WorldWideScience

Sample records for sauce fuzhou yulu

  1. Soy sauce allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, K; Sugiura, M

    2010-07-01

    Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning. It is important to determine whether inflammation is caused by allergic reactions or histamine poisoning. We determined the volume of histamine in some sauces and performed prick test and laboratory tests. Four patients had positive reactions by prick test after using some sauces. We suspected that histamine caused their symptoms, but nine normal volunteers had negative reactions. Patient's specific IgE score to soy and wheat was class 0. The results showed that the sauce made from soybean and broad bean contained histamine, but histamine in other sauces was not detected. In this study, we confirmed by prick test, four cases of soy sauce allergy, which was caused by some products during brewing. When patients with inflammations around mouth, after a meal containing or using soy sauce, are examined, it should be considered whether dermatitis or cellulites were developed by allergic reaction or by histamine poisoning.

  2. Hydrogeochemistry and reservoir model of Fuzhou geothermal field, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. F.; Goff, Fraser

    1986-03-01

    Fuzhou geothermal field is a low- to intermediate-temperature geothermal system consisting of meteoric water that circulates deeply along faults. The area of the field is about 9 km 2 but it is elongated in a NNW-trending direction. Fluids in the field are controlled by a series of four NNW extensional faults in Cretaceous granitic basement (Fuzhou fault zone). These faults feed warm waters into overlying permeable Quaternary sediments. The hydrothermal system consists of north and south parts whose chemical compositions are subtly different. In the northern part the system discharges sulfate/chloride waters with relatively low chloride concentrations, but in the south the system discharges chloride waters having relatively high chloride concentrations. Maximum wellhead temperatures are 97°C, which agrees with the chalcedony geothermometer in many cases. Based on the solubility of quartz, the deep-reservoir temperature cannot exceed 123 to 131°C. From heat and mass balance calculations, we conclude that the present total extracted capacity of fluid from the reservoir (20,000 tons/day) could be doubled without noticeable drawdown. We estimate the recoverable heat in the reservoir to be about 1.71 × 10 11 MJ.

  3. Psychorheology of tartar sauce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štern, Petr; Panovská, Z.; Pokorný, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2006), s. 580-596 ISSN 0022-4901 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : emulsions * flavour * psychorheology * rheology * sensory profile * tartar sauce Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2006

  4. Pilot test of bacterial percolation leaching at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Baotuan; Liu Jian; Jiang Yngqiong; Cai Chunhui; Jiang Lang; Zhou Renhua; Tong Changning; Zhang Hongli

    2006-01-01

    Total 18 t uranium ores of Fuzhou Uranium Mine packed in three or four columns in series were leached by bacterial percolation. The results show that without adding any other chemical oxidant such as sodium chlorate, the leaching rate measured by residue is 91.45%-94.48%, leaching time is 50-60 d, acid consumption is 6.17%-7.75%, and residue grade is 0.0149%-0.0208%. Compared with conventional percolation leaching process, the leaching rate is improved by 3%, leaching time is shorted by 26%, and acid consumption is saved by 34%. Accumulation pattern of ΣFe and F - in the process of leaching is discussed. Influence of F - on bacterial growth, regeneration of barren solution as well as correlative techniques are reviewed. (authors)

  5. Elemental balance in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Yoshida, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the elemental concentrations of soy sauce and its actual raw materials which are used in a certain soy sauce factory. In the present measurement, we measured de-fatted soybean, wheat and salt as raw materials and soy sauce and soy sauce waste as final products. Five kinds of elements, such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br, were detected. We obtained elemental concentrations of them except for Mn in each materials. The measured elemental concentration in soy sauce agreed well each other with the calculated one within the experimental errors using the measured concentration in the raw materials and their weight in actual producing process. Contrary to our expectation, it was found that wheat contributes to soy sauce bromine concentration dominantly in the present case. (author)

  6. [Characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiu-Ping; Wang, Hong; Chen, Bin-Bin; Sui, Ping; Lin, Wen

    2014-10-01

    Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38.1% and 61.9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40.6% and 59.4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4.1-5.5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone) and outside of typhoon (intertropical convergence zone). There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, PM10, and the pH of rain in Fuzhou.

  7. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  8. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce...

  9. Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bakedporkchopswithapplecranberrysauce.html Baked Pork Chops With Apple Cranberry Sauce To use the sharing features on this page, ... minutes Number of Servings: 4 A wonderful fruit sauce adds the perfect touch to these pork chops— ...

  10. Estimating the Acquisition Price of Enshi Yulu Young Tea Shoots Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy by the Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network Model in Conjunction with Backward Interval Partial Least Squares Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sh.-P.; Gong, Z.-M.; Su, X.-Zh.; Liao, J.-Zh.

    2017-09-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy and the back propagation artificial neural network model in conjunction with backward interval partial least squares algorithm were used to estimate the purchasing price of Enshi yulu young tea shoots. The near-infrared spectra regions most relevant to the tea shoots price model (5700.5-5935.8, 7613.6-7848.9, 8091.8-8327.1, 8331-8566.2, 9287.5-9522.5, and 9526.6-9761.9 cm-1) were selected using backward interval partial least squares algorithm. The first five principal components that explained 99.96% of the variability in those selected spectral data were then used to calibrate the back propagation artificial neural tea shoots purchasing price model. The performance of this model (coefficient of determination for prediction 0.9724; root-mean-square error of prediction 4.727) was superior to those of the back propagation artificial neural model (coefficient of determination for prediction 0.8653, root-mean-square error of prediction 5.125) and the backward interval partial least squares model (coefficient of determination for prediction 0.5932, root-mean-square error of prediction 25.125). The acquisition price model with the combined backward interval partial least squares-back propagation artificial neural network algorithms can evaluate the price of Enshi yulu tea shoots accurately, quickly and objectively.

  11. Commercial test on uranium ore percolation leaching in Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Chunhui

    2002-01-01

    Commercial test on uranium ore percolation leaching was carried out according to ore characteristics of Fuzhou Uranium Mine and results from small test. Technological and economic indexes, such as leaching rate, acid consumption, leaching cycle, etc. are discussed. The general idea applying the test results to commercial production is presented, too

  12. Preliminary analysis about reducing production costs in uranium mining and metallurgy at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao

    1999-01-01

    The production costs in uranium ming and metallurgy have been analyzed quantitatively term by term according to present production situation for The Uranium Mining and Metallurgy Corp, which is part of Fuzhou Uranium Mine. The principal factors influencing on the production costs and the main means reducing the production costs have been found

  13. The investigation of the Relationship between Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction of Primary school teachers in Fuzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan'e Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship between the primary teachers’ job characteristics and job satisfaction. Method: This study investigated 238 Fuzhou city primary school teachers by the teachers’ professional qualities and the job satisfaction questionnaire in Fuzhou, and analysed the data. Results: Fuzhou primary school teachers' job satisfaction was in the middle level, their working state was imbalance, and their pay more than the feedback . They had greater work pressure. There was a significant negative correlation between primary school teachers' job characteristics (extrinsic effort, self-esteem feedback, social status control, money back and job satisfaction. Conclusion: Elementary school teachers' pay and feedback to relative balance is an important approach to improve the primary school teachers' job satisfaction.

  14. Trends in prevalence and risk factors of childhood asthma in Fuzhou, a city in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Su-Ping; Liu, Yan-Lin; Wang, Shi-Biao; Weng, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Shen; Zhang, Min-Jun; Dong, Li; Guo, Yi-Hua; Lin, Dong-Ru; Hua, Yun-Han; Wang, De-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Objective: The prevalence of asthma in children age 0-14 years in Fuzhou, a city in Southeast China, was 1.57% in 1990 and 3.28% in 2000. The aim of this study was to investigate the asthma prevalence and risk factors in children in the same city in 2010. This was a cross-sectional study with a two-stage, clustered, stratified random sample design. Parents of 12235 children 0-14 years of age in Fuzhou were surveyed using a questionnaire. Children with history and/or symptoms of asthma were then interviewed by pediatricians in a nearby clinic to confirm the diagnosis of asthma, and a second questionnaire listing reported risk factors of asthma was completed by the parents in the clinic. About 11738 questionnaires were completed with a response rate of 95.9%. Among the responders, 648 children had history and/or symptoms of asthma but only 485 (4.13%) were confirmed with asthma. The prevalence was 1.83%, 7.64% and 6.27% in the age groups of 0-1 years, 3-4 years and 13-14 years, respectively. The most significant (binary logistic regression test) factors associated with asthma were presence of atopic or allergic diseases (OR=21.5, 95% CI: 12-38.5), family history of allergy or asthma (OR=29.4, 95% CI: 12.6-68.6), use of at least one course of antibiotics in the first year of life (OR=7.61, 95% CI: 3.4-17.06), supplementary protein feedings before 6 months (OR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.23-2.95). Natural ventilation at home (versus frequent use of air-conditioning) appeared to be a protective factor (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8). The prevalence of asthma in childhood has increased significantly during the past 20 years in Fuzhou.

  15. Classifcation of volcanic structure in mesozoic era in the Fuzhou-Shaoxing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fengqi.

    1989-01-01

    The volcanic structure in the Fuzhou-Shaoxing area can be classified into IV grades: the grade I be the zone of volcanic activity; the grade II be the second zone of volcanic activity; the grade III be the positive, negative volcanic structure; the grade IV be volcanic conduit, volcanic crater, concealed eruption breccia pipe. Based on the geological situation in this area, the different types of volcanic structure are also dealt with. In the mean time, both the embossed type in the depression area and the depressed type in the embossed area in the volcanic basin are pointed out. It is of great advantage to Uranium mineralization

  16. 9 CFR 319.306 - Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce... with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. “Spaghetti with Meatballs and Sauce” and “Spaghetti with Meat and Sauce,” and similar products shall contain not less than...

  17. Classification of chilli sauces: Multivariate pattern recognition using selected GCMS retention time peaks of chilli sauces samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Kah Hin; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain; Mohd Radzi Abas

    2008-01-01

    As a preliminary work on the possibility of separating classes of chili sauces based on taste or customer preferences, organic compounds from different kinds of chili sauces of various brands were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). It was found that these organic compounds do form a basis for separation of different types of sauces. The similarity and dissimilarity of chromatograms due to the organic composition of the chili sauces were explored by multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Both CA and PCA results exhibit four linearly separable classes, namely general sauces, hot sauces, sauces with benzoic acid and sauces with garlic. It was concluded that by using chosen retention peaks in the chromatograms of various sauce samples as multivariate features, CA and PCA can be successfully used to reveal the natural clusters existing in chili sauces according to their organic composition. (author)

  18. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil fortification in Cambodia: where do we stand to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theary, Chan; Panagides, Dora; Laillou, Arnaud; Vonthanak, Saphoon; Kanarath, Chheng; Chhorvann, Chhea; Sambath, Pol; Sowath, Sol; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Cambodia is among the highest in Southeast Asia. Fortification of staple foods and condiments is considered to be one of the most cost-effective strategies for addressing micronutrient deficiencies at the population level. The Government of Cambodia has recognized the importance of food fortification as one strategy for improving the nutrition security of its population. This paper describes efforts under way in Cambodia for the fortification of fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil. Data were compiled from a stability test of Cambodian fish sauces fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); analysis of fortified vegetable oils in the Cambodian market; a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) study of fortified products; and food fortification program monitoring documents. At different levels of fortification of fish sauce with NaFeEDTA, sedimentation and precipitation were observed. This was taken into consideration in the government-issued standards for the fortification of fish sauce. All major brands of vegetable oil found in markets at the village and provincial levels are imported, and most are nonfortified. Fish sauce, soy sauce, and vegetable oil are widely consumed throughout Cambodia and are readily available in provincial and village markets. Together with an effective regulatory monitoring system, the government can guarantee that these commodities, whether locally produced or imported, are adequately fortified. A communications campaign would be worthwhile, once fortified commodities are available, as the KAP study found that Cambodians had a positive perception of fortified sauces.

  19. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  20. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  1. Holocene sea-level change and the emergence of Neolithic seafaring in the Fuzhou Basin (Fujian, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolett, Barry V.; Zheng, Zhuo; Yue, Yuanfu

    2011-04-01

    Neolithic seafaring across the Taiwan Strait began approximately 5000 years ago and involved open-sea voyages over distances of at least 130 km. Rapid sea-level rise preceded the emergence of open-sea voyaging, but the possible role of environmental change as a stimulus for the development of seafaring is poorly understood. We investigate this problem by presenting a record of Holocene sea-level change and coastal transformation based on sediment cores obtained from the Fuzhou Basin on the coast of Fujian, China. The cores are located in direct proximity to archaeological sites of the Tanshishan Neolithic culture (5000-4300 cal BP), which is significant for its similarity to the earliest Neolithic cultures of Taiwan. Multiple lines of evidence record the early Holocene inundation of the Fuzhou Basin around 9000 cal BP, the mid-Holocene sea-level highstand, and the final Holocene marine transgression. This final transition is precisely documented, with AMS dates showing the change occurred close to 1900 cal BP. Our paleogeographic reconstruction shows that a large estuary filled the Fuzhou Basin during the mid-Holocene. Tanshishan and Zhuangbianshan, two of the major Fuzhou Basin Neolithic sites, are located today on hills nearly 80 km from the modern coastline. However, when the sites were settled around 5500-5000 cal BP, the marine transgression had transformed these hills into islands in the upper estuary. We suggest that the Neolithic era estuary setting, together with the lack of land suitable for rice paddy agriculture, inhibited intensive food production but favored a maritime orientation and the development of seafaring.

  2. Starting a Chinese Sauce Company in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Bing; Shi, Jianan

    2017-01-01

    The thesis is about starting-up a Chinese sauce company in Helsinki. The introduction is about the history of Laoganma company and the missions of a branch company in Helsinki, as well as the aims of the project. The part about market research includes the current situation of Finnish sauce market and a SWOT analysis for a Finnish market entrance. Also, a successful case reflects the developed way for the company. Then, the price and location are defined in the thesis. Sales strategi...

  3. Vegetables, Soups, Sauces, Gravies and Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on vegetables, soups, sauces, gravies, and beverages is designed to increase Marine Corps cooks' effectiveness as food handlers, using the proper techniques in the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for…

  4. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  5. A qualitative study about self-medication in the community among market vendors in Fuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi; Lieber, Eli; Wan, Dai; Hong, Yuanhao

    2011-09-01

    Despite government efforts to increase healthcare insurance and access in China, many individuals, regardless of insurance status, continue to engage in high levels of self-medication. To understand the factors influencing common self-medication behaviour in a community of food market vendors in Fuzhou China, a total of 30 market vendors were randomly recruited from six food markets in 2007. In-depth interviews were conducted with each participant at their market stalls by trained interviewers using a semi-structured open-ended interview protocol. Participants were asked broad questions about their health-seeking behaviours as well as their past experiences with self-medication and hospital care. ATLAS. ti was used to manage and analyse the interview data. The results showed that hospital-based healthcare services were perceived as better quality. However, self-medication was viewed as more affordable in terms of money and time. Other factors prompting self-medication, included confidence in understanding the health problem, the easy accessibility of local pharmacies and the influences of friends/peers and advertising. Three broad domains, attitude, cost and effectiveness, were all seen to determine past decisions and experiences with self-medication. Interestingly, the effective management of self-medication via pharmacy resources raised particular concern because of perceived variation in quality. In conclusion, self-medication was found to be an important and common health-seeking behaviour driven by multiple factors. A sound and comprehensive public health system should systematically attend to these behaviours and the pharmacies, where much of the behaviour occurs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  7. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálya Vidal de HOLANDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory, counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without sensory alteration during the storage period, with olfactory alteration only at the end. The commercial demi-glace sauce remained unchanged until t3 (30 days, from t4 (45 days presented turbid appearance, followed by phase separation and with unpleasant odor in t6 (75 days. The lipid oxidation showed an increased concentration of malonaldehyde at every evaluated time. The artisanal and commercial demi-glace sauces showed a significant difference at t1, t2, t4 and t5, when the artisanal sauce had lower contents of malonaldehyde (18, 23, 36 and 11%, respectively, only at the 30th and 75th days of storage there was significant similarity. The sauces were within the microbiological standards required by the law. Although the artisanal demi-glace sauce does not contain conservatives, its shelf life was similar to the hydrated commercial product.

  8. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  9. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Joint impact of rainfall and tidal level on flood risk in a coastal city with a complex river network: a case study of Fuzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Lian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities are particularly vulnerable to flood under multivariable conditions, such as heavy precipitation, high sea levels, and storms. The combined effect of multiple sources and the joint probability of extremes should be considered to assess and manage flood risk better. This paper aims to study the combined effect of rainfall and the tidal level of the receiving water body on flood probability and severity in Fuzhou City, which has a complex river network. Flood severity under a range of precipitation intensities, with return periods (RPs of 5 yr to 100 yr, and tidal levels was assessed through a hydrodynamic model verified by data observed during Typhoon Longwang in 2005. According to the percentages of the river network where flooding occurred, the threshold conditions for flood severity were estimated in two scenarios: with and without working pumps. In Fuzhou City, working pumps efficiently reduce flood risk from precipitation within a 20-yr RP. However, the pumps may not work efficiently when rainfall exceeds a 100-yr RP because of the limited conveyance capacity of the river network. Joint risk probability was estimated through the optimal copula. The joint probability of rainfall and tidal level both exceeding their threshold values is very low, and the greatest threat in Fuzhou comes from heavy rainfall. However, the tidal level poses an extra risk of flood. Given that this extra risk is ignored in the design of flood defense in Fuzhou, flood frequency and severity may be higher than understood during design.

  11. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  12. Biochemical Changes in the Fermentation of the Soy Sauce Prepared with Bittern

    OpenAIRE

    Chunqi Mao; Guoqing He; Xinyong Du; Meilin Cui; Shiyang Gao

    2013-01-01

    A new bittern soy sauce was developed; the overall aim of this study was to characterize the quality of the soy sauce. Biochemical changes occurring during experimental soy sauce fermentations were described. Results revealed that, the contents of amino nitrogen, reducing sugars and enzyme activity were slightly lower in soy sauce prepared with bittern than with traditional one. No marked difference in pH was noted between the two types of soy sauce.

  13. Data on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This data article reports on the chemical properties of commercial fish sauce products associated with the fish sauce taste and flavor. All products were analyzed in triplicate. Dried solid content was analyzed by moisture analyzer. Fish sauce salinity was determined by a salt meter. pH was measured using a pH meter. The acidity was determined using a titration assay. Amino nitrogen and total nitrogen were evaluated using a titration assay and Combustion-type nitrogen analyzer, respectively. The analyzed products originated from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, and Italy. Data on the chemical properties of the products are provided in table format in the current article.

  14. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Effect of temperature on moromi fermentation of soy sauce with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... temperature of 45°C enhanced the aging of soy sauce, accompanying with lower contents of ethanol ... excretes protease, amylase and other enzymes. These .... produced through the microbial digestion of the starch.

  16. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  17. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingtian; Jin Xinhua; Gu Guoxing; Yun Guichun

    1988-01-01

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both sterilization and improvements in flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. (author)

  18. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... oryzae on the raw material containing a mixture of steam- cooked defatted soybean and ... Contents of total nitrogen and formol titration nitrogen in raw soy sauce were .... process in soy sauce brewing. J. Ferment. Technol.

  19. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of salt content of fish sauce by ethanol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Ying; He, Xiaoxia; Wang, Dongfeng; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Jiang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Fish sauce is a traditional condiment in Southeast Asia, normally containing high concentration of salt. The solubility of salt is lower in ethanol than in water. In the present study, fish sauce was desalted by ethanol treatment (including the processes of ethanol addition, mixing, standing and rotary evaporation). The salt concentration of fish sauce decreased significantly from 29.72 to 19.72 g/100 mL when the treated ethanol concentration was 21% (v/v). The addition of more than 12% (v/v) of ethanol significantly reduced dry weight, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acids nitrogen content. Besides, the quality of fish sauce remained first grade if no more than 21% (v/v) of ethanol was used. Furthermore, sensory analyses showed that ethanol treatment significantly reduced the taste of salty and the odor of ammonia. This study demonstrates that ethanol treatment is a potential way to decrease salt content in fish sauce, which meanwhile limits the losses of nutritional and sensorial values within an acceptable range.

  1. Suppression of umami aftertaste by polysaccharides in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Miho; Matsushima, Kenichiro

    2013-08-01

    Umami is one of 5 basic tastes that make foods savory and palatable. The umami aftertaste is a long-lasting taste sensation that is important for Japanese broth (dashi) utilized for various Japanese foods. Soy sauce is usually added when making dashi-based dishes; however, different soy sauces produce distinct effects on the umami aftertaste. In this study, we attempted to identify the substances that cause the suppression of the umami aftertaste in soy sauce by combining sensory analysis, size fractionation, chemical analysis, and enzymatic treatment. The suppressive substance was revealed to be polysaccharides with molecular weights between 44900 and 49700. The results of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment suggested that the polysaccharides were cellulose. These results indicate that a type of water-soluble cellulose derived from soybean, wheat, or microorganisms has a suppressive effect on the umami aftertaste of soy sauce. Future studies should focus on developing a strategy that regulates the amount of these polysaccharides generated during soy sauce production, to maintain or enhance the umami aftertaste. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabonomics profiling of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Wang, Ying; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-03-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce is one of the most popular traditional cured meat products in China. Its taste quality is directly related to primary and secondary metabolites. Herein, the change of metabolite composition of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing was systematically characterised using 1 H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The marinated meat in soy sauce metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 78.6% and 16.6% of variables, respectively. Amino acids, sugars, acetate, succinate, uracil and inosine increased during marinating, while lactate, creatine, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) and anserine decreased (P meat in soy sauce during the late stage of dry-ripening. These findings indicated that the potential of NMR-based metabonomics is of importance for taste quality of marinated meat in soy sauce, which could contribute to a better understanding of the changes of taste compounds in meat products during processing. Shortening the dry-ripening period could be considered to improve the taste quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  5. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  6. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  7. A cross-cultural study of acceptability and food pairing for hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jee; Chung, Seo-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Ok; Nielsen, Belinda; Ishii, Rie; O'Mahony, Michael

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to understand the acceptance levels of hot sauces among consumers from different culinary cultures. Two newly developed hot sauces [fermented red chili pepper with soybean-paste-based sauce(GS) and fermented red chili-pepper-based sauce(KS)] were compared with Tabasco sauce(TB) and Sriracha sauce(SR). Two separate cross-cultural home-use tests(HUTs) were conducted: pizza and cream soup were provided as food items in HUT 1, whereas grilled chicken wings and rice noodle soup were provided in HUT 2. Consumers residing in Denmark, South Korea, and US participated in each HUT (n≅100 per country). Acceptance levels and the reasons for (dis)liking particular hot sauces applied to food systems were assessed. The food items that paired well with different hot sauces when the sauces were applied freely to regular meals were also analyzed among the US and Korean subjects. When the hot-sauce samples were applied to pizza and cream soup, the preferred order of the samples exhibited a cross-cultural agreement (GS = KS > TB). In the case of grilled chicken and rice noodle soup, the acceptance rating was similar for the three types of hot sauces among Koreans, whereas the acceptance was higher for SR among the US subjects for both foodstuffs, while Danish subjects preferred GS and KS over SR. The US subjects did not like hot-sauce samples with sweet and weak spiciness, whereas the Korean and Danish subjects disliked the hot-sauce sample when it was too spicy and not sufficiently sweet. These findings indicate that the matching of particular sauces with specific food items is culture-dependent, and this needs to be considered when trying to export food products such as hot sauce to other countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce (moromi, and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format. Keywords: Fish sauce, Chum salmon, Fermentation, Chemical properties, Color

  9. Rapid quantification of iron content in fish sauce and soy sauce: a promising tool for monitoring fortification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Picq, Christian; Berger, Jacques; Sambath, Pol; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In a number of Southeast Asian countries and China, fish sauce and soy sauce produced at the industrial level are fortified with iron. Unfortunately, the food producers and regulatory agencies implementing fortification programs do not always have the capacity to monitor the programs on an ongoing basis. To assess a new portable device for the quantitative measurement of iron content of fortified sauces that could be used to control fortification levels. The linearity, detection limits, and inter- and intraassay variability of this device were assessed on fish sauce and soy sauce fortified with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); the accuracy of the results was determined by comparing them with the results obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Measurements required a minimum incubation time of 1 hour for iron sulfate or iron fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA. Linearity of the results ranged from 2 to 10 mg iron/L for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and from 1 to 10 mg iron/L for NaFeEDTA, implying the need for proper dilution, as the iron contents of fortified sauce are usually in the range of 150 to 1,000 mg/L. Depending on incubation time, iron compounds, and sauces, the coefficient of variation (CV) of intraassay precision was between 1.5% and 7.6% and the CV of interassay precision was between 2.9% and 7.4%. Comparison with results from atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed high agreement between both methods, with R = 0.926 and R = 0.935 for incubation times of 1 hour and 24 hours, respectively. The Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement between the two methods of +/- 70 mg/L in the range of fortification levels tested (100 to 500 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS; This device offers a viable method for field monitoring of iron fortification of soy and fish sauces after incubation times of 1 hour for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA.

  10. Characterization of fermented seaweed sauce prepared from nori (Pyropia yezoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Motoharu; Kurushima, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kenji; Murata, Yuko; Touhata, Ken; Ishida, Noriko; Niwa, Kentaro; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed. As for their food safety, arsenic was detected at a 0.8 mg/100 g level in total, but inorganic arsenic was not detected (<0.05 mg/100 g) and not regarded as a problem. Allergy-causing substances contained in wheat, soy beans, and crustaceans were not detected (<0.1 mg/100 g) with NSs. These results suggest that the nori sauce has a high potential as a novel nutritional source for humans. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of halotolerant starter microorganisms on chemical characteristics of fermented chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Kawai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Koji; Tanaka, Akira; Nishikiori, Takafumi; Ohta, Tomoki

    2010-05-26

    Chum salmon sauce mash was inoculated with barley koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae ) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii , Candida versatilis , and Tetragenococcus halophilus , in nine different combinations under non-aseptic conditions similar to the industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days. The changes in the chemical components, color, and sensory properties during fermentation were investigated. Free amino acid content was increased, and the browning of fish sauce was enhanced by the usage of barley koji during fermentation. The halotolerant yeast (HTY) produced ethanol and repressed the browning by consumption of reducing sugar. Inoculated Z. rouxii in the fish sauce mash produced 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and 4-hydoxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), and C. versatilis in the fish sauce mash produced 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), known as characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, adding soy-sauce-like flavor to the fish sauce. Thus, inoculation of HTMs and barley koji was effective for conferring the soy-sauce-like flavor and increasing free amino acid and ethanol contents in fish sauce product.

  12. Functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shigehiro

    2005-09-01

    The functional effects of Japanese style fermented soy sauce (shoyu) have been studied. Soy sauce promotes digestion, because the consumption of a cup of clear soup containing soy sauce enhances gastric juice secretion in humans. Soy sauce possesses antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella enteritidis, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and pathogenic E. coli O157:H7. Soy sauce also contains an antihypertensive component. An angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor having antihypertensive effects was found in soy sauce. The active compound was identified as nicotianamine, which comes from soybeans. Soy sauce exhibits anticarcinogenic effects. Giving diets containing soy sauce to mice inhibit benzo[a]pyrene (BP)-induced forestomach neoplasia. The anticarcinogenic compounds in soy sauce were identified. The flavor components of Japanese style fermented soy sauce, such as 4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), which is a characteristic flavor component of Japanese style fermented soy sauce and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) and 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HMF) exhibit antioxidant activities and anticarcinogenic effects on BP-induced mice forestomach neoplasia when fed following carcinogen exposure. The feeding of a diet containing 10% soy sauce to male C3H mice for 13 months also reduces the frequency and multiplicity of spontaneous liver tumors. HDMF and HEMF also exhibit anticataract effects in the spontaneous cataract rat (ICR/f rat). Fermented soy sauce contains three tartaric isoflavone derivatives called shoyuflavones. These shoyuflavones were shown to have inhibitory activities against histidine decarboxylase, which produces histamine, a mediator of inflammation, allergy and gastric acid secretion. Soy sauce also exhibits antiplatelet activity. beta-Carbolines were isolated from soy sauce as the active compounds. Soybeans and wheat, which are the

  13. Radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method for the radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce is described which enables the storage of fish at ambient temperature (28±3 deg C) for a period of six months. The product with low pH could be stabilized with a dose of 5 kGy. A batch of packed cans (consisting of cans of fish with tomato sauce and the control cans) were subjected to a dose in a Cobalt 60 Package Irradiator (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.) at a dose rate of 0.045 kGy min -1 . Biochemical and bacteriological evaluation confirmed the storage stability of the product. The process offers a safe and simple method to preserve white pomfret in a 'heat and serve' form. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  14. Chemical properties and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This data article reports the chemical properties (moisture, pH, salinity, and soluble solid content) and colors of fermenting materials in salmon fish sauce products. The fish sauce was produced by mixing salt with differing proportions of raw salmon materials and fermenting for three months; the salmon materials comprised flesh, viscera, an inedible portion, and soft roe. Chemical properties and colors of the unrefined fish sauce ( moromi ), and the refined fish sauce, were analyzed at one, two, and three months following the start of fermentation. Data determined for all products are provided in table format.

  15. Soy sauce classification by geographic region and fermentation based on artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libin; Li, Yang; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong; Wang, Chao; He, Jianjun; Cao, Yueze; Chen, Shigui; Li, Dongsheng

    2014-12-24

    This work demonstrated the possibility of using artificial neural networks to classify soy sauce from China. The aroma profiles of different soy sauce samples were differentiated using headspace solid-phase microextraction. The soy sauce samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 and 15 volatile aroma compounds were selected for sensitivity analysis to classify the samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively. The 15 selected samples can be classified by fermentation and geographic region with a prediction success rate of 100%. Furans and phenols represented the variables with the greatest contribution in classifying soy sauce samples by fermentation and geographic region, respectively.

  16. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  17. [Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sauce in the southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler Morales, B; Sepúlveda Bravo, O; Ruiz Fuentes, D; Denegri Coria, M

    2008-03-01

    The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modification in food was generally more important than the brand and purchase price. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished, with the most numerous (49.3%) placing the greatest importance on the presence of genetic modification (GM) in food and rejecting the transgenic product. The second group (39.4%) gave the greatest importance to the brand and preferred tomato sauce with genetically modified ingredients. The smallest segment (11.3%) placed the greatest value on price and preferred transgenic tomato sauce. The three segments prefer the national brand, reject the store brand and react positively to lower prices. The segment sensitive to the presence of GM in food comprised mainly those younger than 35 years of age, single and with no children. The absence of GM in food of vegetable origin is desirable for young consumers in the Araucanía Region, but a significant proportion accepts genetic modification in food (50.7%).

  18. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed. - Highlights: • Antioxidant effect of soy sauce on irradiated pork patties was studied. • The soy sauce can retard lipid oxidation of the irradiated pork patties. • A synergistic effect of ascorbic acid for preventing lipid oxidation was observed

  19. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji; Hanya, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. In this study, we estimated that approximately 60% of the glutamate in soy sauce is produced through the glutaminase reaction. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A. sojae. The glutamate concentration in soy sauce prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptant was approximately 60% lower than that in the control strain, whereas it was decreased by approximately 20-30% in the ΔgahA-ΔgahB disruptant. However, the glutamate concentration was unchanged in the soy sauces prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔggtA-Δgls and ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptants. These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce.

  20. Studies of soy sauce sterilization and its special flavour improvement by gamma-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingtian, Yang; Xinhua, Jin; Guoxing, Gu; Guichun, Yun

    Experimental studies for sterilizing 12 kinds of soy sauce with gamma-ray irradiation showed that both of effects for sterilization and improving flavour and quality of soy sauce were obtained simultaneously. All colibacillus in soy sauce were sterilized using 1 kGy radiation dose and total bacteria count in soy sauce can be reduced to below national standard at 5 kGy dose ( 5x10 4count/ml ). But above 10 kGy dose is needed to kill all bacteria in soy sauce. The significant changes on chemical components in soy sauce irradiated at 5-7 kGy dose took place: raduceing-sugar increased by 1-10%, total amount of 18 kinds of free amino acid raised between 3.5-28 %, emerging-sweet smell substances which have low boiling point, such as alchols, aldehydes and esters obviously increased. The taste-specialists from some soy sauce factories concluded that flavour and quality of soy sauce irradiated are better than non-irradiated.

  1. Development of a non-commercial sugar-free barbecue sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The challenge has always been to be able to manufacture a sugar free sauce. A basic barbecue sauce formulation was used to make 5 sugar-free preparations combining selected levels of xanthan gum, modified waxy maize starch, sucralose, and acesulfame-K. Physical, chemical, microbial and sensory prope...

  2. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P sauce inoculated with T. halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product.

  3. Desalination of fish sauce by electrodialysis: effect on selected aroma compounds and amino acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Sablani, Shyam S

    2011-09-01

    Fish sauce is an ingredient that exhibits unique flavor and is widely used by people in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce, however, contains a significant amount of salt (sodium chloride). Recently, electrodialysis (ED) has been successfully applied to reduce salt in fish sauce; however, no information is available on the effect of ED on changes in compounds providing aroma and taste of ED-treated fish sauce. The selected aroma compounds, amino acids, and sensory quality of the ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations were then analyzed. The amounts of trimethylamine, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, phenols, and all carboxylic acids except for hexanoic acid significantly decreased, whereas benzaldehyde increased significantly when the salt removal level was higher. The amounts of all amino acids decreased with the increased salt removal level. Significant difference in flavor and saltiness intensity among ED-treated fish sauce with various salt concentrations, as assessed by a discriminative test, were observed. Information obtained in this work can serve as a guideline for optimization of a process to produce low-sodium fish sauce by ED. It also forms a basis for further in-depth sensory analysis of low-sodium fish sauce. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57–68%), total flavonoid content

  5. Immobilized soy-sauce yeasts : development and characterization of a new polyethylene-oxide support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Mulder, A.N.T.; Grolle, K.C.F.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Schure, ter E.G.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of cells in alginate gel is a widely used mild immobilization procedure. However, alginate gel is not very suitable for use in long-term continuous soy-sauce processes because alginate is sensitive to abrasion and chemically unstable towards the high salt content of soy-sauce medium.

  6. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Koester, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B).

  7. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57-68%), total flavonoid content (48-60%), and total antioxidant capacity (49-61%). Similarly, all assays of the sauce containing both 5% and 10% inulin, showed a slight decrease during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces. Higher levels of inulin added to tomato sauce resulted in the greatest decrease in phenolic content, probably because of the interaction between inulin and phenolic compounds. To address the effects of inulin on the global metabolite profile of tomato sauce, an untargeted metabolomics approach was followed. Changes related to the presence of inulin suggest that inulin quenches a subset of unidentified compounds which are present in sauce but not in fruit, suggesting that inulin can contribute to the conservation of fruit properties in tomato sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inactivation of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae in soy sauce-marinated and frozen freshwater crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Im; Oh, Se-Ra; Dai, Fuhong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Ha, Sang-Do; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs (Eriocheir japonicus) are a source of human paragonimiasis. The viability of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in marinated crabs was investigated in an experimental setting. The PwMc collected from freshwater crayfish were inoculated into freshwater crabs, which were then frozen or marinated in soy sauce. All PwMc in the freshwater crabs were inactivated after freezing for 48 h at -20 °C and after freezing for 12 h at -40 °C. After marinating for 32 days, the survival rate of PwMc in 5% NaCl soy sauce was 50%, in 7.5% NaCl soy sauce it was 33.3%, and in 10.0% NaCl soy sauce it was 31.3%. When marinated for 64 days, all PwMc were inactivated in all experimental groups. These results revealed that freezing and soy sauce marination were detrimental to the survival of PwMc in freshwater crabs. Specifically, freezing crabs for more than 48 h or soaking them in soy sauce containing at least 5.0% NaCl for 64 days can inactivate PwMc. These results can inform the production of the traditional Korean soy sauce-marinated freshwater crabs known as gejang.

  9. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce.

  10. Characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for reduction of citrulline accumulation during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Fang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    To reduce the amount of citrulline produced by arginine-consuming bacteria in the moromi mash during soy sauce production. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JY06, a salt-tolerant strain with high arginine consumption ability and low citrulline accumulation capacity, was isolated from moromi mash. The concentration of citrulline was decreased from 26.8 to 5.1 mM and ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, after sterilization, decreased from 97 to 17 μg kg(-1) when B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 was added during fermentation. The aroma of the sauce was improved by increasing the ester content. B. amyloliquefaciens JY06 is a beneficial bacterium that can be used in soy sauce fermentation to eliminate ethyl carbonate and enhance the flavor of the sauce.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation and processing on the quality of chilli sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimah Yusof; Latifah Amin; Mohamad Lebai Juri

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal load in dried chilli, the main ingredient in manufacturing chilli sauce, was reduced by two log cycles after gamma irradiation at 5 kGy. After processing into chilli sauce, the microbial load observed in the sauce prepared from irradiated dried chillies was almost similar to the control. The heating stage in the processing of chilli sauce seemed sufficient to decontaminate the raw ingredients. During storage, there was no significant increase in the number of bacteria but some fungal growths were detected after eight months of storage. Reduction in redness (a value) was recorded in the control sample after four months (P=0.05) but not in the treated sample. The differences in the sensory quality between the chilli sauce prepared from irradiated dried chillies and control samples could be detected using the Triangular Test. (author)

  12. Effect of irradiation on shelf life and nutritional quality of sauce buck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing; Han Yan; Wang Xinghai; Bao Jianzhong; Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum-packed sauce duck were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays, and total bacteria number and nutrition contents of treated samples were determined. The results showed that the sauce duck was irradiated at 6 kGy, and stored at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C, it could be stored for 90 days; and if the sauce duck was firstly processed by pasteurization at 90 degree C ∼ 95 degree C for 30 min, then irradiated at 6 kGy, the shelf life could be prolonged to 120 days at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C. Irradiation could make the sauce duck to meet the commercial hygienic requirement within the shelf life, and would not impact the nutritive value significantly. It is concluded that irradiated sauce duck has the potential commercial application. (authors)

  13. Studies on the key aroma compounds in raw (unheated) and heated Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2013-04-10

    An investigation using the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from a raw Japanese soy sauce and the heated soy sauce revealed 40 key aroma compounds including 7 newly identified compounds. Among them, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor of 2048, followed by 3-(methylthio)propanal, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone having FD factors from 128 to 512 in the raw soy sauce. Furthermore, comparative AEDAs, a quantitative analysis, and a sensory analysis demonstrated that whereas most of the key aroma compounds in the raw soy sauce were common in the heated soy sauce, some of the Strecker aldehydes and 4-vinylphenols contributed less to the raw soy sauce aroma. The model decarboxylation reactions of the phenolic acids during heating of the raw soy sauce revealed that although all reactions resulted in low yields, the hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were much more reactive than the hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives due to the stable reaction intermediates. Besides the quantitative analyses of the soy sauces, the estimation of the reaction yields of the phenolic compounds in the heated soy sauce revealed that although only the 4-vinylphenols increased during heating of the raw soy sauce, they might not mainly be formed as decarboxylation products from the corresponding hydroxycinnamic acids but from the other proposed precursors, such as lignin, shakuchirin, and esters with arabinoxylan.

  14. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  16. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  17. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10 6 CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10 4 CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality

  18. Effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on zinc absorption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wu, Jinghuan; Ren, Tongxiang; Wang, Rui; Li, Weidong; Piao, Jianhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-03-01

    NaFeEDTA has been applied in many foods as an iron fortificant and is used to prevent iron deficiency in Fe-depleted populations. In China, soy sauce is fortified with NaFeEDTA to control iron deficiency. However, it is unclear whether Fe-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption. To investigate whether NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce affects zinc absorption in children, sixty children were enrolled in this study and randomly assigned to three groups (10 male children and 10 female children in each group). All children received daily 3 mg of (67)Zn and 1.2 mg of dysprosium orally, while the children in the three groups were supplemented with NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, NaFeEDTA group), FeSO₄-fortified soy sauce (6 mg Fe, FeSO₄ group), and no iron-fortified soy sauce (control group), respectively. Fecal samples were collected during the experimental period and analyzed for the Zn content, (67)Zn isotope ratio and dysprosium content. The Fe intake from NaFeEDTA-fortified and FeSO₄-fortified groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P sauce does not affect Zn bioavailability in children.

  19. Characterisation of aroma profiles of commercial soy sauce by odour activity value and omission test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Cai, Yu; Cui, Chun; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Zhao, Mouming

    2015-01-15

    Twenty-seven commercial soy sauces produced through three different fermentation processes (high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce, HLFSS; low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce, LSFSS; Koikuchi soy sauce, KSS) were examined to identify the aroma compounds and the effect of fermentation process on the flavour of the soy sauce was investigated. Results showed that 129 volatiles were identified, of which 41 aroma-active components were quantified. The types of odorants occurring in the three soy sauce groups were similar, although their intensities significantly differed. Many esters and phenols were found at relatively high intensities in KSS, whereas some volatile acids only occurred in LSFSS. Furthermore, 23 aroma compounds had average OAVs>1, among which 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal exhibited the highest average OAVs (>100). In addition, omission tests verified the important contribution of the products resulting from amino acid catabolism to the characteristic aroma of soy sauce. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  1. Occurrence of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other foods in China between 2002 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wu Sheng; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Gong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing Guang; Tang, Chang Dong; Miao, Hong; Ma, Jin Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Yong Ning

    2007-08-01

    A survey of chloropropanols in soy sauce and some selected foods in China is reported. Thirty-seven traditionally brewed soy sauce samples contained 3-MCPD below the EC maximum limit (ML) of 0.02 mg kg(-1). All soy sauce samples (629) from retailers contained levels of 3-MCPD ranging between HVP). This indicates that the necessary processing changes have been made to decrease levels of chloropropanols in soy sauce. 2-Monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD), 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) and 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (2,3-DCP) were detected in 48.1 19.1 and 3.78% of the soy sauce samples, respectively; the highest levels being 20.3, 8.26 and 0.50 mg kg(-1), respectively. A good linear correlation was found between the amount of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD, with the level of 3-MCPD being generally higher than that of other chloropropanols for the same soy sauce. Acid HVP contained 3-MCPD at a level of 0.010-117.7 mg kg(-1) (on a liquid basis) and 80% of samples contained levels exceeding 1.0 mg kg(-1). In some other foods investigated, relatively high levels of 3-MCPD were found in soy sauce powder, oyster sauce, beef products, instant noodle spices and health foods, ranging from 0.029 to 13.64 mg kg(-1). It is concluded that abnormal levels of 3-MCPD in soy sauce or other foods produced in China may result from acid hydrolysis or the addition of the contaminated acid HVP.

  2. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (Linn.))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningsih, C.; Sumardi; Meiliana; Surya, A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study wasto investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy sauce substituted with pigeon pea. Soybean was substituted by 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of pigeon pea. The observation included viscosity, total solids, protein levels, antioxidant activity, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that the more substitution of pigeon pea, the less the protein content of soy sauce and the more the antioxidant activity as well as total solids. The most favored group was 25% pigeon pea substitution. It is suggested that soy sauce could be prepared using 25% to 75% pigeon pea substitution.

  3. The effect of nutrient fortification of sauces on product stability, sensory properties, and subsequent liking by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Wang, Jianqiu; Collins, Vanessa J; Allen, Victoria J; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    There are potential nutritional and sensory benefits of adding sauces to hospital meals. The aim of this study was to develop nutrient fortified sauces with acceptable sensory properties suitable for older people at risk of undernutrition. Tomato, gravy, and white sauce were fortified with macro- and micronutrients using food ingredients rich in energy and protein as well as vitamin and mineral premixes. Sensory profile was assessed by a trained panel. Hedonic liking of fortified compared with standard sauces was evaluated by healthy older volunteers. The fortified sauces had higher nutritional value than the conventional ones, for example the energy content of the fortified tomato, white sauce, and gravy formulations were increased between 2.5- and 4-fold compared to their control formulations. Healthy older consumers preferred the fortified tomato sauce compared with unfortified. There were no significant differences in liking between the fortified and standard option for gravy. There were limitations in the extent of fortification with protein, potassium, and magnesium, as excessive inclusion resulted in bitterness, undesired flavors, or textural issues. This was particularly marked in the white sauce to the extent that their sensory characteristics were not sufficiently optimized for hedonic testing. It is proposed that the development of fortified sauces is a simple approach to improving energy intake for hospitalized older people, both through the nutrient composition of the sauce itself and due to the benefits of increasing sensorial taste and lubrication in the mouth. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Enrichment of antioxidants from soy sauce using macroporous resin and identification of 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol as key small molecule antioxidants in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Lin, Lianzhu; Feng, Yunzi; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Xiuting; Zhu, Qiyuan; Xiao, Zuobing

    2018-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of seven macroporous resins on the antioxidants in soy sauce were investigated. SP-207 and SP-825 resins possessing good adsorption and desorption capacities were studied further. The pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models were demonstrated to be appropriate to describe the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of antioxidants onto resins. The 60% ethanol eluted fraction from soy sauce purified by SP-825 resin column possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities and contents of typical soy isoflavones, furanones, pyranones, and phenolic acids in soy sauce were determined. These compounds contributed to 50.02% of the total antioxidant activity of the SP-60% fraction. The key small molecule antioxidant compounds in soy sauce were identified as 4-ethylguaiacol, catechol, daidzein, and 4-ethylphenol by the antioxidants omission experiments. Additionally, the purified active fraction with high contents of antioxidants from soy sauce could be applied as bioactive ingredient in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Secular trends in salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianlong; Li, Suyun; Zhao, Jinshan; Zhang, Junli; Wang, Liansen; Wang, Kebo

    2018-03-01

    Salt and soy sauce are the main ways of sodium intake in Chinese dietary. In this study, we used the data of the China Health and Nutrition Surveys to describe the secular trends of salt and soy sauce intake among Chinese adults from 1997 to 2011. Trends were tested by multiple linear regression models. During the past 14 years, the consumption of sodium, salt and soy sauce intake values decreased significantly across the six study periods (p sauce intake values decreased by 9.0 g/d among men and 7.3 g/d among women. Similar significant trends were observed in all age groups, activity levels and regions (p < .0001).

  6. Determination and Quantification of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Vinegars and Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic compound 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF can be formed from sugars under Maillard reaction and caramelization. In order to study the formation regular of HMF in sugary liquid condiment, vinegar and soy sauce were selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the HMF concentrations of various brands of soy sauce and vinegar. The result showed that HMF concentrations were in a range of 0.42 to 115.43 mg/kg for vinegar samples and 0.43 to 5.85 mg/kg for soy sauce samples. The concentrates of HMF were expressed in zero-order kinetics model at 100°C before the maximum HMF generation in all of the tested samples. Longer heating treatment time would reduce the HMF content in tested samples. In addition, HMF content had obviously positive correlation with sugar contents in vinegar samples, but no similar rule was found in soy sauces.

  7. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Sauce-type Kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk Hee; Park, Joung Whan; Cho, Il Jae; Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Kim, Byung Yong; Kim, Hye Kyung; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from naturally fermented sauce-type kimchi. Sauce-type kimchi was prepared with fresh, chopped ingredients (Korean cabbage, radish, garlic, ginger, green onion, and red pepper). The two isolated bacteria from sauce-type kimchi were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rDNA sequencing and tentatively named Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2, respectively. Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 was isolated from the early and middle fermentation stages of sauce-type kimchi whereas Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 was isolated from the late fermentation stage. The resistance of Pediococcus sp. IJ-K1 and Lactobacillus sp. IJ-K2 to artificial gastric and bile acids led to bacterial survival rates that were 100% and 84.21%, respectively.

  8. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  10. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  11. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of land cover change on soil organic carbon and light fraction organic carbon at river banks of Fuzhou urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hong-Da; Du, Zi-Xian; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2010-03-01

    By using Vario EL III element analyzer, the vertical distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in the lawn, patch plantation, and reed wetland at river banks of Fuzhou urban area were studied in July 2007. For all the three land cover types, the SOC and LFOC contents were the highest in surface soil layer, and declined gradually with soil depth. Compared with reed wetland, the lawn and patch plantation had higher SOC and LFOC contents in each layer of the soil profile (0-60 cm), and the lawn had significantly higher contents of SOC and LFOC in 0-20 cm soil layer, compared with the patch plantation. After the reed wetland was converted into lawn and patch plantation, the SOC stock in the soil profile was increased by 94.8% and 72.0%, and the LFOC stock was increased by 225% and 93%, respectively. Due to the changes of plant species, plant density, and management measure, the conversion from natural wetland into human-manipulated green spaces increased the SOC and LFOC stocks in the soil profile, and improved the soil quality. Compared with the SOC, soil LFOC was more sensitive to land use/cover change, especially for those in 0-20 cm soil layer.

  13. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Hee Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe2+, Fenton-like (Fe3+, and ozone (O3 oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100–1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O3-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O3 doses (10–90 mg/L. We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1% and COD lowering (64.9% among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O3 oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O3 dose were varied systematically to optimize O3 oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O3 dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%.

  14. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Gyu-Tae; Jeong, Dae-Woon

    2017-10-07

    To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe 2+ ), Fenton-like (Fe 3+ ), and ozone (O₃) oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100-1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O₃-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O₃ doses (10-90 mg/L). We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O 3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1%) and COD lowering (64.9%) among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O₃ oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O₃ dose) were varied systematically to optimize O₃ oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O₃ dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%).

  15. STUDY OF THE USE OF EDIBLE POWDERS TOMATO SAUCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Benderska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Considered the technology for the production of edible powders from vegetable raw materials. The technology for producing powders from berries is developed to produce a high-quality product in which all ingredients of raw materials are stored in a concentrated form.The current trend in nutrition is related to the expansion of the range of functional products whose daily use contributes to the prevention of hypovitaminoses and metabolic disorders, and ultimately to the rehabilitation of the population. New, non-traditional sources of local raw materials, including plant based products, need to be explored and exploited in order to address the issue of instantiate new generation of healthy foods, and the development of technologies for obtaining functionalities. The use of fruit crops, the most source of biologically active substances, is very promising in this direction.The Department of Preservation Technology of the National University Food Technology has conducted a study to enable the use of fruit and berries for food powders. To this end, powder has been obtained from the blueberry berries of ordinary, with the establishment of its physico-chemical properties.The patterns of the influence of the blueberry powder on the functional properties of the foodstuffs were investigated in the example of tomato sauces.Analysis of the results of the studies has shown that a blueberry berry powder can be used in the production of canned and other products not only to enrich their functional ingredients but also to provide them with new technological properties. The food powders received do not contain harmful impurities, have high food value, are easily absorbed by the body, compact and long periods of time. Studies have shown that the blueberry powder is a rich source of vitamins (c acid, β-carotene, tocopherol and can be used successfully in the manufacture of tomato sauces with functional properties.

  16. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  17. Effects of gamma ray radiation sterilization on chemical components of soy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daochuan, Yin; Zuren, Zou; Zongtiao, Liu; Jie, Fang

    Soy sauce was treated with γ-ray radiation. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total acids, total nitrogen, reduced-sugar, sodium chloride and 17 free amino acids between the treated and untreated soy sauce. Specialists from some factories tested the samples and no obvious changes in colour and lustre, flavour, sweet smell and liquid appearance could be identified after the treatment.

  18. Effects of gamma ray radiation sterilization on chemical components of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Daochuan; Zou Zuren; Liu Zongtiao; Fang Jie

    1989-01-01

    Soy sauce was treated with γ-ray radiation. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in total acids, total nitrogen, reduced-sugar, sodium chloride and 17 free amino acids between the treated and untreated soy sauce. Specialists from some factories tested the samples and no obvious changes in colour and lustre, flavour, sweet smell and liquid appearance could be identified after the treatment. (author)

  19. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  20. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates.

  1. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  2. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  4. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  5. Effects of soy sauce on physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Hwang, K E; Song, D H; Kim, Y J; Lim, Y B; Choi, J H; Choi, Y S; Kim, H Y; Kim, C J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy sauce on the physicochemical and textural properties of tumbled chicken breasts. Chicken breasts marinated with distilled water (Con), 4% NaCl solution, 4% NaCl and lactic acid solution (pH 4.9), and soy sauce solution (4% salt concentration and pH 4.9) were vacuum tumbled at 3°C for 60 min. The chicken breast marinated with soy sauce solution showed lower lightness and higher redness and yellowness due to the color of the soy sauce. The acidic marinades led to a decrease in pH value of tumbled chicken breast. The acidic marinades increased collagen solubility of sample compared with 4% NaCl solution, resulting in decreased shear force. Water-holding capacity, marination and cooking yields, and solubility of myofibrillar proteins were mainly affected by the presence of salt in the marinade, rather than by pH alternation. Our results suggested that soy sauce marination can improve the tenderness of tumbled chicken breast.

  6. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of different types of soy sauce on the formation of heterocyclic amines in roasted chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam Shah, Syifaa; Selamat, Jinap; Haque Akanda, Md Jahurul; Sanny, Maimunah; Khatib, Alfi

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different types of soy sauce and marinating time on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in roasted chicken. Chicken breast samples were marinated with sweet, salty, light and dark soy sauce at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h (control treatment was the chicken without marinade). The concentrations of free amino acids, sugars and creatinine were determined before roasting while HCA concentrations were determined after roasting. All types of soy sauce significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the concentration of HCAs in roasted chicken with increasing marinating time. The highest increment of total concentration of HCAs was found in samples marinated with light soy sauce (887%) followed by dark (375%), salty (193%) and sweet (169%) at 12 h. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) showed a substantial reduction in samples only momentarily marinated with sweet, salty and dark soy sauce (0 h). Free amino acids were found to be more strongly correlated with the formation of HCAs than reducing sugars or creatinine.

  9. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  11. Determination and risk assessment of naturally occurring genotoxic and carcinogenic alkenylbenzenes in basil-containing sauce of pesto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Malahmeh, Amer J.; Al-Ajlouni, Abdalmajeed M.; Wesseling, Sebas; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    A risk assessment of basil-based pesto sauces containing methyleugenol and related alkenylbenzenes was performed based on their levels detected in a series of pesto sauces available on the Dutch market. The estimated daily intake (EDI) values of alkenylbenzenes as a result of consumption of the

  12. Microfiltration of soy sauce sediment with rotating disk membrane module; Kaitengata enbanmaku module ni yoru shoyuori no roka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, K.; Kanekuni, N.; Nogaki, H.; Itakura, I.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, A. [TOTO Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1995-01-15

    Soy sauce sediment is formed in pasteurization of raw soy sauce. It is treated as industrial waste, though its main component is soy sauce, because of difficulty in perfect clarification of the suspension. In this paper, we decided a suitable range of pore size of microfiltration and a cut-off level of ultrafiltration to clarify soy sauce sediment and we developed a rotating disk membrane module (RD Module) and compared performance with conventional a multi-tubular membrane module (MT Module). The optimum range to obtain soy sauce of quality was less than a pore size of O.2{mu}m for microfiltration, while ultrafiltration was not suitable for soy sauce sediment. Ultrafiltration was restricted by rejection of colors and nucleic acids and related compounds in soy sauce sediment, rather than rejection of bacteria and ethanol. An RD Module could recover soy sauce of quality and was superior to an MT Module for concentration ratio, but the permeate fluxes of the RD Module decreased under conditions of high revolution as centrifugal forces were exerted on the permeate in the disk membrane. The power consumption of the RD Module was proportional to the cube of number of revolutions and to the fifth power of the radius, so it was found that one of methods for the scale up is to increase the number of disk membranes than increase the radius. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firda, Alfiana Aulia; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  14. Effect of added ingredients on water status and physico-chemical properties of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diantom, Agoura; Curti, Elena; Carini, Eleonora; Vittadini, Elena

    2017-12-01

    Different ingredients (guar, xanthan, carboxy methyl cellulose, locust bean gums, potato fiber, milk, potato and soy proteins) were added to tomato sauce to investigate their effect on its physico-chemical properties. The products were characterized in terms of colour, rheological properties (Bostwick consistency, flow behavior and consistency coefficient), water status (water activity, moisture content) and molecular mobility by 1 H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Water activity was significantly decreased only by the addition of potato fiber. Xanthan, locust bean, guar and carboxy methyl cellulose significantly enhanced Bostwick consistency and consistency coefficient. Type of ingredient and concentration significantly affected 1 H NMR mobility indicators. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that only 1 H NMR mobility parameters were able to differentiate the effect of milk protein, xanthan and potato fiber on tomato sauce properties. The information collected in this work provides information to intelligently modulate tomato sauce attributes and tailor its properties for specific applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Joanita; Gan, Han Ming; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the 6 months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of 6 months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  16. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180-225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2).

  17. Accumulation of Citrulline by Microbial Arginine Metabolism during Alcoholic Fermentation of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Jiran; Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Zhaohui; Li, Tieqiao; Lu, Liling; Zeng, Weizhu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2018-03-07

    Citrulline, the major precursor of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, is an intermediate catabolite of arginine produced by bacteria present in soy sauce moromi mash. Pediococcus acidilactici is responsible for the formation of citrulline during the lactic acid fermentation process of soy sauce. However, citrulline accumulation during the alcoholic fermentation process and the corresponding bacteria involved have not been identified. Salt-tolerant, arginine-utilizing bacteria were isolated from moromi mash during the alcoholic fermentation process. Under normal cultivation conditions, arginine utilization by these strains did not contribute to citrulline accumulation. However, the conversion of arginine to citrulline by these bacteria increased when cultivated during the alcoholic fermentation process. Additionally, the ethanol-enhanced solubility of free fatty acids in moromi mash stimulated the accumulation of citrulline. Staphylococcus exhibited the highest capability in the conversion of arginine to citrulline.

  18. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  19. Production Time Loss Reduction in Sauce Production Line by Lean Six Sigma Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritprasertsri, Thitima; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In all industries, time losses, which are incurred in processing are very important. As a result, losses are incurred in productivity and cost. This research aimed to reduce lost time that occurs in sauce production line by using the lean six sigma approach. The main objective was to reduce the time for heating sauce which causes a lot of time lost in the production line which affects productivity. The methodology was comprised of the five-phase improvement model of Six Sigma. This approach begins with defining phase, measuring phase, analysing phase, improving phase and controlling phase. Cause-and-effect matrix and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) were adopted to screen the factors which affect production time loss. The results showed that the percentage of lost time from heating sauce reduced by 47.76%. This increased productivity to meet the plan.

  20. KANDUNGAN NATRIUM BEBERAPA JENIS SAMBAL KEMASAN SERTA UJI TINGKAT PENERIMAANNYA (THE SODIUM CONTENT OF SOME CHILLI SAUCES AND ITS SENSORY EVALUATION

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    Suryana Purawisastra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Chili sauce is one the spice which is widely used in Indonesia. In making of the sauce, salt is added to increase the palatability of the chili sauce. In the past salt was the only source of sodium, however, nowadays there are some food additives containing sodium such as sodium benzoate becoming the source of sodium. At the moment, the chili sauce are available in the market, and in making those sauces, beside the addition of salt is also some food additive containing sodium were added.  The excessive of sodium intake is related to the risk of hypertension and kidney failure. Objectives: to analyze the sodium contents of 10 kinds of chili sauces available in the market and to evaluate the sensory of the sauce. Methods: Ten samples of chili sauce in various brands were bought from supermarket, and then analyzed its sodium content using the Flame photometer method. Its sensory evaluation was performed by the thirty-two of testers. Results: The sodium content of sauces was shown that the value of the content was varying significantly (p £ 0.05. The highest content was 9.03 mg per gram, and the lowest was 3.82 mg per gram. The others were spread out between the highest and the lowest. Whereas the sensory evaluation of the sauce indicated that the sauce containing the higher content of sodium was tend to be more acceptance than the lower one.  Conclusion: The sodium content of sauces in this study was varying between 9.03 to 3.82 mg per 100 g, whereas the sensory evaluation of the sauces revealed that the sauce which contained the higher content of sodium was more preference by the testers than the lower one. [Penel Gizi Makan 2010, 33(2: 173-179] Keywords: sodium content, chili sauce, food additives.

  1. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbe participation in aroma production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2018-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning that contains various constituents such as amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles that are produced during the long fermentation process. Although studies regarding the correlation between microbes and aroma constituents have been performed, there are no reports about the influences of the microbial products, such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol, during fermentation. Because it is known that these compounds contribute to microbial growth and to changes in the constituent profile by altering the moromi environment, understanding the influence of these compounds is important. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites, is a promising strategy for the deep understanding of constituent contributions to food characteristics. Therefore, the influences of microbes and their products such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol on aroma profiles were investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolic profiling. The presence of aroma constituents influenced by microbes and chemically influenced by lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol were proposed. Most of the aroma constituents were not produced by adding ethanol alone, confirming the participation of yeast in aroma production. It was suggested that lactic acid bacterium relates to a key aromatic compound, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone. However, most of the measured aroma constituents changed similarly in both samples with lactic acid bacterium and acids. Thus, it was clear that the effect of lactic acid and acetic acid on the aroma profile was significant. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  4. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  5. Making soy sauce from defatted soybean meal without the mejus process by submerged cultivation using thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jeong Min; Park, Doo Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The diversity of thermophilic bacteria was not significantly altered while growing in a defatted soybean meal (DFSM) slurry at 60 °C for 10, 20, and 30 days. Five species of thermophilic bacteria, which belong to the genera Aeribacillus (temperature gradient gel electrophoresis [TGGE] band no. 1), Saccharococcus (TGGE band no. 2), Geobacillus (TGGE band no. 3), Bacillus (TGGE band no. 4), and Anoxybacillus (TGGE band no. 5), were detected in the fermenting DFSM slurry. The cell-free culture fluid obtained from the fermenting DFSM slurry on day 14 hydrolyzed starch and soy protein at 60 °C but not at 30 °C. Soy sauce (test soy sauce) was prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry after a 30 day cultivation at 60 °C and a 60 day ripening at 45 °C. Free amino acid (AA) and organic acid contents in the soy sauce increased in proportion to the fermentation period, whereas ammonium decreased proportionally. Mg and Ca contained in the soy sauce decreased proportionally during fermentation and were lower than those in the non-fermented DFSM extract (control). Spectral absorbance of soy sauce prepared from the fermented DFSM slurry was maximal at 430 nm and increased slightly in proportion to the fermentation period. The aroma and flavor of the test soy sauce were significantly different from those of traditional Korean soy sauce. Conclusively, soy sauce may be prepared directly from the fermented DFSM slurry without meju-preparing process and fermentation period may be a factor for control of soy sauce quality.

  6. Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' foods over rapidly repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Shimojo, R.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the liking for salt reduced products was tested in a rapidly repeated exposure study using soup and bread (with ham). Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. First, 44 consumers performed 5 two-alternative forced choice tests to establish the exchange rate (ER) at

  7. Formation and reduction of furan in a soy sauce model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Yeop; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The formation and reduction of furan using a soy sauce model system were investigated in the present study. The concentration of furan fermented up to 30 days increased by 211% after sterilization compared to without sterilization. Regarding fermentation temperature, furan level after 30 days' fermentation was the highest at 30°C (86.21 ng/mL). The furan levels in the soy sauce fermentation at 20°C and 40°C were reduced by 45% and 88%, respectively compared to 30°C fermentation. Five metal ions (iron sulfate, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium sulfate), sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid, dibutyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added in a soy sauce model system. The addition of metal ions such as magnesium sulfate and calcium sulfate reduced the furan concentration significantly by 36-90% and 27-91%, respectively in comparison to furan level in the control sample (psauce model system by 278% and 87%, respectively. In the case of the BHT and BHA, furan formation generally was reduced in the soy sauce model system by 84%, 56%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

    1987-01-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production

  10. Simultaneous quantification of twenty Amadori products in soy sauce using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Tatemichi, Yuki; Nakajima, Ayako

    2017-08-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L. The concentrations of N-ε-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-lysine (Fru-Lys) and N-(1-deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-pyroglutamic acid (Fru-pGlu) were the highest among the APs and the level of Fru-pGlu was similar to that of Fru-Lys. Furthermore, fermentation periods of up to six months greatly influenced AP levels in soy sauce but the levels remained constant thereafter. Thermal treatment of soy sauce had little effect on AP levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Thermoluminescence analysis can identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce before and after pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Sanyal, Bhaskar; Akram, Kashif; Jo, Yunhee; Baek, Ji-Yeong; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was conducted to identify small quantities (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of γ ray-or electron beam-irradiated garlic powder in a soy sauce after commercial pasteurization. The sauce samples with γ ray- and electron beam-irradiated (0, 1 or 10 kGy) garlic powder showed detectable TL glow curves, characterized by radiation-induced maximum in the temperature range of 180–225 °C. The successful identification of soy sauces with an irradiation history was dependent on both the mixing ratio of the irradiated ingredient and the irradiation dose. Post-irradiation pasteurization (85 °C, 30 min) caused no considerable changes in TL glow shape or intensity. Interlaboratory tests demonstrated that the shape and intensity of the first TL glow curve (TL1) could be a better detection marker than a TL ratio (TL1/TL2). - Highlights: • Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics were studied to identify irradiated ingredient in soy sauce. • TL emission was found to be dependent on irradiation doses and blending ratios of the ingredients. • TL technique was found to be successful in detecting irradiation status even after pasteurization. • Inter-laboratory trial gave a clear verdict on irradiation detection potential of TL technique.

  12. The Effect of Soy Sauce Waste in Ration on Performance of Mojosari Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. A. Larasati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to determined the effect of soy sauce waste in ration in the ration on the performance of Mojosari duck. The materials used were 240 of Mojosari which are 20 weeks olds with average body weight 1,385.0 ± 130.85 grams (CV = 9.44%. Feed ingredients used were, rice bran, soybean meal, yellow corn, fish meal, pollard and premix. The design that used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 4 treatments and 6 replications.The treatment applied soy sauce waste at level 5, 7,5 and 10%. The parameters observed were consumption, egg production, feed conversion. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance with F test. The results showed that soy sauce waste did not effected on performance (consumption of ration, egg production, ration conversion of Mojosari duck. The conclusion of this research is soy sauce waste be used as feed stuff of Mojosari duck ration until level 10%.

  13. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg). Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Data on volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mitsutoshi; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Takano, Katsumi; Sato, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    This article describes the analysis of volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten types of fish sauces were produced from raw salmon materials, including various proportions of flesh, viscera, inedible portion (heads, fins, and backbones), and soft roe, by mixing them with salt and allowing them to ferment for up to three months. The volatile compounds were captured by a solid-phase microextraction method and then applied to GC/MS for separation and identification of the compounds in the fish sauce products. The number of volatile compounds identified in the starting materials varied from 15 to 29 depending on the ingredients. The number of compounds in the final fish sauce products was reduced by 3.4-94.7% of that in the original material. The retention times and names of the identified compounds, as well as their relative peak areas, are provided in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet.

  15. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Enhancing and accelarating flavour formation by salt-tolerant yeasts in Japanese soy-sauce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    In soy-sauce processes salt-tolerant yeasts are very important for the flavour formation. This flavour formation is, however, slow and poorly understood. In the last decades, a concerted research effort has increased the understanding and resulted in the derivation of mutants with an enhanced

  18. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in soy sauce using approaches of molecular sensory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Petra; Schieberle, Peter

    2007-07-25

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the volatiles isolated from a commercial Japanese soy sauce revealed 30 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096, among which 2-phenylethanol showed the highest FD factor of 4096, followed by 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional), the tautomers 4-hydroxy-5-ethyl-2-methyl- and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDF), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolone), all showing FD factors of 1024. Thirteen odorants were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations and odor thresholds in water. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), sotolone (seasoning-like), 4-HEMF (caramel-like), 2-methylbutanal (malty), methional (cooked potato), ethanol (alcoholic), and ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity) showed the highest OAVs (>200). An aqueous model aroma mixture containing 13 odorants, which had been identified with the highest OAVs, in concentrations that occur in the soy sauce showed a good similarity with the overall aroma of the soy sauce itself. Heat treatment of the soy sauce resulted in a clear change of the overall aroma. Quantitation of selected odorants revealed a significant decrease in sotolone and, in particular, increases in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-HDMF, and 4-HEMF induced by heating.

  19. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0¿72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  20. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0-72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  1. Sensory sub-attributes of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Jellema, R.H.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2005-01-01

    The sensory components of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces were determined, using multi-variate analysis of the mean sensory ratings obtained from a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) panel. Creamy is a particularly interesting attribute, as it is

  2. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  3. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds influencing Chinese-type soy sauces using GC-MS combined with HS-SPME and discrimination with electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lihua; Liu, Ting; An, Xinjing; Zhang, Jinlan; Ma, Xiaoran; Cui, Jinmei

    2017-01-01

    Soy sauce contains a variety of volatiles that are highly valuable to its quality with regard to sensory characteristics. This paper describes the analysis of volatile compounds influencing the flavor quality of Chinese-type soy sauces. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with headspace-solid phase microextraction and electronic nose (E-nose) were applied for identifying the volatile flavor compounds as well as determining their volatile profiles of 12 soy sauces manufactured by different fermentation process. Forty one key volatile components of these 12 soy sauce products, a pure soy sauce and an acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein sample, were compared in semi-quantitative form, and their volatile flavor profiles were analyzed by E-nose. The substantially similar results between hierarchical cluster analysis based on GC-MS data and E-nose analysis suggested that both techniques may be useful in evaluating the flavor quality of soy sauces and differentiating soy sauce products. The study also showed that there were less volatile flavor compounds in soy sauces produced through low-salt solid-state fermentation process, a traditional manufacturing technology and a widely adopted technology in Chinese soy sauce industries. In addition, the investigation suggested that the flavor quality of soy sauce varied widely in Chinese domestic market, and that the present Chinese national standards of soy sauce should be further perfected by the addition of flavor grades of soy sauce in the physical and chemical index. Meanwhile, this research provided valuable information to manufacturers and government regulators, which have practical significance to improve quality of soy sauces.

  5. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Residents' Social Interaction and Social Participation:A Case Study of Fuzhou City%居民社会交往与社会参与的城乡差异--福州调查为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘满堂; 黄美扬

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of the statistics of questionnaires in Fuzhou, Fujian Province, this paper makes a quantitative analysis of the characteristics of social interaction and social participation among urban and rural residents. It is found that trust and interaction between acquaintances are higher than those between non-acquaintances, and the rural dwellers have more social interaction and trust than the urban residents. Compared with the newly emerged organizations such as property owner committees, religious organizations and senior citizen associations are more active to people in Fuzhou.%以福州居民问卷调查数据为基础,通过定量分析展现了福州城乡居民社会交往与社会参与的特征。福州居民的社会交往与社会信任呈现出差序格局的特点,即熟人之间的信任和交往程度均要高于同非熟人之间。农村居民的社会交往与社会信任水平均超过城市居民。福州地区民间组织较发达,宗教类组织与老年协会类组织社会参与度较高,而新兴的民间组织如业主委员会社会参与度低。

  7. Perinatal Consumption of Thiamine-Fortified Fish Sauce in Rural Cambodia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J

    2016-10-03

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P sauce through pregnancy and early lactation had higher eTDP and breast milk thiamine concentrations and their infants had higher eTDP, which was more pronounced in the high group. Thiamine-fortified fish sauce has the potential to prevent infantile beriberi in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02221063.

  8. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  9. Antioxidant effects of soy sauce on color stability and lipid oxidation of raw beef patties during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lee, Soo-Yoen; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of soy sauce on lipid oxidation and color stability of raw beef patties. Raw beef patties were formulated with four solutions such as NaCl (sodium chloride solution), NaCl/SS (1:1 ratio of sodium chloride and soy sauce solution), SS (soy sauce solution), or SS/A (soy sauce solution combined with 0.05% ascorbic acid) in the same salt concentration. Addition of soy sauce resulted in the decreased pH, lightness, and increased yellowness. Treatment SS/A had the lowest percent of metmyoglobin during storage (Psauce addition were observed in treatments SS and SS/A at the end of the storage period. There were no differences (P>0.05) in free fatty acid concentration at the end of storage. The combined addition of soy sauce and ascorbic acid greatly improved (P<0.05) color stability and retarded lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional value of trace elements in spaghetti sauces and their classification according to the labeled taste using pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Ghitakou, S.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient trace elements chromium, iron and zinc as well as cobalt, rubidium and scandium were determined in dry spaghetti sauce samples from the Greek market by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results were evaluated according to the new US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), US Adequate Intake (AI), US Reference Values for nutrition labeling (RVNL) and European Union reference values for nutrition labeling (EURV). Moreover, the same data has been used with pattern recognition techniques in order to classify the sauce samples according to their labeled flavor. The evaluation showed that the nutrition rate depends strongly on the reference value under consideration. The spaghetti sauces studied are a good source for the covering of chromium daily AI. The same sauces are poor source for zinc daily needs of the organism (RDA, RVNL), but they are a moderate source for iron daily needs (RDA). The application of cluster analysis, of linear discriminant analysis and of the principal component analysis classified the spaghetti sauce samples according to their labeled taste successfully. In addition using the same techniques, another classification in red and white spaghetti sauces is carried out according to their tomato content. (author)

  11. A Study on Shelf Life Prolonging Process of Chili Soy Sauce in Malaysian SMEs’ (Small Medium Enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    This research paper presents the possible solutions to prolong the shelf life of spicy (chili) soy sauce. The current spicy soy sauce formulation is without adding preservative which result in shorter shelf life. It is suggested to add chemical preservative to this spicy soy sauce in order to prolong its shelf life without jeopardising its prevailing taste. The proposed preservative is sodium benzoate. It is hope that by adding sodium benzoate, it can prolong the shelf life of the products from one year to two years without jeopardising the taste and quality of the products. The problem to extend the shelf life of spicy (chilli) soy sauce was 100% solved. The product could be extended to 2 years without adding any preservative (sodium benzoate) as the main raw material (soy sauce) purchased from “Kicap Jalen” had been added sodium benzoate as their preservative to prolong the soy sauce shelf life. All the physicochemical and nutritional analysis shown good results. As for the microbiological analysis, all the 3 samples shown good results on the total plate count.

  12. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-01-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell

  13. [Effects of the iron fortified soy sauce on improving students' anemia in boarding schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Piao, Wei; Tang, Yanbin; Li, Jin; Gao, Jie; Huo, Junsheng

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of iron fortified soy sauce on improving the anemia of boarding school students. A total of 3029 students of the boarding schools in the 27 provinces in China including 1576 boys and 1453 girls were treat with the iron-fortified soy sauce for 12 months. The concentration of hemoglobin was detected before and after intervention. The statistical analysis was conducted to analyze the anemia rate and the hemoglobin concentration in boarding school students. After the intervention, the average hemoglobin of students were increased from 142.1 g/L to 146.5 g/L compared to the baseline. The boys average haemoglobin concentration increased 6.7 g/L, girls average haemoglobin concentration increased 1.9 g/L. They were significantly higher than those of the baseline (P boarding school students, reduce anemia prevalence of students significantly.

  14. Storage properties of irrdiated white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A process involving radiation and heat treatment combined with effective management of pH using tomato sauce was developed for preservation of white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus). This process enhanced the organoleptic acceptability of the product and also ensured its microbiological safety. The processed product was in good edible condition even after a storage of 6 months at ambient temperature. (M.G.B.). 3 tabs

  15. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Firda Alfiana; Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint ...

  16. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  17. Population dynamics and ecology of Tilapia rendalli in Lago Sauce (Peru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitza-Mendo, C.

    1980-01-01

    This is a practical contribution to development aid in Peru. It was to provide a basis for farming of Lago Sauce and similar lakes and introduce young Peruvian fishery biologists to practical and theoretical work with populations of freshwater fish. Various methods of biomass determination have been compared in order to find out why only small specimens of Tilapia rendalli have been caught and what ichthyobiomass was in the lake.

  18. Water Footprint Assessment in the Agro-industry: A Case Study of Soy Sauce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firda Alfiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of global water scarcity, the water footprint is an indicator of the use of water resources that given knowledge about the environmental impact of consuming a product. The sustainable use of water resources nowadays bring challenges related to the production and consumption phase of water intensive related goods such as in the agro-industry. The objective of the study was to assessment the total water footprint from soy sauce production in Grobogan Regency. The total water footprint is equal to the sum of the supply chain water footprint and the operational water footprint. The assessment is based on the production chain diagram of soy sauce production which presenting the relevant process stages from the source to the final product. The result of this research is the total water footprint of soy sauce production is 1.986,35 L/kg with fraction of green water 78,43%, blue water 21,4% and gray water 0,17%.

  19. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of high pressure treatment on metabolite profile of marinated meat in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-02-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce was produced using hind leg by washing, rubbing salt, marinating with soy sauce and spices, and air dry-ripening for 15d. The effect of high pressure (HP) (150 and 300MPa for 15min) on the metabolite profiles of products was characterized using 1 H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that the metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 75.4 and 11.9% of variables, respectively. HP treatments increased most of the metabolites, especially PC1, glutamate, sugars, nucleotides, anserine, lactate and creatine compared to the control. The increase of metabolites under HP was not dependent on pressure level except for alanine, lactate, acetate, formate, fumarate, glucose and 5'-IMP. These findings demonstrated that HP treatment at 150MPa was economical to improve the taste of marinated meat in soy sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  5. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  6. Iodine stability and sensory quality of fermented fish and fish sauce produced with the use of iodated salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthilath, Boualapha; Chavasit, Visith; Chareonkiatkul, Somsri; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2009-06-01

    Universal salt iodization promotes the use of iodated salt for producing industrial food products, although it might affect product quality and iodine stability. To assess iodine loss during fermentation of fermented fish and fish sauces produced by using iodated salt and the effect on product sensory quality. Fermented fish and fish sauces were produced with iodated rock and grain sea salts (approximately 30 ppm iodine). Fermented fish was prepared from freshwater fish mixed with salt and rice bran and fermented for 6 months at room temperature. Fish sauces were prepared by mixing anchovy with salt and fermenting either exposed to sunlight or in the shade for 12 months. Residual iodine was determined with a spectrophotometer at day 0 and months 1, 3, and 6 for fermented fish and day 0 and months 3, 6, and 12 for fish sauces. After fermentation, the products were tested for sensory acceptability by Laotian and Thai panelists (approximately 50 in each panel) after they were cooked and served in the traditional manner. After fermentation, the level of residual iodine was 7.61 ppm (16% loss) infermented fish, 5.57 ppm (55% loss) in fish sauce prepared with exposure to sunlight, and 9.52 ppm (13% loss) in fish sauce prepared in the shade. Sensory qualities of the products that were produced from fortified and unfortified salts as well as dishes prepared from these products were not significantly different (p > 0.05). It is feasible to produce fermented fish and fish sauces with iodated salt and maintain acceptable iodine levels.

  7. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Krylova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitrogen fraction in canned foods was established.An accumulation of the peptide nitrogen fraction in the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization was two times more intensive. In the sterilized canned foods, the processes of accumulation of the low molecular weight nitrogenous compounds were more intensive, which suggests a depth of destruction of the protein and peptide nitrogen fraction. It was shown that an accumulation of amino-ammonia nitrogen during canned food storage was on average 12.4% irrespective of the pH value in the used sauces and the type of thermal treatment.A shiſt in the pH value of the canned foods toward the acid side upon pasteurization was noticed. With that, a degree of the shiſt in the canned foods in tomato sauce was 2.5 times higher than the pH value of the canned foods in sour cream sauce. When sterilizing canned foods, another dynamics of the pH values was observed: a pH value declined by 0.39 units in the canned foods in tomato sauce and grew by 0.22 units in the canned foods in sour cream sauce. During storage, the tendency of more intense pH decline was revealed for the canned foods in tomato sauce aſter pasteurization compared to the canned foods aſter sterilization. Another character of the pH value dynamics was found in the canned foods in sour cream sauce: an insignificant increase (by 0.7% of the pH value in the pasteurized canned foods and a significant decrease (by 8.4% in the sterilized canned foods

  8. 从来华传教士卢公明眼中的中国丧葬习俗看晚清闽都民间信仰%On Fuzhou's Folk Religion and Believes in Late Qing Dynasty from the Perspective of American Missionary Doolittle's Account of Chinese Funeral Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史伟明

    2015-01-01

    19世纪中叶,美国公理会传教士卢公明来华传教,并在福州逗留14余年,其《中国人的社会生活》一书详细地记载了福州社会生活与习俗的方方面面,尤其在详尽地描绘了晚清闽都的丧葬习俗。作为他者对异质文化的考察,卢公明的考察与书写为研究晚清闽都的民间信仰状况提供了较为翔实的史料,也从另一视角为研究者审视本者文化提供了线索。%The American missionary,Justus Doolittle,came to China in the middle of 19th century and stayed in Fuzhou for o-ver 14 years.Doolittle's Chinese Social Life gave a detailed account of every aspects for Fuzhou's social life and customs,espe-cially on Fuzhou's funeral customs,which offered scholars detailed and important literature for future studies and clues to under-stand and criticize one's own culture.

  9. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  10. Improvement of Fish Sauce Quality by Strain CMC5-3-1: A Novel Species of Staphylococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 isolated from fermented fish sauce at 3 to 7 mo, respectively, showed different characteristics on protein hydrolysis and volatile formation. These Gram-positive cocci were able to grow in up to 15% NaCl with the optimum at 0.5% to 5% NaCl in tryptic soy broth. Based on ribosomal 16S rRNA gene sequences, Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 showed 99.0% similarity to that of Staphylococcus piscifermentans JCM 6057(T) , but DNA-DNA relatedness was sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 740.5 mM, which was higher than that inoculated by the strain CMS5-7-5 (662.14 mM, P sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 showed the highest content of total glutamic acid (P sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 was 2-methypropanal, contributing to the desirable dark chocolate note. Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 could be applied as a starter culture to improve the umami and aroma of fish sauce. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. INVESTIGATION OF FOULING DEPOSIT FORMATION DURING PASTEURIZATION OF CHILI SAUCE BY USING LAB-SCALE CONCENTRIC TUBE-PASTEURIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ATIKA ALI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of fouling deposits obtained from chilli sauce pasteurization. A lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer was used to pasteurize the chilli sauce at 0.712 kg/min and 90±5°C. It was operated for 3 hours. Temperature changes were recorded during pasteurization and the data was used to plot the heat transfer profile and the fouling resistance profile. The thickness of the fouling deposit was also measured and the image was taken for every hour. The fouling deposit was collected at every hour to test its stickiness, hardness and flow behaviour. Proximate analysis was also performed and it shows that the fouling deposit from the chilli sauce is categorized as carbohydrate-based fouling deposits. Activation energy of chilli sauce is 7049.4 J.mole-1 which shows a greater effect of temperature on the viscosity. The hardness, stickiness of fouling deposit and the heat resistance increases as the chilli sauce continuously flows inside the heat exchanger.

  12. Prevalencia y carga parasitaria de helmintos gastrointestinales en gallinas de traspatio (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), en el municipio de El Sauce, departamento de León, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, L. Luna; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Rimbaud, E.

    2006-01-01

    Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua......Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua...

  13. Fast Extraction and Detection of 4-Methylimidazole in Soy Sauce Using Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zufei; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yingjuan; Ye, Helin

    2017-11-02

    On the basis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography, we established a new method for the determination of the 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in soy sauce. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the synthesized MMIPs. To evaluate the polymers, batch rebinding experiments were carried out. The binding strength and capacity were determined from the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation. The selective recognition capability of MMIPs was investigated with a reference compound and a structurally similar compound. As a selective pre-concentration sorbents for 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce, the MMIPs showed a satisfied recoveries rate of spiked samples, ranged from 97% to 105%. As a result, the prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine 4-methylimidazole in soy sauce samples.

  14. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH 3 -nitrogen, NH 2 -nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce

  15. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  16. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  17. Microbiological safety of mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces produced in the United States: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, R B

    2000-08-01

    The literature on the death and survival of foodborne pathogens in commercial mayonnaise, dressing, and sauces was reviewed and statistically analyzed with emphasis on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The absence of reports of foodborne illness associated directly with the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and sauces is evidence of their safety. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica die when inoculated into mayonnaise and dressings. Historically, mayonnaise and dressings have been exempt from the acidified food regulations and have justly deserved this status due primarily to the toxic effect of acetic and to a lesser extent lactic and citric acids. These organic acids are inimical to pathogenic bacteria and are effective natural preservatives with acetic being the most effective in killing pathogenic bacteria at the pH values encountered in these products. Statistical analysis on data reported in the literature shows that the most important and significant factor in destroying pathogenic bacteria is pH as adjusted with acetic acid followed by the concentration of acetic acid in the water phase. The reported highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces is 4.4, which is below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for foodborne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The overall conclusion is that these products are very safe. They should remain exempt from the acidified food regulations providing adequate research has been done to validate their safety, and the predominant acid is acetic and reasonable manufacturing precautions are taken.

  18. Densidad y anatomia de la madera en familias mejoradas de sauces en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Monteoliva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue la evaluación de densidad y anatomía de la madera en siete familias de sauces, con vistas a seleccionar clones aptos para la producción de madera para usos sólidos y papel. Se cruzaron progenitores de cinco especies de sauces (S. babylonica, S. alba, S. nigra, S. amygdaloides y S. matsudana, obteniéndose 1800 individuos producto de cruzamientos controlados y polinización abierta, dentro del programa de mejoramiento de sauces del INTA. A los 34 meses se efectuó una primera selección por criterios de crecimiento, sanidad y forma. De esta primera fase de mejoramiento se seleccionaron 218 genotipos sobre los cuales se evaluaron las características anatómicas cuantitativas y la densidad de la madera. Los resultados indican que ninguna familia presenta buenos resultados en todas las propiedades. En una selección priorizando el vigor, la familia 08.09 presentó las siguientes características: buen crecimiento en diámetro (6,1 cm, fibras largas y de pared gruesa (850 µm y 2,22 µm, pocos vasos (94.mm-2 y densidad intermedia a baja (350 kg.m-3. Priorizando el rendimiento, material fibroso e indirectamente la resistencia, las familias 08.01 y 08.07 presentaron: densidad relativamente alta (403 - 397 kg.m-3, fibras largas (836 - 864 µm, vasos pequeños (46 - 45 µm y bajo crecimiento en diámetro (3 - 2,85 cm. Los cruzamientos donde intervienen las especies Salix nigra, S. amygdaloides y S. matsudana se destacaron ya que presentan buenos crecimientos y las mejores combinaciones xilológicas para diferentes destinos industriales.

  19. Metagenomic Profiling of the Bacterial Community Changes from Koji to Mash Stage in the Brewing of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Wei, Quanzeng; Gui, Shuqi; Feng, Yongrui; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yihan; Lu, Fuping

    2017-12-04

    The improvement of soy sauce fermentation is restricted by the insufficient information on bacterial community. In this study, bacterial communities in the koji and mash stage were compared based on next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 29 genera were identified in the koji stage, while 34 in the mash stage. After koji stage, 7 genera disappeared and 12 new genera appeared in the mash stage. The dominant bacteria were Kurthia, Weissella and Staphylococcus in the koji stage and Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc in the mash stage. The results provided insights into the microbial communities involved in soy sauce fermentation.

  20. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P sauce production.

  1. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy ( Psauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  2. Changes in Postfermentation Quality during the Distribution Process of Anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) Fish Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Byung Chun; Min, Jin Gi

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the changes in quality that can occur during the distribution of nonheated anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) fish sauce after packaging. The pH values of all samples ranged from 5.5 to 5.8, and there were no significant differences ( P > 0.05) in pH among the samples during storage regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration. The initial total volatile base nitrogen concentration in all samples after bottling was 115 to 121 mg/100 mL, but this concentration increased gradually with storage time. After 1 year of storage, total volatile base nitrogen concentration had increased to approximately 170% of the initial concentration (166 to 194 mg/100 mL). Amino nitrogen increased slightly during storage but was significantly lower than the increase in amino nitrogen during general anchovy fish sauce fermentation with anchovy flesh. Most of the free amino acids increased slightly during the storage period regardless of storage temperature or salt concentration, but tyrosine and histidine increased and then decreased during the storage period. The histamine concentration of the anchovy fish sauce at a salt concentration of 20% was 43.3 mg/100 mL initially, but after 1 year the histamine concentration was 89.7 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 10°C, 102.6 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 25°C, and 116.8 mg/100 mL in samples stored at 35°C . Changes in putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were similar to those in histamine; concentrations increased about twofold from the initial concentrations after 1 year of storage. However, the rate of increase in putrescine from 4 months after storage was very high, and cadaverine slightly decreased by 12 months of storage. High scores for umami and aroma sensory characteristics were given to samples stored at 10°C, but samples stored 35°C were given high scores for rancid. Despite the overall low scores for aroma and umami for samples stored at 35°C, the quality of the anchovy fish sauce

  3. Analysis of extracellular proteins of Aspergillus oryzae grown on soy sauce koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanchang; Pan, Li; Lin, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae AS 3.951 is widely used in Chinese soy sauce manufacture, but little is known about the profiles of the extracellular proteins from the culture of soybean koji. In this study, we carried out MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of extracellular proteins during koji culture. Besides well-known proteins (TAA and Oryzin), a variety of aminopeptidase and proteases were identical at the proteome level. This suggests that A. oryzae AS 3.951 has a powerful capacity to digest soybean protein.

  4. Bayesian modeling of Clostridium perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaloustre, S; Cornu, M; Morelli, E; Noël, V; Delignette-Muller, M L

    2011-04-01

    Models on Clostridium perfringens growth which have been published to date have all been deterministic. A probabilistic model describing growth under non-isothermal conditions was thus proposed for predicting C. perfringens growth in beef-in-sauce products cooked and distributed in a French hospital. Model parameters were estimated from different types of data from various studies. A Bayesian approach was proposed to model the overall uncertainty regarding parameters and potential variability on the 'work to be done' (h(0)) during the germination, outgrowth and lag phase. Three models which differed according to their description of this parameter h(0) were tested. The model with inter-curve variability on h(0) was found to be the best one, on the basis of goodness-of-fit assessment and validation with literature data on results obtained under non-isothermal conditions. This model was used in two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations to predict C. perfringens growth throughout the preparation of beef-in-sauce products, using temperature profiles recorded in a hospital kitchen. The median predicted growth was 7.8×10(-2) log(10) cfu·g(-1) (95% credibility interval [2.4×10(-2), 0.8]) despite the fact that for more than 50% of the registered temperature profiles cooling steps were longer than those required by French regulations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  6. Sequence, taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peptides separated from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Dong, Yi; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Chen, Huiping; Qiu, Chaoying; Su, Guowan

    2016-09-01

    Five tasty peptides were separated from soy sauce, by sensory-guided fractionation, using macroporous resin, medium-pressure liquid chromatography and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry as ALPEEV, LPEEV, AQALQAQA, EQQQQ and EAGIQ (which originated from glycinin A1bB2-445, glycinin A1bB2-445, cobyric acid synthase, leucine-tRNA ligase and glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, respectively). LPEEV, AQALQAQA and EQQQQ tasted umami with threshold values of 0.43, 1.25 and 0.76mmol/l, respectively. ALPEEV and EAGIQ had minimal umami taste, but ALPEEV, EAGIQ and LPEEV showed umami-enhancement with a threshold estimated at 1.52, 1.94 and 3.41mmol/l, respectively. In addition, the synthetic peptides showed much better sensory taste than mixtures of their constitutive amino acids. It indicated that peptides might play an important role in the umami taste of soy sauce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clustering of commercial fish sauce products based on an e-panel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Nakano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish sauce is a brownish liquid seasoning with a characteristic flavor that is produced in Asian countries and limited areas of Europe. The types of fish and shellfish and fermentation process used in its production depend on the region from which it derives. Variations in ingredients and fermentation procedures yield end products with different smells, tastes, and colors. For this data article, we employed an electronic panel (e-panel technique including an electronic nose (e-nose, electronic tongue (e-tongue, and electronic eye (e-eye, in which smell, taste, and color are evaluated by sensors instead of the human nose, tongue, and eye to avoid subjective error. The presented data comprise clustering of 46 commercially available fish sauce products based separate e-nose, e-tongue, and e-eye test results. Sensory intensity data from the e-nose, e-tongue, and e-eye were separately classified by cluster analysis and are shown in dendrograms. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicates major three groups on e-nose and e-tongue data, and major four groups on e-eye data.

  8. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  9. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  10. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  12. Irradiation effect on bulgogi sauce for making commercial Korean traditional meat product, bulgogi[Bulgogi; Traditional meat products; Irradiation; Safety; Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C.; Kim, D.H.; Shin, M.G.; Kang, I.J.; Byun, M.W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2003-12-01

    Gamma-irradiated sauce of bulogogi, Korean traditional meat products, was compared with heat-pasteurized one to enhance its safety, quality, and commercial availability. The sauce is usually sold in refrigerated state with 2-7 days of self-life or heat-sterilized and sold in room temperature for a year. Raw vegetables, fruits and soy sauce for sauce making were highly contaminated by thermophillic microorganisms (totally 2.13x10{sup 6} CFU/g) and coliform bacteria (totally 5.90x10{sup 4} CFU/g) at the initial stage. Heat treatment (100 deg. C for 30 min) was effective to control coliform and microbes counted from Salmonella-Shigella selective agar in the sauce but not on thermophillic microorganisms, resulting in a rapid spoilage after 2 weeks at 20 deg. C. Gamma irradiation reduced the level of thermophillic microorganisms and the spoilage was prevented during storage for 4 weeks at 20 deg. C. Protease activity of the sauce was significantly reduced by heat treatment while was not changed by irradiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 10 kGy. Sensory evaluation showed that the irradiation was better in color than nonirradiated control or heat-treated sample. Results indicate that low dose irradiation (2.5-5.0 kGy) is effective to ensure safety of bulgogi sauce with acceptable sensory quality.

  13. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0–40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities. - Highlights: ► No bacterial growth in gamma-irradiated Bulgogi sauce ≥10 kGy or autoclaved sample was observed. ► Viscosity of irradiated sample at 40 kGy was similar to that of autoclaved sample. ► Sensory properties of irradiated sample >10 kGy or autoclaved sample deteriorated.

  14. Using LC-MS to examine the fermented food products vinegar and soy sauce for the presence of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Byrne, Keren; Galiamov, Renata; Mendoza-Porras, Omar; Bose, Utpal; Howitt, Crispin A; Colgrave, Michelle L

    2018-07-15

    A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products. LC-MS revealed the presence of gluten in malt vinegar, wherein the identified peptides derived from B-, D- and γ-hordein from barley, as well as γ-gliadin, and HMW- and LMW-glutenins from wheat that are known to contain immunopathogenic epitopes. No gluten was detected in the soy sauces examined despite wheat being a labelled ingredient indicating extensive hydrolysis of gluten during soy sauce production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of koji-making with mixed strains on physicochemical and sensory properties of Chinese-type soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yao; Feng, Yun-Zi; Cui, Chun; Zhao, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Mou-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Two kinds of soy sauces were prepared with Aspergillus oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed koji (SSAOM, A. oryzae mouldstarter:Monascus purpureus mouldstarter = 1:2, w/w) respectively. The effects of mixed koji on the essential indices, oxygen radical absorption capacity, color indices, free amino acids and volatile compounds of soy sauce have been studied, followed by a sensory evaluation between SSAO and SSAOM. The contents of non-salt soluble solid, reducing sugar, total acid, total nitrogen and amino nitrogen in SSAOM increased by 21.50%, 9.88%, 15.35%, 5.98% and 41.43%, respectively, compared with the control SSAO, owing to the higher activities of acid protease and glucoamylase in the mixed koji. Moreover, SSAOM showed higher antioxidant activity, higher levels of free amino acids and much more attractive color. Meanwhile, flavor groups such as esters, aldehydes, pyrazines and sulfur-containing compounds in SSAOM were also improved. The contents of free amino acids and aroma compounds were consistent with the sensory evaluation. According to descriptive sensory analysis, SSAOM showed higher intensity for sweet and umami attributes; in addition, higher flowery, burnt, fruity and caramel-like attributes were perceived in SSAOM, while SSAO showed higher ethanolic and sour attributes. The investigated soy sauce prepared with mixed koji can be considered as an effective method to accelerate the fermentation process and improve the flavor of soy sauce. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability

  18. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Characterization of Fish Sauce Aroma Impact Compounds Using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' Power Law Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) couple...

  20. Monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. In this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bacterial DGGE profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were Weissella cibaria (Weissella confusa, Weissella kimchii, Weissella salipiscis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus iners, or Streptococcus thermophilus), Staphylococcus gallinarum (or Staphylococcus xylosus), and Staphylococcus kloosii. In addition to these bacteria, Tetragenococcus halophilus was also detected in the mash during lactic acid fermentation. The fungal DGGE profile indicated that the fungal microbes in the koji were not only Aspergillus oryzae but also several yeasts. In the mash, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii appeared in the early fermentation stage, Candida etchellsii (or Candida nodaensis) and Candida versatilis were detected at the middle fermentation stage, and Candida etchellsii was detected at the mature fermentation stage. These results suggest that the microbial communities present during the soy sauce manufacturing process change drastically throughout its production. This is the first report to reveal the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process using a culture-independent method. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE TOUCH ANALYSIS IN AN ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF MAYONNAISE SAUCES WITH ADDITION OF A CAVIAR DZHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sauces on the basis of vegetable oils and mayonnaise which are traditionally considered tasty, but not really useful at enrichment by functional additives can be used not only for flavoring decoration of various dishes and salads, but also for increase of their nutrition value. Dzhus received by production of salty granular caviar of a humpback salmon represents a full-fledged complex of the major food factors that can serve as motivation for its use when developing new food, including in the form of a proteinaceous and mineral additive for its additional introduction to compoundings of sauces. In view of existence of a fish smell of a caviar dzhus, it is possible to use it as natural fragrance by production of the wide range of fish products, including emulsion. For an assessment of quality of production, fast and simple the organoleptic (touch method is very convenient. Various content of easily volatile organic compounds in an equilibrium gas phase over tests is established. Samples of a caviar dzhus among themselves and sauces with its addition differ. Distinctions are defined by amount of the brought ingredient. The intensity of a smell of tests determined by the content of easily volatile compounds on which the massif of sensors is adjusted differs. Sauces with an additive of a caviar dzhus have the greatest intensity of a smell in accordance with GOST at its small contents. In a figure form of "a visual print" of the maximum responses of all sensors in the massif distinctions in a chemical composition of an equilibrium gas phase over tests are established. Distinctions in qualitative and quantitative structure of RGF over samples with addition 1,5 and 2,0 of % of a dzhus significantly significant. It is established that addition (on TU and in accordance with GOST in compoundings of sauces results more than 1% of a caviar dzhus in essential distinction as a part of RGF.

  2. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  3. Teriyaki sauce with carvacrol or thymol effectively controls Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and indigenous flora in marinated beef and marinade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeree; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Soon Han; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-07-01

    An effective bactericidal cold-marinating method for beef products is described, exploiting the synergism between soy sauce and natural compounds (carvacrol, CV or thymol, TM) to reduce microbiological risks. Beef slices inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium (3.1-3.5logCFU/g) were marinated in a teriyaki sauce with or without CV and TM (0.3 and 0.5%). After 1, 3, and 7days at 4°C, indigenous microflora population, color, lipid oxidation, marinade uptake, and pH of marinated beef and leftover marinade samples were examined. Teriyaki sauce alone did not reduce or inhibit any of the target pathogens or indigenous bacteria, while 0.5% CV- or TM-containing teriyaki sauce inactivated all inocula without recovery within 7days (p0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Flow Regulation on Summer Water Temperature: Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, A.; Hannah, D. M.; Peiry, J.; Campo, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study quantifies the effects of the Paso de las Piedras Dam on the thermal behaviour of the Sauce Grande River, Argentina, during a summer season. A 30-day data set of continuous hourly data was assembled for eight stream temperature gauging sites deployed above and below the impoundment. Time series span the hottest period recorded during summer 2009 to evaluate variations in river water temperature under strong meteorological influence. The methods include: (i) analysis of the time series by inspecting the absolute differences in daily data (magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rate of change), (ii) classification of diurnal regimes by using a novel regime 'shape' and 'magnitude' classifying method (RSMC), and (ii) quantification of the sensitivity of water temperature regimes to air temperature by computation of a novel sensitivity index (SI). Results showed that fluctuations in daily water temperatures were linked to meteorological drivers; however, spatial variability in the shape and the magnitude of the thermographs revealed the effects of the impoundment in regulating the thermal behaviour of the river downstream. An immediate cooling effect below the dam was evident. Mean daily temperatures were reduced in up to 4 °C, and described a warming trend in the downstream direction over a distance of at least 15 km (up to +2.3 °C). Diurnal cycles were reduced in amplitude and delayed in timing, and revealed a dominance of regime magnitude stability and regime shape climatic insensitivity over a distance of 8 km downstream. These findings provide new information about the water quality of the Sauce Grande River and inform management of flows to maintain the ecological integrity of the river system. Also, they motivate further analysis of potential correlates under varying hydrological and meteorological conditions. The methods presented herein have wider applicability for quantifying river thermal regimes and their sensitivity to climate and other

  5. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  6. [Effect of fried bacon and parsley sauce on gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy old boys footballer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbæk, Henning; Jensen, Mogens Pfeiffer

    2012-12-03

    Knowledge of the importance of diet on gastrointestinal function and symptoms is generally poorly. In recent years, The New Nordic Food Culture is suggested to have favourable effects. Unfortunally there are huge waiting lists at the most popular restaurants, so we investigated the more traditional "Nordic kitchen". There are no previous studies concerning intake of fried bacon and parsley sauce (FBPS) in healthy middle-aged footballers. Non-blinded, non-randomized, crossover study with a questionnaire survey of 18 healthy old boys footballers before and after FBPS intake. Ten players responded to the questionnaire, including one who was not exposed to FBPS. The median intake was 15 pieces of fried bacon (range 12-23), 1.5 dl parsley sauce (range 1-5 dl), and eight potatoes (range 6-30), but no dessert. We found a significantly increased stool frequency and a trend towards change in consistency compared to baseline. We found increased abdominal pain and a decrease in general well-being, but could not demonstrate any impact on complaints from the family. In otherwise healthy old boys footballers the FBPS diet has great impact on a range of gastrointestinal symptoms. FBPS affected stool frequency and abdominal pain, but caused no effect on family complaints. We cannot exclude a dose-response effect or a gender/age phenomenon; and we suggest supplemental dose-response studies and studies including women of all ages. Further, we recommend a detailed dietary assessment before referring patients with gastrointestinal symptoms for invasive procedures like colonoscopy or CT-scanning. none none.

  7. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  8. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Gyu; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Han, In-Jun; Yoon, Yohan; Chung, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Gao, Meixu; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0-40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities.

  9. [Effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in adult women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Junshi; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Li, Liming

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in promoting NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce in an iron deficient population. This study was an uncontrolled, community-based, before-after study, which was implemented in three counties of Shijiazhuang Municipality. The intervention was a social mobilization and social marketing strategy. Adult women older than 20 years of age participated in the evaluation protocol. The main outcomes included KAP relevant to IDA. Cross-sectional samples were used to assess the outcomes at baseline and 1 year later. Knowledge and attitudes of adult women had changed positively, and the percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P marketing had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women in the iron deficient population.

  10. Enhancement of Saltiness Perception by Monosodium Glutamate Taste and Soy Sauce Odor: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2018-02-26

    Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce. The participants were asked to drink a cup of the stimulus and to evaluate only saltiness intensity in Experiment 1, as well as other sensory qualities in Experiment 2, and temporal brain activity was measured using fNIRS. In Experiment 3, the participants were asked to evaluate saltiness intensity using the time-intensity (TI) method, and the response of the parotid salivary glands was measured using fNIRS. The fNIRS data showed that the added MSG and soy sauce enhanced the hemodynamic response in temporal brain regions, including the frontal operculum, but no effect on the hemodynamic salivary responses was detected. These results indicate that the perceived enhancement of saltiness occurs in the brain region that is involved in central gustatory processing. Furthermore, the results of the sensory evaluations suggest that enhancement of saltiness by the addition of MSG is mainly based on fusion of the salty-like property of MSG and saltiness of NaCl, whereas enhancement by the addition of soy sauce odor is mainly based on modulation of the temporal dynamics of saltiness perception.

  11. COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS OF PROTEIN DESTRUCTION IN CANNED FOODS IN SAUCE AT DIFFERENT THERMAL TREATMENT REGIMES AND SUBSEQUENT STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Krylova; T. V. Gustova

    2017-01-01

    In the course of investigations, the structural changes in proteins were established, which were associated with the preliminary treatment of meat ingredients, a pH level of the system and parameters of thermal treatment.The pasteurization regimes allowed retaining a protein nitrogen proportion up to 94% by the end of canned food storage duration. Upon sterilization, the losses in protein nitrogen were two times higher. A negative effect of more acidic sauce on preservation of the protein nitr...

  12. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Free α-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    α-Dicarbonyl (α-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) α-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) α-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant α-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in α-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free α-DC content. These findings suggest that α-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  15. Enhancement of preservation characteristics of Meju, an intermediate material for Korean legume-based fermented soy sauce, Kanjang, by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Yook, H.-S.; Park, B.-J.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanumkaeri.re.kr

    2002-07-01

    Meju, an intermediate product for making Korean traditional soy sauce, Kanjang, was prepared and irradiated at 0, 5, 10 and 20 kGy and then stored at 25 deg. C for 12 months (mo). Mould and Lactobacillus spp. were nearly eliminated by gamma irradiation with a dose of 5-10 kGy, and the Bacillus spp. was decreased by 4 decimal reduction with a dose of 10 kGy. Changes of protease activity, NH{sub 3}-nitrogen, NH{sub 2}-nitrogen, pH and color in the gamma-irradiated Meju were stable compared to non-irradiated control. Sensory evaluation after 12-mo storage showed that soy sauce made from the Meju irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy was acceptable and scored as same as the freshly made one. Therefore, it was considered that the Meju can be stored up to 12 mo by treating with gamma irradiation without any adverse quality change to make soy sauce.

  16. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce

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    Guozhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  17. Optimisation and validation of analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants: application to the analysis of tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Labrador, Agustín; Domínguez, Alba; Peiró, Lluís

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, simultaneous extraction of natural antioxidants (phenols and carotenoids) in complex matrices, such as tomato sauces, is presented. The tomato sauce antioxidant compounds studied were the phenolics hydroxytyrosol, from virgin olive oil, quercetin and its derivatives, from onions, and quercetin-rutinoside as well as the carotenoid, lycopene (cis and trans), from tomatoes. These antioxidant compounds were extracted simultaneously with n-hexane/acetone/ethanol (50/25/25, v/v/v). The phenolics were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and lycopene (cis- and trans-forms) was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After studying the parameters of these methods, they were applied to the analysis of virgin olive oil, fresh onion, tomato concentrate and tomato powder, and commercial five tomato sauces. Subsequently, the results obtained in our laboratory were compared with those from the Gallina Blanca Star Group laboratory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Producing chicken eggs containing isoflavone as functional food due to feeding effect of soy sauce by-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudz, L. D.; Sarjana, T. A.; Muryani, R.; Suthama, N.

    2018-01-01

    The present study was aimed to verify the impact of feeding soy sauce by-product in producing isoflavone-enriched chicken eggs as functional food. Experiment used 200 laying hens of 80-week old with average body weight of 1,932.75±189.50 g. Experimental diets were formulated using yellow corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, meat bone meal, poultry meal, premix, CaCO3, and soy sauce by-product (SSBP). A completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replication (10 birds each), was assigned in this experiment. Inclusion levels of SSBP were the treatments, namely, none (T0), 10 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 15.0% (T3). Parameters observed were colour, index, and weight of egg yolk, and isoflavone content. Analysis of variance was applied and continued to Duncan test at 5% probability. Results indicated that yolk colour index and weight were not affected by the treatments, but isoflavone content was significantly (P<0.05) increased by feeding SSBP. Egg yolk isoflavone in T2 (0.41 mg/g) and T3 (0.47 mg/g) were higher than those in T0 (0.31 mg/g) and T1 (0.35 mg/g). In conclusion, dietary inclusion of soy sauce by-product at higher level (12.5 and 15.0%) can produce isoflavone-enriched eggs as functional food.

  19. Transcriptome and Proteome Expression Analysis of the Metabolism of Amino Acids by the Fungus Aspergillus oryzae in Fermented Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Hou, Lihua; Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Cao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids comprise the majority of the flavor compounds in soy sauce. A portion of these amino acids are formed from the biosynthesis and metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus oryzae; however, the metabolic pathways leading to the formation of these amino acids in A. oryzae remain largely unknown. We sequenced the transcriptomes of A. oryzae 100-8 and A. oryzae 3.042 under similar soy sauce fermentation conditions. 2D gel electrophoresis was also used to find some differences in protein expression. We found that many amino acid hydrolases (endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, and X-pro-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase) were expressed at much higher levels (mostly greater than double) in A. oryzae 100-8 than in A. oryzae 3.042. Our results indicated that glutamate dehydrogenase may activate the metabolism of amino acids. We also found that the expression levels of some genes changed simultaneously in the metabolic pathways of tyrosine and leucine and that these conserved genes may modulate the function of the metabolic pathway. Such variation in the metabolic pathways of amino acids is important as it can significantly alter the flavor of fermented soy sauce.

  20. Low-molecular weight fractions of Japanese soy sauce act as a RAGE antagonist via inhibition of RAGE trafficking to lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munesue, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Urushihara, Ryouta; Inomata, Kouhei; Saito, Hidehito; Motoyoshi, So; Watanabe, Takuo; Yonekura, Hideto; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) have been implicated in aging and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. AGE engage the cell surface receptor for AGE (RAGE), which in turn elicits intracellular signaling, leading to activation of NF-κB to cause deterioration of tissue homeostasis. AGE are not only formed within our bodies but are also derived from foods, endowing them with flavor. In the present study, we assessed the agonistic/antagonistic effects of food-derived AGE on RAGE signaling in a reporter assay system and found that low-molecular weight AGE can antagonize the action of AGE-BSA. Foods tested were Japanese soy sauce, coffee, cola, and red wine, all of which showed fluorescence characteristics of AGE. Soy sauce and coffee contained N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML). Soy sauce, coffee, and red wine inhibited the RAGE ligand-induced activation of NF-κB, whereas cola had no effect on the ligand induction of NF-κB. The liquids were then fractionated into high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions and low-molecular weight (LMW) fractions. Soy sauce-, coffee-, and red wine-derived LMW fractions consistently inhibited the RAGE ligand induction of NF-κB, whereas the HMW fractions of these foods activated RAGE signaling. Using the LMW fraction of soy sauce as a model food-derived RAGE antagonist, we performed a plate-binding assay and found that the soy sauce LMW fractions competitively inhibited AGE-RAGE association. Further, this fraction significantly reduced AGE-dependent monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) secretion from murine peritoneal macrophages. The LMF from soy sauce suppressed the AGE-induced RAGE trafficking to lipid rafts. These results indicate that small components in some, if not all, foods antagonize RAGE signaling and could exhibit beneficial effects on RAGE-related diseases.

  1. Germination and inactivation of Bacillus coagulans and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by high hydrostatic pressure treatment in buffer and tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Anne; Vivijs, Bram; Lurquin, Ine; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-01-16

    Acidothermophilic bacteria like Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus coagulans can cause spoilage of heat-processed acidic foods because they form spores with very high heat resistance and can grow at low pH. The objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris and B. coagulans spores by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at temperatures up to 60°C and both at low and neutral pH. In a first experiment, spores suspended in buffers at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 were processed for 10min at different pressures (100-800MPa) at 40°C. None of these treatments caused any significant inactivation, except perhaps at 800MPa in pH 4.0 buffer where close to 1 log inactivation of B. coagulans was observed. Spore germination up to about 2 log was observed for both bacteria but occurred mainly in a low pressure window (100-300MPa) for A. acidoterrestris and only in a high pressure window (600-800MPa) for B. coagulans. In addition, low pH suppressed germination in A. acidoterrestris, but stimulated it in B. coagulans. In a second series of experiments, spores were treated in tomato sauce of pH 4.2 and 5.0 at 100 - 800MPa at 25, 40 and 60°C for 10min. At 40°C, results for B. coagulans were similar as in buffer. For A. acidoterrestris, germination levels in tomato sauce were generally higher than in buffer, and showed little difference at low and high pressure. Remarkably, the pH dependence of A. acidoterrestris spore germination was reversed in tomato sauce, with more germination at the lowest pH. Furthermore, HP treatments in the pH 4.2 sauce caused between 1 and 1.5 log inactivation of A. acidoterrestris. Germination of spores in the high pressure window was strongly temperature dependent, whereas germination of A. acidoterrestris in the low pressure window showed little temperature dependence. When HP treatment was conducted at 60°C, most of the germinated spores were also inactivated. For the pH 4.2 tomato sauce, this

  2. The Effects of Storage Conditions on Lycopene Content and Color of Tomato Hot Pot Sauce

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    He Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF. The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant (k value of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The k value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1 packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The k value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of L⁎, a⁎, and a⁎/b⁎ and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.

  3. Properties of a Bacteriocin Produced by Bacillus subtilis EMD4 Isolated from Ganjang (Soy Sauce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lee, Jae Yong; Jeong, Seon-Ju; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Gyoung Min; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kim, Jong-Sang; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-09-01

    A Bacillus species, EMD4, with strong antibacterial activity was isolated from ganjang (soy sauce) and identified as B. subtilis. B. subtilis EMD4 strongly inhibited the growth of B. cereus ATCC14579 and B. thuringiensis ATCC33679. The antibacterial activity was stable at pH 3-9 but inactive at pH 10 and above. The activity was fully retained after 15 min at 80°C but reduced by 50% after 15 min at 90°C. The activity was completely destroyed by proteinase K and protease treatment, indicating its proteinaceous nature. The bacteriocin (BacEMD4) was partially purified from culture supernatant by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and QSepharose and Sephadex G-50 column chromatographies. The specific activity was increased from 769.2 AU/mg protein to 8,347.8 AU/mg protein and the final yield was 12.6%. The size of BacEMD4 was determined to be 3.5 kDa by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was similar with that of Subtilosin A. Nucleotide sequencing of the cloned gene confirmed that BacEMD4 was Subtilosin A. BacEMD4 showed bactericidal activity against B. cereus ATCC14579.

  4. 3-MCPD in food other than soy sauce or hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Ines; de la Calle, Beatriz; Taylor, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of current knowledge about 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation and detection. Although 3-MCPD is often mentioned with regard to soy sauce and acid-hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP), and much research has been done in that area, the emphasis here is placed on other foods. This contaminant can be found in a great variety of foodstuffs and is difficult to avoid in our daily nutrition. Despite its low concentration in most foods, its carcinogenic properties are of general concern. Its formation is a multivariate problem influenced by factors such as heat, moisture and sugar/lipid content, depending on the type of food and respective processing employed. Understanding the formation of this contaminant in food is fundamental to not only preventing or reducing it, but also developing efficient analytical methods of detecting it. Considering the differences between 3-MCPD-containing foods, and the need to test for the contaminant at different levels of food processing, one would expect a variety of analytical approaches. In this review, an attempt is made to provide an up-to-date list of available analytical methods and to highlight the differences among these techniques. Finally, the emergence of 3-MCPD esters and analytical techniques for them are also discussed here, although they are not the main focus of this review.

  5. Social marketing improved the consumption of iron-fortified soy sauce among women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E(R)), control rural (C(R)), experimental urban (E(U)), and control urban (C(U)). Urban and rural areas in Guizhou province, China. Women 19 to 70 years old (n = 193 in rural areas and n = 179 in urban areas). A mass-media campaign to promote use of FeSS was conducted throughout Guizhou province. In the intervention areas, social marketing strategies using integrated 6 Ps (product, price, place, promotion, policy, and partnership) were implemented from December 2004 to February 2006. Knowledge of FeSS; benefits, barriers, and intention to purchase; availability of FeSS; behaviors regarding purchase and use of FeSS. Analysis of covariance, paired T test and cross-tabulations were used. The alpha level was set at .05. Compared with the baseline, perceived benefits of FeSS, barriers (BARRI) and intention to buy (INTEN) significantly improved within both experimental groups (P marketing of FeSS is feasible and effective to improve knowledge, perception (perceived benefits and overcoming barriers), intention to purchase, and consumption of FeSS among women in Guizhou, China.

  6. Analysis of the membrane fouling on cross-flow ultrafiltration and microfiltration of soy sauce lees; Shoyuhiireden no kurosuforo roka ni okeru fauringu no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukakwa, T. [Kikkoman Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Kobayashi, H.; Kokubo, K.; Watanabe, A. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology

    2000-05-10

    Although since the 1980's Japanese soy sauce manufactures have developed cross-flow membrane filtration systems to recover soy sauce from its lees, the mechanisms by which the membrane fouls during filtration have not been theoretically discussed. Calculated flux declines using a theoretical equation developed for cross-flow cake filtration were compared against experimental results involving the filtration of soy sauce lees using polysulfone ultrafiltration and micro filtration membranes. Membrane fouling due to the deposition and intrusion of soy sauce lees was evaluated from the hydraulic resistances of the membrane and the cake layer. Calculated flux declines with time agree with the experimental results. Specific resistance of the cake layer which is an adjustable parameter of the equation, decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. Hydraulic resistance exhibited by the membranes is independent of feed flow velocity. However, the resistance of the cake layers decreases with increasing cross-flow velocity. This corresponds to the steady-state flux increase. In conclusion, the main cause of fouling in the filtration of soy sauce lees is cake layer formation. By using the cake filtration model for cross-flow, the flux decline with time during the filtration is capable of being predicted. (author)

  7. Combined effects of high pressure processing and addition of soy sauce and olive oil on safety and quality characteristics of chicken breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Zbigniew A; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Yun Ji; Rutley, David L; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Soo Kee; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP) with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w) of soy sauce (SS), 10% (w/w) of olive oil (OO), and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w) (SO) were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  8. The Effect of Used of Soy Sauce Waste in the Ration on Yolk Chemical protein, fat and calcium of Mojosari Laying Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Jayanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soy sauce waste in the ration on protein, fat and calcium content in the yolk of Mojosari laying duck. The animals used were 240 Mojosari laying ducks at 20 weeks old with the average of body weight were 1,385.0 ± 130.85 g (CV = 9.44%. Feed materials used were corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, wheat pollard, premix and soy sauce waste. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD with 4 treatment and 6 replications so that there were 24 experimental units and each consists 10 ducks. The treatments were soy sauce waste at level T0 : 0%, T1: 5%, T2: 7,5% and T3: 10%. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Significant differences were denoted as P<0.05. There was no significant effect of soy sauce waste protein, fat, and calcium content. The conclusion of this study that soy sauce waste can be used up to 10% without adverse the content of protein, fat, and calcium in Mojosari laying ducks.

  9. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedin FR1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The Maillard reaction is complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small. Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Oils were oxidized at 110 oC and determined by the rancimat method and TBA value. The high molecular compounds (MW ≥100 kDa of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index 2.43. Characteristic UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and IR spectra indicated –OH...O groups of β-diketon or combinated C=R=R groups.

  10. Combined Effects of High Pressure Processing and Addition of Soy Sauce and Olive Oil on Safety and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew A. Kruk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of high pressure (HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil on the quality and safety of chicken breast meats. Samples were cut into 100 g pieces and 10% (w/w of soy sauce (SS, 10% (w/w of olive oil (OO, and a mixture of both 5% of soy sauce and 5% olive oil (w/w (SO were pressurized into meat with high pressure at 300 or 600 MPa. Cooking loss was lower in OO samples than SS samples. With increased pressure to 600 MPa, the oleic acid content of OO samples increased. The total unsaturated fatty acids were the highest in SO and OO 600 MPa samples. Lipid oxidation was retarded by addition of olive oil combined with HP. The addition of olive oil and soy sauce followed by HP decreased the amount of volatile basic nitrogen during storage and reduced the population of pathogens. Sensory evaluation indicated that the addition of olive oil enhanced the overall acceptance and willingness to buy. In conclusion, the combination of HP with the addition of soy sauce and/or olive oil is an effective technology that can improve chemical, health, sensory qualities and safety of chicken breast.

  11. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  12. Survival strategy of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, to counteract koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, in soy sauce brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ikuko; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Oguma, Tetsuya; Koyama, Yasuji

    2018-04-08

    In soy sauce brewing, the results of the fermentation of lactic acid greatly affect the quality of soy sauce. The soy sauce moromi produced with Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 allows the growth of Tetragenococcus halophilus NBRC 12172 but not T. halophilus D10. We isolated and identified heptelidic acid (HA), an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), produced by A. oryzae RIB40 as the growth inhibitor of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria. The growth inhibition of T. halophilus D10 by HA was suggested to be associated with the direct inhibition of GAPDH activity under high salt environment. The difference in the susceptibility to HA among various strains of T. halophilus was caused by the mutations in the gene encoding GAPDH.

  13. Survey on drinking alcohol and mental health among adolescent students in Fuzhou%江西抚州市青少年饮酒现状及其与心理行为问题的关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鸿; 张静; 赵杉; 王亚莉; 朱明宇; 李晶晶; 沈伟利; 谢东

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解目前中学生饮酒现状及其与心理行为问题的关联.方法 整群随机抽取江西省抚州市2所普通中学初一到高三4 947名学生进行问卷调查,采用修订的青少年危险行为问卷(YRBSS)评定饮酒行为,采用青少年自评量表(YSR)评定心理行为问题.结果 半数以上(53.9%)中学生曾经饮酒,48.7%在12岁或更小年龄初次尝试饮酒,24.9%的学生在调查前30 d内至少有1d喝过酒,9.3%的被调查者在调查前的30 d喝醉过.各饮酒行为均是男生高于女生,高中生高于初中生.饮酒的中学生YSR得分高于不饮酒的被调查者.饮酒行为对男、女生的影响以及初、高中生的影响有所不同.结论 中学生饮酒行为较为普遍,饮酒的青少年学生各种心理行为问题的发生显著增高.%Objective To study the prevalence of early alcohol experiences and mental health among adolescent students in Fuzhou. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 4 947 students, using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey ( YRBSS, revised) and Youth's Self-Report ( YSR, revised). Results Among the surveyed students, 53.9% had experienced drinking alcohol, 24.9% had drunk alcohol more than one time of 30 days preceding the survey, 9.3% had been in drink more than one time in 30 days preceding the survey, and 48.7% had drunk before age of 12 years. Proportions of drinking behaviors were higher among male students and senior middle school students than those among female students and junior middle school students. Alcohol-using students had higher YSR mean scores than those with no alcohol use. Early alcohol experience may exert differential effects on emotions and behaviors between male students and female students, or higher school students and junior school students.Conclusion The current situation of drinking alcohol among Chinese middle and high school students seemed to be critical. Alcohol-nsing youths are more likely to experience several specific

  14. Changes in microbial composition and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in crab marinated in soy sauce produced by six manufacturing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Eun Sook; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Na Young; Cho, Tae Jin; Jo, Jun Il; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Soon Ho; Ha, Sang Do; Rhee, Min Suk

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the changes in microbiological composition during the production process of crab marinated in soy sauce, potential microbial hazards, potential contamination routes and effective critical control points. Crab and soy sauce samples were obtained from six different manufacturing plants at different stages, and their microbiological content was comprehensively assessed by quantitative and qualitative analyses. The results revealed the following: (1) the final products contained 4.0 log colony-forming units (CFU) g -1 aerobic plate counts (APCs) and 1.1 log CFU g -1 coliforms, which may have been introduced from the raw materials (the level of APCs in raw crab and soy sauce mixed with other ingredients was 3.8 log CFU g -1 and 4.0 log CFU mL -1 respectively); (2) marination of crab in soy sauce may allow cross-contamination by coliforms; (3) only Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus were qualitatively detected in samples at different stages of manufacture (detection rate of 28 and 5.6% respectively), and these bacteria may impact the microbiological quality and safety of crab marinated in soy sauce; and (4) bacterial counts were either maintained or increased during the manufacturing process (suggesting that no particular step can be targeted to reduce bacterial counts). Proper management of raw materials and the marination process are effective critical control points, and alternative interventions may be needed to control bacterial quantity. The results provide important basic information about the production of crab marinated in soy sauce and may facilitate effective implementation of sanitary management practices in related industries and research fields. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of NaFeEDTA-Fortified Soy Sauce on Anemia Prevalence in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jun Sheng; Yin, Ji Yong; Sun, Jing; Huang, Jian; Lu, Zhen Xin; Regina, Moench-Pfanner; Chen, Jun Shi; Chen, Chun Ming

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. A systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. After the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of fish sauce aroma-impact compounds using GC-MS, SPME-Osme-GCO, and Stevens' power law exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, A J; Schilling, M W; Yoon, Y; Kamadia, V V; Marshall, D L

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize volatile compounds and to determine the characteristic aromas associated with impact compounds in 4 fish sauces using solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Osme, and gas chromatography olfactometry (SPME-Osme-GCO) coupled with Stevens' Power Law. Compounds were separated using GCMS and GCO and were identified with the mass spectral database, aroma perceived at the sniffing port, retention indices, and verification of compounds by authentic standards in the GCMS and GCO. Aromas that were isolated and present in all 4 fish sauce samples at all concentrations included fishy (trimethylamine), pungent and dirty socks (combination of butanoic, pentanoic, hexanoic, and heptanoic acids), cooked rice and buttery popcorn (2,6-dimethyl pyrazine), and sweet and cotton candy (benzaldehyde). All fish sauces contained the same aromas as determined by GCO and GCMS (verified using authentic standard compounds), but the odor intensity associated with each compound or group of compounds was variable for different fish sauce samples. Stevens' Power Law exponents were also determined using this analytical technique, but exponents were not consistent for the same compounds that were found in all fish sauces. Stevens' Power Law exponents ranged from 0.14 to 0.37, 0.24 to 0.34, 0.09 to 0.21, and 0.10 to 0.35 for dirty socks, fishy, buttery popcorn, and sweet aromas, respectively. This demonstrates that there is variability in Stevens' Power Law exponents for odorants within fish sauce samples.

  18. Pennsylvanian and Cisuralian palynofloras from the Los Sauces area, La Rioja Province, Argentina: Chronological and paleoecological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquo, Mercedes di; Azcuy, Carlos L. [University/Organization, CONICET Institute CICyTTP, CICyTTP- CONICET Diamante - CP, Entre Rios (Argentina); Vergel, Maria del M. [INSUGEO-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    Three outcrops of the Libertad and Sauces Formations from the Los Sauces area La Rioja Province, western Argentina, yielded the nine palynoassemblages studied here. Two assemblage zones are defined on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution and ranges of seventy five species of palynomorphs (42 species of spores, 32 pollen taxa and one fungus). Only thirteen species are common to both assemblages and ten species are first records for the Paganzo Basin. Assemblage 1 from the Libertad Formation is dominated by trilete spores of Cristatisporites (lycophyte) and Punctatisporites (pteridophyte). Monosaccate pollen (Coniferales/Cordaitales) is frequently present. Pteridosperms, mostly represented by Cyclogranisporites, are especially abundant in one level together with scarce striate bisaccate pollen grains. Assemblage 2 of the Sauces Formation is dominated by trilete spores related to the Pteridophyta (e.g., Horriditriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites) and Sphenophyta. Monosaccate (Cordaitales/Coniferales) and taeniate and non-taeniate bisaccate pollen grains (Pteridospermales/Coniferales), are equally subordinated. Monosulcate pollen (Cycadophyta) and fungi (Portalites gondwanensis) are rare. Assemblage 1 is mainly Moscovian; assemblage 2 Asselian-Sakmarian. This interpretation is based on correlation of assemblage 1 to the DMb (Mid Pennsylvanian) and assemblage 2 to the FS (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Paganzo Basin (Argentina). The taxonomic composition of the Ahrensisporites cristatus-Crucisaccites monoletus (Mid-Late Pennsylvanian) and the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone (Asselian-Sakmarian) of the Vittatina costabilis (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Parana Basin (Brazil) support this correlation. The continental freshwater depositional setting of this part of the Paganzo Basin is supported by the dominance of terrestrial palynomorphs and phytoclasts, the presence of coal and carbonaceous shales, and the occurrence of plant megafossils

  19. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. HACCP在酿造酱油生产及品质控制中的应用%Application of HACCP in Soy Sauce Production and Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其钢; 古丽奴尔·吐拉西

    2016-01-01

    It is introduced HACCP management system the way of how to built on the soy sauce and the specific results of the implementation and using the meaning and necessity of soy sauce HACCP management system of quality control .%介绍HACCP管理体系在酿造酱油企业中建立HACCP的具体方法及实施结果,采用HACCP管理体系在酱油品质控制中的意义和必要性。

  1. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  2. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the...

  3. National outbreak of type a foodborne botulism associated with a widely distributed commercially canned hot dog chili sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao, Patricia C; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J

    2013-02-01

    On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Investigators reviewed patients' medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities.

  4. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  5. Adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce using carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal: Isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Jin, Ru-Na; Omer, A M; Ouyang, Xiao-Kun

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a new adsorbent based on carboxylated cellulose nanocrystal (CCN) was developed for the adsorption of Pb(II) from fish sauce. The prepared adsorbent material was characterized by zeta potential, FT-IR, XRD, and XPS tools. The changes in the morphological structure of the developed CCN surface were evidenced by SEM and TEM. The favorable adsorption conditions were selected by studying the contact time, initial concentration, temperature, and concentration of the used glutamic acid and NaCl. The results indicated that the Langmuir isotherm model agrees very well with experimental adsorption data (R 2 =0.9962) with a maximum adsorption capacity 232.56mg/g of Pb(II) at 293.2K. Additionally, data of the adsorption kinetics follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics (R 2 >0.9990). On the other hand, the thermodynamics studies show that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the developed CCN could be regenerated using acid treatment with a good reusability for Pb(II) adsorption. The results clearly indicated that the synthesized CCN could be effectively applied as a new material for Pb(II) adsorption from fish sauce solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-07-14

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3-10.0 µg·kg(-1), with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg(-1) and recoveries of 87.2%-114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R² > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg(-1). The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis.

  7. Stereoselective Behavior of the Chiral Herbicides Diclofop-Methyl and Diclofop During the Soy Sauce Brewing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Zhang, Dong; Liao, Yahui; Diao, Jinling; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chiral pesticides are now receiving more and more attention in the food-making process. This experiment studied the enantioselective behavior of diclofop-methyl (DM) and its main metabolite, diclofop (DC), during the soy sauce brewing process. Two kinds of commonly used strains, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces rouxii, were investigated. However, they showed a different degradation ability to the enantiomers of DM and DC. It was observed that (-)-(S)-DM was degraded much faster than (+)-(R)-DM by Saccharomyces rouxii, while no stereoselective degradation was found by Aspergillus oryzae. DC represented a relatively long residue period in this fermentation process and both strains showed a weak degradation ability to DC, especially Saccharomyces rouxii. There was little DC detected in the final product, while most of the DC residues persisted in the lees, which were usually used as animal feeds or discarded into the environment directly as waste. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the soy sauce brewing process concerning pesticide residues both in the final product and byproducts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Performance of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor with Three Compartments in Removal of COD of Wastewater of Chilly Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantri Indro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this study is to examine the performance of each compartment of the number of compartments of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR to the COD removal of the chilly sauce wastewater. Three-compartments of ABR were conducted in this experiment with the total volume of 60 l. ABR is very suitable for processing waste water with high content of COD. Wastewater conducted in this research is a degradable chilly sauce synthetic and high content of organic compounds. While the COD parameter is the main parameter to indicate the achievement of wastewater treatment plant. Stepwise in the research starting with the preparation of raw materials such as sample preparation of synthetic wastewater and preparation of activated sludge. Variable used is the time digestion in the ABR, sludge volume (50% and 70%, and initial COD concentrations (6000 – 14000 mg/L. The response is observed up to 7 days process. For a load of organic compounds, the first compartment has high degree of decomposition of organic compounds than 2nd and 3rd, it is shown that the COD removal the second and third compartment increase insignificantly compare the first compartment. As for the different height of the activated sludge indicated that for organic load of of 6170 mg/L up to 14265 mg/L, the first compartment has removal efficiency 79-73%, in the second compartment is 81-75%, 81-77% and third compartment.

  9. Simultaneous Quantitation of Advanced Glycation End Products in Soy Sauce and Beer by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry without Ion-Pair Reagents and Derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Yuri; Annaka, Hironori; Sato, Shinji; Ueta, Etsuko; Ohkura, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Homma, Seiichi; Suzuki, Emiko; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive method to analyze several advanced glycation end products (AGEs) simultaneously using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and to apply this method to the quantitation of AGEs in brown-colored foods. The developed method enabled to separate and quantitate simultaneously seven AGEs, and was applied to the determination of free AGEs contained in various kinds of soy sauce and beer. The major AGEs in soy sauce and beer were N ε -carboxymethyllysine (CML), N ε -carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and N δ -(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)ornithine (MG-H1). Using the developed LC-MS/MS method, recovery test on soy sauce and beer samples showed the recovery values of 85.3-103.9% for CML, 95.9-107.4% for CEL, and 69.5-123.2% for MG-H1. In particular, it is the first report that free CML, CEL, and MG-H1 were present in beer. Furthermore, long-term storage and heating process of soy sauce increased CML and MG-H1.

  10. Isolation and characterization of halophilic lactic acid bacteria acting as a starter culture for sauce fermentation of the red alga Nori (Porphyra yezoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Miyoshi, T; Yoshida, G; Niwa, K; Mori, M; Wakabayashi, H

    2014-06-01

    A screening test was conducted for environmental samples to isolate halophilic lactic acid bacteria (HLAB) that can act as a starter in a Nori (Porphyra yezoensis)-sauce culture. After 9 months of incubation of enrichment cultures added with 25 kinds of environmental samples, growth of HLAB-like microorganisms was observed in six cultures salted at a 15% w/w level, including culture samples originally from mesopelagic water taken from 321 m-depth and from mountain snow taken at 2450 m-height. Ten strains were isolated and characterized as Tetragenococcus halophilus based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The isolates were inoculated into a newly prepared Nori-sauce culture and were confirmed to be able to act as a starter culture while three reference strains of T. halophilus obtained from a culture collection could not grow in the same culture. Halophilic lactic acid bacteria strains that can make growth in a highly salted Nori-sauce culture were isolated from environmental samples for the first time. All the isolates were identified as T. halophilus. The isolated strains are expected to be utilized as a starter culture for manufacturing fermented seaweed-sauce, which will be the first fermented food products obtained from algae. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Mouthwatering but erosive? A preliminary assessment of the acidity of a basic sauce used in many Indian dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Nandini; Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether some types of Indian cuisine may contain erosive components. Indian dishes were prepared by a previously published method and their pH measured using a pH probe. The results indicated: (i) that some components of Indian cooking, such as tomatoes and red chilli powder, had the potential to erode enamel; (ii) that the pH of some foods was reduced with increasing temperature; and (iii) that all the basic masalas made and tested had a pH of less than 4.5. Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that the basic sauce/masala used in north Indian dishes may have erosive potential. This information could be considered useful when advising patients who eat Indian curries about causes of acid erosion of their teeth.

  12. Analysis of Umami Taste Compounds in a Fermented Corn Sauce by Means of Sensory-Guided Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charve, Joséphine; Manganiello, Sonia; Glabasnia, Arne

    2018-02-28

    Corn sauce, an ingredient obtained from the fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed corn starch and used in culinary applications to provide savory taste, was investigated in this study. The links between its sensory properties and taste compounds were assessed using a combination of analytical and sensory approaches. The analyses revealed that glutamic acid, sodium chloride, and acetic acid were the most abundant compounds, but they could not explain entirely the savory taste. The addition of other compounds, found at subthreshold concentrations (alanine, glutamyl peptides, and one Amadori compound), contributed partly to close the sensory gap between the re-engineered sample and the original product. Further chemical breakdown, by a sensory-guided fractionation approach, led to the isolation of two fractions with taste-modulating effects. Analyses by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that the fractions contained glutamyl peptides, pyroglutamic acid, glutamic acid, valine, N-formyl-glutamic acid, and N-acetyl-glutamine.

  13. Structures of Two Yellow Dyes Found in Cucumbers Pickled in Soy Sauce Colored with Tartrazine (Y4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Asamoe; Shindo, Tetsuya; Kyoko, Hitomi; Sadamasu, Yuki; Sakamaki, Narue; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2017-01-01

    Two yellow dyes, together with tartrazine (Y4), were found in cucumbers pickled in soy sauce, for which the use of tartrazine is permitted, by TLC, LC-DAD, and LC-MS. The retention times on LC chromatograms and the maximum absorbance wavelengths measured by LC-DAD of the two dyes were different from those of tartrazine. Mass spectra of the dyes indicated that these dyes lacked one sulfonyl group of tartrazine. The presence of two less sulfonated dyes in tartrazine has been reported. Hence, the two less sulfonated dyes were synthesized. The two dyes found in cucumbers were compared with the synthesized dyes by LC-DAD and LC-MS. Since the retention times of the dyes in cucumbers on the LC chromatograms, as well as their LC-DAD spectra and mass spectra, were found to be identical with those of the synthesized dyes, we concluded these dyes are the less sulfonated subsidiary dyes of tartrazine.

  14. An aerobic detoxification photofermentation by Rhodospirillum rubrum for converting soy sauce residue into feed with moderate pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Jie; Zhang, Wen-Xue; Zhu, Wen-You; Tu, Fang; Jiang, Ya; Sun, Chuan-Ze

    2017-09-25

    This paper reports an effective process for converting soy sauce residue into feeds by combining moderate acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100 °C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N 2 , CO 2 , and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. Following sulfuric acid treatment, the true protein increased from 188 to 362 g kg -1 and the crude fiber decreased from 226 to 66 g kg -1 after fermentation at 0.5 L min -1  L -1 of air flow and a light intensity of 750 lx and following phosphoric acid treatment, the true protein increased by 90% and the crude fiber decreased by 67% after fermentation at 0.6 L min -1  L -1 of air flow and a light intensity of 600 lx Other contents, including crude fat, crude ash, phosphorus, sulfur, sulfur-containing amino acids, sodium chloride, and calcium, were also improved for use as feed. Meantime, some toxic substances, including furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), acetic acid, phenol, and cresol, which were produced by the pretreatments, could be removed by 12-32, 5-8, 49-53, 7-8, and 7-8%, respectively; and total sugars, glucose, and xylose could be utilized by 68-69, 71-72, and 63-67% respectively. The quality of soy sauce residue is improved for use as feed and some toxic substances can be decreased via the R. rubrum fermentation.

  15. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; Moore, Kirsten; Tong, Jeffery K T; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Green, Tim J

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether ad libitum consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce over 6 months yields higher erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among women of childbearing age and their children aged 12-59 months compared with control sauce containing no thiamin. In this double-blind, randomized controlled efficacy trial, 276 nonpregnant, nonlactating women (18-45 years of age) and their families in Prey Veng, Cambodia, were randomized to receive 1 of 3 fish sauce formulations: low thiamin concentration (low, 2 g/L), high thiamin concentration (high, 8 g/L), or a control (no thiamin) fish sauce. Baseline (t = 0) and endline (t = 6 months) eTDP were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Fish sauce consumption did not differ between treatment groups (P = .19). In intent-to-treat analysis, women's baseline-adjusted endline eTDP (mean; 95% CI) was higher among women in the low (259; 245-274 nmol/L) and high (257; 237-276 nmol/L) groups compared with control (184; 169-198 nmol/L; P sauce appears to be an efficacious means of improving biochemical thiamin status in nonpregnant, nonlactating women and their children (1-5 years of age) living in rural Cambodia. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02221063. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce[Gamma irradiation; Fermented anchovy; Color; Flavor compounds; Electronic nose; Sensory evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.H.; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Rhee, Moon Soo; Ryu, Gi Hyung; Byun, Myung Woo E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2004-02-01

    Color, flavor, and sensory characteristics of irradiated salted and fermented anchovy sauce were investigated. The filtrate of salted and fermented anchovy was irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy. After irradiation, Hunter's color values were increased, however, the color values were gradually decreased in all samples during storage. Amount of the aldehydes, esters, ketones, S-containing compounds, and the other groups were increased up to 7.5 kGy irradiation, then decreased at 10 kGy (P<0.05), while the alcohols and furan groups were increased by irradiation. Different odor patterns were observed among samples using electronic nose system analysis. Gamma-irradiated samples showed better sensory score and the quality was sustained during storage. In conclusion, gamma irradiation of salted and fermented anchovy sauce could improve its sensory quality by reducing typical fishy smell.

  17. Formation of heterocyclic amines in Chinese marinated meat: effects of animal species and ingredients (rock candy, soy sauce and rice wine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Hong, Yanting; Ke, Weixin; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are one type of neo-formed contaminants in protein-rich foods during heat processing. Recently, accumulative studies have focused on the formation of HAs in Western foods. However, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of HAAs in traditional Chinese foods. The objective of this study was to determinate the contents of main HAs in traditional marinated meat products by UPLC-MS/MS, and to investigate the effects of animal species and the ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy, and rice wine) on the formation of HAAs in marinated meats. Five HAs - 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQ), 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Norharman) and l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole (Harman) - were detected in 12 marinated meats, but 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was only found in three chicken marinates. The animal species and ingredients (soy sauce, rock candy and rice wine) have significant influence on the formation of HAAs in meat marinates. Beef had the highest content of total HAAs compared with pork, mutton and chicken. Meanwhile, soy sauce contributed to the formation of HAAs more greatly than rock candy, soy sauce, and rice wine. Choice of raw materials and optimisation of ingredients recipe should be become a critical point to control the HAAs formation in marinated meats. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Comparison of Antiobesity Effects Between Gochujangs Produced Using Different Koji Products and Tabasco Hot Sauce in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hee-Kyoung; Shin, Hye-Won; Jang, Eun-Seok; Moon, Byoung-Seok; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared the antiobesity effects between gochujangs prepared using different koji products and Tabasco hot sauce in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD containing four different types of 10% gochujang powder or 0.25% commercial Tabasco sauce powder for 8 weeks. The body weight gain, liver and epididymal and mesenteric fat pad weights, serum leptin levels, and lipogenesis-related mRNA levels of HFD-gochujang supplementation groups were significantly decreased compared with those of the HFD group. In addition, gochujang supplement significantly reduced adipocyte size; hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels; the occurrence of fatty liver deposits and steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis through downregulation of fatty acid synthase, acetly-CoA carboxylase, and glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. These effects were greater in the gochujang-supplemented groups than the Tabasco hot sauce-supplemented group. The gochujang prepared by nutritious giant embryo rice koji and soybean koji was most effective in terms of antiobesity effects, compared with the other tested gochujangs. In gochujangs, the antiobesity effects are mediated by high levels of secondary metabolites such as isoflavone, soyasaponin, capsaicin, and lysophosphatidylcholine. The current results indicated that the gochujang products have the potential to reduce fat accumulation and obesity.

  19. Effect of Soy Sauce on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Rats and Identification of Flazin as a Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-15

    This is the first report on the ability of soy sauce to effectively reduce the serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of hyperuricemic rats. Soy sauce was partitioned sequentially into ethyl acetate and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction with strong XOD inhibition effect was purified further. On the basis of xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity-guided purification, nine compounds including 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate, diisobutyl terephthalate, harman, daidzein, flazin, catechol, thymine, genistein, and uracil were obtained. It was the first time that 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate and diisobutyl terephthalate had been identified from soy sauce. Flazin with hydroxymethyl furan ketone group at C-1 and carboxyl at C-3 exhibited the strongest XOI activity (IC50 = 0.51 ± 0.05 mM). According to fluorescence quenching and molecular docking experiments, flazin could enter into the catalytic center of XOD to interact with Lys1045, Gln1194, and Arg912 mainly by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Flazin, catechol, and genistein not only were potent XOD inhibitors but also held certain antioxidant activities. According to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) simulation in silico, flazin had good oral bioavailability in vivo.

  20. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamomum verum Methanolic Extract and Essential Oil: A Study on Bio-preservative in Ketchup Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosheh Sharifan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural antimicrobial compounds extracted from plants such as cinnamon as preservative to extend the shelf life has gain much attention. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity and bio- preservative potential of the methanolic extract of Cinnamomum verum bark and its oil against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosae and Escherichia coli in ketchup sauce. In order to evaluate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of essential oil and methanolic extract from the bark of C. verum, agar dilution method was performed. Then the effective inhibitory concentrations were evaluated on growth of test bacteria in ketchup sauce at 4 °C and room temperature in different storage times (1, 7, 14 and 30 days. In addition, the sensory quality of treated ketchups was assessed. This study showed bacteriostatic effect of the essential oils and methanolic extract on all tested bacteria. The best treatment in ketchup sauce was obtained on days 14 at 4 °C in concentrations of 1500 µg/ml essential oil. In sensory evaluation, the sample containing 1000 µg/ml essential oil had higher score in odor, taste and overall acceptability than other treated samples (P<0.05. This study shows that cinnamon oil is a more potent antimicrobial agent than cinnamon extract and it has the potential to be used as food preservative and is recommended for quality attributes enhancement.

  1. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  2. Effect of salt-tolerant yeast of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii on the production of biogenic amines during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Hou, Li-Hua; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Liu, Jin-Fu; Cao, Xiao-Hong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to enhance and improve the quality and safety of soy sauce. In the present work, the change of biogenic amines, such as histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, spermidine, was examined by the treatment of Candida versatilis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and the influence of salt-tolerant yeast on biogenic amines was analysed during the whole fermentation process. The results showed that the content of biogenic amines was elevated after yeast treatment and the content of biogenic amines was influenced by using yeast. The dominating biogenic amine in soy sauce was tyramine. At the end of fermentation, the concentrations of biogenic amines produced by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis in the soy mash were 122.71 mg kg(-1) and 69.96 mg kg(-1) . The changes of biogenic amines in high-salt liquid soy mash during fermentation process indicated that a variety of biogenic amines were increased in the fermentation ageing period, which may be due to amino acid decarboxylation to form biogenic amines by yeast decarboxylase. The fermentation period of soy sauce should be longer than 5 months because biogenic amines began to decline after this time period. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i comply with International Codex; (ii adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii ensure enforcement.

  4. The Making of Salty Soy Sauce From Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens (Study of Saline Concentration of Salt Solution and Duration of Moromi's Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Febrianto Mulyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the saline concentration and moromi’s fermentation duration of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce at best organolepticly and determine consumers’ preferences towards Koro Benguk salty soy sauce from the best treatment results. The study was conducted using a randomized design method using two factors: the saline concentration (17%; 20%; and 23% and duration of moromi’s fermentation (2; 3; and 4 weeks. The best treatment results based on the Friedman test was on the saline concentration of 17% and moromi’s fermentation duration was 4 weeks, with the NP value of 1,000; had a preference color level of 5:40 (liked; aroma of 4.30 (rather liked; flavor of 4.55 (rather liked; and viscosity of 5.05 (liked. The obtained protein was 7.14%; and dissolved solids of 27obrix. Consumers’ preferences towards the best treatment showed that product of Koro Benguk salty soy sauce was acceptable to consumers.

  5. Caracterización morfométrica de la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Julia Gaspari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande abastece el complejo hidráulico Embalse Paso de las Piedras, comportándose como servicio ambiental primordial para el consumo hídrico de Bahía Blanca. El análisis de las características morfométricas y funcionales de una cuenca hidrográfica a través de parámetros de forma, relieve y red de drenaje, es básico en la modelación hidrológica para determinar el movimiento y captación del agua de lluvia. Estos indicadores pueden apoyar una formulación de un Sistema de Pago por Servicios Ambientales, como estrategia básica de ordenamiento territorial y desarrollo local, centrado en la oferta de agua generada por la cuenca. El objetivo fue caracterizar morfométricamente la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. La metodología aplicada se basó en establecer y analizar los parámetros morfométricos mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica y planillas de cálculo, a partir de un modelo digital del terreno e imágenes satelitales. Los resultados alcanzados definieron que la cuenca posee un área de 1502.6 km2. La longitud axial es de 41.6 km con un ancho promedio de 36.1 km. El Factor de forma (0.87 indica que posee forma alargada, siendo rectangular oblonga según el coeficiente de compacidad de Gravelius (2.8. La longitud del cauce principal es 58.34 km con pendiente media de 0.48 %. La densidad de drenaje es 0.27 km.km-2 y su coeficiente de sinuosidad 1.42. El tiempo de concentración es 11.8 hs. La curva hipsométrica adimensional corresponde a una cuenca con un avanzado grado de desarrollo. Todos estos parámetros facilitan la cuantificación del caudal líquido en la cuenca.

  6. Magnetic metal-organic frameworks for fast and efficient solid-phase extraction of six Sudan dyes in tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin-Ran; Chen, Xue-Lei; Hao, Yu-Lan; Li, Li; Xu, Hou-Jun; Wang, Man-Man

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction is an effective and useful technique to preconcentrate trace analytes from food samples. In this study, a magnetic trimeric chromium octahedral metal-organic framework (Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101) was fabricated and characterized. Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101 was applied as an adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography to effectively isolate and simultaneously determine six Sudan dyes (Para Red, Sudan I-IV, and Sudan Red 7B) from tomato sauce. Potential factors affecting the MSPE were investigated in detail, and adsorption efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 -NH 2 @MIL-101 was compared with those of conventional adsorbents, such as neutral alumina, HLB, and C 18 . The developed method facilitated the extraction with using only 3 mg of adsorbent in 2 min. In addition, enhancement factors of 50, linear range of 0.01-25 μg/mL, and detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5-2.5 μg/kg were obtained. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries for spiked Sudan dyes were in the range of 72.6%-92.9% and 69.6%-91.6%, respectively, with relative standard deviations of ≤9.2%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tentative Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Commercial Budu, a Malaysian Fish Sauce, Using GC-MS

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    Yazid Abdul Manap

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Budu is a famous Malaysian fish sauce, usually used as seasoning and condiment in cooking. Budu is produced by mixing fish and salt at certain ratio followed by fermentation for six months in closed tanks. In this study, four commercial brands of Budu were analyzed for their chemical properties (pH, salt content and volatile compounds. The pH of Budu samples ranged from 4.50–4.92, while the salt (NaCl content ranged between 11.80% and 22.50% (w/v. For tentative identification of volatile flavor compounds in Budu, two GC columns have been used, DB-WAX and HP-5MS. A total of 44 volatile compounds have been detected and 16 were common for both columns. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl disulfide, 3-(methylthio-propanal, 3-methylbutanoic acid and benzaldehye have been identified as the aroma-active compounds in Budu due to their lower threshold values.

  8. Anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of siraitia grosvenorii on the spoilage bacteria isolated from sauced pork head meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, L. Y.; Cui, Y. Q.; Pang, M. X.; Wang, F.; Qi, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that optimum extraction condition of active ingredients extracted from Siraitia grosvenorii were described as follows: ethanol concentrations of sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction; the active ingredients of Siraitia grosvenorii had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus sp, Serratia sp and MIC was 0.125g/mL, 0.0625g/mL, 0.125g/mL and 0.125g/mL. The active constituent of Siraitia grosvenorii has obvious anti-bacteria effect on the spoilage bacteria isolated from Sauced pork head meat and can be used as a new natural food preservation to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  9. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  10. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation.

  11. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcinogen. The European Union (EU) has set a maximum concentration of 0.02 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set a guidance limit of 1 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP. 1,3-DCP is not an approved food additive, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA) has set a limit at 0.005 mg/kg, which is close to the estimated method detection limit. Currently there are few analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP without derivatization due to differences in their physical chemical properties and reactivity. A new method was developed using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) with direct analysis of the extract without derivatization using gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ). Additionally, a market sampling of 60 soy sauce samples was performed in 2015 to determine if concentrations have changed since the FDA limit was set in 2008. The sampling results were compared between the new QuEChERS method and a method using phenylboronic acid (PBA) as a derivatizing agent for 3-MCPD analysis. The concentrations of 3-MCPD detected in soy sauce samples collected in 2015 (3-MCPD below current regulatory limits PMID:28064506

  12. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-02-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcinogen. The European Union (EU) has set a maximum concentration of 0.02 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set a guidance limit of 1 mg/kg of 3-MCPD in aHVP. 1,3-DCP is not an approved food additive, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JEFCA) has set a limit at 0.005 mg/kg, which is close to the estimated method detection limit. Currently there are few analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP without derivatization due to differences in their physical chemical properties and reactivity. A new method was developed using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) with direct analysis of the extract without derivatization using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ). Additionally, a market sampling of 60 soy sauce samples was performed in 2015 to determine if concentrations have changed since the FDA limit was set in 2008. The sampling results were compared between the new QuEChERS method and a method using phenylboronic acid (PBA) as a derivatizing agent for 3-MCPD analysis. The concentrations of 3-MCPD detected in soy sauce samples collected in 2015 (3-MCPD below current regulatory limits.

  13. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Hee; Noh, Min-Young; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Haiwon; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) and soy sauce (SS) are traditional foods in Asia, which contain antioxidants that have cytoprotective effects on the body. The majority of SS products contain high levels of common salt, consumption of which has been associated with numerous detrimental effects on the body. However, BS may be considered a healthier substitute to common salt. The present study hypothesized that SS made from BS, known as bamboo salt soy sauce (BSSS), may possess enhanced cytoprotective properties; this was evaluated using a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced neuronal cell death rat model. Rat neuronal cells were pretreated with various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) of BSSS, traditional soy sauce (TRSS) and brewed soy sauce (BRSS), and were subsequently exposed to H 2 O 2 (100 µM). The viability of neuronal cells, and the occurrence of DNA fragmentation, was subsequently examined. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with TRSS and BRSS reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neuronal cells pretreated with BSSS exhibited increased cell viability, as compared with non-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, neuronal cells pretreated with 0.01% BSSS exhibited the greatest increase in viability. Exposure of neuronal cells to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, poly (ADP-ribose), cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cytochrome c , apoptosis-inducing factor, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, in all cases. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with BSSS significantly reduced the levels of ROS generated by H 2 O 2 , and increased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, the observed effects of BSSS could be blocked by administration of 10 µM LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. The results of the present study suggested that BSSS may exert positive neuroprotective effects against H 2 O 2

  14. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  15. The simultaneous separation and determination of chloropropanols in soy sauce and other flavoring with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical and electron impact ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomin; Ren, Yiping; Wu, Pinggu; Han, Jianlong; Shen, Xianghong

    2006-02-01

    Both gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron ionization (GC-MS-EI) and negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI) modes are reported in this paper for the simultaneous determination of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP), 2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol (2,3-DCP), 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) in soy sauce and other flavoring. D(5)-3-MCPD (for 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and d(5)-1,3-DCP (for 1,3-DCP and 2,3-DCP) were used as the deuterium isotopic labelled internal standards. The feasibility of using heptafluorobutyric anhydride modified with triethylamine (HFBA-Et(3)N) as a new derivatization reagent to replace heptafluorobutyrylimidazole (HFBI) is proposed. Liquid/liquid extraction with hexane was introduced for high lipid content samples. A small survey was carried out of soy sauces (103 samples) and instant noodles (45 samples) and the applicability of GC-MS-NCI and GC-MS-EI was assessed in these different matrices.

  16. Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Kil, Jeung-Ha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of fermented sesame sauce (FSeS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and H2O2 scavenging assay was used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of FSeS. To investigate the cytoprotective effect of FSeS against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells, the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were measured. RESULTS The ability of FSeS to scavenge DPPH, •OH and H2O2 was greater than that of FSS and AHSS. FSeS also significantly inhibited H2O2-induced (500 µM) oxidative damage in the LLC-PK1 cells compared to FSS and AHSS (P sauces, FSeS also significantly increased cellular CAT, SOD, and GSH-px activities and mRNA expression (P < 0.05). CONCULUSIONS These results from the present study suggest that FSeS is an effective radical scavenger and protects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24741396

  17. Water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion for the delivery of starter cultures in reduced-salt moromi fermentation of soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanthi, Putu Virgina Partha; Linforth, Robert; El Kadri, Hani; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2018-08-15

    This study investigated the application of water-oil-water (W 1 /O/W 2 ) double emulsions (DE) for yeast encapsulation and sequential inoculation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromi stage of soy sauce fermentation with reduced NaCl and/or substitution with KCl. Z. rouxii and T. halophilus were incorporated in the internal W 1 and external W 2 phase of DE, respectively. NaCl reduction and substitution promoted T. halophilus growth to 8.88 log CFU/mL, accompanied with faster sugar depletion and enhanced lactic acid production. Reducing NaCl without substitution increased the final pH (5.49) and decreased alcohols, acids, esters, furan and phenol content. However, the application of DE resulted in moromi with similar microbiological and physicochemical characteristics to that of high-salt. Principal component analysis of GC-MS data demonstrated that the reduced-salt moromi had identical aroma profile to that obtained in the standard one, indicating the feasibility of producing low-salt soy sauce without compromising its quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  19. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( < 5 mg lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  20. Application of percolation leaching in Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lang; Wang Haita; He Jiangming

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve these problems such as high cost by conventional agitation leaching, low permeability and low leaching rate by heap leach, a percolation leaching method was developed. Two-year's production results show that leaching rate of uranium is up to 90% by this method. Compared with conventional agitation leaching, the power, sulfuric acid and lime consumption by the percolation leaching decreased by 60%, 27% and 77% respectively. (authors)

  1. Characterization of eight Bacillus thuringiensis isolates originated from fecal samples of Fuzhou Zoo and Fuzhou Panda Center

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, Ch.; Wu, L.; Zhang, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Xu, L.; Guan, X.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2014), s. 395-397 ISSN 1226-8615 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * faeces * microscophy Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S122686151400034X

  2. APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Lin; Gui, Ee Mei; Lu, Ting; Sze Cheow, Pui; Giannikopoulou, Panagiota; Kakoulides, Elias; Lampi, Evgenia; Choi, Sik-man; Yip, Yiu-chung; Chan, Pui-kwan; Hui, Sin-kam; Wollinger, Wagner; Carvalho, Lucas J.; Garrido, Bruno C.; Rego, Eliane C. P.; Ahn, Seonghee; Kim, Byungjoo; Li, Xiuqin; Guo, Zhen; Styarini, Dyah; Aristiawan, Yosi; Putri Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani; Aryana, Nurhani; Ebarvia, Benilda S.; Dacuaya, Aaron; Tongson, Alleni; Aganda, Kim Christopher; Junvee Fortune, Thippaya; Tangtrirat, Pradthana; Mungmeechai, Thanarak; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Gündüz, Simay; Yilmaz, Hasibe

    2017-01-01

    The supplementary comparison APMP.QM-S8: determination of mass fraction of benzoic acid, methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben in soy sauce was coordinated by the Health Sciences Authority, Singapore under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). Ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) participated in the comparison. All the institutes participated in the comparison for benzoic acid, while six NMIs/DIs participated in the comparison for methyl paraben and n-butyl paraben. The comparison was designed to enable participating institutes to demonstrate their measurement capabilities in the determination of common preservatives in soy sauce, using procedure(s) that required simple sample preparation and selective detection in the mass fraction range of 50 to 1000 mg/kg. The demonstrated capabilities can be extended to include other polar food preservatives (e.g. sorbic acid, propionic acid and other alkyl benzoates) in water, aqueous-based beverages (e.g. fruit juices, tea extracts, sodas, sports drinks, etc) and aqueous-based condiments (e.g. vinegar, fish sauce, etc). Liquid--liquid extraction and/or dilution were applied, followed by instrumental analyses using LC-MS/MS, LC-MS, GC-MS (with or without derivatisation) or HPLC-DAD. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for quantification, except in the case of a participating institute, where external calibration method was used for quantification of all three measurands. The assigned Supplementary Comparison Reference Values (SCRVs) were the medians of ten results for benzoic acid, six results for methyl paraben and six results for n-butyl paraben. Benzoic acid was assigned a SCRV of 154.55 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.94 mg/kg, methyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 100.95 mg/kg with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.40 mg/kg, and n-butyl paraben was assigned a SCRV of 99.05 mg

  3. LINEAMIENTOS PARA LA FORMULACIÓN DE PAGOS POR SERVICIOS AMBIENTALES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: ALTA CUENCA DEL RÍO SAUCE GRANDE. ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Denegri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo son: presentar un diagnóstico integral de los principales problemas ambientales generados a partir de la pérdida de suelo por erosión hídrica superficial y exponer los principales lineamientos para la formulación del PSA de la Cuenca Alta del Río Sauce Grande. Metodológicamente se procedió a caracterizar el área en estudio, cuantificar la degradación por erosión hídrica superficial, describir las actividades productivas, conocer los principales consumidores de agua, definir los principales actores del sistema, e identificar los Servicios Ambientales, factibles de ser incluidos en un sistema de PSA. La cuenca presenta procesos erosivos de diferente magnitud y en algunas zonas dificultades en el abastecimiento de agua para la población. Existe un proceso de cambio en el uso de suelo de ganadero a agrícola y a turismo rural. Se concluye que en la cuenca existen condiciones para la implementación de un PSA porque se detectaron dos servicios ambientales factibles de ser pagados: agua y paisaje, con demanda creciente y existen actores e instituciones factibles de ejecutarlo.

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and A. oryzae 100-8 strains: Towards the production of different soy sauce flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Hou, Lihua; Yao, Yunping; Wang, Chunling; Cao, Xiaohong

    2012-07-16

    Aspergillus oryzae plays a central role in soybean fermentation, particularly in its contribution to the flavor of soy sauce. We present a comparative assessment of the intracellular differences between wild-type strain 3.042 and mutant strain A100-8, at the proteome level. 522 different protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, with 134 spots being confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Of these, 451 were differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). There was at least a two-fold increase for 288 spots, and at least a two-fold decrease for 163 spots, in strain A100-8 when compared to 3.042. Further analysis showed that 63 of the more abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and the citrate cycle; 43 more abundant proteins and 10 less abundant proteins were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism; two of the more abundant proteins were involved in vitamin biosynthesis; and five of the more abundant proteins and four of the less abundant proteins were related to secondary metabolites. Moreover, quantitative real time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of six typical genes we selected were consistent with changes in protein expression. We postulate that there may be a relationship between DEPs and the flavor formation mechanism in A. oryzae. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  6. Social mobilization and social marketing to promote NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce in an iron-deficient population through a public-private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhan, Siyan; Sun, Jing; Lee, Liming

    2009-10-01

    The present pilot project aimed to assess the effectiveness of social mobilization and social marketing in improving knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and Fe status in an Fe-deficient population. In an uncontrolled, before-after, community-based study, social mobilization and social marketing strategies were applied. The main outcomes included KAP and Hb level and were measured at baseline, 1 year later and 2 years later. One urban county and two rural counties in Shijiazhuang Municipality, Hebei Province, China. Adult women older than 20 years of age and young children aged from 3 to 7 years were selected from three counties to attend the evaluation protocol. After 1 year, most knowledge and attitudes had changed positively towards the prevention and control of anaemia. The percentage of women who had adopted NaFeEDTA-fortified soya sauce increased from 8.9% to 36.6% (P children. Social mobilization and social marketing activities had a positive impact on the KAP of adult women, and resulted in marked improvements in Hb levels in both adult women and young children. This should be recommended as a national preventive strategy to prevent and control Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  7. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Okuda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students (n = 66 collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not (pfor trend < 0.05. A number of foods to which the students added seasonings were positively associated with Na excretion (pfor trend = 0.005. The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods (pfor trend < 0.05. Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  8. Placing Salt/Soy Sauce at Dining Tables and Out-Of-Home Behavior Are Related to Urinary Sodium Excretion in Japanese Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masayuki; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-11-28

    We investigated whether home environment, salt knowledge, and salt-use behavior were associated with urinary sodium (Na) excretion in Japanese secondary school students. Students (267; mean age, 14.2 years) from Suo-Oshima, Japan, collected three overnight urine samples and completed a salt environment/knowledge/behavior questionnaire. A subset of students ( n = 66) collected, on non-consecutive days, two 24 h urine samples, and this subset was used to derive a formula for estimating 24 h Na excretion. Generalized linear models were used to examine the association between salt environment/knowledge/behavior and Na excretions. Students that had salt or soy sauce placed on the dining table during meals excreted more Na than those that did not ( p for trend trend = 0.005). The students who frequently bought foods at convenience stores or visited restaurants excreted more Na in urine than those who seldom bought foods ( p for trend < 0.05). Knowledge about salt or discretionary seasoning use was not significantly associated with Na excretion. The associations found in this study indicate that home environment and salt-use behavior may be a target for a public health intervention to reduce salt intake of secondary school students.

  9. Survival of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) in raw ready-to-eat crab marinated in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, T J; Kim, N H; Kim, S A; Song, J H; Rhee, M S

    2016-12-05

    Knowing the survival characteristics of foodborne pathogens in raw ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood is the key to predicting whether they pose a microbiological hazard. The present study examined the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemoliticus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in raw RTE crab marinated in soy sauce. Inoculated crabs (initial bacterial population=4.1-4.4logCFU/g) were immersed in soy sauce and then stored at refrigeration (5°C) or room temperature (22°C) for up to 28days. At 5°C, all bacteria (except V. parahaemolyticus) survived in crab samples until Day 28 (counts of 1.4, 1.6, 3.1, 3.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively). However, at 22°C, all tested bacteria were more susceptible to the antimicrobial effects of marination. Regardless of temperature, foodborne pathogens attached to crab samples were more resistant to marination than those suspended in soy sauce samples; however, the survival pattern for each species was different. Gram-positive bacteria were most resistant to marination conditions (high salinity, low pH), whereas V. parahaemolyticus was extremely susceptible. Marination is the only antibacterial step in the manufacturing processes; however, the results presented herein reveal that this is not sufficient to inactivate foodborne pathogens. In particular, the survival of pathogens on crabs at refrigeration temperature may pose a major hazard for the consumption of raw RTE seafood. Thus, appropriate decontamination methods and implementation of safety management practices are needed. This study provides predictive microbiological information of foodborne pathogens in raw RTE seafood with marination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  11. EVALUASI POTENSI KECAP MANIS SEBAGAI PEMBAWA FORTIFIKAN NaFeEDTA: TINJAUAN PENGARUH ASUPAN KECAP KEDELAI MANIS HASIL FORTIFIKASI TERHADAP PENINGKATAN BIOAVAILABILITAS ZAT BESI FORTIFIKAN Potency of Sweet Soy Sauce as Vehicle for NaFeEDTA Fortificant: Eff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Naruki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate potency of sweet soy sauce as vehicle  for �aFeEDTA fortificant, the effect of sweet soy sauce intake on iron bioavailability of NaFeEDTA, was in vivo evaluated. The bioavailability was determined in Spague- Dawley rats using hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them iron-free diet. During the repletion period, iron-depleted rats were fed NaFeEDTA (0.35 mg Fe/day for their iron source of diet, withsweet soy sauce as fortification vehicle. Volume of soy sauce intake was varied from 0.0 to 0.7 mL/day. FeSO .7H O4 2(0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle  was used as reference standard. The bioavailability of iron was expressed ashemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE. The volume of soy sauce intake which resulted in good bioavailabilitywas used for further study. The further study was done to evaluate the iron bioavailability of NaFeEDTA (dosage was varied from 0.175 to 1.4 mg Fe/day with fixed volume of the fortification vehicle intake (0.2 mL/day. Sweet soy sauce and H O were used as fortification vehicle, while FeSO .7H O (0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle was used2 4 2 2as reference standard of fortificant.  The data showed that sweet soy sauce has a good potency  as fortification vehicle for NaFeEDTA. Intake of 0.2 mL of sweet soy sauce/day resulted in HRE of NaFeEDTA as high as HRE of standardFeSO .7H O. Furthermore, in compare with H O vehicle, the soy sauce resulted for higher HRE, higher iron absorp-4 2 2tion, and  higher iron retention, as well. It was found that increased intake of NaFeEDTA made HRE of NaFeEDTA,% A/I, and % R/I decreased. ABSTRAK Pengaruh kecap manis sebagai makanan pembawa terhadap peningkatan bioavailabilitas zat besi fortifikan �aFeEDTA, dievaluasi  secara in vivo, untuk mengetahui potensi kecap manis sebagai pembawa fortifikan tersebut. Bioavailabilitas ditentukan pada tikus Sprague-Dawley, menggunakan metoda deplesi-replesi hemoglobin. Selama

  12. Simultaneous Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in Asian Style Sauces Using QuEChERS Extraction and Gas Chromatography���Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Genualdi, Susan; Nyman, Patricia; DeJager, Lowri

    2017-01-01

    Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of nonfermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen, and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcin...

  13. Avocado Consumption Enhances Human Postprandial Provitamin A Absorption and Conversion from a Novel High–β-Carotene Tomato Sauce and from Carrots12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Young, Gregory S.; Harrison, Earl H.; Francis, David M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high–β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  14. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Effective extraction and simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes from tomato sauce and chili-containing foods using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Wang, Man-Man; Hao, Yu-Lan; Shi, Xin-Ran; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    A simple, effective, and robust magnetic solid-phase extraction method was developed using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles as the adsorbent for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) in foodstuffs. The magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The extraction parameters including extraction time, elution solution, and elution time and volume were investigated in detail. Such magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles based magnetic solid-phase extraction in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and variable wavelength detection gave the detection limits of 3-6 μg/kg for Sudan I-IV in chili sauce, tomato sauce, chili powder, and chili flake samples. The recoveries were 79.6-108% at three spiked levels with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.6 and 4.5-9.6%, respectively. The feasibility was further performed by a comparison with commercial alumina-N. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of Sudan dyes due to its sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Composition and Metabolic Activities of the Bacterial Community in Shrimp Sauce at the Flavor-Forming Stage of Fermentation As Revealed by Metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shan; Hu, Xiaoxi; Li, Mengru; Miao, Jianyin; Du, Jinghe; Wu, Rongli

    2016-03-30

    The bacterial community and the metabolic activities involved at the flavor-forming stage during the fermentation of shrimp sauce were investigated using metatranscriptome and 16S rRNA gene sequencings. Results showed that the abundance of Tetragenococcus was 95.1%. Tetragenococcus halophilus was identified in 520 of 588 transcripts annotated in the Nr database. Activation of the citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, along with the absence of lactate dehydrogenase gene expression, in T. halophilus suggests that T. halophilus probably underwent aerobic metabolism during shrimp sauce fermentation. The metabolism of amino acids, production of peptidase, and degradation of limonene and pinene were very active in T. halophilus. Carnobacterium, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium were also metabolically active, although present in very small populations. Enterococcus, Abiotrophia, Streptococcus, and Lactobacillus were detected in metatranscriptome sequencing, but not in 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Many minor taxa showed no gene expression, suggesting that they were in dormant status.

  17. IMPACTO DE LOS EVENTOS DE SEQUÍA EN LA REGIÓN DE LA CUENCA HIDROGRÁFICA DE LA LAGUNA SAUCE GRANDE (PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Carbone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La distribución e intensidad de los extremos hídricos provoca un impacto directo sobre las actividades humanas. Las características particulares de los eventos secos y húmedos ocurridos en la región de la cuenca hidrográfica de la laguna Sauce Grande, durante el período 1971- 2010, se analizan mediante la aplicación del Índice de severidad de sequía de Palmer. El 49% de los casos analizados correspondieron a sequías débiles, e incipientes. Los valores más extremos de eventos secos (-4.31 ocasionaron daños irreparables en los rendimientos de granos, que disminuyeron un 19% respecto al promedio actual. Durante los meses estivales se observaron los casos secos severos y extremos (12%. Se identificaron los períodos secos que mayor injerencia tuvieron sobre la producción agrícola ganadera de la región, sucedidas durante los años 2008 y 2009, la relación existente entre los valores de los índices severos y extremos en la morfometría de la laguna y estuario del río Sauce Grande.

  18. Determination of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in soy sauce by headspace derivatization solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Maw-Rong; Chiu, Tzu-Chun; Dou, Jianpeng

    2007-05-22

    This study proposes a method for identifying 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in aqueous matrices by using headspace on-fiber derivatization following solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimized SPME experimental procedures for extracting 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in aqueous solutions involved a 85 microm polyacrylate-coated fiber at pH 6, a sodium chloride concentration of 0.36 g mL(-1), extraction at 50 degrees C for 15 min and desorption of analytes at 260 degrees C for 3 min. Headspace derivatization was conducted in a laboratory-made design with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide vapor following solid-phase microextraction by using 3 microL N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide at an oil bath temperature of 230 degrees C for 40 s. This method had good repeatability (R.S.D.s or = 0.9972) for ultrapure water and soy sauce samples that were spiked with two analytes. Detection limits were obtained at the ng mL(-1). The result demonstrated that headspace on-fiber derivatization following solid-phase microextraction was a simple, fast and accurate technique for identifying trace 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 3-chloro-1,2-propandiol in soy sauce.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of 8 kinds of Biogenic Amines in Soy Sauce by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定酱油中的8种生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阳; 赵谋明; 赵海锋

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了高效液相色谱法同时检测酱油中色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺的方法.采用5%三氯乙酸溶液为样品提取溶剂,提取液经丹璜酰氯柱前衍生30 min,最终HPLC进行定性和定量分析.本方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为1.0~50μg/mL,相关系数R2大于0.99,检出限(S/N=3)为0.075~0.3 μg/mL.在添加水平为1.00和5.00 μg/mL时,样品的平均回收率在83%-111%之间,相对标准偏差为0.43%~19.0%.本方法具有线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高等优点,适用于酱油中生物胺的检测.采用本方法对市售10种酱油进行检测,总生物胺含量的范围为50.82~1898.17 μg/mL,其中酪胺、腐胺和苯乙胺是酱油样品中含量最多的生物胺.%An analytical method for simultaneous determination of trypatamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine in soy sauce by HPLC was developed Biogenic amines in soy sauce were extracted with a mixture of 5% TCA, and then derived with dansyl chloride for 30 min, HPLC was used to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was 1.0~50 μg/mL for biogenic amines and the correlation coefficient (R2) was greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.075-0.3 μg/mL. At the spiked levels of 1.00 and 5.00 μg/mL, the average recoveries were 83%~111% with the relative standard deviations of 0.43 %~ 19%. The results showed that the proposed method has a good linearity and sensitivity which is suitable to detect biogenic amines in soy sauce. The established method has been successfully applied to determine biogenic amines in 10 commercial soy sauce samples, and the values of total biogenic amines were in the range of 50.82~1898.17 μg/mL. Tyramine, putrescin and phenylethylamine were found to be predominant amines in soy sauce samples.

  20. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Loetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  1. SIFAT PROOKSIDATIF FORTIFIKAN NaFeEDTA, DENGAN KECAP KEDELAI MANIS SEBAGAI MAKANAN PEMBAWA, DALAM SISTEM BIOLOGIS (TIKUS Oxidative Effect of NaFeEDTA Fortificant in Sweet Soy Sauce as Fortification Vehicle, on Biological System (Rats

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    Sri Naruki Naruki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In vivo study about the effect of NaFeEDTA fortificant in sweet soy sauce on TBARS value of plasma and liver, as well as on histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach of Sprague Dawley rats was conducted. The oxida- tive properties were determined using hemoglobin depletion-repletion method. During 42 days of repletion periode, iron-depleted rats were fed iron-free diet. NaFeEDTA was ingested in varied dosage, i.e. from 0.175 to 1.4 mg Fe/day for each rat. Sweet soy sauce H O (0.2 mL/day was used as fortification vehicle and H O (0.2 mL/day as a control.2 2FeSO .7H O fortificant (0.35 mg Fe/day, with H O as vehicle was used as reference standard. At the end of the reple-4 2 2tion period, TBARS value of either plasma or liver was analized. The histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach were also evaluated. The data showed that NaFeEDTA fortificant in sweet soy sauce had no effect on TBARS value of plasma, but it resulted in increased TBARS value of liver. The histopathologic data showed that NaFeEDTA intake up to 0.35 mg Fe/day did not result in histopathologic changes of liver, intestine, and stomach, as well. ABSTRAK Penelitian tentang pengaruh dosis fortifikan NaFeEDTA dalam kecap kedelai manis terhadap angka TBARS plasma dan hati, serta perubahan histopatologik organ hati, usus, dan lambung telah dilakukan pada tikus Sprague Dawley. Evaluasi sifat prooksidatif zat besi dari NaFeEDTA dilakukan dengan metoda deplesi-replesi hemoglobin. Selama peri- ode replesi, tikus yang sebelumnya dibuat anemia, diberi diet basal bebas Fe dan minuman H O. NaFeEDTA diberikan sebagai sumber zat besi, dengan dosis bervariasi, yaitu dari 0,175 sampai dengan 1,40 mg Fe/ekor/hari. Kecap kedelai manis atau H O digunakan sebagai pembawa fortifikan. Fortifikan standar FeSO .7H O (0,35 mg Fe/ekor/hari dalam2 4 2H O digunakan sebagai pembanding. Periode replesi dilakukan selama 42 hari. Pada akhir periode replesi dilakukananalisa angka TBARS

  2. Aspectos microbiológicos e informação nutricional de molho de tomate orgânico oriundo da agricultura familiar Microbiological aspects and nutritional information of organic tomato sauce from family farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Martins Maria Cavalcante Melo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O sistema de produção orgânico vem crescendo, tanto em área cultivada como em número de produtores e mercado consumidor. Contudo, informações técnico-científicas sobre estes alimentos in natura e processados ainda são incipientes. O tomate (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. desempenha um importante papel para os produtores orgânicos de todo o mundo, em função do retorno financeiro e da grande demanda. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi elaborar um molho de tomate orgânico, aproveitando os saberes dos agricultores, bem como avaliar sua qualidade microbiológica e determinar sua informação nutricional. O molho estudado apresentou 93,45% de umidade, 0,89% de proteínas, 0,13% de lipídeos, 1,50% de cinzas e 4,03% de carboidratos totais. Quanto aos aspectos microbiológicos, o molho apresentou condição sanitária satisfatória, de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, e valor calórico menor do que os molhos comerciais disponíveis no mercado. Os produtos processados foram rotulados e vendidos nas feiras agroecológicas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, agregando valor ao tomate e gerando renda aos agricultores familiares.The organic production systems have been raising on cultivated area, producers number and market. However, technical and scientific information about raw and processed material undergoing to organic production system is scarce. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plays an important role for organic producers around the world due to its high profits and market acceptance. The aim of this study was to prepare an organic tomato sauce made from the knowledge of familiar farmers and to assess its microbiological quality and nutritional information. The studied product presented 93.45% of moisture, 0.89% of protein, 0.13% of lipids, 1.5% of ash and 4.03% of total carbohydrates contents. The products showed a satisfactory sanitary condition according to ANVISA and

  3. Rapid determination of parabens in seafood sauces by high-performance liquid chromatography: A practical comparison of core-shell particles and sub-2 μm fully porous particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Cao, Xiaoji; Cheng, Zhuo; Qin, Ye; Lu, Yanbin

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the chromatographic performance of superficially porous particles (Halo core-shell C18 column, 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm) was compared with that of sub-2 μm fully porous particles (Acquity BEH C18 , 50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm). Four parabens, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, were used as representative compounds for calculating the plate heights in a wide flow rate range and analyzed on the basis of the Van Deemter and Knox equations. Theoretical Poppe plots were constructed for each column to compare their kinetic performance. Both phases gave similar minimum plate heights when using nonreduced coordinates. Meanwhile, the flat C-term of the core-shell column provided the possibilities for applying high flow rates without significant loss in efficiency. The low backpressure of core-shell particles allowed this kind of column, especially compatible with conventional high-performance liquid chromatography systems. Based on these factors, a simple high-performance liquid chromatography method was established and validated for the determination of parabens in various seafood sauces using the Halo core-shell C18 column for separation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂ in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry utilizing turbulent flow chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Cui, Xiaobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    A novel fully automated method based on dual column switching using turbulent flow chromatography followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in corn powder, edible oil, peanut butter, and soy sauce samples. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, samples were directly injected to the chromatographic system and the analytes were concentrated into the clean-up loading column. Through purge switching, the analytes were transferred to the analytical column for subsequent detection by mass spectrometry. Different types of TurboFlow(TM) columns, transfer flow rate, transfer time were optimized. The limits of detection and quantification of this method ranged between 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-4.0 μg/kg for aflatoxins in different matrixes, respectively. Recoveries of aflatoxins were in range of 83-108.1% for all samples, matrix effects were in range of 34.1-104.7%. The developed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of aflatoxin B1 , B2 , G1 , and G2 in real samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Costos mínimos de compensación y cuantificación de la oferta hídrica en la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cecilia Carrascal Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue estimar los costos de aumentar la oferta de disponibilidad hídrica a través del cambio en las prácticas de uso del suelo, para establecer el monto mínimo de compensación de un futuro Sistema de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales, dentro del territorio perteneciente a la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. Se trabajó en tres etapas: simulación de la infiltración para diferentes tormentas a través de la aplicación del modelo hidrológico HEC-HMS, cálculo de costos de reconversión de sistemas productivos y cálculo del costo del incremento en la disponibilidad de agua. Como resultados se presentan los mapas temáticos necesarios para simular la infiltración y las tablas que muestran esta variación en distintas recurrencias de tormenta y diferentes prácticas de manejo del suelo. Para la recurrencia 1:1 el costo de oportunidad fue de U$S 1.21.m-3, para la recurrencia de 1:3 fue de U$S 0.73.m-3, hasta llegar a la tormenta cuyo costo fue de U$S 0.62.m-3. Se concluye que estos costos permiten apoyar la planificación del recurso hídrico a través de un PSA y que para avanzar se debe realizar una valoración contingente para establecer la disponibilidad a pagar por los usuarios del servicio ambiental de la cuenca.

  6. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  7. Estabilidade de molho de tomate em embalagens metálicas com baixo revestimento de estanho Stability of canned tomato sauce in tinplate cans with a reduced tin layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Tondella Dantas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de latas de três peças eletrossoldadas com corpo produzido em folha de flandres com camada de estanho de 2,0 g.m-2 no lado interno, contendo 340 g de molho de tomate, foi avaliado por meio da estocagem por 24 meses a 35 °C, tendo sido determinadas periodicamente: a concentração de estanho, ferro e cromo no produto; a condição de vácuo/pressão e a composição gasosa do espaço livre, além da aparência interna da embalagem. A partir dessa avaliação, pode-se concluir que essa embalagem é uma opção viável para 18 meses de estocagem do produto na temperatura ambiente de até 35 °C.The performance of three piece welded cans produced in tinplate with an internal tin layer of 2.0 g.m-2, containing 340 g of tomato sauce, was assessed by means of a storage test carried out for 24 months at 35 °C. The concentrations of tin, iron and chromium in the product, the vacuum/pressure condition and the headspace gas composition were periodically determined, as well as the internal visual appearance of the pack, allowing to conclude that such packaging was a viable option for 18 months of storage of the product from ambient temperature up to 35 °C.

  8. Development of a simple gel permeation clean-up procedure coupled to a rapid disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Sudan I dye in spices and sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Stevenson, Paul J; Schulz, Claudia; Hartig, Lutz; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-09-01

    Sudan dyes have been found to be added to chilli and chilli products for illegal colour enhancement purposes. Due to the possible carcinogenic effect, they are not authorized to be used in food in the European Union or the USA. However, over the last few years, many products imported from Asian and African countries have been reported via the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed in the European Union to be contaminated with these dyes. In order to provide fast screening method for the detection of Sudan I (SI), which is the most widely abused member of Sudan dyes family, a unique (20 min without sample preparation) direct disequilibrium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed. The assay was based on polyclonal antibodies highly specific to SI. A novel, simple gel permeation chromatography clean-up method was developed to purify extracts from matrices containing high amounts of fat and natural pigments, without the need for a large dilution of the sample. The assay was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. The detection capability was determined to be 15 ng g(-1) in sauces and 50 ng g(-1) in spices. The recoveries found ranged from 81% to 116% and inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation from 6% to 20%. The assay was used to screen a range of products (85 samples) collected from different retail sources within and outside the European Union. Three samples were found to contain high amounts (1,649, 722 and 1,461 ng g(-1)) of SI by ELISA. These results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The innovative procedure allows for the fast, sensitive and high throughput screening of different foodstuffs for the presence of the illegal colorant SI.

  9. What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander. Plea of Transport and Logistics Netherlands for a practical and transparent system to calculate societal cost in the transportation sector in order to realize governmental targets for equal treatment of means of transportation; Gelijke monniken, gelijke kappen. Pleidooi van Transport en Logistiek Nederland voor een praktisch en transparant systeem van doorberekening van maatschappelijke kosten in de transportsector om overheidsdoelstellingen te halen bij gelijke behandeling van vervoerswijzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, R.; Poppink, P. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Transport makes an important contribution to our welfare, which is expressed in a large consumer surplus or added value for society. Some people define this consumer surplus as external benefits, if the positive consequences of transport fall to others. But unfortunately transport is also accompanied by negative effects for society. If the causer does not pay all the costs of the negative effects of transport, called external or social costs. These social costs above all lie in the area of air pollution, noise nuisance, land use, cutting through the landscape, accident risk and - in a certain way - also congestion. Just like all the other players, the transport industry has a social responsibility to bear the social costs created. For example compensating victims for damage incurred, like paying emotional damages to surviving relatives of traffic casualties. In an ideal situation, transport will remove all the negative effects by source or end-of-pipe measures, so that the social costs disappear. If we compensate, reduce and remove negative effects by means of charging or standards, we speak of internalisation of the social costs. The best way to internalise the costs is with a 'market model' (Pigou/Coase), but a 'government model' is also possible in certain conditions. Firstly, we will discuss the ideal market model and then we will discuss the government model as the second-best solution. The following points will be discussed: Marginal costs are by definition costs of most expensive measure to achieve objectives; No mode of transport pays all marginal costs; Transport costs rise least with road transport and most with inland shipping; Market model or government model?; Government model will place heavier burdens on rail and inland shipping; In practice, the unpaid bill is lower than in theory; Wishes of industry and society can be combined by politicians; What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander is necessary and feasible

  10. Depression and Associated Factors in the Elderly Cadres in Fuzhou, China: A Community-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Cong

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Depression is common among Chinese elderly cadres. Our results confirmed that late-life depression remains complex, and lack of social engagement and low family support were associated with increased risk of GD.

  11. Comparative study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging system between the chinese 2008 and '92 Fuzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Jingfeng; Lin Shaojun; Zhang Yu; Chen Yunbin; Guo Qiaojuan; Pan Jianji

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a comparative study between the Chinese 2008 and '92 staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: A total of 777 patients presented with untreated non disseminated NPC who had received MRI scan of nasopharynx and neck were studied retrospectively. The clinical materials and information of imaging were collected. All patients were restaged according to the Chinese 2008 and 92 staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Distribution of T, N stage, survival and prognostic value were compared. 513 patients of the 777 cases were treated with conventional radiotherapy, 264 cases with intensity modulated radiation therapy. Results: The 3-year follow-up rate was 97.6%. The consistency of T stages was 95.0%. T, N and clinical stage distributions in two systems were similar ( Kappa = 0.93, P = 0.000; Kappa = 0.58, P = 0.000; Kappa = 0.74, P = 0.000). Local failure-free survival and disease specific survival were also similar. There was no difference of distant metastasis between N 0 and N 1 (χ 2 = 1.94, P=0. 164), and a marginal difference between N 1 and N 2 (χ 2 =3.83, P=0.051) in the Chinese '92 staging system. However, although there was also no difference of distant metastasis-free survival between N 0 and N 1a (χ 2 =0.07, P =0.797), ) the difference of overall survival among N 1b , N 2 , and N 3 were significant (χ 2 = 4.95, P = 0.026; χ 2 = 6.74, P = 0.009) in the Chinese 2008 staging system. Conventional radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy was not a prognostic factor for survival (χ 2 = 3.60, P =0.058). It is reasonable for the Chinese 2008 staging system integrated lymph node characteristics such as laterality, level and extra nodal neoplastic spread into the N staging criteria (χ 2 = 6.59, P = 0.010; χ 2 =4.78, P=0. 029; χ 2 =9.32, P=0.002). Conclusions: For the Chinese 2008 staging system, it was reasonable to simplify the previous T stage. The N stage showed a better predictive role of distant failure. The role of retropharyngeal lymph node in stage system needs further investigation. (authors)

  12. Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2015-11-01

    In this study, consumer acceptability was considered as a tool of reducing sodium rather than just using it as a final examination of the successfulness of the substitution. This study consisted of 4 experimental steps. First, by gradually reducing the concentrations of NaCl, consumer rejection threshold (CRT) of NaCl in beef soup was examined. Then, the amount of KCl that can increase preference was examined in 2 low sodium beef soups, with sodium concentrations slightly above or below the CRT. Relative saltiness of various KCl and NaCl/KCl mixtures were also measured. Finally, consumers evaluated acceptability and intensities of sensory characteristics for 9 beef soup samples that differed with respect to NaCl content and/or KCl content with/without addition of salty-congruent odor (soy-sauce odor). The results showed that in the "above CRT" system, consumer acceptability as well as sensory profile of low sodium beef soup substituted using KCl had similar profile to the control although saltiness was not fully recovered, whereas in the "below CRT" system, consumer acceptability was not recovered using KCl solely as a substitute. Potential of using salty-congruent odor as a final touch to induce salty taste was observed; however, the results inferred the importance of having almost no artificialness in the odor and having harmony with the final product when using it as a strategy to substitute sodium. Overall, the results of the study implied the importance of considering consumer acceptability when approaching sodium reduction to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor. Strategies attempting to reduce sodium contents in food have mainly substituted sodium to the level that provides equivalent salty taste and then examined consumer liking. However, these approaches may result in failure for consumer appeal. This study attempted to consider consumer acceptability as a tool of reducing sodium in beef soup substituted using

  13. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  14. Planning green space in Adelaide city : enlightenment from green space system planning of Fuzhou city (2015–2020)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Sutton, Paul C.; Anderson, Sharolyn J.; Nouri, Hamideh

    2017-01-01

    Urban green space is a type of open space furnished with grass, trees, flowers, water as well as some necessary infrastructures. It is an essential element of cities to the quality of life for urban residents. In current years, more and more urban planners pay great concern with the relationship of

  15. Experiences with primary healthcare in Fuzhou, urban China, in the context of health sector reform: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Rosalind; Chen, Lieping; ChenXiang, Tang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Starfield, Barbara; Jinhuan, Zheng; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    China has recently placed increased emphasis on the provision of primary healthcare services through health sector reform, in response to inequitably distributed health services. With increasing funding for community level facilities, now is an opportune time to assess the quality of primary care delivery and identify areas in need of further improvement. A mixed methodology approach was adopted for this study. Quantitative data were collected using the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Chinese version (C-PCAT), a questionnaire previously adapted for use in China to assess the quality of care at each health facility, based on clients' experiences. In addition, qualitative data were gathered through eight semi-structured interviews exploring perceptions of primary care with health directors and a policy maker to place this issue in the context of health sector reform. The study found that patients attending community health and sub-community health centres are more likely to report better experiences with primary care attributes than patients attending hospital facilities. Generally low scores for community orientation, family centredness and coordination in all types of health facility indicate an urgent need for improvement in these areas. Healthcare directors and policy makers perceived the need for greater coordination between levels of health providers, better financial reimbursement, more formal government contracts and recognition/higher status for staff at the community level and more appropriate undergraduate and postgraduate training. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Salt Reduction in Foods Using Naturally Brewed Soy Sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Shimojo, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, health concerns related to salt/sodium chloride consumption have caused an increased demand for salt-reduced foods. Consequently, sodium chloride (NaCl) reduction in foods has become an important challenge. The more so, since a decrease in NaCl content is often reported to be

  17. Is Sauce for the Goose Sauce for the Gander? Some Comparative Reflections on Minority Language Planning in North and South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clinton D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Compares efforts to support minority languages in the developed, industrialized countries of the north and the developing countries of the southern hemisphere. The article examines whether comparable principles are being applied to minority language planning, and if not, what the underlying reasons for the differences are. (33 references)…

  18. Burn! How implicit and explicit evaluation predict early adolescents' "hot sauce" aggression towards classroom peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined to what extent early adolescents' implicit and explicit evaluations of a classmate predict (a) their own aggressive behavior toward that classmate and (b) their classmate's aggressive behavior toward them. Implicit and explicit peer evaluations were assessed among 148

  19. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  20. Secret Sauce and Snake Oil: Writing Monthly Reports in a Highly Contingent Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuzzi, Clay

    2010-01-01

    At a search marketing company, each search engine optimization (SEO) specialist writes up to 10 to 12 complex 20-page monthly reports in the first ten business days of each month. These SEO specialists do not consider themselves to be writers, yet they generate these structurally and rhetorically complex reports as a matter of course, while…

  1. Shampoo, Soy Sauce, and the Prince's Pendant: Density for Middle-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Meera; Litherland, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a series of activities they have used with middle-level students. The first set of lessons explores density through the layering of liquids. In the second set, they use some of the same liquids to explore the density of solids. The third set investigates how temperature affects the density of…

  2. Tsunami in the Ionosphere ? a pinch of gravity with a good plasma sauce !

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Ms Lucie; Kherani, Alam; Lognonné, Philippe; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    A series of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami has been reported in the scientific literature (e.g., Liu et al. 2006; DasGupta et al. 2006; Occhipinti et al. 2006). Similar anomalies were also observed after the tsunamigenic earthquake in Peru in 2001 (Artru et al., 2005) and after the recent earthquakes in Sumatra and Chile in 2007. All these anomalies show the signature in the ionosphere of tsunami-generated internal gravity waves (IGW) propagating in the neutral atmosphere over oceanic regions. Most of these ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2006) via the ocean/neutral atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In addition, the numerical modeling supplies useful helps in the estimation of expected anomalies in the global scale to explore the effect of geomagnetic field in the neutral/plasma coupling (Occhipinti et al., 2008). Here we present an overview of the physical coupling mechanism highlighting the strong ampli- fication mechanism of atmospheric IGW; it allows to detect these anomalies when the tsunami is offshore where the see level displacement is still small. This property adds to the increasing coverage of ionospheric sounding measurements, suggests the implication of ionospheric sounding in the future oceanic monitoring and tsunami warning system. [Artru et al., 2005] Geophys. J. Int., 160, 2005 [DasGupta et al., 2006] Earth Planet. Space, 35, 929-959. [Liu et al., 2006] J. Geophys. Res., 111, A05303. [Occhipinti et al., 2006] Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20104, 2006 [Occhipinti et al., 2008] Geophys. J. Int., in press.

  3. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  4. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  5. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Lindbom, Jenny Maria; Andreasen, Line Lundberg

    2011-01-01

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined t...

  6. Biochemical changes in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that after a 15-day aging period, the contents of total nitrogen, formol titration nitrogen, free amino acids, reducing sugar, total sugar and the brown color were increased. However, pH was decreased during the fermentation period. Furthermore, contents of total free amino acids in low-salt solid-state ...

  7. Impact of Iron Fortification of Soy Sauce on the Micronutrient Status ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2003-04-29

    Apr 29, 2003 ... This work is used with the permission of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. .... The serum samples were shipped from Bijie to Beijing on dry ice by airplane and ...... Stand straight with eyes forward. • Measure ...

  8. Argentinean peanut sauce similar to mayonnaise: chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare a dressing using blanched Argentinian peanuts, that looks like mayonnaise and that has a patterns of a healthy nourishment. The general composition of the product, as well as the fatty acid composition and stability to oxidation were determined and compared to standard commercial mayonnaise and sunflower oil. A consumer test was performed on the product. The results showed a better nutritional quality of the peanut mayonnaise, due to a lower fat and caloric contents and a higher mono-unsaturated proportion of fatty acids than the other dressings. This product contains fiber and vitamin E, it lacks cholesterol and is low in sodium. The stability to lipid oxidation was similar to that of standard commercial mayonnaise and sunflower oil. Concerning sensorial aspects, the product was well accepted by 71.7 % of the consumer panelists. It responds to healthy-food guidelines and can be used for various purposes.La propuesta de este estudio fue preparar un aderezo usando maní blanchado (pelado argentino, que tenga un aspecto similar a la mayonesa y que tenga características de un alimento sano. La composición porcentual, los ácidos grasos y la estabilidad oxidativa del producto fueron determinadas y comparadas con mayonesa comercial y aceite de girasol. Además un test de aceptabilidad fue realizado sobre dicho producto. Los resultados mostraron mejores cualidades nutricionales en la mayonesa de maní debido a que tiene un menor contenido calórico y graso y una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados que los otros aderezos. Este producto contiene fibras y vitamina E, carece de colesterol y tiene baja concentración de sodio. La estabilidad oxidativa de los lípidos fue similar a la de la mayonesa comercial y al aceite de girasol. Respecto a sus propiedades sensoriales, la mayonesa de maní fue considerada aceptable por el 71,7 % de los consumidores. Este producto responde a las características de un alimento sano y puede ser usado para varios propósitos.

  9. AGUACATE Y SAUCE: Nuevos hospederos del pasador del cafeto, Xylosandrus (Xyleborus morigerus Bland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez Angel Raúl

    1972-08-01

    Full Text Available El pasador de las ramas del cafeto, Xylosandrus (Xyleborus morigerus Bland , es una de las plagas más severas que afectan al cultivo del cafeto en el mundo. Pertenece al grupo de los escolítidos ambrosiales, grupo de coleópteros diminutos dentro de la familia Scolytidae, el cual se caracteriza porque sus integrantes perforan el duramen de muchos árboles y algunos lo hacen en frutos o semillas, como es el caso de la broca del café. Hypothenemus (Stephanoderes hampei, cuya presencia aún no se ha confirmado en Colombia.

  10. Sensory analysis of passion fruit cake with chocolate sauce for individuals with phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vilar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a recipe of passion fruit cake with chocolate syrup for individuals who have phenylketonuria and evaluate its acceptance. The samples were served to 50 untrained tasters and evaluated by the acceptability test using the nine point hedonic scale. Flavor was the most appreciated attribute by 66% of tasters. The cake had a mean of 7,0 corresponding to "liked moderately" in the hedonic scale and 94% of purchase intent. Therefore, the cake was accepted and would be purchased by the majority of participants.

  11. Estimation of Para Red Dye in Chilli Powder and Tomato Sauces by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    food is strictly prohibited because of its ability to form carcinogenic compounds. Although there were a ... numbers of synthetic dyes available in markets used not only to enhance ..... panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and ...

  12. Prevalence of strongyles and efficacy of fenbendazole and ivermectin in working horses in El Sauce, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Lindbom, Jenny; Andreasen, Line Lundberg; Luna-Olivares, Luz Adilia; Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper

    2011-09-27

    Horses, mules and donkeys are indispensable farming and working animals in many developing countries, and their health status is important to the farmers. Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses world-wide and are known to constitute a threat to equine health. This study determined the prevalence of strongyle infection, the efficacy of ivermectin and fenbendazole treatment, and strongyle re-infection rates of working horses during the dry months in Nicaragua. One hundred and five horses used by farmers for transport of people and goods were randomly allocated into three treatment groups, i.e., the IVM group treated with ivermectin, the FBZ group treated with fenbendazole and the control group treated with placebo. Determined by pre-treatment faecal egg counts (FECs), horses showed a high prevalence (94%) of strongyle parasites with high intensities of infection (mean FEC of 1117 eggs per gram (EPG) with an SD of 860 EPG, n=102). Body condition scores of all horses ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 with a mean of 2.4 (scales 1-5). Fourteen days after treatment faecal egg count reductions (FECRs) were 100% and 94% in the IVM and the FBZ groups, respectively. The egg reappearance period (ERP) defined as the time until the mean FEC reached 20% of the pre-treatment level, was estimated as 42 days for the FBZ group and 60 days for the IVM group. Individual faecal cultures were set up and the larval differentiation revealed a 36% prevalence of Strongylus vulgaris before treatment (n=45). In the FBZ group, 25% of the horses were S. vulgaris-positive 70 days post treatment compared to 11% in the IVM group. Our results indicate that strongyle infection intensities in Nicaragua are high and that S. vulgaris is endemic in the area. Furthermore, efficacies and ERPs of IVM and FBZ were within the expected range with no signs of anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  14. Biochemical changes in low-salt fermentation of solid- state soy sauce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... prepared by growing the koji mold such as Aspergillus oryzae on the raw material containing a mixture of steam- cooked defatted ... incubation, the cultures were stirred and the temperature was lowered to 25°C for the rest of ...

  15. Food Sauces to Understand Volcanoes: a Learning Sequence in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccioni, Fabio; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Gioncada, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Some volcanic processes occur at pressures and temperatures very different from daily experience. Such extreme conditions, unreproducible in the classroom, can lead children to build concepts about volcanic phenomena very different from the reality (Greca & Moreira, 2000; Dove, 1998). The didactic goals of this learning sequence concern the relationships between the viscosity of magmas and types of erupted materials and their consequences on volcano shapes, to favour pupils' comprehension of what a volcano is. Viscosity and its temperature dependence can be easily experimented in class with analogue materials at room temperature (Baker et al., 2004). Our research aims are to observe the development of the thought of pupils of middle schools on volcanic phenomena; this allowed to put in evidence the benefits of this approach and to give suggestions to avoid possible critical points. We have experimented a hands-on learning sequence about volcanoes in four third classes of Tuscan middle schools, for an amount of 95 pupils, 48 females and 47 males. Sharing the principles of constructivism, we think useful that pupils start from their own direct experience for understanding natural phenomena not directly observable. Therefore, we start from the experiences and knowledge of children to build a inquiry-based itinerary (Minner et al., 2010; Pieraccioni et al., 2016). The learning sequence begins with a practical activity in which we employ common and well-known materials to introduce the concept of viscosity in order to relate various kinds of magma to the shape of volcanoes. One of the benefits of this approach is to overcome the problems of introducing complex concepts such as acidity of magmas or silica content, far from the pupils' experience and knowledge. These concepts are often used in Italian middle school textbooks to describe and classify volcanoes. The result is a list of names to learn by heart. On the contrary, by using oil, ketchup, peanut butter or honey, pupils become familiar with concepts such as viscosity, behavior of fluids, magma, lava, slope of flanks and they can begin to comprehend why volcanoes have got differently named forms. REFERENCES Baker D.R., Dalpè C. & Porier G. (2004) - The Viscosities of Food as Analogs for Silicate Melts. Journal of Geoscience Education, 52, 363-367. Dove J. (1998) - Students alternative conceptions in Earth science: a review of research and implications for teaching and learning. Research Papers in Education, 13(2), 183-201. Greca I.M. & Moreira M.A. (2000) - Mental models, conceptual models, and modelling. International Journal of Science Education, 22(1), 1-11. Minner D. D., Levy A. J., & Century J. (2010) - Inquiry-based science instruction—what it is and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years 1984 to 2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 474-496. Pieraccioni F., Finato B., Bonaccorsi E. & Gioncada A. (2016) - The soil in the classroom: a middle school case study. Educational Journal of the University of Patras UNESCO, 3(2), 149 -157.

  16. 表现及特征:福州市小学生汉语阅读障碍研究%The Representations and Features: Research on Chinese Dyslexia of Primary School Students in Fuzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雅琴

    2013-01-01

    采用文献资料、问卷调查、数理统计等方法,对福州市315位学生的汉语阅读障碍进行了调查.结果表明,福州市小学生:(1)汉语阅读障碍较为明显,其中以“意义理解障碍”最为严重;(2)在“意义理解障碍”、“书写障碍”、“注意力障碍”等维度上,男生的障碍明显高于女生;(3)“视知觉障碍”和“意义理解障碍”以及“注意力障碍”维度上,不同的年级中存在差异.

  17. Preparing College Students for Real-World 2.0: Towards a Recipe for the "Secret Sauce"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Steven; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    In light of considerable debate centering on the value of higher education and its effect on student preparation for the world of work, this article describes new methods employed in teaching an introductory professional course and the outcomes of its initial offerings. This case study supports research indicating that problem-based learning is an…

  18. Design, innovation, and rural creative places: Are the arts the cherry on top, or the secret sauce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojan, Timothy R; Nichols, Bonnie

    2018-01-01

    Creative class theory explains the positive relationship between the arts and commercial innovation as the mutual attraction of artists and other creative workers by an unobserved creative milieu. This study explores alternative theories for rural settings, by analyzing establishment-level survey data combined with data on the local arts scene. The study identifies the local contextual factors associated with a strong design orientation, and estimates the impact that a strong design orientation has on the local economy. Data on innovation and design come from a nationally representative sample of establishments in tradable industries. Latent class analysis allows identifying unobserved subpopulations comprised of establishments with different design and innovation orientations. Logistic regression allows estimating the association between an establishment's design orientation and local contextual factors. A quantile instrumental variable regression allows assessing the robustness of the logistic regression results with respect to endogeneity. An estimate of design orientation at the local level derived from the survey is used to examine variation in economic performance during the period of recovery from the Great Recession (2010-2014). Three distinct innovation (substantive, nominal, and non-innovators) and design orientations (design-integrated, "design last finish," and no systematic approach to design) are identified. Innovation- and design-intensive establishments were identified in both rural and urban areas. Rural design-integrated establishments tended to locate in counties with more highly educated workforces and containing at least one performing arts organization. A quantile instrumental variable regression confirmed that the logistic regression result is robust to endogeneity concerns. Finally, rural areas characterized by design-integrated establishments experienced faster growth in wages relative to rural areas characterized by establishments using no systematic approach to design.

  19. Design, innovation, and rural creative places: Are the arts the cherry on top, or the secret sauce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bonnie

    2018-01-01

    Objective Creative class theory explains the positive relationship between the arts and commercial innovation as the mutual attraction of artists and other creative workers by an unobserved creative milieu. This study explores alternative theories for rural settings, by analyzing establishment-level survey data combined with data on the local arts scene. The study identifies the local contextual factors associated with a strong design orientation, and estimates the impact that a strong design orientation has on the local economy. Method Data on innovation and design come from a nationally representative sample of establishments in tradable industries. Latent class analysis allows identifying unobserved subpopulations comprised of establishments with different design and innovation orientations. Logistic regression allows estimating the association between an establishment’s design orientation and local contextual factors. A quantile instrumental variable regression allows assessing the robustness of the logistic regression results with respect to endogeneity. An estimate of design orientation at the local level derived from the survey is used to examine variation in economic performance during the period of recovery from the Great Recession (2010–2014). Results Three distinct innovation (substantive, nominal, and non-innovators) and design orientations (design-integrated, “design last finish,” and no systematic approach to design) are identified. Innovation- and design-intensive establishments were identified in both rural and urban areas. Rural design-integrated establishments tended to locate in counties with more highly educated workforces and containing at least one performing arts organization. A quantile instrumental variable regression confirmed that the logistic regression result is robust to endogeneity concerns. Finally, rural areas characterized by design-integrated establishments experienced faster growth in wages relative to rural areas characterized by establishments using no systematic approach to design. PMID:29489884

  20. Anti-bacteria Effect of Active Ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi on the Spoilage Bacteria of Sauced Pork Head Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Xu, Lingyi; Cui, Yuqian; Pang, Meixia; Wang, Fang; Qi, Jinghua

    2017-12-01

    Extraction and anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi were studied in this paper. Extraction combined with ultrasonic was adopted. The optimum extraction condition was determined by single factor test; the anti-bacteria effect of active ingredients and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) were valued by Oxford-cup method. The results indicated that kaempferol was the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi whose optimum extraction condition for ethanol concentrations were sixty-five percent and twenty minutes with ultrasonic assisted extraction.; the active ingredients of Cacumen Platycladi had anti-bacteria effect on Staphylococcus, Proteus, Bacillus, Serratia and MIC was 0.5 g/mL,0.5 g/mL,0.0313 g/mL and 0.0625 g/mL. The active constituent of Cacumen Platycladi is kaempferol which has obvious anti-bacteria effect and can be used to prolong the shelf-life of Low-temperature meat products.

  1. Gluten-Free Diet: Nutrition and Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pastas Hot dogs and processed luncheon meats Salad dressings Sauces, including soy sauce Seasoned rice mixes Seasoned snack foods, such as potato and tortilla chips Self-basting poultry Soups, bouillon or soup mixes Vegetables in sauce ...

  2. 9 CFR 317.312 - Reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef, pastrami, country ham, pork shoulder picnic, meatballs, pureed adult foods 85 g 114 g. Canned..., spaghetti sauce with meatballs 125 g n/a. Minor main entree sauce; e.g., pizza sauce with meat, gravy 1/4...

  3. INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Submission of manuscripts The Annals of Differential Equations endeavors to publish original research articles of high quality in the fields of differential equations and differentiable dynamics. Electronic submission of manuscripts prepared in TEX is encouraged. Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, Fujian, CHINA.

  4. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Guanshui Chen Daren Pan1 Yifei Zhou Sheng Lin2 Xiangde Ke. College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, the People's Republic of China; College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, the People's Republic ...

  5. An Analysis of the Naval Postgraduate School’s Commissioned Officers’ and Faculty Club Accounting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    cheese, vinaigarette) VEGETABLES Buttered Carrots Peas w/Mushrooms Green Beans Almondine Mixed Vegetables Corn w/Pimentos *Broccoli w/ Hollandaise Sauce ...PRAWNS W/COCKTAIL SAUCE $14.75 GRILLED HALIBUT STEAK 11.25 (lemon hollandaise sauce ) HERB BAKED ICELANDIC COD 8.90 (bechemel sauce ) SHRIMP CURRY ON A BED...Meatballs Fruit Boat Vegetable Tray w/Dip 3.10 Chicken Nuggets w/ Sauce Dip Cheeseboard w/Crackers Deviled Eggs 2. Chicken (or) Seafood Carolines

  6. Enhanced immunization via dissolving microneedle array-based delivery system incorporating subunit vaccine and saponin adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao,JiHui; Zhang,Qi-Bo; Liu,Bao; Piao,Xiang-Hua; Yan,Yu-Lu; Hu,Xiao-Ge; Zhou,Kuan; Zhang,Yong-Tai; Feng,Nian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Ji-Hui Zhao,1,* Qi-Bo Zhang,1,* Bao Liu,2 Xiang-Hua Piao,1 Yu-Lu Yan,1 Xiao-Ge Hu,1 Kuan Zhou,1 Yong-Tai Zhang,1 Nian-Ping Feng1 1School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Anethesiology Department, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To enhance the immunogenicity of the model subunit vaccine, ovalbumin (OVA) was combined with platycodin (PD), a ...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key values of Chinese consumers buying sustainable goods: the case of Green Food in Fuzhou ... Generation Y's attitude towards organic wine ... Change as a travel benefit: Exploring the impact of travel experiences on Italian youth

  8. Diversity of archaea and bacteria in a biogas reactor fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, 2School of Food Science and. Engineering ... rumen microbes in artificial reactors for the conversion of ..... feed additive due to the high digestibility of the.

  9. Hypersurfaces satisfying Lrx= Rx Lrx= Rx Lrx= Rx in sphere Sn Sn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Biaogui Yang1 Ximin Liu2. School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350108, People's Republic of China; Department of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Gangzhou 510641, People's Republic of China ...

  10. Aasia transiit kipub Eestisse. Sadamad endiselt rekordkursil / Jaana Pikalev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pikalev, Jaana

    2011-01-01

    Korea suurim transpordifirma Hanjin Group on huvitatud mitmest Eestist Kesk-Aasiasse liikuva konteinerirongi kasutamise võimalusest. Hiina Fuzhou sadamast väljuvad riikliku firma Sinotransi ekspedeeritavad konteinerid hakkavad liikuma Eesti kaudu

  11. Troncos de Salix Humboldtiana en depósitos aluviales del Holoceno tardío, río Sauce Grande (Provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de este hallazgo, discutir la estratigrafía y la cronología de los sedimentos portadores e intentar la reconstrucción de las características paleoambientales. Para ello, fueron realizados perfiles estratigráficos en las localidades estudiadas, muestreo de las unidades reconocidas, estudio palinológico en doce niveles distintos, muestreo de materiales orgánicos para fechado radiocarbónico y recolección de troncos para su estudio xilològico.

  12. Maternal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal and infant thiamin status and breast milk thiamin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a disease caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and other parts of Southeast Asia. Infantile beriberi presents during the exclusive breastfeeding period and without treatment commonly results in death within *24 hours of clinical p...

  13. Irradiation Detection in Korean Traditional Soybean-Based Fermented Powdered Sauces: Data for Establishing a Database for Regulation of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I.D.; Kim, B.K.; Song, H.P.; Byun, M.W.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, M.C.; Lee, J.O.; Lee, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate establishing regulations for irradiated foods, Korean traditional soybean-based fermented powdered doenjang (PD), kanjang (PK), kochujang (PKC) and chungkukjang (PC) were irradiated at 1, 3, 5 and 7 kGy, and subjected to irradiation detection analyses as part of establishing a database for detecting irradiated foods. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied as the detection methods. Using PSL analysis, the irradiated PD, PK and PKC could be easily distinguished from the non-irradiated ones, while irradiation of the PC at 5 kGy or higher was detectable

  14. Convergence and divergence in Distinction. A social critique of the judgment of taste and Peasant society in the colombian Andes: a sociological study of saucío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Melo Bustos

    2018-01-01

    understand such complex and diffuse categories as lifestyles reflected in music, home decoration/utensils and all types of material and symbolic inventory. With this base, the authors were able to understand the configuration of all type of social relations and the positioning of individuals and agents. Although the geospatial and epistemological places are different, both works are sociologically all-encompassing, as each is a form of understanding the rural world and the urban one by questioning the way in which society and community recognize themselves.

  15. The impact of natural helminth infections and supplementary protein on growth performance of free-range chickens on smallholder farms in El Sauce, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Luna, Luz A; Johansen, Maria V

    2005-01-01

    Three on-farm studies were conducted in Nicaragua during three consecutive years (1999-2001) to assess the impact of natural helminth infections on growth performance of free-range chickens aged 3-4 months. On all participating farms, half of the chickens were treated regularly with anthelmintics...... to helminth infections seem to be pronounced. In 2001, the study set-up included an assessment of the effect of protein supplementation (soybean) on growth on six farms. Supplemented chickens (treated and non-treated with anthelmintics) had 17% higher weight gain than non-supplemented. Protein supplementation...... affected neither worm burdens nor faecal egg counts for any of the studied helminths. The post-mortem examinations showed that Trifen reduced burdens of Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum, and cestodes (efficacies of 100, 100 and 67%, respectively). Albendazole reduced burdens of H. gallinarum (efficacy...

  16. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dogs, sausage and ham. Buy fresh or frozen poultry or meat that hasn't been injected with ... use of sodium-laden condiments. Soy sauce, salad dressings, sauces, dips, ketchup, mustard and relish all contain ...

  18. Celiac disease - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or barley malt Corn Fruits and vegetables Meat, poultry, and fish (not breaded or made with regular ... Some marinades, sauces, soy, and teriyaki sauces Salad dressings (some) Self-basting turkey There is a risk ...

  19. Pregnancy Complications: Salmonellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food made with raw eggs, including homemade mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, Caesar salad dressing, cookie dough, frostings and homemade ... food made with raw eggs, including homemade mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, Caesar salad dressing, cookie dough, frostings and homemade ...

  20. 76 FR 82077 - Food Ingredients and Sources of Radiation Listed or Approved for Use in the Production of Meat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... sentence to read as follows: Sec. 319.306 Spaghetti with meatballs and sauce, spaghetti with meat and sauce, and similar products. * * * Meatballs may be prepared with farinaceous material and with other binders...

  1. MyFoodAdvisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pot Salad Dressings & Condiments Sandwiches Sauces Sides Snacks Vegan Vegetarian Salads Lunch Dinner Soup My Likes Ingredients ... Pot Salad Dressings & Condiments Sandwiches Sauces Sides Snacks Vegan Vegetarian Salads Lunch Dinner Soup Apply Cancel Reset ...

  2. Entree Production Guides for Modified Diets at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Part I. Consolidated Modified Meat Entrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Recipe No. Page No. Poul try Chicken Cacciatore MM39 1418 Roast Chicken MM140 152 Roast Turkey M4 5 Rabbit Roast Rabbit with Mushroom Sauce M42...Cacciatore 56 Roast Chicken 60 Roast Turkey 64 Rabbit Roast Rabbit with Mushroom Sauce 68 Veal Grilled Veal Cutlet with Vegetable Sauce 71 Italian Veal Balls... Roast Lamb with Mint Sauce 93 Pork Baked Pork Chops 96 Roast Pork 99 Poultry ’ILemon Baked Chicken 102

  3. Ronald McDonald dit: "Tout le monde connait: 'Deuxsteakshachessaucespecialesaladefromageoignons dansuntriplepainrondrecouvertdegrainsdesesames'" (Ronald McDonald Says: "Everyone Knows: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles- Onions-on-a-Sesame-Seed Bun'").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school French to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Paris. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Parisian McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom, (3) order…

  4. Ronald McDonald pregunta: "Puedes decir: 'dostortosdepurocarnederessalsaespeciallechugagueso- pepinillosycebollasenunpanconsemillasdeajonjoli'?" (Ronald McDonald Asks: "Can You Say: 'Two-All-Beef-Patties-Special-Sauce-Lettuce-Cheese-Pickles-Onions-On- A-Sesame-Seed-Bun'?" Activities in Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Robert J., Jr.

    This booklet is intended for classroom use in first-year high school Spanish to acquaint students with the McDonald's fast food restaurants in Costa Rica. The specific objectives are for the student to: (1) discuss the similarities and differences between the American and Costa Rican McDonald's, (2) set up a miniature McDonald's in the classroom,…

  5. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  6. Hypersurfaces in nearly Kaehler manifold S3× S3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BIAOGUI YANG1 QINGQING ZHU2. School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fujian Normal University, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou 350117, People's Republic of China; Math Teaching and Research Group, Zhangzhou Branch Campus of Xiamen Shuangshi Middle School, Zhangzhou 363107, People's Republic of ...

  7. Muscular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009252 Investigation on survival motor neuron gene deletion in Chinese patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.SU Zongquan(苏宗权),et al.Dept Neurol,1st Affili Hosp,Fujian Med,Fuzhou 350005.Chin J Neurol,2009;42(4):245-247.

  8. 75 FR 32910 - Certain Tissue Paper Products from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... paper or film, by placing in plastic or film bags, and/or by placing in boxes for distribution and use... Wenlong Co. Ltd 112.64 Fujian Nanping Investment & 112.64 Enterprise Co Fuzhou Light Industry Import & 112... Company Everlasting Business & Industry 112.64 Corporation Ltd BA Marketing & Industrial Co. Ltd.. 112.64...

  9. Hypersurfaces in nearly Kaehler manifold S3× S3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 4 ... School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fujian Normal University, Qishan Campus, Fuzhou 350117, People's Republic of China; Math Teaching and Research Group, Zhangzhou Branch Campus of Xiamen Shuangshi Middle School, ...

  10. School Bonding, Peer Associations, and Self-Views: The Influences of Gender and Grandparent Attachment on Adolescents in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruth X.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of attachment to paternal grandparents on Chinese adolescent adjustment in the domains of school bonding, peer associations, and self-views, and whether such effects may differ for adolescent boys and girls. Drawing on survey responses of 2,117 middle school students from Fuzhou City, China, regression analyses…

  11. Research in Hospitality Management - Vol 1, No 2 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moving finger: Asian international hotel school students developing English language writing skills · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Key values of Chinese consumers buying sustainable goods: the case of Green Food in Fuzhou · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Comprehensive evaluation on rationality of ventilation system in uranium underground mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qinglin

    1991-01-01

    A new method is presented for evaluating rationality of uranium mine ventilation system using fuzzy mathematics. The mathematical models for fuzzy comprehensive evaluation are introduced. Based on practice of uranium mine ventilation, the evaluation factors and the evaluation procedure are given. Using the presented method, a comprehensive evaluation was carried out for ventilation systems before and after regulation in Fuzhou Uranium Mine

  13. Kadar Karbohidrat, Lemak, dan Protein pada Kecap dari Tempe

    OpenAIRE

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI; TJAHJADI PURWOKO,; YONA SEPTIANI

    2004-01-01

    Soy sauce as one of the soy fermented product could be produced through fermentation by molds and then fermentation by bacteria and yeasts, in salt solution (moromi). The aims of this research were to evaluate and to compare the value of carbohydrate), lipid, and protein in soy sauce which were produced from tempe by mixing Rhizopus oligosporus and R. oryzae with and without moromi fermentation; to compare the taste, aroma and color of soy sauce have been produced and commercial so...

  14. 75 FR 78674 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ...-apple juice, apple juice, cranberry sauce, dried cranberries, dried cherries, strawberries, applesauce, wild blueberries, mixed fruit, strawberry cups, peaches, pears, plums, dates, fig pieces, chicken leg...

  15. Value addition to locally produced soybean in Ghana: production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana produces about 50,000 metric tons of soy beans per annum, of which only about 15 metric tons are utilized. One aspect of utilizing the beans is in the production of soy sauce, a product whose demand is on the increase due to changing food habits of the Ghanaian society. A preliminary attempt to produce soy sauce ...

  16. 9 CFR 319.305 - Tamales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in sauce or gravy, the name of the product shall include a prominent reference to the sauce or gravy; for example, “Tamales With Sauce” or “Tamales With Gravy.” Product labeled “Tamales With Sauce” or “Tamales With Gravy” shall contain not less than 20 percent meat, computed on the weight of the uncooked...

  17. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  18. Space Flight Research Relevant to Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. With Particular Reference to Skylab’s Life Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    chicken and gravy, chicken and rice, eggs (scrambled), green beans, macaroni and cheese, pea soup, peas (creamed), peach am- brosia with pecans, pork...butter- scotch pudding, catsup, chili with meat, fruit jam, hot dogs (tomato sauce), lemon pudding, meatballs and sauce, peaches, peanut butter

  19. Sodium valproate-induced enuresis in a pediatric bipolar patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wentao Cheng,1,* Xiaoling Lin,2,* Dali Lu1 1Department of Pediatric and Geriatric Psychiatry, Fuzhou Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, People's Republic of China; 2School of Nursing of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Sodium valproate (SV is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of epilepsy and mood disorders. There are several cases of SV-induced enuresis noted in epileptic patients. No alternative medication has been suggested to manage this problem. We present the first case of a pediatric bipolar patient who developed diurnal and nocturnal enuresis during SV therapy. Clinicians should be aware of this side effect, as it has not been reported in nonepileptic patients, and it may be detrimental to treatment adherence. Keywords: sodium valproate, enuresis, bipolar disorder

  20. Dual actions of albumin packaging and tumor targeting enhance the antitumor efficacy and reduce the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ke Zheng,1 Rui Li,2 Xiaolei Zhou,2 Ping Hu,2 Yaxin Zhang,2 Yunmei Huang,3 Zhuo Chen,2 Mingdong Huang2 1College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Fujian Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers. However, DOX has severe side effects, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We herein report a new approach to reduce the toxicity of DOX by embedding DOX inside human serum albumin (HSA. HSA is further fused by a molecular biology technique with a tumor-targeting agent, amino-terminal fragment of urokinase (ATF. ATF binds with a high affinity to urokinase receptor, which is a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in many types of tumors. The as-prepared macromolecule complex (ATF–HSA:DOX was not as cytotoxic as free DOX to cells in vitro, and was mainly localized in cell cytosol in contrast to DOX that was localized in cell nuclei. However, in tumor-bearing mice, ATF–HSA:DOX was demonstrated to have an enhanced tumor-targeting and antitumor efficacy compared with free DOX. More importantly, histopathological examinations of the hearts from the mice treated with ATF–HSA:DOX showed a significantly reduced cardiotoxicity compared with hearts from mice treated with free DOX. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in reducing the cardiotoxicity of DOX while strengthening its antitumor efficacy. Such a tumor-targeted albumin packaging strategy can also be applied to other antitumor drugs. Keywords: amino-terminal fragment of urokinase, urokinase receptor, drug carrier, human serum albumin, doxorubicin, cytotoxicity

  1. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Kiat Hwa Chan,1 Wei Hao Lee,2 Shuangmu Zhuo,3 Ming Ni3 1Division of Science, Yale-NUS College, Singapore; 2Department of Chemistry, Krieger School of Arts & Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The harnessing of peptides in biomedic...

  2. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  3. Emigration from China in Comparative Perspective*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David

    2014-01-01

    Comparative research on international migration has increasingly focused on immigrant integration rather than the process of emigration. By investigating the different streams of Chinese migration to the United States and Europe, as well as the different stages of Chinese migration to the U.S., this study examines the way in which both receiving and sending contexts combine to shape the process of emigration. Using data from a 2002–2003 survey of emigration from China’s Fujian Province, we demonstrate that under restrictive exit and entry policies and high barriers to migration (i.e., clandestine migration from Fuzhou to the U.S.), resources such as migrant social capital, political capital (cadre resources), and human capital all play a crucial role in the emigration process. However, the roles of these resources in the migration process are limited when migration barriers are sufficiently low and when local governments adopt proactive policies promoting emigration (i.e., legal migration from Mingxi to Europe). Comparisons over time suggest that the importance of migrant social capital, political capital, and human capital has strongly persisted for Fuzhou-US emigration, as a result of tightening exit and entry policies. Despite these marked differences between Fuzhou and Mingxi emigration, the results also point to two general processes that are highly consistent across settings and over time—the cumulative causation of migration and the advantage conferred by traditional positional power (cadre status). PMID:26146414

  4. Insight into resistance mechanism of anaplastic lymphoma kinase to alectinib and JH-VIII-157-02 caused by G1202R solvent front mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Han Wang,1–3 Yao Wang,1–3 Wentao Guo,4 Bin Du,1–3 Xiaobing Huang,1–3 Riping Wu,1–3 Baoyu Yang,1–3 Xiaoyan Lin,1–3,5 Yilan Wu6 1Department of Medical Oncology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Stem Cell Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Fujian Key Laboratory of Translational Cancer Medicine, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Graduate School of Education, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 6School of Nursing, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Mutated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK drives the development of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Most reported small-molecule inhibitors targeting the ALK domain do not display good inhibition of the G1202R solvent front mutation. The solvent front mutation was assumed to hinder drug binding. However, a different fact could be uncovered by the simulations reported in this study through a structural analog of alectinib (JH-VIII-157-02, which demonstrated potent effects against the G1202R mutation. Methods: Molecular docking, conventional molecular dynamics (MD simulations, free energy calculations, and umbrella sampling (US simulations were carried out to make clear the principles of the binding preferences of alectinib and JH-VIII-157-02 toward ALKWT and the ALK G1202R (ALKG1202R mutation. Results: JH-VIII-157-02 has similar binding affinities to both ALKWT and ALKG1202R whereas it has has a much lower binding affinity for alectinib to ALKG1202R. Analysis of individual energy terms indicate the major variation involves the van der Waals and entropy terms. Structural analysis reveals that the conformational change of the ATP-binding glycine-rich loop was primarily responsible for the alectinib

  5. Learn about gluten-free diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gluten-free, including: Fruits and vegetables Meat, fish, poultry, and eggs Beans Nuts and seeds Dairy products ... including frozen foods, soups, and rice mixes Salad dressings, sauces, marinades, and gravies Some candies, licorice Some ...

  6. Sources of Gluten

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based may contain a wheat-based ingredient Salad dressings and marinades – may contain malt vinegar, soy sauce, flour Starch or dextrin if found on a meat or poultry product could be from any grain, including wheat ...

  7. Safe eating during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 5 minutes. When eating chicken and other poultry, cook to a temperature of 165°F (74° ... all fruit juices are pasteurized. Use only salad dressings, sauces, and salsas from single-serving packages. Eat ...

  8. Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Cut away visible fat from meat and poultry. Roast food on a rack to let the ... plain yogurt and light mayonnaise if used in dressing, sauces and dips. Why? Fewer calories. Instead of ...

  9. Pop & rock / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide: Väikeste Lõõtspillide Ühing " Jää jumalaga, Eestimaa", Claire's Birthday "City Loves", Bon Jovi "One Wild Night", Stereo MC's "Deep Down 7 Dirty", G. Love & Special Sauce "Electric Mile" tutvustused

  10. Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S.: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more days FOOD SOURC ES Meats, stews, gravies, vanilla sauce Raw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, ... fish, baked potatoes in aluminum foil Meats, poultry, gravy, dried or precooked foods, time and/or temperature- ...

  11. Fermented fish in Africa: a study on processing, marketing and consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essuman, Kofi Manso

    1992-01-01

    ...; and fermentation with salting but no drying. It was also observed in the study that, unlike in Southeast Asian countries, fermented fishery products in Africa are usually whole or in cut pieces, and are not a paste or sauce...

  12. Food and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    issue, but also food is perhaps the most important development issue, if not global issue, of our time, ... Other boxes include the pet food market, genetically modified (GM) crops, land grabs, the financialisation of food,. African bean sauces ...

  13. Coping with Rosacea: Tripwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during cold weather . This protects against the naturally drying effects of cold and wind. top Tripwires - Stress ... Examples have included cheese, sour cream, yogurt, citrus fruit, liver, chocolate, vanilla, soy sauce, yeast extract (though ...

  14. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  15. Shaking the Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lean meat Almond extract: Puddings, fruits Basil: Fish, lamb, lean ground meats, stews, salads, soups, sauces, fish cocktails Bay leaves: Lean ... apples, fruit salads, carrots, cauliflower, squash, potatoes, veal, lamb Mustard ... stews, vegetables, salads, soups Paprika: Lean meats, fish, soups, ...

  16. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In addition, eating candy bars or other sugary snacks just before practice or competition can give athletes ... yogurt, or pasta with tomato sauce). Eat a snack less than 2 hours before the game: If ...

  17. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in dairy foods, such as low-fat milk, yogurt, and cheese. In addition to calcium and iron, ... sandwich, cereal and milk, chicken noodle soup and yogurt, or pasta with tomato sauce). Eat a snack ...

  18. Studies of food thickeners in Nigeria for contamination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... Food thickeners or thickening agents are used in food to absorb the fluid of the ... used in beverages, gravies, sauces and stews. The use of food ... Furthermore, it has also not been possible to develop effective management.

  19. Macronutrient composition of three cucurbit species cultivated for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .) Matsum. & Nakai., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin, and Cucumis melo var. agrestis L.] largely cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire and consumed as sauce thickeners were analyzed for their proximate composition and compared to a local landrace of ...

  20. 186---07 Sep 2009 [Final version].indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-07

    Sep 7, 2009 ... It springs spontaneously from below via the multitude of theories associated with our .... because of its excessive relativism, which sees everything as relational. ..... more than materialism with a dash of moral sauce. Horizontal.

  1. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you want to use some of the marinade as a sauce on the cooked food, reserve a ... container. If bringing hot take-out food such as fried chicken or barbecue to an outdoor party, ...

  2. VAREGUS FWETEGNAL ETHKOPKAN SAU€ES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also considered as sources of spoilage microorganisms to food products (Julseth ... The sauces are basically legume-based, vegetable-based or meat-based. ..... The dominant role in the microbiology of spices is played by aerobic spore.

  3. Irradiation of ready meals for microbiological safety and shelf-life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of waakye and other ready-to-eat meals. ... and 14 meals prepared under the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan were ... sauce and vegetable salad, exceeded the microbiological standards for such ...

  4. Keeping Your Heart Healthy: What You Should Know about Lipids When You Have Chronic Kidney Disease (Stages 1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coconut n Anything made from these foods, especially desserts, pastries, cakes, cookies, candy bars, creamed soups, sauces, ... whole eggs (often hidden ingredients in cookies, cakes, desserts) Lean cuts of meat with fat trimmed off; ...

  5. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  6. School Lunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low-fat cheese on whole wheat tortillas) cold pizza (shredded mozzarella cheese with pizza sauce on a flour tortilla, whole wheat pita, English muffin, or mini pizza shell) cracker sandwiches (whole-grain crackers filled with ...

  7. Food availability and accessibility in the local food distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accessibility of food in retail outlets can influence dietary choices, and therefore the food ..... the personal views, cultural practices, beliefs and experiences .... consumption.4 The mark ups for chips (116%), pilchards in tomato sauce (90%) ...

  8. When you have urinary incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tomato-based foods and sauces Spicy foods Chocolate Sugars and honey Artificial sweeteners Milk and milk ... may help to have formal pelvic floor physical therapy. The therapist can give you guidance on how ...

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fatty or fried foods, tomato sauce, alcohol, chocolate, mint, garlic, onion, and caffeine, may make heartburn ... the waist up. Alternative medicine No alternative medicine therapies have been proved to treat eosinophilic esophagitis. Still, ...

  10. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soft foods such as pudding, Jello, mashed potatoes, apple sauce, or yogurt. Pain medicines can cause constipation . ... Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  11. Agriculture and Food: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    sliced egg sand- wich (closed-faced), frozen fish dinner, rabbit stew, shrimp-flavored instant noodles , venison jerky, buffalo burgers, alligator...meat or 2% or more poultry (e.g., chicken noodle ) Other products Cheese, onion, mushroom pizza; spaghetti sauces (less than 3% red meat), spaghetti...sauce with mushrooms and 2% meat, pork and beans, sliced egg sandwich (closed-faced), frozen fish dinner, rabbit stew, shrimp-flavored instant

  12. Food for U.S. Manned Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    NF) Instant Breakfast, Strawberry Beef Stroganoff w/ Noodles (R) * Nuts, Peanuts (NF) Instant Breakfast, Vanilla * Bread, Seedless Rye (I)(NF...has also been successfully applied to entrees - meat and vegetables or meat and rice combinations, instant puddings, and even sweetened dehydrated...Meatballs w/BBQ Sauce (T) * Grapefruit Drink Beef, Slices w/BB Sauce (T) * Nuts, Almonds (NF) * instant Breakfast, Chocolate • Beef Steak (1)(T) Nuts, Cashews

  13. Operational Rations Current and Future of the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    with Spiced Sauce Beefsteak Chicken and Noodles Chicken or Turkey, Boned Apricots Peaches Chocolate Nut Roll Cookies Grape MEATS Ham and...Sauce Tuna Fish Turkey Loaf Fruit Cocktail Peacan Cake Roll Pound Cake Orange Tomato 16 ACCESSORY ITEMS Instant Coffee Instant Tea or Tea... INSTANT ACCESSORY PACKET FOOD PACKET, IN-FLIGHT INDIVIDUAL SPOON EARLY VERSION VI FOOD PACKET, LONG-RANGE Designed for troops in operations

  14. China Report, Science and Technology, White Paper, No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-02

    traditional biotechnology to produce liquor, soy sauce, vinegar and other fermented food products. In the late fifties, China established an antibiotic...to transform the traditional fermentation industry, including the use of fixed fungi or fixed cells to make alcohol, beer, soy sauce, vinegar , and...use. We should also improve the techniques and equipment of fermentation , develop 35 the technologies of central heating and small-scale methane

  15. Determination of Fe and Al contamination by NAA at preparation of traditional Mexican food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriola, S.H.; Cruz, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out using NAA to measure the concentration of Al and Fe leached from kitchen ware into some popular Mexican sauces and juices. These elements were measured in red and green hot sauces cooked in Fe, Al and clay pans compared to a stainless steel pan. Similarly Al was measured in orange and grapefruit juices obtained using an Al extractor compared to a plastic one. (author)

  16. Summary of Operational Rations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    and legumes Dehydrated fruits, vegetables, fruit Juices, and soups Dehydrated meats, poultry, and fish Nonfat dry milk Dehydrated egg mix, cheese...Menu 3 Ham/ Eggs , Chopped Fruit, Candy, Crackers and Peanut Butter Menu 4 Pork Slices, Cooked w/Juices Fruit, Candy, Crackers, and Peanut Butter...Menu 7 Spaghetti w /Beef Chunks in Sauce Cake, Cocoa Beverage, Crackers, and Jam Menu 8 Beans w/ Meatballs in Tomato Sauce Cake, Cocoa Beverage

  17. Operational Guides for Frozen Products Prepared by the F. E. Warren Foil Pack Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    gradually increase volume of sauce to 14 gal. *Trio is a registered trade name of the Carnation Corporation. Citation of trade names does not constitute an...use), NSN-8910-00-982-2779. d. Cheese, CheezTang, orange and white, Special Procurement, Kraft, Denver Food Service, Tel. No. (303)399-2224. e...TrioCheese Sauce Mix, Special Procurement, Carnation Food Service, Nobel Suppliers, Denver, CO. 2. Bakery a. Flour, wheat, general purpose, or bread flour

  18. Cucurbitacées

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2015 ... Environ 58,17% des consommateurs des produits à base des graines de Cucurbitacées consomment régulièrement la sauce liquide simple de courge. Elle est obtenue par deux différentes méthodes selon les consommateurs. La première(A1) pratiquée par les 64,12% des consommateurs de cette sauce.

  19. Analisis Karbohidrat, Protein, dan Lemak pada Pembuatan Kecap Lamtoro Gung (Leucaena leucocephala terfermentasi Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJAHJADI PURWOKO

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Leucaena leucocephala was one of Mimosaceae family which had high protein content nearly the same value as in Soya beans protein content. L. leucocephala could be used as the substitution of Soya beans in production of soy sauce. Soy sauce was one of fermentation liquid products which had flavor and aroma as meat, and had high nutrition value. The aims of the research were (i to analyze nutrition value in seeds, koji and moromi including carbohydrate, proteins and lipids and (ii to know the potency of L. leucocephala as raw material in production of soy sauce by fermentationmethod with Aspergillus oryzae as inoculums. Fermentation was one of soy sauce production processes that involved two steps: (i the solid stage fermentation and (ii the brine fermentation. L. leucocephala was fermented with A. oryzae for 3-5 days to produce koji. Koji was soaked in salt solution 20% (1:5 b/v then it was fermented for 30 days to produce moromi. Nutritional values in L. leucocephala seeds, koji, and moromi was analyzed, i.e. carbohydrate (sugar reduction and starch, protein, and lipids. Moromi filtrate was added by spices to Leucaena sauce. Finally, preferable Leucaena sauce was tested including flavor, aroma, and color. Preferable data was analyzed by non-parametric statistic; it was Friedman Test and followed Wilcoxon Ranking Method. The result showed that value of reducing sugar in L. leucocephala seeds, koji and moromi were 78.38 mg/g; 119.08 mg/g; and 164.29 mg/g. Starch value of seeds, koji and moromi were 274.36 mg/g; 260.92 mg/g and 179.50 mg/g. The value of dissolved protein in seeds, koji and moromi were 107.44 mg/g; 86.1 mg/g; and 208.56 mg/g. The value of lipids on seeds, koji and moromi was 158.87 mg/g; 51.35 mg/g; and 80.86 mg/g. The data of preferable test on Leucaena sauce’s taste was the same as ABC sauce but the aroma of Leucaena sauce had the lowest score than the others. More over, the four kinds of sauce were not different significantly

  20. The application of artificial neural network in radon disaster model of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yufeng; Zhu Guogen; Zhou Shijian

    2012-01-01

    The structural features, data analysis and learning process of feed-forward neural network (BP ANN) were analyzed at first. Rodon sample from Fuzhou Jinan Uranium Industry Limited Company were used to training the network and make the forecast then, and a forecasting model was established for the radon disaster in uranium mines. The method and effectiveness of BP neural network in predicting radon disaster was discussed. The test of training samples showed that the BP network had gotten fairly satisfied result in predicting mine radon disaster. (authors)

  1. 3rd Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Snášel, Václav; Sung, Tien-Wen; Wang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the ECC 2016, the Third Euro-China Conference on Intelligent Data Analysis and Applications, which was held in Fuzhou City, China from November 7 to 9, 2016. The aim of the ECC is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the broad areas of intelligent data analysis, computational intelligence, signal processing, and all associated applications of artificial intelligence (AI). The third installment of the ECC was jointly organized by Fujian University of Technology, China, and VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. The conference was co-sponsored by Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, and Immersion Co., Ltd.

  2. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Shui-Ping Wu; Yin-Ju Zhang; James J. Schwab; Shuai Huang; Ya Wei; Chung-Shin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and potassium (K+), and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365) of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen). These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal ...

  3. Eco-Industrial Parks from Strategic Niches to Development Mainstream: The Cases of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available China has implemented eco-industrial park (EIP initiatives as a mainstream strategy of a circular economy since the turn of the new century. This paper presents the sustainable transition processes and outcomes of three EIP cases, Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA, Fuzhou Economic and Technological Development Area (FEDA and the Xi’an High-Tech Zone (XHTZ. The cases uncovered four factors key to the transition of EIPs: technological trajectory dependency, spaces for experimentation, government as an enabler and regional embeddedness.

  4. 10th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jerry; Wang, Chia-Hung; Jiang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers papers presented at the 10th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (ICGEC 2016). The conference was co-sponsored by Springer, Fujian University of Technology in China, the University of Computer Studies in Yangon, University of Miyazaki in Japan, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences in Taiwan, Taiwan Association for Web Intelligence Consortium, and VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. The ICGEC 2016, which was held from November 7 to 9, 2016 in Fuzhou City, China, was intended as an international forum for researchers and professionals in all areas of genetic and evolutionary computing.

  5. Social support and the self-rated health of older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Zhang, Chen-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Quan; Li, Zhanzhan; Jiang, Caixiao; Huang, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lack of social support in elderly populations incurs real societal costs and can lead to their poor health. The aim of this study is to investigate the self-rated health (SRH) and social support among older people as well as its associated factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 312 urban community-dwelling elderly aged 65 to 90 years in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian Province from March 2012 to October 2012. A Spearson correlation test, independent t test, a Pearson χ2 test, a linear regression analysis, and a multiple-level model were performed to analyze the results. The participants identified children as the most important source of objective and subjective support, followed by spouse and relatives. Tainan's elderly received more daily life assistance and emotional support, showed stronger awareness of the need to seek help, and maintained a higher frequency of social interactions compared with the elderly in Fuzhou. The mean objective support, subjective support, and support utilization scores as well as the overall social support among Tainan's elderly were significantly high compared with the scores among Fuzhou's elderly. Further, Tainan's elderly rated better SRH than Fuzhou's elderly. Correlation analysis showed that social support was significantly correlated with city, age, living conditions, marital status, and SRH. Multiple linear regression analysis, with social support as a dependent variable, retained the following independent predictors in the final regression model: city (4.792, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.068–6.516, P = 0.000), age (−0.805, 95% CI: −1.394 to −0.135, P = 0.013), marital status (−1.260, 95% CI: −1.891 to −0.629, P = 0.000), living conditions (4.069, 95% CI: 3.022–5.116, P = 0.000), and SRH −1.941, 95% CI: −3.194 to −0.688, P = 0.003). The multiple-level model showed that city would impact older people's social support (χ2 = 5.103, P older people. This study presents some

  6. Development of shelf stable, processed, low acid food products using heat-irradiation combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of ionizing irradiation needed to sterilize low acid vegetable and starch products (with and without sauces) commercially impairs their sensorial and nutritive qualities, and use of thermal processes for the same purpose may also have an adverse effect on the product quality. A systematic approach to the establishment of optimized combination parameters was developed for heat-irradiation processing to produce high quality, shelf stable, low acid food products. The effects of selected heat, heat-irradiation combination and irradiation treatments on the quality of shelf stable mushrooms in brine and rice, stored at ambient temperature, were studied. From a quality viewpoint, use of heat-irradiation combination treatments favouring low irradiation dose levels offered a feasible alternative to thermally processed or radappertized mushrooms in brine. However, shelf stable rice produced by heat-irradiation combination treatments offered a feasible alternative only to radappertized rice from the standpoint of quality. The technical requirements for the heat and irradiation processing of a long grain rice cultivar from the United States of America oppose each other directly, thereby reducing the feasibility of using heat-irradiation combination processing to produce shelf stable rice. The stability of starch thickened white sauces was found to be affected severely during high dose irradiation and subsequent storage at ambient temperature. However, use of pea protein isolate as a thickener in white sauces was found to have the potential to maintain the viscosity of sauces for irradiated meat and sauce products throughout processing and storage. (author)

  7. Use of Irradiation to Improve the Safety and Quality of Chilled Pad Thai (Stir Fry Rice Noodle with Dried Shrimp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Pungsawat, K.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Vongsawasdi, P.

    2005-09-01

    Pad Thai, which is stir fried rice noodle with dried shrimp, was subjected to gamma irradiation. Two components (cooked rice noodle and spicy sauce with dried shrimp) were separately packed and inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. D10 values of both pathogens were lower when pathogens were contaminated in cooked rice noodle. No survivors of both contaminated pathogens during 4 weeks of chilled storage when dose of 4 kGy was applied in the two components. After irradiation, texture of cooked rice noodle was softer and its color changed from white to yellow whereas redness of spicy sauce and dried shrimp decreased together with increase in pH of spicy sauce. During storage under chilled condition, all samples changed almost in the same pattern in term of harder texture and decrease in moisture content of cooked rice noodle, paler color of dried shrimp and spicy sauce and increase in pH of sauce. Panelists preferred non-irradiated Pad Thai at the beginning of storage but no difference was found at the end of storage. Dose of 4 kGy was recommended because chilled Pad Thai was free from pathogens, safe from microbial spoilage and acceptable sensory quality. Shelf life of chilled Pad Thai could be extended to more than 4 weeks compared to normal chilled ready meal, which has shelf life 5-7 days

  8. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  9. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  10. Food product models developed to evaluate starch as a food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Three highly reproducible food models have been developed to evaluate rheological and functional properties of starches. The food models are dutch vla, dressing, and white sauce, and they vary in pH, serving temperature, oil content, and content of other functional ingredients than starch (milk...... with starch concentration in dutch vla. In dressing and white sauce most of the rheological parameters depended on the starch concentration. In addition, it was found that results from the empirical rheological method (USDA consistometer) correlate well with fundamental rheological parameters. Syneresis...... was measured for a period of time up to 15 days. The degree of syneresis of dressing was highly dependent on starch concentration, while the syneresis of the white sauce was dependent on time but not on starch concentration. The dutch vla showed no syneresis at all....

  11. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.

  12. Consumption, Not CO2 emissions: Reframing Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, Robert; Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    A stunning documentary film titled “Mardi Gras: Made in China” provides an insightful and engaging perspective on the globalization of desire for material consumption. Tracing the life cycle of Mardi Gras beads from a small factory in Fuzhou, China to the streets of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans the viewer grasps the near universal human desire to strive for an affluent lifestyle. David Redmon, an independent film maker, follows the beads' genealogy back to the industrial town of Fuzhou, China, to the factory that is the world's largest producer of Mardi Gras beads and related party trinkets. He explores how these frivolous and toxic products affect the people who make them and those who consume them. Redmon captures the daily reality of a Chinese manufacturing facility. It’s workforce of approximately 500 teenage girls, and a handful of boys, live like prisoners in a fenced-in compound. These young people, often working 16-hour days, are constantly exposed to styrene, a chemical known to cause cancer — all for about 10 cents an hour. In addition to indoor pollution, the decrepit coal-fired manufacturing facilities are symbolic of China’s fast rise to the world’s top producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.1 The process of industrialization and modernization in China is happening at an unprecedented rate and scale.

  13. Field Evaluation of Australian Ration Packs. Revision of Combat Ration Ten Man,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    the pack. (iii) ’Which Rem would you most like to see added to these packs?’ & If 20% of respondents identify ’ instant noodles ’ as their most...preferred item and fewer than 10% nominate any other individual item it could be safely concluded that instant noodles will be popular. 1. Characteristics of...Sauce 1 x 11Og Tomato Sauce 1 x 11g Garlic Pdr. I x 14g Mustard 1 x 1 4g Chickn noodle Soup I x pouch Pea & Ham Soup 1 x pouch Instant Pudding (choc

  14. Dose-response effects in an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz, E. D.; Cartter, M. L.; Hadler, J. L.; Wassell, J. T.; Zingeser, J. A.; Tauxe, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ingested Salmonella enteritidis (SE) dose on incubation period and on the severity and duration of illness were estimated in a cohort of 169 persons who developed gastroenteritis after eating hollandaise sauce made from grade-A shell eggs. The cohort was divided into three groups based on self-reported dose of sauce ingested. As dose increased, median incubation period decreased (37 h in the low exposure group v. 21 h in the medium exposure group v. 17.5 h in the high exposure ...

  15. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

    OpenAIRE

    Wongwiwat, P.; Yanpakdee, S.; Wattanachant, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt) were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1) and marinated only ingredients (control 2) were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were ...

  16. Characterization of Novel Non-Invasive Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Daniel Guldager Kring

    urin. Biomarkørerne som blev evalueret inkluderede nedbrydning af COL I (C1M), III (C3A, C3C, C3M, sauC3M), IV (C4M, C4Ma3), VI (C6M), og opbygning af COL I (PINP), III (Pro-C3), IV (P4NP 7S), og VI (Pro-C6). Biologisk relevans af en eller flere af biomarkørerne blev testet i en kohorte af patienter...... af C3M og sauC3M i urin (begge psauC3M i urin var...

  17. Overvejer forbrugerne emballagens funktions- og miljøegenskaber, når de køber fødevarer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino

    1993-01-01

    immediately after having bought a "sauce product" (ketchup, mayonnaise etc.) about the reason for their choice. Results indicated that the packaging was a major choice criterion, but only for its functional aspects, not because of its environmental ones. 4. In a second study, depth interviews were conducted...... with twelve respondents. Reasons for choosing various brands of "sauce products" were discussed, and products with another kind of packaging were shown to consumers. No mention was made of either packaging or environment by the interviewers. Nevertheless, half of the respondents me environmental consequences...

  18. Numerical simulation of forced convection in a duct subjected to microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.; Kuznetsov, A.V. [North Carolina State University, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Campus Box 7910, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sandeep, K.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Food Science, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, forced convection in a rectangular duct subjected to microwave heating is investigated. Three types of non-Newtonian liquids flowing through the duct are considered, specifically, apple sauce, skim milk, and tomato sauce. A finite difference time domain method is used to solve Maxwell's equations simulating the electromagnetic field. The three-dimensional temperature field is determined by solving the coupled momentum, energy, and Maxwell's equations. Numerical results show that the heating pattern strongly depends on the dielectric properties of the fluid in the duct and the geometry of the microwave heating system. (orig.)

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12232-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15 EF494754_1( EF494754 |pid:none) Sorbus aucuparia isolate SaucS7b s... 87 1e-15 EU247098_1( EU247098 |pid:none) Pyrus syria...or S... 79 5e-13 EU247101_1( EU247101 |pid:none) Pyrus syriaca S5 RNase gene, par...247097 |pid:none) Pyrus syriaca S1 RNase gene, parti... 94 1e-17 CR382132_1073( CR382132 |pid:none) Yarrowia...EU294324 |pid:none) Prunus webbii S10-RNase gene, part... 94 1e-17 EU247097_1( EU

  20. Pork in good company?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J.; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2,156) in five European countries...... to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks...

  1. A Comparison of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat VIII with Supplemental Pack and the Ration, Cold Weather Consumed in an Arctic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Chicken & Rice 125 7.00 .15 Corned Beef Hash 120 6.94 .15 Meatballs , Rice & Sauce 105 6.75 .22 Chicken Stew 102 6.50 .18 Chicken a la King 83 6.01 .22...Stew 74 Tuna with Noodles 71 Meatballs , Rice & Sauce 69 Escalloped Potatoes with Ham 67 Chicken Stew 65 Chicken a la King 54 Starches Potato au Gratin 58...foods (corn chips, onion rings, mixed nuts, etc.). oo More breakfast-type foods (hardboiled eggs , chipped beef). RAYMOND MANSUR/AV256-5198 61 STRNC-WIP

  2. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines.

  3. 21 CFR 170.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... flavored gelatin drinks. (4) Breakfast cereals, including ready-to-eat and instant and regular hot cereals..., decaffeinated, and instant types. (8) Condiments and relishes, including plain seasoning sauces and spreads... fillings, and gelatin base salads. (23) Grain products and pastas, including macaroni and noodle products...

  4. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  5. Commercial WWW Site Appeal: How Does It Affect Online Food and Drink Consumers' Purchasing Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gregory K.; Manning, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors related to online food and drink buying, are described.…

  6. le pommier de cayor, espece emblematique du dallol bosso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usage alimentaire le plus répandu est la consommation crue de la pulpe des fruits frais. Les amandes sont soit consommées crues, soit pilées et utilisées en sauce comme condiments, soit utilisées pour l'extraction traditionnelle d'huile. Le bois de ...

  7. Catalytic synthesis of long-chained alcohols from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    fraction of higher alcohols in the product introduces a dilemma, because the presence of a sulfur sauce like H2S in the gas can lead to an undesirable incorporation of sulfur species into the alcohol product. It is observed that the sulfur content in the condensed alcohol product increases linearly...

  8. Quality effect of freeze-chilling in cod and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    ‘Meal elements’ is the name of a concept in which elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, fish or pre-processed vegetables are prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens for instance in hospitals and canteens, where the kitchen...

  9. Modification of a traditional Korean food product (Gochujang to enhance its consumer acceptability as an ethnic food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Burgess

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: While reducing the hotness of the product has the potential to broaden appeal, this could erode its positioning as a distinctive, premium product with authentic flavors appealing to a specific market segment. Retaining the modified gochujang flavor profile but linking to an established UK speciality sauce brand may offer the most effective platform to enter the UK market.

  10. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  11. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  12. Effects of variety and repeated in-home consumption on product acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.; Trijp, van H.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of variety on long-term product acceptance and consumption in a home-use situation. Subjects (N= 105) consumed a meat sauce once a week at dinner at home for a period of 10 weeks. Three variety groups were designed. The monotony group (N= 45)

  13. Raw-fish-eating behavior and fishborne zoonotic trematode infection in people of northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phan, Van Thi; Ersbæll, Annette Kjær; Do, Dung Trung

    2011-01-01

    , as they know effective drug treatment is available. Raw fish dishes are consumed at social gatherings from shared plates and dipping sauces using the same chop sticks. This is likely to pose risks of crosscontamination with FZT metacercariae to different food items as indicated by the finding that 25...

  14. A higher proportion of Iron-Rich leafy vegatables in a typical burkinabe maize meal does not increase the amount of iron absorbed in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cercamondi, C.I.; Icard-Verniere, C.; Egli, I.; Vernay, M.; Hama, F.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Food-to-food fortification can be a promising approach to improve the low dietary iron intake and bioavailability from monotonous diets based on a small number of staple plant foods. In Burkina Faso, the common diet consists of a thick, cereal-based paste consumed with sauces composed of mainly

  15. The political economy of productive sectors: Explaining regulatory initiatives in the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    of regulation of the fisheries resource. In contrast, Ugandan milk production has boomed since the mid 1990s, and while the quality of the milk used to be highly questionable due to practices such as diluting milk and boiling it in sauce-pans, quality has gradually improved due to regulatory initiatives...

  16. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  17. Eating out

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dishes that are steamed without added oil or sugar. Limit dishes made with sweet and sour, hoisin, gravy, or other heavy sauces. Choose low-fat dishes that are lightly stir-fried, such as brown rice and Chinese vegetables with seafood, chicken, or ...

  18. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities.

  19. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based...

  20. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp Co.; JBS Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing... prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  1. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope of the order. In addition, food preparations (including dusted... subjected to individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer...

  2. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  3. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations... dusted, but prior to being frozen; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (IQF) freezing...

  4. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...; and (5) that is subjected to individually quick frozen (IQF) freezing immediately after application of...

  5. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products... prawns that are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  6. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp... individually quick frozen (``IQF'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in...

  7. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing... with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  8. 75 FR 47546 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be processed from any..., spices or sauce are included in the scope of the order. In addition, food preparations, which are not... after being dusted, but prior to being frozen; and 5) that is subjected to IQF freezing immediately...

  9. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size... prawns that are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food...'') freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. When dusted in accordance with the definition...

  10. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from some spices and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred twenty five samples from five different Ethiopian sauce spices were examined for the incidence and level of contamination of Bacillus species. The spices consisted of fenugreek (Trigenella foenum-graecum), black cumin (Nigella sativa), Ethiopian caraway (Trachyspermum ammi), ginger (Zingiber officinale) ...

  11. Leafy amaranthus consumption patterns in Ouagadougou, Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to change mentalities and to fuel a rapid growth of traditional leafy vegetables ... It was found that leafy vegetables are cultivated under both rain-fed and ... Ninety-four per cent of the interviewed people use vegetable Amaranth in sauce.

  12. 77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... information were submitted to support Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 pesticide products. The Draft... component of fermented fish sauce and cocoa bean fermentations (Ref. 4). Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 is... described in Unit III. B. Other Non-Occupational Exposure Pesticide products with the active ingredient...

  13. Nonheme-iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal is increased by the addition of small amounts of pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    of small amounts of meat on nonheme-iron absorption from a meal presumed to have low iron bioavailability. Design: Forty-five healthy women with a mean (+/-SD) age of 24 +/- 3 y were randomly assigned to I of 3 groups, each of which was served (A) a basic meal (rice, tomato sauce, pea puree, and a wheat...

  14. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    and beer or spirits), a ‘‘Sunday roast’’ segment (shoulder, gammon roast, collar roast or medallions served with potatoes and sauce, combined with beans, carrots or cabbage), a ‘‘Bolognese’’ segment (minced meat with pasta), a ‘‘lean cuisine’’ segment (tenderloin or small cuts combined served with rice...

  15. Research article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    En plus de la viande, du poisson et des produits laitiers, il existe pour un ... ragout de haricots rouges avec sauce d'arachides et graines de mais) ainsi que le ... meilleure composition d'acides gras (taux élevé d'acides gras insaturés) que les ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - ... Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera indica stem bark. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2384-681X.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ujaddughe, MO. Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 3 (2014) - Articles Liver weight changes in wistar rats treated with crude aqueous extracts of Mangifera ...

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles The combined incidence of Grade II and Grade IV astrocytoma in the brain of rats fed with diet containing Yaji: A complex Nigerian Suya meat sauce ... Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 4 (2014) - Articles Human diseases and histories of treatment-drug lacunae: An Ebola induced reflection

  19. Factors governing partial coalescence in oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredrick, E.; Walstra, P.; Dewettinck, K.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of the instability mechanism partial coalescence in oil-in-water food emulsions show a discrepancy. On the one hand, it needs to be avoided in order to achieve an extended shelf life in food products like sauces, creams and several milk products. On the other hand, during the

  20. 2520-IJBCS-Article-Emile N Houngbo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Agadès) et l'oignon Dendi de Malanville (ou oignon rouge, oignon local). Les caractéristiques qui les distinguent sont les suivantes. L'oignon de Galmi : Moyennement gros par rapport à l'oignon rouge ; peau relativement lisse ; moins difficile à conserver; moins piquant (moins acide) ; donne une saveur agréable à la sauce ...

  1. Effects of gamma-irradiation before and after cooking on bacterial population and sensory quality of Dakgalbi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Min; Park, Jong-Heum; Lee, Ji-Hye; Park, Jae-Nam; Park, Jin-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Gao, Meixu; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of gamma irradiation on the total bacterial population and the sensory quality of Dakgalbi irradiated before and after cooking. Fresh chicken meat was cut into small pieces and used to prepare Dakgalbi. For the preparation of Dakgalbi cooked with gamma-irradiated chicken meat and sauce (IBC), raw chicken meat and Dakgalbi sauce were irradiated and then stir-fried. For the preparation of Dakgalbi irradiated after cooking with raw chicken meat and sauce (IAC), raw chicken meat and Dakgalbi sauce were first cooked and subsequently irradiated. Under the accelerated storage condition of 35 °C for 7 days, bacteria in IBC were below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g) on day 1 but were detected on day 2 and gradually increased hereafter. In IAC, on the other hand, bacteria were not detected at all. Evaluation of sensory quality also decreased on both samples. However, IAC showed a better trend. Our results indicate that IAC protocol was a more effective method for reducing bacterial growth in Dakgalbi. - Highlights: ► We compared the microbial safety and sensory property of Dakgalbi irradiated before and after cooking. ► Dakgalbi irradiated after cooking can be more effective processing method on microbial safety. ► Sensory property decreased on both Dakgalbis by irradiation-induced off-flavor. ► Dakgalbi irradiated after cooking showed a better tendency on the sensory evaluation.

  2. Effects of extracts from three indigenous spices on the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITEQ

    2011-10-06

    Oct 6, 2011 ... fish processed by treatment with an edible organic acid, usually acetic acid and salt and put into brines, sauces, or oil [4]. Fish being the cheapest sources of animal protein, play a significant role in the diet of many people in developing countries [5]. However, the preservation of this scarce and perishable ...

  3. Biological and technological effects of some mulberry varieties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    egyptian hak

    ... a paste or cake called “dika” bread, which is used as a soup, stew or sauce additive for ... forests without compensation may have a negative impact on rural food .... Fernando ES (1995) Simaroubaceae, an artificial construct: evidence from ...

  4. Gluten-Free Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tofu and Shrimp Curry Irish Soda Bread Jalapeño Poppers Key Lime Pie Key Lime Pie Shooters Knorr’s ... Dill Dip Gruyere Crustinis Hot Chili Dip Jalapeño Poppers Knorr’s Vegetable Dip Lemon Dipping Sauce Meatballs for ...

  5. Effects of gamma-irradiation before and after cooking on bacterial population and sensory quality of Dakgalbi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Min; Park, Jong-Heum; Lee, Ji-Hye; Park, Jae-Nam; Park, Jin-Kyu; Sung, Nak-Yun; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yoon, Yohan; Gao, Meixu; Yook, Hong-Sun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of gamma irradiation on the total bacterial population and the sensory quality of Dakgalbi irradiated before and after cooking. Fresh chicken meat was cut into small pieces and used to prepare Dakgalbi. For the preparation of Dakgalbi cooked with gamma-irradiated chicken meat and sauce (IBC), raw chicken meat and Dakgalbi sauce were irradiated and then stir-fried. For the preparation of Dakgalbi irradiated after cooking with raw chicken meat and sauce (IAC), raw chicken meat and Dakgalbi sauce were first cooked and subsequently irradiated. Under the accelerated storage condition of 35 °C for 7 days, bacteria in IBC were below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g) on day 1 but were detected on day 2 and gradually increased hereafter. In IAC, on the other hand, bacteria were not detected at all. Evaluation of sensory quality also decreased on both samples. However, IAC showed a better trend. Our results indicate that IAC protocol was a more effective method for reducing bacterial growth in Dakgalbi.

  6. Application of modelling techniques in the food industry: determination of shelf-life for chilled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Membré, J.M.; Johnston, M.D.; Bassett, J.; Naaktgeboren, G.; Blackburn, W.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Microbiological modelling techniques (predictive microbiology, the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and a probability risk assessment approach) were combined to assess the shelf-life of an in-pack heat-treated, low-acid sauce intended to be marketed under chilled conditions. From a safety

  7. Modelling dishes and exploring culinary 'precisions': the two issues of molecular gastronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-04-01

    The scientific strategy of molecular gastronomy includes modelling 'culinary definitions' and experimental explorations of 'culinary precisions'. A formalism that describes complex dispersed systems leads to a physical classification of classical sauces, as well as to the invention of an infinite number of new dishes.

  8. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for powder soups and sauces compose with lyophilized products. Technology of lyophilization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the products lyophilization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment. (author)

  9. Recommendations for Improving the Food Service Operations at MCB Camp Pendleton, CA MCAS El Toro and MCAS(H) Santa Ana, CA, MCB Camp Lejeune, NC, and MCDEC, Quantico, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Green Beans Nicoise Egg Plant Parmesan or Zucchini Parmesan Club Spinach Dinner: Cheese Ravioli (frozen) rotate or Beef Ravioli (frozen) Cheese...Manicotti (frozen) rotate or Beef Manicotti (frozen) Meat Sauce (for ravioli and manicotti) Spaghetti w/ Meatballs Assorted Pizzas Baked Lasagna Veal Parmesan

  10. (pers.) decne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. The study evaluated the proximate, minerals and antinutrient contents of the plant Leptadenia ... spice and a sauce (Ibrahim et al., 2012). However, ... The dry leaves and stem were ground separately into fine powder using pestle and mortar and stored in an airtight container before analysis. Proximate Analyses.

  11. Relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickiness of semisolid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnewind, B.; Janssen, A.M.; Vliet, T. van; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickness of semisolid foods was investigated using a texture analyzers. Products included commercial mayon-naises, custard desserts and warm sauces which varied in apparent viscosity between 0.3 and 18.3 Pa.s. It was observed that the

  12. Children's Nutrition: Tips for Picky Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mealtime — even if he or she doesn't eat. Serve broccoli and other veggies with a favorite dip or sauce. Cut foods into various shapes with cookie cutters. Offer breakfast foods for dinner. Serve a variety of brightly colored foods. At ...

  13. Flavor and taste compounds analysis in Chinese solid fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 82 kinds of volatile compounds were identified, including alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, alkynes and benzenes. The subtle aroma of the soy sauce seemed to depend not only on particular key compounds but also on a “critical balance” or a “weighted concentration

  14. 2525-IJBCS-Article-Paul Ayihadji Fernand H

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    La tomate est un produit maraîcher très important dans l'alimentation humaine en Afrique et dans le monde. ... montrent que pour transformer 15 kg de tomate, la durée de cuisson et la consommation en énergie pour la ..... sauce tomate.

  15. Nutritional survey, staple foods composition and the uses of savoury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... Cassava paste with sauce Cassava paste meal, leaves of Gnetum Africanus. Soft pieces. Corn meal .... Maggi oignons epices. Maggi tomate epices ... Etude de la biodisponibilité du fer et des apports en quelques minéraux ...

  16. Effet de la Saison de Culture et de la Densité des Plants sur les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rendement de la cucurbite, excepté le nombre de fruits à l'hectare (NFHa), diminuent avec la densité de semis. Cette ... épaississant de sauces et riches en nutriments. Les analyses ... le manioc, le taro, les légumes (tomate, aubergine, piment ...

  17. 1271-IJBCS-Artticle-Dasmané Bambara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    L'objectif de l'étude est d'évaluer la diversité taxonomique et la variabilité inter et intra-spécifique des plantes cultivées ..... Culture (16). Tomate. Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. Solanaceae. Amérique. 33. 3. 11,54 ..... Calice plus long, sauce.

  18. 2543-IJBCS-Article-Rabo Youmoussou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    détermination des cultures maraîchères associées au M. oleifera, la durée ainsi que l'arrangement spatial des composantes ... préparation de soupe, de sauce et du couscous en Afrique. .... cultures, suivie de l'oseille, la tomate et l'oignon à ...

  19. 78 FR 7750 - Emergency Food Assistance Program; Availability of Foods for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...), blueberries, carrots, catfish, chicken (leg quarters, thighs/drumsticks), cranberry sauce, grape juice, lamb... distribution through TEFAP: dehydrated potatoes, dried plums, raisins, frozen ground beef, frozen whole chicken, frozen ham, frozen turkey roast, blackeye beans, garbanzo beans, great northern beans, light red kidney...

  20. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your selection: Chinese Zheng (steamed) Jum (poached) Kao (roasted) Shao (barbecued) Steamed rice Dishes without MSG added Italian Red sauces Primavera (no cream) Piccata (lemon) Sun-dried tomatoes Crushed tomatoes Lightly sauteed Grilled Mexican Spicy chicken Rice and black beans Salsa or picante Soft ...