de Co´rdoba, the Sierra Norte and the San Luis Formation in the Sierra de San Lu...

  20. Aspectos microbiológicos e informação nutricional de molho de tomate orgânico oriundo da agricultura familiar Microbiological aspects and nutritional information of organic tomato sauce from family farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Martins Maria Cavalcante Melo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de produção orgânico vem crescendo, tanto em área cultivada como em número de produtores e mercado consumidor. Contudo, informações técnico-científicas sobre estes alimentos in natura e processados ainda são incipientes. O tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. desempenha um importante papel para os produtores orgânicos de todo o mundo, em função do retorno financeiro e da grande demanda. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi elaborar um molho de tomate orgânico, aproveitando os saberes dos agricultores, bem como avaliar sua qualidade microbiológica e determinar sua informação nutricional. O molho estudado apresentou 93,45% de umidade, 0,89% de proteínas, 0,13% de lipídeos, 1,50% de cinzas e 4,03% de carboidratos totais. Quanto aos aspectos microbiológicos, o molho apresentou condição sanitária satisfatória, de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, e valor calórico menor do que os molhos comerciais disponíveis no mercado. Os produtos processados foram rotulados e vendidos nas feiras agroecológicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, agregando valor ao tomate e gerando renda aos agricultores familiares.The organic production systems have been raising on cultivated area, producers number and market. However, technical and scientific information about raw and processed material undergoing to organic production system is scarce. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plays an important role for organic producers around the world due to its high profits and market acceptance. The aim of this study was to prepare an organic tomato sauce made from the knowledge of familiar farmers and to assess its microbiological quality and nutritional information. The studied product presented 93.45% of moisture, 0.89% of protein, 0.13% of lipids, 1.5% of ash and 4.03% of total carbohydrates contents. The products showed a satisfactory sanitary condition according to ANVISA and

  1. Comparison of preliminary herpetofaunas of the Sierras la Madera (Oposura) and Bacadehuachi with the mainland Sierra Madre Occidental in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Erik F. Enderson; Dale S. Turner; Roberto A. Villa; Stephen F. Hale; George M. Ferguson; Charles. Hedgcock

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles were observed in the Sierra La Madera (59 species), an isolated Sky Island mountain range, and the Sierra Bacadéhuachi (30 species), the westernmost mountain range in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) range in east-central Sonora. These preliminary herpetofaunas were compared with the herpetofauna of the Yécora area in eastern Sonora in the main...

  2. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  3. Effect of Curing Time on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Beef Jerky Replaced Salt with Soy Sauce, Red Pepper Paste and Soybean Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control, soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na+ concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  4. Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Jesse David

    2011-10-01

    Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

  5. Mineral resources potential map of the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area, Inyo and Tulare counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.

    1987-01-01

    There are five areas with mineral resource potential and one area with geothermal energy potential in the South Sierra Wilderness and the South Sierra Roadless Area. The area south of Summit Meadows and the area south of Hogback Creek have moderate resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum in small skarn deposits. The area between Summit meadow and Hogback Creek and the area from south of Jackass Meadows to northwest of Granite Knob have low mineral resource potential for tungsten and molybdenum. The area south of and including Walker Creek has low mineral resource potential for lead and zinc. The area including and surrounding Monache Mountain has high geothermal energy resource potential.

  6. Comparison of the tropical floras of the Sierra la Madera and the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Van Devender; Gertrudis Yanes-Arvayo; Ana Lilia Reina-Guerrero; Melissa Valenzuela-Yanez; Maria de la Paz Montanez-Armenta; Hugo Silva-Kurumiya

    2013-01-01

    The floras of the tropical vegetation in the Sky Island Sierra la Madera (SMA) near Moctezuma in northeastern Sonora (30°00’N 109°18’W) and the Yécora (YEC) area in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) in eastern Sonora (28°25’N 109°15”W) were compared. The areas are 175 km apart. Tropical vegetation includes foothills thornscrub (FTS) in both areas and tropical deciduous...

  7. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of NaFeEDTA-Fortified Soy Sauce on Anemia Prevalence in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jun Sheng; Yin, Ji Yong; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Lu, Zhen Xin; Regina, Moench-Pfanner; Chen, Jun Shi; Chen, Chun Ming

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. A systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. After the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in microbial composition and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in crab marinated in soy sauce produced by six manufacturing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Eun Sook; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Na Young; Cho, Tae Jin; Jo, Jun Il; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Soon Ho; Ha, Sang Do; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the changes in microbiological composition during the production process of crab marinated in soy sauce, potential microbial hazards, potential contamination routes and effective critical control points. Crab and soy sauce samples were obtained from six different manufacturing plants at different stages, and their microbiological content was comprehensively assessed by quantitative and qualitative analyses. The results revealed the following: (1) the final products contained 4.0 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 aerobic plate counts (APCs) and 1.1 log CFU g -1 coliforms, which may have been introduced from the raw materials (the level of APCs in raw crab and soy sauce mixed with other ingredients was 3.8 log CFU g -1 and 4.0 log CFU mL -1 respectively); (2) marination of crab in soy sauce may allow cross-contamination by coliforms; (3) only Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were qualitatively detected in samples at different stages of manufacture (detection rate of 28 and 5.6% respectively), and these bacteria may impact the microbiological quality and safety of crab marinated in soy sauce; and (4) bacterial counts were either maintained or increased during the manufacturing process (suggesting that no particular step can be targeted to reduce bacterial counts). Proper management of raw materials and the marination process are effective critical control points, and alternative interventions may be needed to control bacterial quantity. The results provide important basic information about the production of crab marinated in soy sauce and may facilitate effective implementation of sanitary management practices in related industries and research fields. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  11. Graafikatriennaali grand prix Korea kunstnikule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali rahvusvaheline žürii andis grand prix korea kunstnikule Chung¡Sang-Gonile, kolm võrdset preemiat - soome kunstnikele Anita Jensenile ja Tapani Mikkonenile ning jaapani kunstnikule Estuko Obatale. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi preemia - Wendy Swallow. Tallinna linna preemia ja Ivar Luki sponsoripreemia - Walter Jule. Sponsoripreemiad : Paletti Eesti AS preemia - Inga Heamägi; Rannila Profiili preemia - Mojca Zlokarnik; UNDP preemia - Andrea Juan. Rotermanni soolalao arhitektuuri- ja kunstikeskuse diplom - Lis Ingram, Heli Päivikki Kurunsaari, Randi Strand, Wendy Swallow

  12. Advanced functions using VBA for the Yacuiba Rio Grande (GASYRG) gas pipeline; Funcoes avancadas usando VBA no gasoduto Yacuiba Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Vega, Raul [TRANSIERRA S.A., Santa Cruz (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    The Yacuiba - Rio Grande Gas Pipeline is remote operated from the Supervision and Control Center (CSC) located in the offices of Transierra S.A. in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. This operation is made by means of a SCADA system based on satellite communication, it starts off at Yacuiba and finishes in Rio Grande, where it deliveries the export gas to Brazil. An Advanced Functions application was developed at the Transierra's CSC, This application runs under Intellution's iFix (HMI of the SCADA) in a Windows platform. It gathers transportation data in real time and by means of a mathematical process and a steady state simulation it makes the following on line calculations: Line Pack, Leak Detection, Transport Efficiency, Pressure Estimate in intermediate points and gas real velocity in the pipeline. The application was developed using Visual BASIC for Applications (VBA) (included in Intellution's iFix) and by means of an interphase to a historical server (iHistorian, Intellution) it is possible to store the obtained results, this integration also allows for the creation of graphs and trends with a great flexibility and to activate alarm points. With a practically null investment, this application replaces high cost specialized packages that are accessories to simulation or SCADA applications. (author)

  13. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Pennsylvanian and Cisuralian palynofloras from the Los Sauces area, La Rioja Province, Argentina: Chronological and paleoecological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquo, Mercedes di; Azcuy, Carlos L. [University/Organization, CONICET Institute CICyTTP, CICyTTP- CONICET Diamante - CP, Entre Rios (Argentina); Vergel, Maria del M. [INSUGEO-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    Three outcrops of the Libertad and Sauces Formations from the Los Sauces area La Rioja Province, western Argentina, yielded the nine palynoassemblages studied here. Two assemblage zones are defined on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution and ranges of seventy five species of palynomorphs (42 species of spores, 32 pollen taxa and one fungus). Only thirteen species are common to both assemblages and ten species are first records for the Paganzo Basin. Assemblage 1 from the Libertad Formation is dominated by trilete spores of Cristatisporites (lycophyte) and Punctatisporites (pteridophyte). Monosaccate pollen (Coniferales/Cordaitales) is frequently present. Pteridosperms, mostly represented by Cyclogranisporites, are especially abundant in one level together with scarce striate bisaccate pollen grains. Assemblage 2 of the Sauces Formation is dominated by trilete spores related to the Pteridophyta (e.g., Horriditriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites) and Sphenophyta. Monosaccate (Cordaitales/Coniferales) and taeniate and non-taeniate bisaccate pollen grains (Pteridospermales/Coniferales), are equally subordinated. Monosulcate pollen (Cycadophyta) and fungi (Portalites gondwanensis) are rare. Assemblage 1 is mainly Moscovian; assemblage 2 Asselian-Sakmarian. This interpretation is based on correlation of assemblage 1 to the DMb (Mid Pennsylvanian) and assemblage 2 to the FS (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Paganzo Basin (Argentina). The taxonomic composition of the Ahrensisporites cristatus-Crucisaccites monoletus (Mid-Late Pennsylvanian) and the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone (Asselian-Sakmarian) of the Vittatina costabilis (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Parana Basin (Brazil) support this correlation. The continental freshwater depositional setting of this part of the Paganzo Basin is supported by the dominance of terrestrial palynomorphs and phytoclasts, the presence of coal and carbonaceous shales, and the occurrence of plant megafossils

  15. Effect of Curing Time on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Beef Jerky Replaced Salt with Soy Sauce, Red Pepper Paste and Soybean Paste

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, H. J.; Kim, G. D.; Jung, E. Y.; Seo, H. W.; Joo, S. T.; Jin, S. K.; Yang, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na+ concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control durin...

  16. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  17. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1 Joint Medical Unit, 34 Military Hospital, Wilberforce Barracks, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 2.Connaught ... to implement these measures. Key words: .... Optimizing quality of care remains a persistent challenge. Total health expenditure is approximately $95 per capita of which 24.4% comes from donors, 6.8% from government ...

  18. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone's transition has witnessed a number of landmark procedural and legal innovations which have had widespread implications for international gender justice. The 11-year conflict had shattered the country, leaving more than a million people displaced and thousands of women coping with the aftermath of sexual ...

  19. Sierra Leone: resettlement doesn’t always end displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia McGoldrick

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost one quarter of a million displaced SierraLeoneans were resettled in their areas of origin by theend of 2002, officially ending the internal displacementcrisis in the country and further consolidating recoveryafter more than a decade of devastating civil war.

  20. Establishing services in post-conflict Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie-Tejan Kellah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During Sierra Leone’s 11-year civil war – which ended in 2001 – there was a high incidence of sexual assault against women and young girls.1 Return of peace has not meant that women and girls are safe from sexual assault.

  1. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... political parties, civil society and kin-based social organizations can be influenced to advance women's choices and entitlements as citizens, including through increased representation. The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements.

  2. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  3. Young Women's Political Participation in Post-War Sierra Leone ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The end of the civil war in Sierra Leone in 2002 was facilitated in many ways by women through women's pro-democracy movements. These movements will continue to be pivotal in the gradual strengthening of democratic governance structures. Irrespective of the immense barriers that they face, women of all ages have ...

  4. Integration of learning technology in Sierra Leone's higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examined the scope and relevance of integrating technology in Sierra Leone's higher education systems. It discussed the general scope of technology provision in HEIs across the country, and the effectiveness of the National ICT Policy in enabling effective delivery of targets like the Vision 2025 Plan to be ...

  5. Chapter 15: A desired future condition for Sierra Nevada Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected outcome of U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR 220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests" (North et al. 2009), was how it generated discussion about a desired future condition for Sierra Nevada forests. The paper did not convey leading-edge research results or provide an exhaustive literature...

  6. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. M. Lamin

    Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research. A publication of the College of Medicine and Allied Health .... The Post-conflict environment, population movement, prostitution, high illiteracy rate, low level of condom use ... of particular interest from participants that illustrate key points are included in the results. The study was ...

  7. Youth, Culture and Rebellion: Understanding Sierra Leone's Wasted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth, Culture and Rebellion: Understanding Sierra Leone's Wasted Decade. Ibrahim Abdullah. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors. OTHER RESOURCES... Journal Quality · for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access ...

  8. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atrocities ever recorded (Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission. 2004:3,3,200). While women suffered in the same ways as men, for example through being victims of killing, torture and looting, they were also targeted for their gender for example through rape, sexual slavery or forced marriage, and many non-.

  9. The Introduction of Western Education in Sierra Leone and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  10. 75 FR 76975 - 2015 Resource Pool-Sierra Nevada Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... (Western), a Federal power marketing administration of DOE, announces the Final 2015 Resource Pool allocations pursuant to its 2004 Power Marketing Plan (Marketing Plan) for the Sierra Nevada Customer Service... effective on January 10, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Sonja Anderson, Power Marketing Manager...

  11. Addressing gender-based violence in the Sierra Leone conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    death penalty. However, although Sierra Leone still allows capital punishment domestically, the fact that the Court cannot order such punishments is not contentious among female victims, as they say they don't want the accused persons to be executed because there has been enough suffering (Focus Group. Discussion ...

  12. Health complications of female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjälkander O

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Owolabi Bjälkander,1 Laurel Bangura,2 Bailah Leigh,3 Vanja Berggren,1 Staffan Bergström,1 Lars Almroth11Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Inter Africa Committee, Sierra Leone; 3Department of Community Health, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra LeoneAbstract: Sierra Leone has one of the highest rates of female genital mutilation (FGM in the world, and yet little is known about the health consequences of the practice.Purpose: To explore whether and what kind of FGM-related health complications girls and women in Sierra Leone experience, and to elucidate their health care-seeking behaviors.Patients and methods: A feasibility study was conducted to test and refine questionnaires and methods used for this study. Thereafter, a cross-section of girls and women (n = 258 attending antenatal care and Well Women Clinics in Bo Town, Bo District, in the southern region and in Makeni Town, Bombali District, in the northern region of Sierra Leone were randomly selected. Participants answered interview-administrated pretested structured questionnaires with open-ended-questions, administrated by trained female personnel.Results: All respondents had undergone FGM, most between 10 and 14 years of age. Complications were reported by 218 respondents (84.5%, the most common ones being excessive bleeding, delay in or incomplete healing, and tenderness. Fever was significantly more often reported by girls who had undergone FGM before 10 years of age compared with those who had undergone the procedure later. Out of those who reported complications, 187 (85.8% sought treatment, with 89 of them visiting a traditional healer, 75 a Sowei (traditional circumciser, and 16 a health professional.Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of FGM and the proportion of medical complications show that FGM is a matter for public health concern in Sierra Leone. Girls who

  13. Grand Strategies on the Korean Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    HAGGARD, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The consideration of grand strategies on the Korean peninsula entails looking both at the approaches of North and South and at the dynamics between them. South Korean grand strategy is still anchored by its alliance with the United States; North Korean grand strategy is still struggling with the collapse of the Cold War alliance structures and the pursuit of reformist paths in China and Russia. The recent leadership transition in North Korea does not seem to offer much hope for improved relat...

  14. Gochujang (Korean red pepper paste: A Korean ethnic sauce, its role and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gochujang (Korean fermented red pepper sauce, also written in Kochujang, along with kimchi, is an age-old ethnic food made with Korea's representative ingredient, red pepper. A typical Korean meal (Bapsang is composed of rice (Bap, from which calories are derived, soup (Kuk, which helps in the chewing and digesting of the rice, and side dishes (Banchan, which provide additional nutrition and flavor. To add even more variety to the taste, seasoning (Jang, Yangnyum is added. Gochujang has become the most fundamental of these kinds of food in Korea over thousands of years, functioning to make add flavor to rice taste better while aiding the digestive system. Gochujang also serves as a simple seasoning when making dishes such as braised spicy chicken, and provide additional nutrients. According to age-old documents, the development process used to manufacture Gochujang requires the basic ingredients of Meju (block made with cooked soy bean powder, rice or glutinous rice flour, and red pepper powder. Sunchang Gochujang is one variety known for its great taste that was often consumed by kings during the Chosun dynasty. The basic method for making Gochujang in the present is almost the same as it was in the past. Gochujangis not just used to season food; it is also known for its nutritional value For example, it is widely accepted among Koreans that when a person has a weak stomach (due to the poor functionality of the stomach and spleen, and cannot digest food well., Gochujang can be eaten alleviates the symptoms. Recently many studies have been done to prove the medical functions of Gochujang scientifically. Due improvements in science and technology in the area of biology, it has also been discovered that Gochujang has the ability to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  15. Isolation of Alkaline and Neutral Proteases from Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris, a Soy Sauce Koji Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoolsup, Attawut; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Flegel, Timothy W.

    1981-01-01

    Two different extracellular proteases, protease I (P-I), an alkaline protease, and protease II (P-II) a neutral protease, from Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris were partially purified by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-50 chromatography, carboxymethylcellulose CM-52 chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The degree of purity was followed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The activity of P-I was completely inhibited by 0.1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and that of P-II was completely inhibited by 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate. By using these inhibitors with extracts of wheat bran koji, the proportions of total activity that could be assigned to P-I and P-II were 80 and 20%, respectively. This compared favorably with activities estimated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis slices (82 and 18%, respectively). Extracts from factory-run soybean koji gave comparable results. Both enzymes demonstrated maximum activity at 50 to 55°C and only small changes in activity between pH 6 and 11. For P-I, activity was somewhat higher from pH 8.0 to 11.0, whereas for P-II it was somewhat higher from pH 6 to 9. In the presence of 18% NaCl, the activities of both P-I and P-II dropped by approximately 90 and 85%, respectively. P-I was inferred to possess aminopeptidase activity since it could hydrolyze l-leucyl-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride. P-II was devoid of such activity. The ramifications of the results for factory-produced soy sauce koji are discussed. Images PMID:16345858

  16. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey G Shaffer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever (LF, an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV, is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002 ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease.Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects.Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for

  17. Lassa fever in post-conflict sierra leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Grant, Donald S; Schieffelin, John S; Boisen, Matt L; Goba, Augustine; Hartnett, Jessica N; Levy, Danielle C; Yenni, Rachael E; Moses, Lina M; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambo; Fonnie, Mbalu; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana; Koroma, Veronica J; Kargbo, Kandeh; Ottomassathien, Darin; Muncy, Ivana J; Jones, Abigail B; Illick, Megan M; Kulakosky, Peter C; Haislip, Allyson M; Bishop, Christopher M; Elliot, Deborah H; Brown, Bethany L; Zhu, Hu; Hastie, Kathryn M; Andersen, Kristian G; Gire, Stephen K; Tabrizi, Shervin; Tariyal, Ridhi; Stremlau, Mathew; Matschiner, Alex; Sampey, Darryl B; Spence, Jennifer S; Cross, Robert W; Geisbert, Joan B; Folarin, Onikepe A; Happi, Christian T; Pitts, Kelly R; Geske, F Jon; Geisbert, Thomas W; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Robinson, James E; Wilson, Russell B; Sabeti, Pardis C; Henderson, Lee A; Khan, S Humarr; Bausch, Daniel G; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Lassa fever (LF), an often-fatal hemorrhagic disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is a major public health threat in West Africa. When the violent civil conflict in Sierra Leone (1991 to 2002) ended, an international consortium assisted in restoration of the LF program at Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in an area with the world's highest incidence of the disease. Clinical and laboratory records of patients presenting to the KGH Lassa Ward in the post-conflict period were organized electronically. Recombinant antigen-based LF immunoassays were used to assess LASV antigenemia and LASV-specific antibodies in patients who met criteria for suspected LF. KGH has been reestablished as a center for LF treatment and research, with over 500 suspected cases now presenting yearly. Higher case fatality rates (CFRs) in LF patients were observed compared to studies conducted prior to the civil conflict. Different criteria for defining LF stages and differences in sensitivity of assays likely account for these differences. The highest incidence of LF in Sierra Leone was observed during the dry season. LF cases were observed in ten of Sierra Leone's thirteen districts, with numerous cases from outside the traditional endemic zone. Deaths in patients presenting with LASV antigenemia were skewed towards individuals less than 29 years of age. Women self-reporting as pregnant were significantly overrepresented among LASV antigenemic patients. The CFR of ribavirin-treated patients presenting early in acute infection was lower than in untreated subjects. Lassa fever remains a major public health threat in Sierra Leone. Outreach activities should expand because LF may be more widespread in Sierra Leone than previously recognized. Enhanced case finding to ensure rapid diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce mortality. Even with ribavirin treatment, there was a high rate of fatalities underscoring the need to develop more effective and/or supplemental treatments for LF.

  18. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the sierra mixed conifer type and the sierra true fir type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance: of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the photos in the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Sierra Mixed Conifer Type, Sierra True Fir Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1979. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-095. Portland, OR: U.S....

  19. Sierra Nevada Science Review. Report of the Science Review Team charged to synthesize new information of rangewide urgency to the national forests of the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance Millar; Amy Lind; Rowan Rowntree; Carl Skinner; Jared Verner; William J. Zielinski; Robert R. Ziemer

    1998-01-01

    In January, 1998, the Pacific Southwest Region and Pacific Southwest Research Station of the Forest Service initiated a collaborative effort to incorporate new information into planning future management of Sierra Nevada national forests. The project, known as the Sierra Nevada Framework for Conservation and Collaboration, will incorporate the latest scientific...

  20. Grandes almacenes en Ginebra, Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braillard, P.

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available This large building, whose metal structure is one of the most important ones erected in Switzerland, has 14 storeys. The sales zones occupy all the above ground floor levels, and the basements contain garages and stores. Additionally, there is a restaurant on the third floor, and administrative offices in the fourth floor of this outstanding commercial building, the «La Placette» Stores, of Geneva.Este gran edificio, cuya estructura metálica es una de las mayores construidas en Suiza, fue organizado en 14 niveles. Las plantas baja y superiores están destinadas a «venta»; y los sótanos, a garajes, almacenes, etc. La tercera planta alberga, además, el comedor, restaurante, etc.; y la cuarta, los locales de administración y dirección de este notable edificio comercial: «Grandes Almacenes La Placette», de Ginebra.

  1. The Tunka-Grande experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkhoev, R. D.; Budnev, N. M.; Chiavassa, A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Gafarov, A. R.; Gress, O. A.; Gress, T. I.; Grishin, O. G.; Ivanova, A. L.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Kazarina, Yu. A.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kozhin, V. A.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lenok, V. V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, N. B.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Osipova, E. A.; Pakhorukov, A. L.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Pankov, L. V.; Poleschuk, V. A.; Popova, E. G.; Postnikov, E. B.; Prosin, V. V.; Ptuskin, V. S.; Pushnin, A. A.; Samoliga, V. S.; Semeney, Y. A.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Silaev, A. A.; Silaev, A. A., Jr.; Skurikhin, A. V.; Sulakov, V. P.; Tabolenko, V. A.; Voronin, D. M.; Fedorov, O. L.; Spiering, C.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.; Zhurov, D. P.; Zurbanov, V. L.

    2017-06-01

    The investigation of energy spectrum and mass composition of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 1016-1018 eV and the search for diffuse cosmic gamma rays are of the great interest for understanding mechanisms and nature of high-energy particle sources, the problem of great importance in modern astrophysics. Tunka-Grande scintillator array is a part of the experimental complex TAIGA (Tunka Advanced Instrument for Cosmic Ray and Gamma Astronomy) which is located in the Tunka Valley, about 50 km from Lake Baikal. The purpose of this array is the study of diffuse gamma rays and cosmic rays of ultra-high energies by detecting extensive air showers. We describe the design, specifications of the read-out, data acquisition (DAQ) and control systems of the array.

  2. Grand unified brane world scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Blaschke, Filip; Eto, Minoru; Sakai, Norisuke

    2017-12-01

    We present a field theoretical model unifying grand unified theory (GUT) and brane world scenario. As a concrete example, we consider S U (5 ) GUT in 4 +1 dimensions where our 3 +1 dimensional spacetime spontaneously arises on five domain walls. A field-dependent gauge kinetic term is used to localize massless non-Abelian gauge fields on the domain walls and to assure the charge universality of matter fields. We find the domain walls with the symmetry breaking S U (5 )→S U (3 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) as a global minimum and all the undesirable moduli are stabilized with the mass scale of MGUT. Profiles of massless standard model particles are determined as a consequence of wall dynamics. The proton decay can be exponentially suppressed.

  3. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  4. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study, we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from...... stakeholder theory and argue that advocacy groups improve the generation of potential solutions and provide legitimacy. We test our theory with a unique dataset of 35,249 consortia that proposed solutions to 2,349 grand challenge problems as part of a large European funding program. Our results show...... that advocacy groups benefit search consortia, particularly when consortia exhibit a high dispersion of technological knowledge and when they are inexperienced....

  5. Rangewide glaciation in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Moring, Barry C.

    2013-01-01

    The 600-km-long Sierra Nevada underwent extensive Pleistocene glaciation except for its southernmost 100 km. Presently, ∼1700 small glaciers and ice masses near the crest of the range occur above 3250 m in elevation; these covered an area of ∼50 km2 in 1972. Fourteen of the largest glaciers decreased by about one half in area during the period from 1900 to 2004.Rock glaciers, generally glacial ice covered by 1–10 m of rockfall debris, occur in about the same span of the range as ice and permanent snowfields. They are, on average, lower by 200–300 m, apparently because of the insulating layer of rocky rubble that protects their internal ice from the sun’s heat and from wind.The principal Pleistocene glacial stages are the Sherwin (ca. 820 ka), Tahoe (170–130 and ca. 70 ka), Tioga (14–28 ka), and Recess Peak (13 ka). Some 7040 glacial lakes, produced primarily by quarrying from bedrock, were mostly exposed after recession of the Tioga glacial stage. The lakes largely mark the area of primary snow accumulation. Below the lower limit of the lakes, ice flowed downward into river-cut canyons, forming major trunk glaciers within the zone of ablation.The range is in general a westward-tilted block upfaulted on its east side. Therefore, the main late Pleistocene trunk glaciers (Tahoe/Tioga) west of the crest extend 25–60 km, whereas those east of the crest extend only 5–20 km. Because of higher precipitation northward, glacial features such as the toes of existing glaciers and rock glaciers, as well as the late season present-day snowline, all decrease in elevation northward. Likewise, the elevation of the lower limit of glacial lakes, an indication of the zone of snow accumulation during the late Pleistocene, decreases about the same degree. This similarity suggests that the overall climate patterns of the late Pleistocene, though cooler, were similar to those of today. The east slope glaciers show a similar northward depression, but they are ∼500

  6. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P oryzae strains, highest GABA concentration was obtained from NSK (194 mg/L) followed by NSZ (63 mg/L), NSJ (51.53 mg/L) and NST (31.66 mg/L). Therefore, A. oryzae NSK was characterized and the sequence was found to be similar to A. oryzae and A. flavus with 99 % similarity. The evolutionary distance (K nuc) between sequences of identical fungal species was calculated and a phylogenetic tree prepared from the K nuc data showed that the isolate belonged to the A. oryzae species. This finding may allow the development of GABA-rich ingredients using A. oryzae NSK as a starter culture for soy sauce production.

  7. National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao, Patricia C; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J

    2013-02-01

    On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Investigators reviewed patients' medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities.

  8. Improvement of Fish Sauce Quality by Strain CMC5-3-1: A Novel Species of Staphylococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 isolated from fermented fish sauce at 3 to 7 mo, respectively, showed different characteristics on protein hydrolysis and volatile formation. These Gram-positive cocci were able to grow in up to 15% NaCl with the optimum at 0.5% to 5% NaCl in tryptic soy broth. Based on ribosomal 16S rRNA gene sequences, Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 showed 99.0% similarity to that of Staphylococcus piscifermentans JCM 6057(T) , but DNA-DNA relatedness was Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 740.5 mM, which was higher than that inoculated by the strain CMS5-7-5 (662.14 mM, P Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 showed the highest content of total glutamic acid (P Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 2-methypropanal, contributing to the desirable dark chocolate note. Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 could be applied as a starter culture to improve the umami and aroma of fish sauce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce using carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal: Isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Jin, Ru-Na; Omer, A M; Ouyang, Xiao-Kun

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a new adsorbent based on carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal (CCN) was developed for the adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce. The prepared adsorbent material was characterized by zeta potential, FT-IR, XRD, and XPS tools. The changes in the morphological structure of the developed CCN surface were evidenced by SEM and TEM. The favorable adsorption conditions were selected by studying the contact time, initial concentration, temperature, and concentration of the used glutamic acid and NaCl. The results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model agrees very well with experimental adsorption data (R(2)=0.9962) with a maximum adsorption capacity 232.56mg/g of Pb(II) at 293.2K. Additionally, data of the adsorption kinetics follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R(2)>0.9990). On the other hand, the thermodynamics studies show that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the developed CCN could be regenerated using acid treatment with a good reusability for Pb(II) adsorption. The results clearly indicated that the synthesized CCN could be effectively applied as a new material for Pb(II) adsorption from fish sauce solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-07-14

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3-10.0 µg·kg(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg(-1) and recoveries of 87.2%-114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R² > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg(-1). The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis.

  11. Stereoselective Behavior of the Chiral Herbicides Diclofop-Methyl and Diclofop During the Soy Sauce Brewing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Zhang, Dong; Liao, Yahui; Diao, Jinling; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chiral pesticides are now receiving more and more attention in the food-making process. This experiment studied the enantioselective behavior of diclofop-methyl (DM) and its main metabolite, diclofop (DC), during the soy sauce brewing process. Two kinds of commonly used strains, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces rouxii, were investigated. However, they showed a different degradation ability to the enantiomers of DM and DC. It was observed that (-)-(S)-DM was degraded much faster than (+)-(R)-DM by Saccharomyces rouxii, while no stereoselective degradation was found by Aspergillus oryzae. DC represented a relatively long residue period in this fermentation process and both strains showed a weak degradation ability to DC, especially Saccharomyces rouxii. There was little DC detected in the final product, while most of the DC residues persisted in the lees, which were usually used as animal feeds or discarded into the environment directly as waste. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the soy sauce brewing process concerning pesticide residues both in the final product and byproducts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chapter 3. Rio Grande cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    John N. Rinne

    1995-01-01

    The Rio Grande cutthroat trout was once widespread in the upper Rio Grande and Canadian River basins of northern New Mexico and south-central Colorado and in the headwaters of the Pecos River, New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990; Behnke 1992). It may have occurred as far south as Chihuahua, Mexico (Behnke 1992). Currently, it is restricted primarily to headwater...

  13. La sierra du nord et du centre en Equateur: 1830-1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Après les guerres de l'indépendance, la sierra équatorienne est dans une situation catastrophique, sur le plan démographique, économique et ... politique. Les décennies qui suivent 1830 sont une période de récupération lente et mouvementée. La région septentrionale et centrale, qui se développe de façon assez autonome, voit alors les débuts de profondes transformations: l'hacienda entre en compétition avec les paysans-artisans qui tentent, sans espoir, de résister à une structure qui dispose évidemment de l'appui du pouvoir politique. Les activités traditionnelles reculent au profit de l'élevage et les prémices d'un développement industriel à partir des haciendas se laissent entrevoir. L'administration de García Moreno (1859-1875 enfin, tente de désenclaver la région et d'organiser l'Etat National. Después de las guerras de independencia, la sierra ecuatoriana se encuentra en un estado pésimo demográfica, económica y políticamente. Las décadas posteriores a 1830 aparecen como un período de recuperación lenta y atormentada. La región septentrional y central, que se desarrolla de manera bastante autónoma, conoció entonces los principios de profundas transformaciones: la hacienda compite con los campesinos - artesanos que intentan, sin grandes esperanzas, resistir a una estructura que se beneficia del apoyo gubernamental. Mientras van apareciendo las primicias de un desarrollo industrial que parte de las haciendas, las actividades tradicionales van perdiendo importancia ante la ganadería. Por fin, la administración de García Moreno (1859 - 1875 trata de sacar a la región de su enclave y de organizar el Estado Nacional.

  14. Simultaneous Quantitation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Soy Sauce and Beer by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry without Ion-Pair Reagents and Derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Yuri; Annaka, Hironori; Sato, Shinji; Ueta, Etsuko; Ohkura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Homma, Seiichi; Suzuki, Emiko; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive method to analyze several advanced glycation end products (AGEs) simultaneously using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and to apply this method to the quantitation of AGEs in brown-colored foods. The developed method enabled to separate and quantitate simultaneously seven AGEs, and was applied to the determination of free AGEs contained in various kinds of soy sauce and beer. The major AGEs in soy sauce and beer were Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine (MG-H1). Using the developed LC-MS/MS method, recovery test on soy sauce and beer samples showed the recovery values of 85.3-103.9% for CML, 95.9-107.4% for CEL, and 69.5-123.2% for MG-H1. In particular, it is the first report that free CML, CEL, and MG-H1 were present in beer. Furthermore, long-term storage and heating process of soy sauce increased CML and MG-H1.

  15. Influence of pH on Inhibitory Activity of Acetic Acid on Osmophilic Yeasts Used in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1982-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of acetic acid on osmophilic yeasts (Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis) used for the brine fermentation of soy sauce increased remarkably as the pH of the medium was lowered. This increased toxicity could not be attributed to a hydrogen ion effect alone. PMID:16345925

  16. Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-02-15

    Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation and characterization of halophilic lactic acid bacteria acting as a starter culture for sauce fermentation of the red alga Nori (Porphyra yezoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Miyoshi, T; Yoshida, G; Niwa, K; Mori, M; Wakabayashi, H

    2014-06-01

    A screening test was conducted for environmental samples to isolate halophilic lactic acid bacteria (HLAB) that can act as a starter in a Nori (Porphyra yezoensis)-sauce culture. After 9 months of incubation of enrichment cultures added with 25 kinds of environmental samples, growth of HLAB-like microorganisms was observed in six cultures salted at a 15% w/w level, including culture samples originally from mesopelagic water taken from 321 m-depth and from mountain snow taken at 2450 m-height. Ten strains were isolated and characterized as Tetragenococcus halophilus based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The isolates were inoculated into a newly prepared Nori-sauce culture and were confirmed to be able to act as a starter culture while three reference strains of T. halophilus obtained from a culture collection could not grow in the same culture. Halophilic lactic acid bacteria strains that can make growth in a highly salted Nori-sauce culture were isolated from environmental samples for the first time. All the isolates were identified as T. halophilus. The isolated strains are expected to be utilized as a starter culture for manufacturing fermented seaweed-sauce, which will be the first fermented food products obtained from algae. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Level-2 Milestone 6007: Sierra Early Delivery System Deployed to Secret Restricted Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, A. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    This report documents the delivery and installation of Shark, a CORAL Sierra early delivery system deployed on the LLNL SRD network. Early ASC program users have run codes on the machine in support of application porting for the final Sierra system which will be deployed at LLNL in CY2018. In addition to the SRD resource, Shark, unclassified resources, Rzmanta and Ray, have been deployed on the LLNL Restricted Zone and Collaboration Zone networks in support of application readiness for the Sierra platform.

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  2. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  3. La Grande: volver a empezar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Premat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, borrador de un trabajo más amplio, pretende despejar algunas pistas de lectura de La grande, en tanto que paradójico final de la producción de Saer. Digo “paradójico” porque puede tomársela como una novela de comienzo o de origen : de un volver a empezar, en todos los sentidos del término. En esa perspectiva podrían estudiarse algunos núcleos temáticos (como el retorno o el recuerdo de cara a la construcción del texto, a la relación planteada con la tradición y a la singular historia de su escritura (y al material genético que rodea y completa esta novela a la vez inacabada y póstuma. En esta intervención, la idea es la de comentar tres textos, escenas o frases del texto, y a partir de allí esbozar pistas para un estudio que está en ciernes.Première ébauche d’un travail de plus d’ampleur, ce texte vise à éclairer quelques pistes de lecture de La grande, en tant que fin paradoxale de la production de Saer. Je dis « paradoxale » parce que l’on peut considérer cette œuvre comme un roman des commencements ou des origines : comme un retour aux débuts, dans tous les sens du terme. Dans cette perspective, plusieurs nœuds thématiques (comme le retour ou le souvenir pourraient être étudiés en relation à la construction du texte, à la relation qui s’établit avec la tradition et à la singulière histoire de son écriture (et au matériau génétique qui entoure et complète ce roman, à la fois inachevé et posthume. Il sera question ici de commenter trois textes, scènes ou phrases du texte, et d’ébaucher à partir de là quelques pistes pour une étude à l’état naissant.The objective of this text, a draft for a broader work, is to outline some reading clues for La grande, inasmuch as it constitutes a paradoxical ending of Saer’s production. I say “paradoxical” because we can consider this work a novel of beginnings or of origins: a return to the beginning, in every meaning of the

  4. CAPACITY OF RURAL WOMEN IN THE SIERRA NEVADA OF PUEBLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ramírez-Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The types of skills developed by rural women in the Sierra Nevada of Puebla since their participation in the Development Partnership Link for Sierra Nevada, AC. and the effects it had on personal, family and community levels are analyzed. The research methodology used was quantitative-qualitative: questionnaire, depth interviews and participant observation. The results indicate that they acquired skills from a gender perspective, technical-productive, eco-environmental and organizational-political, in the psychomotor, cognitive and affective dimensions; they managed to transform gender relations, contribute to the food security of their families, health care basics and promote environmental stewardship. The integral development of the capacities of rural women, contributes to their formation as social actors and political life of their communities, actively focusing on local development, integrating social networking and participating in the local economy.

  5. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  6. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  7. SIERRA/Aero Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a two and three dimensional, node-centered, edge-based finite volume code that approximates the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. It is applicable to inviscid and high Reynolds number laminar and turbulent flows. Currently, two classes of turbulence models are provided: Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and hybrid methods such as Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Large Eddy Simulation (LES) models are currently under development. The gas may be modeled either as ideal, or as a non-equilibrium, chemically reacting mixture of ideal gases. This document describes the mathematical models contained in the code, as well as certain implementation details. First, the governing equations are presented, followed by a description of the spatial discretization. Next, the time discretization is described, and finally the boundary conditions. Throughout the document, SIERRA/ Aero is referred to simply as Aero for brevity.

  8. SIERRA/Aero User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    SIERRA/Aero is a compressible fluid dynamics program intended to solve a wide variety compressible fluid flows including transonic and hypersonic problems. This document describes the commands for assembling a fluid model for analysis with this module, henceforth referred to simply as Aero for brevity. Aero is an application developed using the SIERRA Toolkit (STK). The intent of STK is to provide a set of tools for handling common tasks that programmers encounter when developing a code for numerical simulation. For example, components of STK provide field allocation and management, and parallel input/output of field and mesh data. These services also allow the development of coupled mechanics analysis software for a massively parallel computing environment. In the definitions of the commands that follow, the term Real_Max denotes the largest floating point value that can be represented on a given computer. Int_Max is the largest such integer value.

  9. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz A; Stockelman, Michael G; Moses, Lina M; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

  10. Origin and Evolution of the Salinas Grandes and Salina De Ambargasta, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Adolfo Antonio; Mon, R.; Sàbat, F.; Iaffa, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    The Salinas Grandes and Salina de Ambargasta, on the eastern side of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina, constitute an 18,000 km2 tectonic depression. The eastward advance of the tectonic deformation is evident in the topographic elevations that intercept the Llanura Chaqueña. The interpretation of the tectonic processes that create the Salinas Grandes and Salina de Ambargasta are primarily due to the observation of morphotectonic macro indicators and structural field data. These geoforms allow us to interpret the horizontal deformation that has produced the right side displacement of parallel shears within a dextral releasing bend and restraining bend setting. This process occurred within a transtensional-transpressional setting, which produced a depression closure where lakes formed, the formation of Alto de Mancilla, deviation of rivers, the rotation and displacement of ranges and the transformation of lakes into salt flats. These processes are active and are shown by the hydro transference area where the Dulce River discharges into the Salado River, resulting in a considerable decrease of water flow into the Laguna Mar Chiquita.

  11. Modelos de asentamiento en la sierra norte de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel CORRAL CAÑÓN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En esta comunicación intentaremos una aproximación a las estructuras económicas y los modelos de asentamiento de los poblados de la Edad del Hierro en la Sierra norte de Soria. Nuestra intención es reconocer las diferencias entre los asentamientos del Hierro I y II, tanto en lo que refiere a las posibilidades del entorno, como a los esquemas de organización de los habitats.

  12. Celebrity, Violence, and the Mystic Arts in Postwar Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Samuel Mark

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation tracks the operations of Hassan Jalloh, once a commander in Sierra Leone's devastating civil war, now self-proclaimed "King of West Africa Mystical Power and Culture." Jalloh served in the Civil Defense Forces, a pro-government militia that mobilized the imagery and practices of village hunter traditions in pursuit of local legitimacy and esoteric defense maneuvers including disappearance, metamorphosis, and bullet-proofing. Faced with disarmament and doubtful reintegration ...

  13. Seroprevalence of Ebola virus infection in Bombali District, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadege Goumkwa Mafopa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey of anti-Ebola Zaire virus nucleoprotein IgG prevalence was carried out among Ebola virus disease survivors and their Community Contacts in Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Our data suggest that the specie of Ebola virus (Zaire responsible of the 2013-2016 epidemic in West Africa may cause mild or asymptomatic infection in a proportion of cases, possibly due to an efficient immune response.

  14. Burns in Sierra Leone: a population-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evan G; Groen, Reinou S; Kamara, Thaim B; Stewart, Kerry-Ann; Cassidy, Laura D; Samai, Mohamed; Kushner, Adam L; Wren, Sherry M

    2014-12-01

    Burns remain disproportionately prevalent in developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of burns in Sierra Leone to serve as a baseline for future programs. A cluster randomized, cross-sectional, countrywide survey was conducted in 2012 in Sierra Leone. With a standardized questionnaire demographics and deaths during the previous 12 months of household members were assessed with the household representative. Thereafter, 2 randomly selected household members were interviewed, elucidating whether participants had ever had a burn in six body regions and determining burn mechanisms and patterns of health care seeking behavior. This study included 1843 households and 3645 individuals. 3.98% (145/3645) of individuals reported at least one burn-injury. The highest proportions of burns were reported in the age groups 0-4 years old (23/426, 5.4%) and 5-14 years old (37/887, 4.17%). The majority of burns (129/145, 89.0%) were caused by a hot liquid/object and the upper, extremities were the most commonly burned body regions, with 36% (53/145) of cases. 21% (30/145) of individuals with burns sought care from a traditional healer. Burns are highly prevalent in Sierra Leone. Further research and resources should be allocated to the care and prevention of thermal injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Global Change Impacts in Sierra Nevada: Challenges for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Valladares

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: La Huella del Cambio Global en Sierra Nevada: Retos para la Conservación Edited by R.J. Zamora Rodríguez, A.J. Pérez Luque, F.J. Bonet García, J.M. Barea Azcón, and R. Aspizua Cantón. Sevilla, Spain: Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio, Junta de Andalucía, 2015. 207 pp. Free download at http://www.mapama.gob.es/imagenes/es/dossierelcambio globalsierranevada_tcm7-401051.pdf; hardcopy available upon request from pn.snevada.cmaot@juntadeandalucia.es. ISBN 978-84-338-5814-6. Global Change Impacts in Sierra Nevada: Challenges for Conservation Edited by R.J. Zamora Rodríguez, A.J. Pérez Luque, F.J. Bonet García, J.M. Barea Azcón, and R. Aspizua Cantón. Sevilla, Spain: Department of the Environment and Urban Planning, Junta de Andalucía, 2016. 207 pp. Free download at http://www.reginozamora.es/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Global-Change-Impacts-Sierra-Nevada.pdf; hardcopy available upon request from pn.snevada.cmaot@juntadeandalucia.es. ISBN 978-84-338-5960-0.

  16. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  17. do rio grande do sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of quantifying the production of wood in the Area of the Fourth Colony of Italian Immigration in Rio Grande do Sul. Firstly, using a questionnaire, a census of the consuming companies of wood in that area was made, investigating mainly the amount, type, origin of the consumed raw material, and the amount, type and end use of wood products. As principal results, it was verified that such area presents 77 consuming companies and wood processing units. These were classified into micro and small companies, with familiar features and capital, and low industrialization. In the visits made to the industries, it was evident that many technological aspects are not known or are neglected, thus causing loss of the raw material and/or in low quality of the final products. A great amount of raw material (96,8% of the boards and 98,9% of the timber comes from other areas of the State or the country. In the same way the main products are sold abroad (wood frames 86,3%, panelings 99,7%, sawed wood 53%.

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores in a tsuyu sauce using continuous ohmic heating with five sequential elbow-type electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, J H; Kim, N H; Lee, B S; Kim, C T; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ohmic heating (OH) in a pilot plant system which had a zig-zag shaped (elbow-type) ohmic heater with five sequential voltage electrodes was investigated on Bacillus cereus spores in a commercial tsuyu sauce. The electrical field was fixed at 26·7 V cm(-1) with an alternating current frequency of 25 kHz. Raw tsuyu sauce (50 l) inoculated with B. cereus spores was submitted in a 4 × 3 factorial design to the OH system and heated at 95, 105, 115, and 125°C each for 30, 60, and 90 s. Survival of B. cereus spores and colour change in the commercial tsuyu sauce were both measured before and after treatment. As the treatment temperature and time increased, the number of surviving B. cereus spores decreased. The OH treatment in a bath-type process at 105°C for more than 30 s resulted in the total inactivation of the inoculated B. cereus spores (average 5·4 log reductions to undetectable levels after treatment). The OH protocol of heating at 105°C for 60 s which ensure complete eradication of the inoculated spores without compromising product quality was chosen and investigated for its suitability for commercial application on bulk quantities of samples (500 l). Reliable and reproducible reductions in B. cereus spore counts of 4·7-5·5 log CFU ml(-1) (mean ± standard deviation = 5·1 ± 0·3 CFU ml(-1) ) were achieved by the selected protocol of the continuous OH treatment (105°C for 60 s). This study suggests that OH treatment with five sequential elbow-type electrodes has great potential as an industrial sterilizing method for liquid food contaminated with B. cereus spores. This procedure will enhance the microbiological quality of liquid foods while minimizing quality deterioration. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Child bed net use before, during, and after a bed net distribution campaign in Bo, Sierra Leone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ranasinghe, Shamika; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Stenger, David A; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2015-01-01

    ...) distribution campaign in Sierra Leone in November-December 2010. A citywide cross-sectional study in 2010-2011 interviewed the caregivers of more than 3000 under-five children from across urban Bo, Sierra Leone...

  20. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.Cuniculus paca está ampliamente distribuido en el Neotrópico. El tepezcuintle o paca es el roedor más grande que se encuentra en las selvas tropicales de México. En cuanto a la cacería de subsistencia es una de las especies más buscadas por su carne. Como se desconoce el impacto de esta actividad, se describe el aprovechamiento que le dan las comunidades humanas en el Parque Estatal de la Sierra de Tabasco (PEST. También, se determinaron zonas de muestreo, las cuales se encontraban en una matriz perturbada en menor o mayor grado, con diferentes tipos de uso de suelo. Además, se consideraron zonas conservadas por la presencia continua de grandes extensiones de selvas fragmentadas y las zonas no conservadas por tener fragmentos

  1. Rio Grande Channel, Guadalupe Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.- Mexican Boundary Survey. The original map is a xerox of a map entitled Boundary between the United...

  2. Las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ter Laak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las distintas posiciones teóricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad, mostrando las semejanzas y diferencias entre las posturas teóricas. Esta contribución presenta lo siguiente: (a la génesis del contenido y la estructura de las cinco dimensiones; (b la fortaleza de las cinco dimensiones; (e la relación de las cinco grandes dimensiones con otros constructos de personalidad; (d discute el valor predictivo de las puntuaciones del perfil de las cinco dimensiones para criterios pertinentes; (e analiza el estatus teórico de las cinco dimensiones; (f discute críticas históricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones y se formulan respuestas a estas críticas; (g hace conjeturas para el futuro de las cinco grandes dimensiones; y (h concluye con algunas conclusiones y comentarios.

  3. Rio Grande Channel, El Paso Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey.The original map is a Xerox of a Photolithographic Copy of Salazar...

  4. Analysis of Umami Taste Compounds in a Fermented Corn Sauce by Means of Sensory-Guided Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charve, Joséphine; Manganiello, Sonia; Glabasnia, Arne

    2018-02-12

    Corn sauce, an ingredient obtained from the fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed corn starch and used in culinary applications to provide savory taste, was investigated in this study. The links between its sensory properties and taste compounds were assessed using a combination of analytical and sensory approaches. The analyses revealed that glutamic acid, sodium chloride, and acetic acid were the most abundant compounds, but they could not explain entirely the savory taste. The addition of other compounds, found at subthreshold concentrations (alanine, glutamyl peptides, and one Amadori compound), contributed partly to close the sensory gap between the re-engineered sample and the original product. Further chemical breakdown, by a sensory-guided fractionation approach, led to the isolation of two fractions with taste-modulating effects. Analyses by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that the fractions contained glutamyl peptides, pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, valine, N-formyl-glutamic acid, and N-acetyl-glutamine.

  5. Structures of Two Yellow Dyes Found in Cucumbers Pickled in Soy Sauce Colored with Tartrazine (Y4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Asamoe; Shindo, Tetsuya; Kyoko, Hitomi; Sadamasu, Yuki; Sakamaki, Narue; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2017-01-01

    Two yellow dyes, together with tartrazine (Y4), were found in cucumbers pickled in soy sauce, for which the use of tartrazine is permitted, by TLC, LC-DAD, and LC-MS. The retention times on LC chromatograms and the maximum absorbance wavelengths measured by LC-DAD of the two dyes were different from those of tartrazine. Mass spectra of the dyes indicated that these dyes lacked one sulfonyl group of tartrazine. The presence of two less sulfonated dyes in tartrazine has been reported. Hence, the two less sulfonated dyes were synthesized. The two dyes found in cucumbers were compared with the synthesized dyes by LC-DAD and LC-MS. Since the retention times of the dyes in cucumbers on the LC chromatograms, as well as their LC-DAD spectra and mass spectra, were found to be identical with those of the synthesized dyes, we concluded these dyes are the less sulfonated subsidiary dyes of tartrazine.

  6. The Air Force and Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    this section examines the etymology of the term grand strategy. It explores its origin and development by tracing its meaning through the lenses...17 The informed reflections of the Prussian Helmuth von Moltke and the Industrial Revolution would lead to the next step in the etymology of...to a significant confusion as to the etymology of the term grand strategy. Many academics erroneously credit J.F.C. Fuller and his protégé

  7. A Grande Arte: Palavra e Imagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Follain

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No romance A grande art, de Rubem Fonseca, a tensão entre as exigências do mercado editorial e a autonomia da arte resolve-se pela adoção de uma estética ambígua. No filme A grande arte, de Walter Salles Junior, a tentativa de preservar esta ambigüidade, realizada de maneira superficial, desequilibra a obra.

  8. Updated paleomagnetic pole from Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California: Tectonic displacement of the Sierra Nevada block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Gromme, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    We report remanent magnetization measurements from 13 sites in Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the northern Sierra Nevada (38°N–39.5°N). By increasing the number of available paleomagnetic sites, the new data tighten constraints on the displacement history of the Sierra Nevada block and its pre-extensional position relative to interior North America. We collected samples in freshly exposed outcrops along four highway transects. The rocks include diorite, granodiorite, and tonalite with potassium-argon ages (hornblende) ranging from 100 Ma to 83 Ma. By combining our results with previous paleomagnetic determinations from the central and southern Sierra Nevada (excluding sites from the rotated southern tip east of the White Wolf–Kern Canyon fault system), we find a mean paleomagnetic pole of 70.5°N, 188.2°E, A95 = 2.6° (N = 26, Fisher concentration parameter, K = 118). Thermal demagnetization indicates that the characteristic remanence is generally unblocked in a narrow range within 35 °C of the Curie temperature of pure magnetite. Small apparent polar wander during the Cretaceous normal-polarity superchron, plus prolonged acquisition of remanence at the site level, may account for the low dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles and relatively large K value. Tilt estimates based on overlapping sediments, stream gradients, and thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada plutons vary from 0° to 3° down to the southwest. Without tilt correction, the mean paleomagnetic pole for the Sierra Nevada is essentially coincident with the North American reference pole during the Cretaceous stillstand (125 Ma to 80 Ma). At 95% confidence, the apparent latitude shift is 1.1° ± 3.0° (positive northward), and the apparent rotation is negligible, 0.0° ± 4.7°. Correcting for each degree of tilt, which is limited to 3° on geologic evidence, increases the rotation anomaly 2.2° counterclockwise, while the apparent latitude shift remains unchanged.

  9. Acciones políticas y proyectos económicos en Guanajuato frente al conflicto de la Sierra Gorda 1847-1852

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Armando Preciado de Alba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Las revoluciones europeas de 1848 inquietaron a grandes sectores de la clase política mexicana pues fueron percibidas como un peligro para el orden social. Asimismo, en esos años, conflictos regionales como la Guerra de Castas y la rebelión en la Sierra Gorda amenazaban con trascender al ámbito nacional. Las autoridades guanajuatenses trataron de impulsar acciones políticas y económicas para controlar a la población. El artículo aborda el proyecto para la construcción de un presidio en la población serrana de Atargea, el cual, además de desincentivar potenciales brotes de violencia, buscaría reactivar la industria minera de la región.

  10. An aerobic detoxification photofermentation by Rhodospirillum rubrum for converting soy sauce residue into feed with moderate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Zhu, Wen-You; Tu, Fang; Jiang, Ya; Sun, Chuan-Ze

    2017-09-25

    This paper reports an effective process for converting soy sauce residue into feeds by combining moderate acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100 °C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N2, CO2, and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein increased from 188 to 362 g kg(-1) and the crude fiber decreased from 226 to 66 g kg(-1) after fermentation at 0.5 L min(-1) L(-1) of air flow and a light intensity of 750 lx and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 90% and the crude fiber decreased by 67% after fermentation at 0.6 L min(-1) L(-1) of air flow and a light intensity of 600 lx Other contents, including crude fat, crude ash, phosphorus, sulfur, sulfur-containing amino acids, sodium chloride, and calcium, were also improved for use as feed. Meantime, some toxic substances, including furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acetic acid, phenol, and cresol, which were produced by the pretreatments, could be removed by 12-32, 5-8, 49-53, 7-8, and 7-8%, respectively; and total sugars, glucose, and xylose could be utilized by 68-69, 71-72, and 63-67% respectively. The quality of soy sauce residue is improved for use as feed and some toxic substances can be decreased via the R. rubrum fermentation.

  11. Bacterial community dynamics and metabolite changes in myeolchi-aekjeot, a Korean traditional fermented fish sauce, during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-06-16

    Myeolchi-aekjeot (MA) is a Korean traditional fish sauce, made by fermenting salted [approximately 25% (w/v)] anchovies. Three sets of MA samples, S-MA, M-MA, and L-MA, were prepared using small (5-8 cm), medium (8-10 cm), and large (10-13 cm) anchovies, respectively, and their bacterial communities and metabolites were investigated for 280 days. Bacterial community analysis using pyrosequencing revealed that, in S-MA, the initially dominant genera, including Phychrobacter, Photobacterium, and Vibrio, disappeared rapidly and Salinivibrio, Staphylococcus, and Tetragenococcus/Halanaerobium appeared sequentially as the major populations. In contrast, in M-MA and L-MA, the initially dominant genera were maintained relatively well during the early fermentation period, but eventually Tetragenococcus became predominant without the growth of Halanaerobium. The changes in the bacterial community occurred more quickly in MA prepared with smaller anchovies than in those prepared with larger anchovies. Metabolite analysis using (1)H NMR showed that amino acids, glycerol, acetate, and lactate rapidly increased in all MA samples during the early fermentation period. Amino acids increased more quickly and then decreased after reaching their maximum level in S-MA, while they increased continually until the end of fermentation in L-MA. This suggests that the complete fermentation of L-MA may require more time than that for S-MA. A correlative analysis between bacterial communities and metabolites revealed that the increase in acetate, butyrate, and putrescine in S-MA was associated with the growth of Halanaerobium, which may be a useful indicator of anchovy sauce quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; Moore, Kirsten; Tong, Jeffery K T; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Green, Tim J

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether ad libitum consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce over 6 months yields higher erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among women of childbearing age and their children aged 12-59 months compared with control sauce containing no thiamin. In this double-blind, randomized controlled efficacy trial, 276 nonpregnant, nonlactating women (18-45 years of age) and their families in Prey Veng, Cambodia, were randomized to receive 1 of 3 fish sauce formulations: low thiamin concentration (low, 2 g/L), high thiamin concentration (high, 8 g/L), or a control (no thiamin) fish sauce. Baseline (t = 0) and endline (t = 6 months) eTDP were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Fish sauce consumption did not differ between treatment groups (P = .19). In intent-to-treat analysis, women's baseline-adjusted endline eTDP (mean; 95% CI) was higher among women in the low (259; 245-274 nmol/L) and high (257; 237-276 nmol/L) groups compared with control (184; 169-198 nmol/L; P sauce appears to be an efficacious means of improving biochemical thiamin status in nonpregnant, nonlactating women and their children (1-5 years of age) living in rural Cambodia. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02221063. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC, for the Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission Line Project AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... announces its decision to issue a Presidential permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission, LLC (ESJ...

  14. Producción científica sobre Sierra Nevada en ISI-Web of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pino-Díaz, José

    2004-01-01

    Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) was declared a National Park in 1999. How the University of Granada has favored the study of Sierra Nevada is presented in this work. We have studied the scientific literature that appears on Sierra Nevada in the three databases of ISI-Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index.

  15. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Water Supply Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    soon for water supply if there was an extreme need for it. Water can be pumped from Audubon Lake to the McClusky Canal which flows to Lone Tree...from the well field to Grand Forks’ and East Grand Forks’ water treatment plants. Alternatively, surface canals could be used to transport the water...size to Grand Forks and East Grand Forks. 15 Midi o .t c"I- u,,-Tjo en en %0" trA .n-4 on 0% %0A.) G n % 4 n 14 0; 11-; 0C4 10 0 r-’ 0 8 - 0 1-1 1-4

  16. Ordovician klippen structures of the Sierra de Umango: New insights on Tectonic evolution of the Western Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Vinícius Tieppo; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; González, Pablo Diego; Stipp Basei, Miguel Ângelo; Varela, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    The basement rock of the Pampean flat-slab (Sierras Pampeanas) in the Central Andes was uplifted and rotated in the Cenozoic era. The Western Sierras Pampeanas are characterised by meta-igneous rocks of Grenvillian Mesoproterozoic age and metasedimentary units metamorphosed in the Ordovician period. These rocks, known as the northern Cuyania composite terrane, were derived from Laurentia and accreted toward Western Gondwana during the Early Paleozoic. The Sierra de Umango is the westernmost range of the Western Sierras Pampeanas. This range is bounded by the Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Precordillera on the western side and Tertiary rocks from the Sierra de Maz and Sierra del Espinal on the eastern side and contains igneous and sedimentary rocks outcroppings from the Famatina System on the far eastern side. The Sierra de Umango evolved during a period of polyphase tectonic activity, including an Ordovician collisional event, a Devonian compressional deformation, Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic extensional faulting and sedimentation (Paganzo and Ischigualasto basins) and compressional deformation of the Andean foreland during the Cenozoic. A Nappe System and an important shear zone, La Puntilla-La Falda Shear Zone (PFSZ), characterise the Ordovician collisional event, which was related to the accretion of Cuyania Terrane to the proto-Andean margin of Gondwana. Three continuous deformational phases are recognised for this event: the D1 phase is distinguished by relics of S1 preserved as internal foliation within interkinematic staurolite porphyroblasts and likely represents the progressive metamorphic stage; the D2 phase exhibits P-T conditions close to the metamorphic peak that were recorded in an S2 transposition or a mylonitic foliation and determine the main structure of Umango; and the D3 phase is described as a set of tight to recumbent folds with S3 axial plane foliation, often related to thrust faults, indicating the retrogressive metamorphic stage. The

  17. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  18. Alcohol and drugs in post-war Sierra Leone | Bøås | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kind of social stress that a civil war expose the population to makes it easy to assume that an increased level of alcohol and drug abuse should be observable in post-war Sierra Leone. This is, however, not the case. As this study reveals, the pattern of alcohol and drug consumption in Sierra Leone. This is, however, not ...

  19. Building effective international, multicultural alliances for restoration of ejido forests in the Sierra Madre Occidental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall Gingrich

    2005-01-01

    Effective NGO-government-community alliances are the key to overcoming the complex socio-political obstacles to conservation in the Sierra Madre Occidental. Over 80 percent of the territory in the Sierra Madre Occidental is communally owned. Agrarian and other socio-economic conditions present both opportunities and obstacles to conservation. Conservation,...

  20. Geology of the eastern zone of the Sierra del Brezo (Palencia-Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, J.

    1956-01-01

    In het noordwestelijk deel van de provincie Palencia vormt de Sierra del Brezo een onderdeel van de Cordillera Cantábrica. Het resultaat van een geologische kaartering van het oostelijk gedeelte der Sierra del Brezo met zijn aangrenzend gebied is weergegeven in de hier bijgevoegde geologische kaart

  1. Introducing the Sierra Leone Local - Location Event Dataset (SLL-LED)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    This data-note introduces the Sierra Leone Local – Location Event Dataset (SLL-LED) – an event dataset of the armed conflict in Sierra Leone. These data includes an unrivalled number of events, actors and allies. The set is based entirely on local sources, and each event is geo-coded. This note

  2. A preliminary floristic inventory in the Sierra de Mazatan, Municipios of Ures and Mazatan, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Jesus Sanchez-Escalante; Manuel Espericueta-Betancourt; Reyna Amanda Castillo-Gamez

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the flora of the Sierra de Mazatán contains 357 species of vascular plants distributed in 248 genera and 80 families. The families with the most species are Asteraceae (48), Fabaceae (45), Poaceae (28), Euphorbiaceae (18), and Acanthaceae, Cactaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Solanaceae (11 each). The results show that the flora of the Sierra de Mazat...

  3. 76 FR 9595 - Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Sierra Front Northwestern Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada... (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Sierra Front-Northwestern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet in Carson City, Nevada and Gerlach, Nevada. The...

  4. A View from the Sierra : the Highland Puebla Area in Nahua Dialectology

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Mitsuya

    2015-01-01

    Sierra Norte de Puebla (Puebla, Mexico) is a dense area where three dialectologically distant Nahua variants are spoken in contact with one another. This paper outlines the distribution and the characteristics of each dialect and discusses the status of Western Sierra Nahuatl, one of the three dialectal groups of Nahua which has a few marginal features, within the dialectological study of the language.

  5. Flora útil de los cafetales en la Sierra Norte de Puebla, México Useful plants of the Sierra Norte de Puebla, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miguel Ángel Martínez; Virginia Evangelista; Francisco Basurto; Myrna Mendoza; Antonio Cruz-Rivas

    2007-01-01

    Los cafetales de la Sierra Norte de Puebla son agroecosistemas variados en composición y estructura, donde se pueden encontrar especies vegetales cultivadas y silvestres, nativas e introducidas, y cuya diversidad florística está...

  6. Identification of bioactive metabolites dihydrocanadensolide, Kojic acid, and vanillic acid in soy sauce using GC-MS, NMR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Teng, Zi; Parkin, Kirk L; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Qingli; Luo, Wei; Ma, Deyun; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-08-20

    Microbial transformations of intrinsic substrates offer immense potential for generating new bioactive compounds in fermented food products. The aim of this work was to characterize the secondary metabolites in soy sauce, one of the oldest fermented condiments. Ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of soy sauce was separated using flash column chromatography, crystallized, and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), and mass spectroscopy. Dihydrocanadensolide (DHC), an antiulcer agent, was identified in a food for the first time. The natural stereostructure of DHC, which remained controversial for several decades, was determined as (3S,3aS,6R,6aR)-6-butyl-3-methyltetrahydrofuro[3,4-b]furan-2,4-dione using SC-XRD analysis. Kojic acid (KA) and vanillic acid (VA) were also identified from EAE as bioactive metabolic products of fungi and yeasts. Moreover, a new polymorphic form of KA was determined by SC-XRD.

  7. Avisos de nuevos ejemplares incorporados a la biblioteca con Sierra

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar-Lafont, D. (David)

    2015-01-01

    En la Biblioteca de la Universidad de Navarra los usuarios tienen un parte muy activa en el desarrollo de la colección. Ello implica que la Biblioteca esté muy interesada en avisarles cuando se incorporan los ejemplares que han pedido. Cuando se genera una nueva order (tanto en Sierra como en Millenniun) en el campo ‘SOLICITANTE” se puede cumplimentar los datos de la persona que ha pedido la compra del ejemplar. La notificación al usuario cuando se ha catalogado el ejemplar y se incor...

  8. 78 FR 11678 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    .... ADDRESSES: Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand Rapids Public Museum, 272 Pearl... time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a... associated funerary objects should contact Marilyn Merdzinski, Director of Education & Interpretation, Grand...

  9. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. 2010 Panel on the biomaterials grand challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William Monty; Ratner, Buddy D; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S; Laurencin, Cato T; Tirrell, David

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies-Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell-were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lifeomics leads the age of grand discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuchu

    2013-03-01

    When our knowledge of a field accumulates to a certain level, we are bound to see the rise of one or more great scientists. They will make a series of grand discoveries/breakthroughs and push the discipline into an 'age of grand discoveries'. Mathematics, geography, physics and chemistry have all experienced their ages of grand discoveries; and in life sciences, the age of grand discoveries has appeared countless times since the 16th century. Thanks to the ever-changing development of molecular biology over the past 50 years, contemporary life science is once again approaching its breaking point and the trigger for this is most likely to be 'lifeomics'. At the end of the 20th century, genomics wrote out the 'script of life'; proteomics decoded the script; and RNAomics, glycomics and metabolomics came into bloom. These 'omics', with their unique epistemology and methodology, quickly became the thrust of life sciences, pushing the discipline to new high. Lifeomics, which encompasses all omics, has taken shape and is now signalling the dawn of a new era, the age of grand discoveries.

  12. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  13. Thermal implications of the cessation of subduction in the Sierra Nevada and Baja- California arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, K.; Blackwell, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal regime in the extinct Sierra Nevada arc has undergone substantial transformation as a result of the cessation of subduction in the last 30 My. The dynamic mechanism of cooling in the arc has been replaced by re-equilibration of the lithosphere toward continental averages. Preliminary 1D thermal models reveal that the effect of asthenospheric heating at the bottom do not lead to credible changes in the lithospheric temperatures for a 30 My years period in terms of surface manifestations. In the Great Valley, neither the topography nor the surface heat flow show considerable variations before and after the cessation of subduction. On the other hand, Sierra Nevada has experienced substantial uplift in the post subduction California. In the Sierra Nevada, the surface heat flow lags deep temperature response but the topography responds directly to temperatures at depth. As the end of subduction migrated north with the Mendocino triple junction, the dynamic equilibrium between the cold Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range has been upset and the high temperatures of Basin and Range started to invade the Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Our 2D thermal model reveals that conductive heating of the Sierran lithosphere by the hot Basin and Range lithosphere could be the dominant source for the tilted uplift in the Sierra Nevada. The heating from the bottom is likely not very effective in Sierra Nevada as no uplift is observed in the neighboring Great Valley region. The thermal uplift due to Basin and Range heating is substantial at the east edge of the Sierra Nevada and decreases rapidly toward the west. The uplift as far as 100 km toward west could be accommodated by flexural bending of the cold Sierra Nevada lithosphere as the eastern edge thermally expanded. A similar thermo-tectonic scenario could explain the westward tilted Baja-California peninsular ranges which were part of the same tectonic setting of the Sierra Nevada during subduction. We also investigated the

  14. The Making of Salty Soy Sauce From Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens (Study of Saline Concentration of Salt Solution and Duration of Moromi's Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Febrianto Mulyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the saline concentration and moromi’s fermentation duration of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce at best organolepticly and determine consumers’ preferences towards Koro Benguk salty soy sauce from the best treatment results. The study was conducted using a randomized design method using two factors: the saline concentration (17%; 20%; and 23% and duration of moromi’s fermentation (2; 3; and 4 weeks. The best treatment results based on the Friedman test was on the saline concentration of 17% and moromi’s fermentation duration was 4 weeks, with the NP value of 1,000; had a preference color level of 5:40 (liked; aroma of 4.30 (rather liked; flavor of 4.55 (rather liked; and viscosity of 5.05 (liked. The obtained protein was 7.14%; and dissolved solids of 27obrix. Consumers’ preferences towards the best treatment showed that product of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce was acceptable to consumers.

  15. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Pfanner, Simon; Chan, Theary; Chea, Chantum; Mam, Borath; Sambath, Pol; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i) comply with International Codex; (ii) adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii) ensure enforcement. PMID:26901222

  17. Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i comply with International Codex; (ii adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii ensure enforcement.

  18. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamomum verum Methanolic Extract and Essential Oil: A Study on Bio-preservative in Ketchup Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosheh Sharifan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural antimicrobial compounds extracted from plants such as cinnamon as preservative to extend the shelf life has gain much attention. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity and bio- preservative potential of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum bark and its oil against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosae and Escherichia coli in ketchup sauce. In order to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of essential oil and methanolic extract from the bark of C. verum, agar dilution method was performed. Then the effective inhibitory concentrations were evaluated on growth of test bacteria in ketchup sauce at 4 °C and room temperature in different storage times (1, 7, 14 and 30 days. In addition, the sensory quality of treated ketchups was assessed. This study showed bacteriostatic effect of the essential oils and methanolic extract on all tested bacteria. The best treatment in ketchup sauce was obtained on days 14 at 4 °C in concentrations of 1500 µg/ml essential oil. In sensory evaluation, the sample containing 1000 µg/ml essential oil had higher score in odor, taste and overall acceptability than other treated samples (P<0.05. This study shows that cinnamon oil is a more potent antimicrobial agent than cinnamon extract and it has the potential to be used as food preservative and is recommended for quality attributes enhancement.

  19. Effect of Soy Sauce on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Rats and Identification of Flazin as a Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-15

    This is the first report on the ability of soy sauce to effectively reduce the serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of hyperuricemic rats. Soy sauce was partitioned sequentially into ethyl acetate and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction with strong XOD inhibition effect was purified further. On the basis of xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity-guided purification, nine compounds including 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate, diisobutyl terephthalate, harman, daidzein, flazin, catechol, thymine, genistein, and uracil were obtained. It was the first time that 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate and diisobutyl terephthalate had been identified from soy sauce. Flazin with hydroxymethyl furan ketone group at C-1 and carboxyl at C-3 exhibited the strongest XOI activity (IC50 = 0.51 ± 0.05 mM). According to fluorescence quenching and molecular docking experiments, flazin could enter into the catalytic center of XOD to interact with Lys1045, Gln1194, and Arg912 mainly by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Flazin, catechol, and genistein not only were potent XOD inhibitors but also held certain antioxidant activities. According to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) simulation in silico, flazin had good oral bioavailability in vivo.

  20. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Simultaneous determination of amino acid nitrogen and total acid in soy sauce using near infrared spectroscopy combined with characteristic variables selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiewen; Ouyang, Qin; Chen, Quansheng; Lin, Hao

    2013-08-01

    Amino acid nitrogen and total acid are two most important quality indices to assess the quality of soy sauce in China. This work employed near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval partial least square and genetic algorithm to detect amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce. First, synergy interval partial least square was used to select efficient spectral regions from the full spectrum region; and then, genetic algorithm was used to selected variables from the efficient spectral regions, to build partial least square model. The optimal genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models were obtained as follows: Rc  = 0.9988 and Rp = 0.9988 for amino acid nitrogen content model using 64 variables; Rc = 0.9917 and Rp = 0.9902 for total acid content model using 81 variables. Genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square models showed superiority over the partial least square and synergy interval partial least square models. The results indicated that amino acid nitrogen and total acid content in soy sauce could be rapidly determined by near infrared spectroscopy technique. Also, the results indicated that genetic algorithm synergy interval partial least square can improve the performance in measurement of amino acid nitrogen and total acid content by near infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Status of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampert, K.-H. E-mail: Karl-Heinz.Kampert@ik.fzk.de; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buetner, C.; Chiavassa, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Ghia, P.L.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Iwan, A.; Klages, H.O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Martello, D.; Milke, J.; Morello, C.; Mueller, M.; Navarra, G.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Trinchero, G.C.; Ulrich, H.; Ulrich, R.; Weber, J.H.; Weindl, A.; Wentz, J.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2003-07-01

    The status and capabilities of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment are presented. The installation is located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and comprises a large collecting area (0.5 km{sup 2}) electromagnetic array (Grande) operated jointly with the existing KASCADE detectors. KASCADE-Grande will cover the primary energy range 10{sup 16} eV < E{sub 0} < 10{sup 18} eV overlapping with KASCADE around 1016 eV, thus providing continuous information on the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays from 3 {center_dot} 1014 eV up to 10{sup 18} eV. The major goal of the measurements is the unambiguous observation of the 'iron knee' expected in the cosmic ray spectrum at E{sub k}{sup Fe} {approx} 10{sup 17} eV.

  3. TAX ELASTICITY IN SIERRA LEONE: A TIME SERIES APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brima Ibrahim Baimba Kargbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiscal authorities in Sierra Leone introduced series of reforms in the tax system ranging from continual revisions in tax rate to harmonization and instituting new taxes that are relatively easy to collect. Despite these measures, the output of the tax system as measured by the tax/GDP ratio remains very low averaging 11 per cent contributing to higher fiscal deficits. This study examined the base elasticity of the tax system in Sierra Leone and its major handles using annual data covering the period between 1977and 2009.The Singer method of dummy variables was employed in order to make adjustment for the effect of discretionary tax measures and then compare buoyancy and elasticity measures. The empirical results indicated that buoyancy estimates were higher than elasticity estimates; and that short-run elasticities were lower than the static long-run elasticities. Estimation results further showed that discretionary tax measures were effective in mobilizing additional tax revenues and that the tax system was inelastic during the period.

  4. Water quality associated public health risk in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy, David H; Sundufu, Abu J; Malanoski, Anthony P; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Ansumana, Rashid; Leski, Tomasz A; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Tejan, Edries; Lin, Baochuan; Stenger, David A

    2013-01-01

    Human health depends on reliable access to safe drinking water, but in many developing countries only a limited number of wells and boreholes are available. Many of these water resources are contaminated with biological or chemical pollutants. The goal of this study was to examine water access and quality in urban Bo, Sierra Leone. A health census and community mapping project in one neighborhood in Bo identified the 36 water sources used by the community. A water sample was taken from each water source and tested for a variety of microbiological and physicochemical substances. Only 38.9% of the water sources met World Health Organization (WHO) microbial safety requirements based on fecal coliform levels. Physiochemical analysis indicated that the majority (91.7%) of the water sources met the requirements set by the WHO. In combination, 25% of these water resources met safe drinking water criteria. No variables associated with wells were statistically significant predictors of contamination. This study indicated that fecal contamination is the greatest health risk associated with drinking water. There is a need to raise hygiene awareness and implement inexpensive methods to reduce fecal contamination and improve drinking water safety in Bo, Sierra Leone.

  5. Research Furthers Conservation of Grand Canyon Sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Grand Canyon National Park lies approximately 25 km (15 mi) down-river from Glen Canyon Dam, which was built on the Colorado River just south of the Arizona-Utah border in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. Before the dam began to regulate the Colorado River in 1963, the river carried such large quantities of red sediment, for which the Southwest is famous, that the Spanish named the river the Rio Colorado, or 'red river'. Today, the Colorado River usually runs clear below Glen Canyon Dam because the dam nearly eliminates the main-channel sand supply. The daily and seasonal flows of the river were also altered by the dam. These changes have disrupted the sedimentary processes that create and maintain Grand Canyon sandbars. Throughout Grand Canyon, sandbars create habitat for native plants and animals, supply camping beaches for river runners and hikers, and provide sediment needed to protect archaeological resources from weathering and erosion. Maintenance of sandbars in the Colorado River ecosystem, the river corridor that stretches from the dam to the western boundary of Grand Canyon National Park, is a goal of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. The program is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the mandates of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 are met through advances in information and resource management. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center has responsibility for scientific monitoring and research efforts for the program. Extensive research and monitoring during the past decade have resulted in the identification of possible alternatives for operating Glen Canyon Dam that hold new potential for the conservation of sand resources.

  6. District-heating system, La Grande, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The area suggested for district heating feasibility study encompassed slightly over 400 acres extending north and south from the geographic center of the city. This district was subdivided into 8 areas, which include the Grande Ronde Hospital, Eastern Oregon State College, La Grande school district, one institutional area, one commercial area and three residential areas. Basic space heating loads developed for the various areas after a survey by county personnel and computation using a computer program form the basis for this economic feasibility study.

  7. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  8. Effective Higgs theories in supersymmetric grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effective Higgs theories at the TeV scale in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification models are systematically derived. Restricted to extensions on 5{sub H} containing the Higgs sector we show that only two types of real (vector-like) models and one type of chiral model are found to be consistent with perturbative grand unification. While the chiral model has been excluded by the LHC data, the fate of perturbative unification will be uniquely determined by the two classes of vector-like models. (orig.)

  9. The Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Susan

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of the water quality of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon was made, using the following parameters: dissolved oxygen, water temperature, hydrogen ion concentration, total dissolved solids, turbidity, and ammonium/nitrogen levels. These parameters were used to provide some clue as to the "wellness" and stability of the…

  10. "Teine" võitis Prantsusmaal Grand Prix'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Prantsusmaal Essonne'is toimuval 8. Euroopa filmifestivalil Cinessonne sai üliõpilaste žürii grand prix rahvusvahelises ühistöös valminud tantsufilm "Teine" ("Another") : režissöör Rene Vilbre. Ka teistest festivalidest, kus film osalenud

  11. Toxic Waste in Grand Banks. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchka, Peter

    "Toxic Waste in Grand Banks" is an assessment task in which students from a high school economics class investigate the issues of economic prosperity, environmental concerns, government intervention in the market economy, and responsible civic participation in solving community problems. Students will demonstrate an ability--both individually and…

  12. Grand Prix Eurovision: Eine Fankultur im Medienzeitalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Moser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Grand Prix Eurovision ist seit Jahrzehnten eine der bekanntesten Unterhaltungssendungen im europäischen Raum. Dennoch erregte es Verwunderung, wenn der Schreibende Bekannten darüber berichtete, daß dies ein Forschungsgegenstand sei. Wurde von Interviews mit Grand Prix-Fans erzählt, so fielen schnell Aussagen wie: „Wie kann man sich nur für so etwas Abseitiges und Triviales wie den Grand Prix interessieren“. Dennoch bin ich der Meinung, daß Fankulturen für die entstehende Mediengesellschaft ein nicht unwichtiges Forschungsthema darstellen. Zwar geht es nicht um eine medienpädagogische Fragestellung im engeren Sinne; die Fans des Grand Prix Eurovision sind dem Jugendalter längst entwachsen. Dennoch handelt es sich bei Fangemeinschaften um Phänomene, die im Rahmen von Jugend- und Kinderkulturen von besonderer Relevanz sind. So meint Winter (1997, daß jugendliche Fanwelten eine bedeutende Rolle als Kristallisationspunkte kultureller Differenzierung spielen: ,Die Zugehörigkeit zu einer Fan weit ist Teil der jugendlichen Lebensbewältigung in der Postmoderne, denn in der Gemeinschaft der Fans können Jugendliche emotionale Allianzen eingehen, außeralltäglichen Beschäftigungen nachgehen, expressive Identitätsmuster gemeinschaftlich realisieren und sich mit ihrer Lebenssituation als Heranwachsende auseinandersetzen“ (Winter 1997, S. 51f..

  13. Panel - Rio Grande restoration: Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Pete V. Domenici; Jeffrey. C. Whitney; Steve Harris; Brian Shields; Clifford S. Crawford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this panel was to discuss historical and current changes to the Rio Grande system, focusing on the middle Basin, and to present and review different individual, organizational, and political perspectives on the future of the system. Invitations were made to panelists based on their past and current interests and activities pertaining to restoration of...

  14. Map Your Way to the Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Holly

    2005-01-01

    In the introductory assignment, each randomly assigned group spends about 10 to 15 minutes at each station. The author incorporates as much sensory stimulation in the activity as possible. At the first station, students view a PowerPoint show from a geology class the author participated in at the Grand Canyon. At station two, students look at a…

  15. Building sandbars in the Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David; Melis, Theodore S.; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation finished building Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, 25 kilometers upstream from Grand Canyon National Park. The dam impounded 300 kilometers of the Colorado River, creating Lake Powell, the nation’s second largest reservoir.

  16. Discovery of the Grand Unified Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Radhakrishnan

    2010-11-01

    I have discovered the Grand Unified Theory which unites quantum with classical mechanics. This discovery is based on a geocentric universe, the myth of empty space, four states of matter in three dimensional space and space-time exponentiation, instead of space-time curvature.

  17. Rio Branco, grand strategy and naval power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Alsina Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Baron of Rio Branco's grand strategy and the role played by the naval reorganization program (1904-1910 in this context. The ensuing case study determined the domestic and international constraints that affected the program, as well as the worldview of the patron of Brazilian diplomacy regarding military power's instrumentality to foreign policy.

  18. Reisipakkumine - Grand Tour Itaalias / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2009-01-01

    Tiina Abeli koostatud ja Urmas Viigi kujundatud näitus "Grand Tour. Eesti kunstnikud Itaalias" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 05. aprillini. Loetletud eksponeeritud tööde autoreid. Näitus annab ülevaate, kes siinsetest kunstnikest 19. sajandi algusest kuni 1930ndate aastateni Itaalias käisid ja kuidas see nende loomingut mõjutas

  19. The Virtual Grand Tour as Educational Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Mouritsen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The Virtual Grand Tour as defined here bears some resemblance to its 18th century ancestor: a wide range of individual topics are treated as a whole; a tutor, whether real or simulated, present or remote, is provided; a set of problem solving tools forms an integrated part of the "traveller's" eq...

  20. Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

  1. [The indigenous population of Sierra Norte de Puebla].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez Gonzalez, G

    1991-06-01

    The northern sierra region of Pueblo, Mexico, contains 1496 communities in 65 municipios and covers 1/4 of the area of the state of Puebla. The topography is steep and mountainous, and the area is inaccessible. The region contains the 3 principal zones of Mesoamerica, hot lands from sea level to 700 meters above sea level, temperate zones from 700-1500 meters, and cold country from 1500-2000 meters above sea level. Most of the population resides in the temperate and cold lands, but the hot zones are economically important. Little is known of the prehistory of the area. The Totonac were believed to have been the earliest settlers. In the mid-15th century numerous Nahua groups came to the area. In the late 15th century the region fell to the Aztecs, but their dominion was cut short by the arrival of the Spanish. Spanish penetration was relatively slow because of the difficult terrain and the lack of precious metals desired by the Spanish. The introduction of coffee cultivation in the late 19th century accelerated the adoption of urban-mestizo sociocultural and commercial elements by the indigenous population. The population of the northern sierra increased from 752,656 in 1980 to 965,976 in 1990. The 1980 census reported that 259,140 persons spoke indigenous languages, including 179,677 who spoke Nahuatl, 66,020 Totonaco, and 4921 Otomi. The most important cities are located on paved roads: Teziutland, Zacatlan, Hauachinango, and Zacapoaxtla. The municipios with predominantly monolingual indigenous populations are concentrated in the most difficult to reach areas of the central sierra massif. The region is characterized by temporary and permanent emigration of the indigenous population. The main reasons for emigration are lack of land and of alternative sources of employment, and desire for education. During the months August-December, known as the time of hunger, there is seasonal migration of household heads in search of work as laborers in cane cutting, tobacco

  2. DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects support Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographical area: Implications for Astyanax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Espinasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The blind Mexican tetra fish, Astyanax mexicanus, has become the most influential model for research of cave adapted organisms. Many authors assume that the Sierra de Guatemala populations and the Sierra de El Abra populations are derived from two independent colonizations. This assumption arises in part from biogeography. The 100 m high, 100 m wide Servilleta Canyon of the Boquillas River separates both mountain ranges and is an apparent barrier for troglobite dispersion. Anelpistina quinterensis (Nicoletiidae, Zygentoma, Insecta is one of the most troglomorphic nicoletiid silverfish insects ever described. 16S rRNA sequences support that this species migrated underground to reach both mountain ranges within less than 12,000 years. Furthermore, literature shows a plethora of aquatic and terrestrial cave restricted species that inhabit both mountain ranges. Thus, the Servilleta canyon has not been an effective biological barrier that prevented underground migration of troglobites between the Sierra de Guatemala and the Sierra de El Abra. The Boquillas River has changed its course throughout time. Caves that in the past connected the two Sierras were only recently geologically truncated by the erosion of the new river course. It is likely that, with the geological changes of the area and throughout the 2-8 million years of evolutionary history of cave Astyanax, there have been opportunities to migrate across the Servilleta canyon.

  3. Creationism in the Grand Canyon, Texas Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-01-01

    AGU President Bob Dickinson, together with presidents of six other scientific societies, have written to Joseph Alston, Superintendent of Grand Canyon National Park, pointing out that a creationist book, The Grand Canyon: A Different View, is being sold in bookstores within the borders of the park as a scientific explanation about Grand Canyon geologic history. President Dickinson's 16 December letter urges that Alston clearly separate The Grand Canyon: A Different View from books and materials that discuss the legitimate scientific understanding of the origin of the Grand Canyon. The letter warns the Park Service against giving the impression that it approves of the anti-science movement known as young-Earth creationism, or that it endorses the advancement of religious tenets disguised as science. The text of the letter is on AGU's Web site http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/sci_pol.html. Also, this fall, AGU sent an alert to Texas members about efforts by intelligent design creationists aimed at weakening the teaching of biological evolution in textbooks used in Texas schools. The alert pointed scientists to a letter, drafted by AGU, together with the American Institute of Physics, the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the American Astronomical Society, that urged the Texas State Board of Education to adopt textbooks that presented only accepted, peer-reviewed science and pedagogical expertise. Over 550 scientists in Texas added their names to the letter (http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/texas_textbooks.pdf ), sent to the Board of Education on 1 November prior to their vote to adopt a slate of new science textbooks. The Board voted 11-5 in favor of keeping the textbooks free of changes advocated by groups supporting intelligent design creationism.

  4. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  5. Induction of apoptosis by sarijang, a bamboo salt sauce, in U937 human leukemia cells through the activation of caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-A; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Lee, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Byung Tae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-08-01

    Sarijang is a bamboo salt soy sauce, containing extracts of Rhynchosia nulubilis, sulfur-fed duck, dried bark of Ulmus davidiana and Allium sativum, which has been demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of sarijang have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the pro-apoptotic effects of sarijang in an in vitro U937 human leukemia cell model. Treatment with sarijang resulted in a concentration-dependent growth inhibition of the cells, coupled with the characteristic morphological features of apoptosis. The induction of the apoptotic cell death of the U937 cells by sarijang exhibited a correlation with the upregulation of death receptor 4 (DR4), the downregulation of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, including survivin and cellular IAP (cIAP)-1, and the cleavage of Bid. Apoptosis-inducing concentrations of sarijang also induced the activation of caspases (caspase-3, -8 and -9), accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase, β-catenin and phospholipase C-γ1. However, the apoptosis induced by sarijang was significantly inhibited by z-VED-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, which demonstrated the importance of caspases in the process. These results suggested that sarijang may be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for use in the control of U937 human leukemia cells. Further studies are required to identify the active compounds in sarijang.

  6. Food and chemical industry. Soy sauce and chemical engineering; Shokuhinn to kagaku kogaku. Shoyu to kagaku kogaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitakura, Y.; Ishii, J. [Kikkoman Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    The buckwheat soup is a mixture of seasonings such as soy sauce, sweet sake, sugar and the like and stock of dried bonito. This paper describes an analysis of the stock manufacturing step, an important step in the manufacture of buckwheat soup, and the setting of stock extraction conditions on the basis of this analysis. If the rate of infiltration of water into the dried bonito is found, it is a very effective finding for setting the thickness of flakes of dried bonito and the extraction time to prepare buckwheat soup industrially. To obtain such knowledge, the time taken for the water to pass through flakes of dried bonito of various thicknesses, to vaporize and to remove latent heat till the temperature of the surfaces of flakes lowers was measured. The thickness of flakes of dried bonito and extraction time were set on the basis of the data thus obtained. Dired bonito was then supplied to a bench scale flow extraction apparatus filled with hot water, and the content of inosinic acid, a taste component of the dried bonito in the extracted liquid was measured at predetermined time intervals. An operating manual for various extraction lot sizes was made on the basis of the data thsu obtained. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Tentative Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Budu, a Malaysian Fish Sauce, Using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Abdul Manap

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Budu is a famous Malaysian fish sauce, usually used as seasoning and condiment in cooking. Budu is produced by mixing fish and salt at certain ratio followed by fermentation for six months in closed tanks. In this study, four commercial brands of Budu were analyzed for their chemical properties (pH, salt content and volatile compounds. The pH of Budu samples ranged from 4.50–4.92, while the salt (NaCl content ranged between 11.80% and 22.50% (w/v. For tentative identification of volatile flavor compounds in Budu, two GC columns have been used, DB-WAX and HP-5MS. A total of 44 volatile compounds have been detected and 16 were common for both columns. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl disulfide, 3-(methylthio-propanal, 3-methylbutanoic acid and benzaldehye have been identified as the aroma-active compounds in Budu due to their lower threshold values.

  8. Effects of co-inoculation and sequential inoculation of Tetragenococcus halophilus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha; Linforth, Robert; Onyeaka, Helen; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2018-02-01

    The use of Tetragenococcus halophilus and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii as starter cultures is essential for desirable volatiles production during moromi stage of soy sauce fermentation. In this study, the effect of simultaneous and sequential inoculation of cultures in moromi fermentation models, with respect to viability, physicochemical changes, and volatiles formation (using SPME-GC/MS) was investigated. Interestingly, an antagonism was observed as T. halophilus only proliferated (3 log increase) in the presence of Z. rouxii, while Z. rouxii growth was suppressed by 4 log in concurrence with pH increase to 7.31. Final content of reducing sugars, ethanol, acetic acid, and amino nitrogen did not differ significantly (p<0.05) between co-inoculation and sequential inoculation. However, Z. rouxii promoted alcohols formation and produced a more complex aroma profile under suppression. According to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the inoculation sequence (co-inoculation and sequential) has impacts on volatile compound profiles during moromi fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  10. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego Theory Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  11. State of California; Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District; Wood Burning Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) concerning emissions of particulate matter (PM) from wood burning devices.

  12. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.46.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-09-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  13. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets; Armando Luis-Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huautla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera). The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants...

  14. Sierra Leone Journal of Biomedical Research Vol. 2 (2) pp. 115-121 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    course (DOTS) coverage on notification of infectious tuberculosis (TB) and treatment cure rate in the post conflict period of 2002 to 2005 in Sierra Leone. The study was a population based retrospective study on implementation of DOTS expansion ...

  15. SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego User Manual Version 4.44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Thermal/Fluid Team

    2017-04-01

    The SIERRA Low Mach Module: Fuego along with the SIERRA Participating Media Radiation Module: Syrinx, henceforth referred to as Fuego and Syrinx, respectively, are the key elements of the ASCI fire environment simulation project. The fire environment simulation project is directed at characterizing both open large-scale pool fires and building enclosure fires. Fuego represents the turbulent, buoyantly-driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, combustion, soot, and absorption coefficient model portion of the simulation software. Syrinx represents the participating-media thermal radiation mechanics. This project is an integral part of the SIERRA multi-mechanics software development project. Fuego depends heavily upon the core architecture developments provided by SIERRA for massively parallel computing, solution adaptivity, and mechanics coupling on unstructured grids.

  16. Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east. Most of the mapped...

  17. PLANTAS MEDICINALES USADAS POR LOS COGUI EN EL RIO PALOMINO, SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduino Carbonó-Delahoz; Juan Carlos Dib-Diazgranados

    2013-01-01

      To document indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants among the Cogui or Kggaba in the Palomino river basin, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, the use of the ora was assessed via application...

  18. Soil acidity, temperature, and water relationships of four clovers in Sierra Nevada meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Ethelynda E. Harding

    1993-01-01

    Sites in meadows of the Sierra Nevada near Fresno, California, were studied to learn whether Bolander's (Trifolium holanderi Gray.), longstalked (T. longipes Nutt.), carpet (T. monanthum Gray.), and mountain (T. wormskioldii Lehm.) clovers occurred under the same soil acidity, temperature...

  19. Critical Habitat for the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas designated as critical habitat for the Sierra Nevada Bighorn Sheep. Critical habitat for the species occurs in twelve units: Mount...

  20. Water vapour flux patterns and precipitation at Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durán, L; Rodríguez‐Fonseca, B; Yagüe, C; Sánchez, E

    2015-01-01

    .... Sierra de Guadarrama is a part of the Iberian Peninsula Central System (Spain), a mountain range located in the center of an extensive plateau, dominated by a continental Mediterranean climate but under a strong Atlantic influence...