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Sample records for sativus stigmas involved

  1. Cloning and characterization of a glucosyltransferase from Crocus sativus stigmas involved in flavonoid glucosylation

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    Ahrazem Oussama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonol glucosides constitute the second group of secondary metabolites that accumulate in Crocus sativus stigmas. To date there are no reports of functionally characterized flavonoid glucosyltransferases in C. sativus, despite the importance of these compounds as antioxidant agents. Moreover, their bitter taste makes them excellent candidates for consideration as potential organoleptic agents of saffron spice, the dry stigmas of C. sativus. Results Using degenerate primers designed to match the plant secondary product glucosyltransferase (PSPG box we cloned a full length cDNA encoding CsGT45 from C. sativus stigmas. This protein showed homology with flavonoid glucosyltransferases. In vitro reactions showed that CsGT45 catalyses the transfer of glucose from UDP_glucose to kaempferol and quercetin. Kaempferol is the unique flavonol present in C. sativus stigmas and the levels of its glucosides changed during stigma development, and these changes, are correlated with the expression levels of CsGT45 during these developmental stages. Conclusion Findings presented here suggest that CsGT45 is an active enzyme that plays a role in the formation of flavonoid glucosides in C. sativus.

  2. Stigma variability in saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... Cytological and morphological studies showed that this characteristic is unstable and is not genetically controlled. Key words: Chromosome count, Crocus sativus, saffron, stigma, triploid. INTRODUCTION. Archeological and historical sources indicate that saffron. (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) cultivation is a ...

  3. Stigma variability in saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) | Ghaffari | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obstacle to improving Crocus sativus is its sterility caused by being triploid. Thus, the discovery of the new variant of saffron with increased number of stigmas was welcomed as a reason for improving its yield. The study of development and the process of budding of the corm of saffron showed that these flowers occur by ...

  4. Crocins transport in Crocus sativus: the long road from a senescent stigma to a newborn corm.

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    Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero, Almudena; Ahrazem, Oussama; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2010-09-01

    Saffron, the desiccated stigmas of Crocus sativus, is highly appreciated by its peculiar colour, flavour and aroma. The main compounds that accumulated throughout stigma development in C. sativus are crocetin, its glucoside derivatives, crocins, and picrocrocin, all of which increased as stigmas reached a fully developed stage. After anthesis, and in the absence of fertilization, the flower enters in a senescence programme, which represents the ultimate stage of floral development and results in wilting of whole flower. The programmed senescence of flowers allows the removal of a metabolically active tissue. We studied the composition of saffron apocarotenoids during the senescence of C. sativus flowers, and observed that changes in crocins were due to their transport from the senescent stigma to the ovaries and the developing corm. Afterwards, deglucosylation of crocins in these tissues results in crocetin accumulation. This mobilization mimics the export to storage cells (resorbed) of different compounds during leaf senescence avoiding loss of nutrients in leaves that would otherwise be cycled back into the soil system through leaf litter decomposition. In C. sativus, the resorbed apocarotenoids are stored within the developing corm, where they are not further detected in the advanced stages of development, suggesting that they are metabolized during the early and active phases of corm development, where the glucose molecules from crocins might contribute to cell initiation and elongation. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In silico identification of miRNAs and their target genes and analysis of gene co-expression network in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) stigma.

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    Zinati, Zahra; Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah; Behpouri, Ali

    2016-12-01

    As an aromatic and colorful plant of substantive taste, saffron (Crocus sativus L.) owes such properties of matter to growing class of the secondary metabolites derived from the carotenoids, apocarotenoids. Regarding the critical role of microRNAs in secondary metabolic synthesis and the limited number of identified miRNAs in C. sativus, on the other hand, one may see the point how the characterization of miRNAs along with the corresponding target genes in C. sativus might expand our perspectives on the roles of miRNAs in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. A computational analysis was used to identify miRNAs and their targets using EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) library from mature saffron stigmas. Then, a gene co- expression network was constructed to identify genes which are potentially involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathways. EST analysis led to the identification of two putative miRNAs (miR414 and miR837-5p) along with the corresponding stem- looped precursors. To our knowledge, this is the first report on miR414 and miR837-5p in C. sativus. Co-expression network analysis indicated that miR414 and miR837-5p may play roles in C. sativus metabolic pathways and led to identification of candidate genes including six transcription factors and one protein kinase probably involved in carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Presence of transcription factors, miRNAs and protein kinase in the network indicated multiple layers of regulation in saffron stigma. The candidate genes from this study may help unraveling regulatory networks underlying the carotenoid/apocarotenoid biosynthesis in saffron and designing metabolic engineering for enhanced secondary metabolites.

  6. Study on diuretic activity of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus L. Aqueous extract in rat

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    Nabi Shariatifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world and consists of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. It is used as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and traditional cooking and also in folk medicine as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic, expectorant, aphrodisiac and cardiotonic. The present study has evaluated the diuretic activity of aqueous extract of dried saffron (stigma of Crocussativus in rat. Aqueous extracts of saffron were administered to experimental rats orally as doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg body weight (BW and compared with hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg B.W., intraperitoneally, a potent diuretic as positive control and normal saline solution as placebo for control group. The measured parameters for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine electrolytes concentration such as sodium and potassium, creatinine and urea concentration. The treated rats with aqueous extract of saffron as doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg BW showed higher urine output when compared to the control group. Also, it has shown a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. Our findings proved the diuretic activity of saffron which is used in traditional medicine, it can be an effective and safe strategy for related dysfunction. Also further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms of action, probably other effects and interactions with other medicines.

  7. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats.

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    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-11-01

    Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration.

  8. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Mousavi, Bentolhoda; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Fadai, Farbod; Ashtari, Zabihollah; Ali Beigi, Neda; Farhang, Sara; Hashempour, Sara; Shahhamzei, Nasim; Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent) in adult patients with schizophrenia. The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE) and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily), crocin (15 mg twice daily) or placebo. A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE), but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

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    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  10. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. In vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activities of various extracts of saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigmas from Jammu & Kashmir, India

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    Syed Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of methanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Croccus sativus L. (saffron stigmas, were tested against various bacterial strains (Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus by agar well diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration values of each active extract were also determined. The results showed a strong activity of the petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of saffron stigmas against bacteria and fungi used as test organisms. The results of different antimicrobial assays also indicate that the extracts had significantly higher bactericidal than fungicidal activities (p < 0.05. The results suggest that these extracts can be used in pharmaceutical and food formulations for inhibiting pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma against subacute effect of diazinon on specific biomarkers in rats.

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    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Hariri, Alireza Timcheh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma was studied against subacute toxicity of diazinon (DZN) on specific biochemical markers in rats. Vitamin E (200 IU/kg) and the aqueous extract of saffron at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally three times per week alone or with DZN (20 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activity was inhibited by DZN and this effect was not affected by vitamin E or saffron plus DZN. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (inflammation marker), direct 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (oxidative stress marker) and soluble protein-100 β (S100β, neuronal damage marker) were increased significantly by DZN. The saffron extract inhibited the effect of DZN on these biomarkers levels. However, vitamin E was able to only reduce 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) and S100β levels. This study showed that the aqueous extract of saffron prevents DZN-induced rise of several specific inflammation, oxidative stress and neuronal damage biomarkers.

  13. Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Jussara C.; Barros, S?nia; Santos, Irma M. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have surveyed how professionals from multidisciplinary teams at psychosocial care centers (CAPS), in the city of S?o Paulo, understand the concept of mental illness stigma. The aim of the survey was to characterize the actions developed by the team to overcome stigma and, thus, contribute to develop strategies that incorporate overcoming stigma in the territory. Our objective is to get acquainted to the concepts about stigma shared by the participants. This survey was based ...

  14. Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jussara C.; Barros, Sônia; Santos, Irma M. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have surveyed how professionals from multidisciplinary teams at psychosocial care centers (CAPS), in the city of São Paulo, understand the concept of mental illness stigma. The aim of the survey was to characterize the actions developed by the team to overcome stigma and, thus, contribute to develop strategies that incorporate overcoming stigma in the territory. Our objective is to get acquainted to the concepts about stigma shared by the participants. This survey was based on the theory of stigma by Erving Goffman; data were collected through semi-structured interviews with mental health professionals belonging to the CAPS teams. Results indicate that social exclusion is understood as a synonym to stigma, and that proximity of CAPS to society in the territory facilitates social inclusion and the overcoming of the mental illness stigma. PMID:28462343

  15. Stigma

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    Jussara C. Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have surveyed how professionals from multidisciplinary teams at psychosocial care centers (CAPS, in the city of São Paulo, understand the concept of mental illness stigma. The aim of the survey was to characterize the actions developed by the team to overcome stigma and, thus, contribute to develop strategies that incorporate overcoming stigma in the territory. Our objective is to get acquainted to the concepts about stigma shared by the participants. This survey was based on the theory of stigma by Erving Goffman; data were collected through semi-structured interviews with mental health professionals belonging to the CAPS teams. Results indicate that social exclusion is understood as a synonym to stigma, and that proximity of CAPS to society in the territory facilitates social inclusion and the overcoming of the mental illness stigma.

  16. Identification and possible role of a MYB transcription factor from saffron (Crocus sativus).

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    Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Gómez, Maria Dolores; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2012-03-15

    The MYB family is the most abundant group of transcription factors described for plants. Plant MYB genes have been shown to be involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant development. No MYB genes are described for saffron, the dried stigma of Crocus sativus, utilized as a colorant for foodstuffs. In this study, we used RACE-PCR to isolate a full length cDNA of 894bp with a 591bp open reading frame, encoding a putative CsMYB1 from C. sativus. Comparison between gDNA and cDNA revealed no introns. Homology studies indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence is similar to members of the R2R3 MYB subfamily. Expression analysis showed the presence of high transcript levels in stigma tissue and low levels in tepals, whereas no signal was detected in either anthers or leaves. The RT-PCR analysis revealed that CsMYB1 expression is developmentally regulated during stigma development. Furthermore, expression analysis in stigmas from different Crocus species showed a correlation with stigma morphology. No transcripts were found in stigma tissues of Crocus species characterized by branched stigma morphology. Taken together, these results suggest that CsMYB1 may be involved in the regulation of stigma morphology in Crocus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of main bioactive metabolites from saffron (Crocus sativus) stigmas by a micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) method.

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    Gonda, Sándor; Parizsa, Péter; Surányi, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-07-01

    Saffron is an expensive spice, cultivated in many regions of the world. Its chief metabolites include crocins, which are responsible for the coloring ability, safranal, which is the main essential oil constituent, and picrocrocin which is the main bitter constituent of the spice. A simple micellar capillary electrochromatographic (MEKC) method capable of quantifying all three types of main constituents was established. The pH, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) content and electrolyte concentration of the background electrolyte was optimized. A simple extraction protocol was developed which can extract all metabolites of different polarity from the saffron stigmas. Optimal background electrolyte composed of 20 mM disodium phosphate, 5mM sodium tetraborate, 100 mM SDS, pH was set 9.5. Optimal extracting solvent was the background electrolyte, incubated with the sample for 60 min. The proposed method allows quantification of picrocrocin, safranal, crocetin- Di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester and crocetin (β-D-glycosyl)-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester within 17.5 min, with limit of detection values ranging from 0.006 to 0.04 mg/ml, from a single stigma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Crocus sativus Stigma (saffron alone or in combination with chloroquine on chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei in mice

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    Pestechian Nader

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In malaria treatment protocols, treatment failure or drug resistance of synthesized drugs like alkaloids related to quinine, and aminoquinolines are the main problems now. Therefore, discovering efficient drugs or combination therapy of blood schizonticidal drugs with different mechanisms or different targets in the parasite is a crucial effort to solve this problem. In this study, the effectiveness of Crocus sativus Stigma (saffron individually and in combination with chloroquine, was considered against chloroquine–sensitive strain of Plasmodium berghei.Methods: At the first stage, using 4 day suppressive Peter’s test in mice, ED50 and survival times of saffron methanol extract, and its aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions and chloroquine on P. berghei were calculated. Then, based on the toxicity and survival time results, combination therapy was conducted with the best saffron fraction and chloroquine against the parasite.Results: The saffron extract, aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions resulted in suppression of parasitemia with ED50 values of 587.0 ± 78.7, 323.7 ± 37.2, and 508.7 ± 35.6 mg/kg, respectively. Combination of ethyl acetate fraction with chloroquine, potentiated the antimalarial property and the survived percent of the treated mice on days 7, 14, and 28 significantly more than chloroquine or ethyl acetate fraction alone.Conclusion: Saffron and its fractions individually can be effective in reducing the parasitemia in mice. The outcome of combination of ethyl acetate fraction with chloroquine on the mice showed synergistic effect on the chloroquine–sensitive strain of parasite.

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron stigma in comparison with silymarin against rifampin induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Daryoush Mohajeri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-tuberculous drug Rifampin is a potent hepatotoxicant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Crocus sativus L. stigma (EECSL.S in comparison with standard drug silimarin against rifampin-induced hepatotoxicity in the rats. Materials and Method: 40 male Wistar rats with the mean body weight of 200±20 gr and age of 10 weeks were randomly assigned into 5 groups of 8 animals and kept in specific cages with 12/12 h light/dark cycle at 21±2οC. Group I as normal control received normal saline (10 ml/kg and group II as toxicant control received rifampin (500 mg/kg. Group Ш as positive control received silymarin plus rifampin (500 mg/kg and groups IV and V (50 mg/kg received EECSL.S at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg plus rifampin, respectively. All the treatments were carried out through the gavage dissolving in 10 ml/kg normal saline daily for 1 month. At the end of experiment, levels of liver function marker enzymes (Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline Phosphatase, total bilirubin, albumin and total proteins were assessed in serum of the rats. Moreover, histopathological observation was assayed at the degree of hepatic injury. Results: In rifampin-treated rats, silymarin and EECSL.S (40 and 80 mg/kg significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarker of hepathic injury and total bilirubin and elevated the levels of albumin and total proteins. Histopathologically, silymarin and EECSL.S ameliorated rifampin induced hepatic injury. Histopathological changes were in agreement with biochemical findings.Conclusion: Results indicated that EECSL.S (80 mg/kg equals with silymarin as standard drug, point of view hepatoprotective effects against rifampin-induced hepatotoxicity

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

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    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-03-03

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus.

  1. Transcriptome Profiling of Tomato Uncovers an Involvement of Cytochrome P450s and Peroxidases in Stigma Color Formation

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    Yan Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stigma is a crucial structure of female reproductive organ in plants. Stigma color is usually regarded as an important trait in variety identification in some species, but the molecular mechanism of stigma color formation remains elusive. Here, we characterized a tomato mutant, yellow stigma (ys, that shows yellow rather than typical green color in the stigma. Analysis of pigment contents revealed that the level of flavonoid naringenin chalcone was increased in the ys stigma, possibly as a result of higher accumulation of p-coumaric acid, suggesting that naringenin chalcone might play a vital role in yellow color control in tomato stigma. To understand the genes and gene networks that regulate tomato stigma color, RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq analyses were performed to compare the transcriptomes of stigmas between ys mutant and wild-type (WT. We obtained 507 differentially expressed genes, in which, 84 and 423 genes were significantly up-regulated and down-regulated in the ys mutant, respectively. Two cytochrome P450 genes, SlC3H1 and SlC3H2 which encode p-coumarate 3-hydroxylases, and six peroxidase genes were identified to be dramatically inhibited in the yellow stigma. Further bioinformatic and biochemical analyses implied that the repression of the two SlC3Hs and six PODs may indirectly lead to higher naringenin chalcone level through inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, thereby contributing to yellow coloration in tomato stigma. Thus, our data suggest that two SlC3Hs and six PODs are involved in yellow stigma formation. This study provides valuable information for dissecting the molecular mechanism of stigma color control in tomato.Statement: This study reveals that two cytochrome P450s (SlC3H1 and SlC3H2 and six peroxidases potentially regulate the yellow stigma formation by indirectly enhancing biosynthesis of yellow-colored naringenin chalcone in the stigma of tomato.

  2. Comparison of different tandem mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-IT, ESI- and IP-MALDI-QRTOF and vMALDI-TOF/RTOF) for the analysis of crocins and picrocrocin from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L.

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    Koulakiotis, Nikolaos Stavros; Pittenauer, Ernst; Halabalaki, Maria; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Allmaier, Günter

    2012-03-30

    The expensive spice saffron originating from the stigmas of Crocus sativus L. and also applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complex mixture of glycoconjugates varying not only in the aglycon structure, but also in glycosylation pattern. Therefore, various tandem mass spectrometric techniques were evaluated for their usefulness in structural elucidation. Three selected constituents of the stigmas of Crocus sativus L., trans- and cis-crocin-4 as well as picrocrocin, were isolated and purified by HPLC and finally analyzed by ESI-MS (ion trap, QqRTOF), IP-MALDI-MS (QqRTOF) and vMALDI-MS (TOF/RTOF) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry in collision energy regimes ranging from a few eV (LE) to 20 keV (HE) collisions for the first time. These data aid in structurally elucidating minor, unknown glycoconjugates originating from this plant-derived spice. LE-CID of isomeric crocins on either an ion trap with ESI or a QqRTOF-instrument with ESI or IP-MALDI as desorption/ionization technique only yielded a limited number of structurally diagnostic sodiated product ions related to the carbohydrate moiety as well as to the intact aglycon in contrast to true HE-CID. The low MW constituent picrocrocin did not yield useful LE-CID spectra, but showed a high number of structurally diagnostic product ions by HE-CID utilizing a vMALDI TOF/RTOF-instrument. The highest number of structurally diagnostic product ions allowing also determination of the carbohydrate linkage of the gentiobiose-moiety of isomeric crocins ((0,4)A(2), (3,5)A(2) product ions indicating a 1→6 carbohydrate linkage) was only achievable by HE-CID. Fragmentation of the aglycon was not observed by any collision energy regime applied. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Ethylene is involved in brassinosteroids induced alternative respiratory pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings response to abiotic stress

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    Lijie eWei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 µM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1, ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2, ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2 and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and analysis of major genes involved in glucosinolate metabolism.

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    Wang, Yan; Pan, Yan; Liu, Zhe; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Yu, Rugang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. Glucosinolates in the fleshy taproot significantly affect the flavor and nutritional quality of radish. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying glucosinolate metabolism in radish taproots. The limited availability of radish genomic information has greatly hindered functional genomic analysis and molecular breeding in radish. In this study, a high-throughput, large-scale RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots at different stages of development. Approximately 66.11 million paired-end reads representing 73,084 unigenes with a N50 length of 1,095 bp, and a total length of 55.73 Mb were obtained. Comparison with the publicly available protein database indicates that a total of 67,305 (about 92.09% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes exhibit similarity (e -value ≤ 1.0e⁻⁵) to known proteins. The functional annotation and classification including Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that the main activated genes in radish taproots are predominantly involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolite pathways, signal transduction mechanisms and other cellular components and molecular function related terms. The majority of the genes encoding enzymes involved in glucosinolate (GS) metabolism and regulation pathways were identified in the unigene dataset by targeted searches of their annotations. A number of candidate radish genes in the glucosinolate metabolism related pathways were also discovered, from which, eight genes were validated by T-A cloning and sequencing while four were validated by quantitative RT-PCR expression profiling. The ensuing transcriptome dataset provides a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetics research in radish. It will serve as an

  5. De novo Taproot Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of Major Genes Involved in Sucrose Metabolism in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Luo, Xiaobo; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Xie, Yang; Karanja, Benard; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important annual or biennial root vegetable crop. The fleshy taproot comprises the main edible portion of the plant with high nutrition and medical value. Molecular biology study of radish begun rather later, and lacks sufficient transcriptomic and genomic data in pubic databases for understanding of the molecular mechanism during the radish taproot formation. To develop a comprehensive overview of the 'NAU-YH' root transcriptome, a cDNA library, prepared from three equally mixed RNA of taproots at different developmental stages including pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage, and expanding stage was sequenced using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing. From approximately 51 million clean reads, a total of 70,168 unigenes with a total length of 50.28 Mb, an average length of 717 bp and a N50 of 994 bp were obtained. In total, 63,991 (about 91.20% of the assembled unigenes) unigenes were successfully annotated in five public databases including NR, GO, COG, KEGG, and Nt. GO analysis revealed that the majority of these unigenes were predominately involved in basic physiological and metabolic processes, catalytic, binding, and cellular process. In addition, a total of 103 unigenes encoding eight enzymes involved in the sucrose metabolism related pathways were also identified by KEGG pathway analysis. Sucrose synthase (29 unigenes), invertase (17 unigenes), sucrose-phosphate synthase (16 unigenes), fructokinase (17 unigenes), and hexokinase (11 unigenes) ranked top five in these eight key enzymes. From which, two genes (RsSuSy1, RsSPS1) were validated by T-A cloning and sequenced, while the expression of six unigenes were profiled with RT-qPCR analysis. These results would be served as an important public reference platform to identify the related key genes during taproot thickening and facilitate the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying taproot formation in radish.

  6. De novo transcriptome analysis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and identification of critical genes involved in bolting and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Huang, Danqiong; Muleke, Everlyne M; Sun, Xiaochuan; Xie, Yang; Liu, Liwang

    2016-05-23

    The appropriate timing of bolting and flowering is pivotal for reproductive success in Brassicaceae crops including radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Although several flowering regulatory pathways had been described in some plant species, no study on genetic networks of bolting and flowering regulation was performed in radish. In this study, to generate dataset of radish unigene sequences for large-scale gene discovery and functional pathway identification, a cDNA library from mixed radish leaves at different developmental stages was subjected to high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 54.64 million clean reads and 111,167 contigs representing 53,642 unigenes were obtained from the radish leaf transcriptome. Among these, 50,385 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searching against the public protein databases. Functional classification and annotation indicated that 42,903 and 15,382 unique sequences were assigned to 55 GO terms and 25 COG categories, respectively. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that 25,973 unigenes were classified into 128 functional pathways, among which 24 candidate genes related to plant circadian rhythm were identified. Moreover, 142 potential bolting and flowering-related genes involved in various flowering pathways were identified. In addition, seven critical bolting and flowering-related genes were isolated and profiled by T-A cloning and RT-qPCR analysis. Finally, a schematic network model of bolting and flowering regulation and pathways was put forward in radish. This study is the first report on systematic identification of bolting and flowering-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing and assembly in radish. These results could provide a foundation for further investigating bolting and flowering regulatory networks in radish, and facilitate dissecting molecular genetic mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering in Brassicaceae vegetable crops.

  7. Identification and mapping of ts (tender spines), a gene involved in soft spine development in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunli; Yang, Xuqin; Wang, Yunli; Nie, Jingtao; Yang, Yi; Sun, Jingxian; Du, Hui; Zhu, Wenying; Pan, Jian; Chen, Yue; Lv, Duo; He, Huanle; Lian, Hongli; Pan, Junsong; Cai, Run

    2018-01-01

    Using map-based cloning of ts gene, we identified a new sort of gene involved in the initiation of multicellular tender spine in cucumber. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit contains spines on the surface, which is an extremely valuable quality trait affecting the selection of customers. In this study, we elaborated cucumber line NC072 with wild type (WT) hard fruit spines and its spontaneous mutant NC073, possessing tender and soft spines on fruits. The mutant trait was named as tender spines (ts), which is controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. We identified the gene ts by map-based cloning with an F 2 segregating population of 721 individuals generated from NC073 and WT line SA419-2. It was located between two markers Indel6239679 and Indel6349344, 109.7 kb physical distance on chromosome 1 containing fifteen putative genes. With sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the Csa1G056960 gene was considered as the most possible candidate gene of ts. In the mutant, Csa1G056960 has a nucleotide change in the 5' splicing site of the second intron, which causes different splicing to delete the second exon, resulting in a N-terminal deletion in the predicted amino acid sequence. The gene encodes a C-type lectin receptor-like tyrosine-protein kinase which would play an important role in the formation of cucumber fruit. This is firstly reported of a receptor kinase gene regulating the development of multicellular spines/trichomes in plants. The ts allele could accelerate the molecular breeding of cucumber soft spines.

  8. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) in mothers suffering from mild-to-moderate postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabeshpour, Jamshid; Sobhani, Farzaneh; Sadjadi, Seyed Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Eslami, Saeid

    2017-12-01

    Numerous adverse effects of antidepressants as well as the attitudes of breastfeeding mothers, who prefer to consume herbal medicine rather than chemical drugs, encouraged us to assess the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on mothers suffering from mild-to-moderate postpartum depressive disorder. A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 new mothers who had a maximum score of 29 on the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). They were randomly assigned to the saffron (15 mg/Bid) or placebo group. The primary outcome was a change in the BDI-II scores 8 weeks after treatment compared to the baseline. The response and remission rates were considered to be secondary outcome measures. Saffron had a more significant impact on the BDI-II scores than the placebo. The mean BDI-II scores decreased from 20.3 ± 5.7 to 8.4 ± 3.7 for the saffron group (p saffron group were in remission compared to 43% of the placebo group (p saffron group. When administered to treat minor PPD in breastfeeding mothers, saffron had a more significant impact on the BDI-II than the placebo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Stigma Extract and its Active Constituent Crocin on Neuropathic Pain Responses in a Rat Model of Chronic Constriction Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safakhah, Hossein Ali; Taghavi, Tahereh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sokhanvar, Mina; Mohebbi, Narges; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituent crocin on neuropathic pain behavioral responses induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (200 to 250 g) were randomly assigned into 5 groups: Sham + saline, CCI + saline, CCI+ saffron (30 mg/kg), CCI + crocin (15 mg/kg) and CCI + crocin (30 mg/kg). CCI was induced by applying 4 loose ligatures around the sciatic nerve. Two weeks after nerve lesion, injections of saline, saffron or crocin were started and continued until 26(th) day post-surgery. Pain behavioral responses including mechanical allodynia (von Frey filament testing) and thermal hyperalgesia were measured in 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 40(th) days after CCI. CCI significantly increased pain behavioral responses. Saffron and crocin (30 mg/kg) decreased thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia on day 26, and this effect continued until the day 40. Crocin at lower dose (15 mg/kg) was ineffective. These findings indicate that treatment of saffron and crocin after CCI may have a therapeutic effect against neuropathic pain, suggesting that these substances may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition.

  10. Geographical origin differentiation of saffron spice (Crocus sativus L. stigmas) - Preliminary investigation using chemical and multi-element (H, C, N) stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Luana; Carmona, Manuel; Kelly, Simon D; Marigheto, Niusa; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2011-09-15

    A preliminary study of the bulk hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition of 28 authentic saffron samples produced from Crocus sativus L. cultivated in the typical production areas of Western Macedonia in Greece (8), Khorasan Province in Iran (7), Sardinia in Italy (6) and Castilla-La Mancha in Spain (7) is described. A chemical characterisation of 16 key quality parameters was also completed on the same samples by UV-Vis, HPLC and GC analyses. Multivariate analysis of the data revealed that 60.7% of saffron samples could be correctly assigned to their respective production countries using the chemical parameters. However, the combined bio-element stable isotope data reliably classified 100% of the saffron samples according to their respective geographical origins using posterior cross validation. Further work is required to establish the long-term stability of these models with respect to different years of production and other major producers such as India and Morocco. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Impact of Stigma Regarding Tuberculosis Hindering Adherence to Treatment: A Cross Sectional Study Involving Tuberculosis Patients in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Md Rocky Khan; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Sayem, Abu; Billah, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Stigma, considered a social disease, is more apparent in developing societies which are driven by various social affairs, and influences adherence to treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine levels of social stigma related to tuberculosis (TB) in sociodemographic context and identify the effects of sociodemographic factors on stigma. The study sample consisted of 372 TB patients. Data were collected using stratified sampling with simple random sampling techniques. T tests, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to examine correlations between stigma and sociodemographic variables. Approximately 85.9% of patients had experienced stigma. The most frequent indicator of the stigma experienced by patients involved problems taking part in social programs (79.5%). Mean levels of stigma were significantly higher in women (55.5%), illiterate individuals (60.8%), and villagers (60.8%) relative to those of other groups. Chi-square tests revealed that education, monthly family income, and type of patient (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) were significantly associated with stigma. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that stigma was influenced by sex, education, and type of patient. Stigma is one of the most important barriers to treatment adherence. Therefore, in interventions that aim to reduce stigma, strong collaboration between various institutions is essential.

  12. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L...

  13. Chromium stress mitigation by polyamine-brassinosteroid application involves phytohormonal and physiological strategies in Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Kanwar, Mukesh; Bhardwaj, Renu; Yu, Jing-Quan; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and polyamines (PAs) are well-established growth regulators playing key roles in stress management among plants. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) and spermidine (Spd, an active PA) on the tolerance of radish to oxidative stress induced by Cr (VI) metal. Our investigation aimed to study the impacts of EBL (10(-9) M) and/or Spd (1 mM) on the biochemical and physiological responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) under Cr-stress. Applications of EBL and/or Spd were found to improve growth of Cr-stressed seedlings in terms of root length, shoot length and fresh weight. Our data also indicated that applications of EBL and Spd have significant impacts, particularly when applied together, on the endogenous titers of PAs, free and bound forms of IAA and ABA in seedlings treated with Cr-stress. Additionally, co-applications of EBL and Spd modulated more remarkably the titers of antioxidants (glutathione, ascorbic acid, proline, glycine betaine and total phenol) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (guaicol peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase) in Cr-stressed plants than their individual applications. Attenuation of Cr-stress by EBL and/or Spd (more efficient with EBL and Spd combination) was also supported by enhanced values of stress indices, such as phytochelatins, photosynthetic pigments and total soluble sugars, and reduction in malondialdehyde and H(2)O(2) levels in Cr-treated seedlings. Diminution of ROS production and enhanced ROS scavenging capacities were also noted for EBL and/or Spd under Cr-stress. However, no significant reduction in Cr uptake was observed for co-application of EBL and Spd when compared to their individual treatments in Cr-stressed seedlings. Taken together, our results demonstrate that co-applications of EBL and Spd are more effective than their independent treatments in lowering the Cr-induced oxidative stress in radish, leading to

  14. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  15. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) stigma aqueous extract induces apoptosis in alveolar human lung cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem; Afshari, Reza; Davoodi, Saeideh

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549). We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the normal invertmicroscope, MTT assay, Annexin V and propidium iodide, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activated caspases were detected by treatment of saffron in lung cancer cells using fluorescein-labeled inhibitors of polycaspases. The proliferation of the A549 cells were decreased after treatment with saffron in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with saffron concentrations. Saffron induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells, and induced apoptosis. Saffron could induce apoptosis in the A549 cells and activate caspase pathways. The levels of caspases involved in saffron-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells indicating caspase-dependent pathway were induced by saffron. The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

  16. Crocus sativus L. (Saffron Stigma Aqueous Extract Induces Apoptosis in Alveolar Human Lung Cancer Cells through Caspase-Dependent Pathways Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer. Saffron has been used in folk medicine for centuries. We investigated the potential of saffron to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in lung cancer cells (A549. We also examined the caspase-dependent pathways activation of saffron-induced apoptosis against the A549 cells. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of saffron extract; then cell morphological changes, cell viability, and apoptosis were determined by the normal invertmicroscope, MTT assay, Annexin V and propidium iodide, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activated caspases were detected by treatment of saffron in lung cancer cells using fluorescein-labeled inhibitors of polycaspases. The proliferation of the A549 cells were decreased after treatment with saffron in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with saffron concentrations. Saffron induced morphological changes, decreased percentage of viable cells, and induced apoptosis. Saffron could induce apoptosis in the A549 cells and activate caspase pathways. The levels of caspases involved in saffron-induced apoptosis in the A549 cells indicating caspase-dependent pathway were induced by saffron. The anticancer activity of the aqueous extract of saffron could be attributed partly to its inhibition of the cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells through caspase-dependent pathways activation.

  17. Overcoming Stigma: Involving Families in Medical Student and Psychiatric Residency Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetzer, Alan D.; Lafuze, Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this article is to present a possible mechanism for increasing communication about psychiatric matters such as diagnoses, treatment, and stigma between the physicians, including psychiatrists, and the families of persons with mental illness through a NAMI presentation. Methods: Included are a description of a…

  18. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2016-03-02

    Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus) commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  19. Constituents of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. as Potential Candidates for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Pitsikas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are common public health issues. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (C. sativus commonly known as saffron are used in folk medicine for various purposes. Several lines of evidence suggest that C. sativus, crocins and safranal are implicated in anxiety and schizophrenia. Here, I intend to critically review advances in research of these emerging molecules for the treatment of anxiety and schizophrenia, discuss their advantages over currently used anxiolytics and neuroleptics, as well remaining challenges. Current analysis shows that C. sativus and its components might be a promising class of compounds for the treatment of the above mentioned psychiatric diseases.

  20. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  1. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, M; Phetlhu, R

    2007-06-01

    The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4.7 million people living with HIV (PLWA), has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision of care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect of stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents' emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma) and several dimensions for each type of stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  2. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiusano Maria Luisa; Pizzichini Daniele; D'Agostino Nunzio; Giuliano Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is access...

  3. Quality traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) produced in the Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgi Annamaria; Pentimalli Daniela; Giupponi Luca; Panseri Sara

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the ...

  4. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  5. Cloning, Structural Characterization, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Flower MADS-Box Genes from Crocus (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios S. Tsaftaris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Crocus (Crocus sativus L. is a crop species cultivated for its flowers and, more specifically, for its red stigmas. The flower of crocus is bisexual and sterile, since crocus is a triploid species. Its perianth consists of six petaloid tepals: three tepals in whorl 1 (outer tepals and three tepals in whorl 2 (inner tepals. The androecium consists of three distinct stamens and the gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil with three carpels, a single three-branched style, and an inferior ovary. The dry form of the stigmas constitutes the commercial saffron used as a food additive, in the coloring industry, and in medicine. In order to uncover and understand the molecular mechanisms controlling flower development in cultivated crocus and its relative wild progenitor species, and characterize a number of crocus flower mutants, we have cloned and characterized different, full-length, cDNA sequences encoding MADS-box transcription factor proteins involved in flower formation.

  6. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  7. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50 of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  8. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobuya; Toda, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Michiko; Negishi, Takashi; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru

    2009-01-01

    Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus). The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT) was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT) was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-), bisulfide ([SH]-), and thiocyanate ([SCN]-) ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions. A survey of

  9. Involvement of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an HTMT-coding gene from Raphanus sativus (daikon radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Tomokazu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biogenic emissions of methyl halides (CH3Cl, CH3Br and CH3I are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. Halide ion methyltransferase (HMT and halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halides and the enzymatic properties of HMT/HTMT, and their role in vivo remains unclear. Results Thirty-five higher plant species were screened, and high CH3I emissions and HMT/HTMT activities were found in higher plants belonging to the Poaceae family, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., as well as the Brassicaceae family, including daikon radish (Raphanus sativus. The in vivo emission of CH3I clearly correlated with HMT/HTMT activity. The emission of CH3I from the sprouting leaves of R. sativus, T. aestivum and O. sativa grown hydroponically increased with increasing concentrations of supplied iodide. A gene encoding an S-adenosylmethionine halide/thiol methyltransferase (HTMT was cloned from R. sativus and expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The recombinant R. sativus HTMT (RsHTMT was revealed to possess high specificity for iodide (I-, bisulfide ([SH]-, and thiocyanate ([SCN]- ions. Conclusion The present findings suggest that HMT/HTMT activity is present in several families of higher plants including Poaceae and Brassicaceae, and is involved in the formation of methyl halides. Moreover, it was found that the emission of methyl iodide from plants was affected by the iodide concentration in the cultures. The recombinant RsHTMT demonstrated enzymatic properties similar to those of Brassica oleracea HTMT, especially in terms of its high specificity for iodide, bisulfide, and thiocyanate ions

  10. Crocus sativus L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... 25: 159-168. Mcmaster GS, Willem WW (1997). Growing degree-days: One equation, two interpretations, Agric. For. Meteorol. 87: 291-300. Molina RV, Valero M, Navarro Y, Guardiola JL, Garcia-Luis A (2005). Temperature effects on flower formation in saffron (Crocus sativus. L.), Sci. Hortic., 103: 361-379.

  11. Stigma variability in saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) | Ghaffari | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  12. Crocus sativus L.: A comprehensive review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srivastava, R; Ahmed, H; Dixit, R K; Dharamveer; Saraf, S A

    2010-01-01

    .... sativus possesses a number of medicinally important activities such as antihypertensive, anticonvulsant, antitussive, antigenototoxic and cytotoxic effects, anxiolytic aphrodisiac, antioxidant, anti...

  13. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nunzio; Pizzichini, Daniele; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions). The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors). Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism. PMID:17925031

  14. An EST database from saffron stigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiusano Maria Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part – the stigmas – are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. Results We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions. The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors. Conclusion The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  15. An EST database from saffron stigmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Nunzio; Pizzichini, Daniele; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Giuliano, Giovanni

    2007-10-09

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae) flowers have been used as a spice and medicinal plant ever since the Greek-Minoan civilization. The edible part - the stigmas - are commonly considered the most expensive spice in the world and are the site of a peculiar secondary metabolism, responsible for the characteristic color and flavor of saffron. We produced 6,603 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from a saffron stigma cDNA library. This collection is accessible and searchable through the Saffron Genes database http://www.saffrongenes.org. The ESTs have been grouped into 1,893 Clusters, each corresponding to a different expressed gene, and annotated. The complete set of raw EST sequences, as well as of their electopherograms, are maintained in the database, allowing users to investigate sequence qualities and EST structural features (vector contamination, repeat regions). The saffron stigma transcriptome contains a series of interesting sequences (putative sex determination genes, lipid and carotenoid metabolism enzymes, transcription factors). The Saffron Genes database represents the first reference collection for the genomics of Iridaceae, for the molecular biology of stigma biogenesis, as well as for the metabolic pathways underlying saffron secondary metabolism.

  16. Identification of safranal as the main allelochemical from saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, Hossein; Sekine, Takayuki; Azizi, Majid; Mishyna, Maryia; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Dried parts of 75 medicinal plant species collected from different regions in Iran were assayed by the Dish Pack Method for volatile allelopathic activity, using Lactuca sativa (lettuce) as the test plant. The highest (60%) inhibition was observed for saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus), followed by Dracocephalum kotschyi, Solanum nigrum and Artemisia aucheri. Safranal was identified as the main chemical by Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS- GC-MS) analyses of saffron. Moreover, the EC50 of safranal was evaluated as 1.2 μg/L (ppb). This is the first report on allelopathic activity of safranal as a bioactive compound identified from saffron.

  17. Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.

  18. Stigma creating stigma: a vicious circle

    OpenAIRE

    Dinos, Sokratis

    2014-01-01

    Despite anti-stigma campaigns in the UK in recent years, the experiences of people with mental health problems indicate that stigma is still a major problem. The stigma of being a member of a socially excluded group, based on socioeconomic, personal or cultural/ethnic characteristics, should be considered alongside the stigma of mental illness. Membership of a stigmatised group (not based on mental illness) is often itself a risk factor for developing mental health problems. This article disc...

  19. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  20. Courtesy Stigma Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, Arnold

    1992-01-01

    Various family responses to the courtesy stigma concept (a stigma acquired as a result of being related to a person with a stigma) are examined with regard to mental retardation in particular and disability in general. Also examined is how the social attribution of stigma serves to create distinctions, moral and otherwise, in society. (Author/DB)

  1. Mental illness stigma: concepts, consequences, and initiatives to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2005-12-01

    Persons with mental illness frequently encounter public stigma and may suffer from self-stigma. This review aims to clarify the concept of mental illness stigma and discuss consequences for individuals with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma we discuss two leading concepts of mental illness stigma and consequences of stigma, focussing on self-stigma/empowerment and fear of stigma as a barrier to using health services. Finally, we discuss three main strategies to reduce stigma -- protest, education, and contact -- and give examples of current anti-stigma campaigns. Well-designed anti-stigma initiatives will help to diminish negative consequences of mental illness stigma.

  2. Assessing saffron (Crocus sativus L.) adulteration with plant-derived adulterants by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2017-01-01

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of the plant Crocus sativus L., is well-known as one of the most important and expensive spices worldwide. It is thus highly susceptible to fraudulent practices that employ, among others, plant-derived adulterants. This study presents an application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometric techniques for evaluating adulteration of saffron with six characteristic adulterants of plant origin, i.e. C. sativus stamens, calendula, safflower, turmeric, buddleja, and gardenia. The proposed method involved a three-step process for the detection of adulteration as well as for the identification and quantification of adulterants. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to perform authentication of saffron based on mid-infrared fingerprints (4000-600cm-1), resulting in 99% correct classification of pure saffron and saffron adulterated at 5-20% (w/w) levels. Adulterant identification in positive samples was performed with high sensitivity and specificity by a six-class PLS-DA model, with spectroscopic data from the region 2000-600cm-1. Subsequently, partial least squares (PLS) regression models were built for the quantification of each adulterant. By using synergy interval PLS (siPLS) for variable selection, models with improved performance were developed, with detection limits ranging from 1.0% to 3.1% (w/w). The results obtained illustrate that this strategy based on DRIFTS has the potential to complement existing methodologies for the rapid and cost-effective assessment of typical saffron frauds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin depigmentation activity of Crocus sativus extract cream | Aktar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antioxidant activity of Crucus sativus extract and its effect on human skin using a non-invasive probe mexameter. Methods: The antioxidant activity of C. sativus extract was determined using DPPH method. Water in oil (w/o) topical cream of C. sativus extract (3 %) was formulated and compared ...

  4. Bacillus subtilis FZB24® Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24® on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. subtilis FZB24®. Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24® may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12%. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required. PMID:18622904

  5. Bacillus subtilis FZB24 affects flower quantity and quality of saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud; Elkholy, Shereen; Fernández, José-Antonio; Junge, Helmut; Cheetham, Ronald; Guardiola, José; Weathers, Pamela

    2008-08-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis FZB24 on saffron ( Crocus sativus L.) was studied using saffron corms from Spain and the powdered form of B. SUBTILIS FZB24(R). Corms were soaked in water or in B. subtilis FZB24 spore solution for 15 min before sowing. Some corms were further soil drenched with the spore solution 6, 10 or 14 weeks after sowing. Growth and saffron stigma chemical composition were measured. Compared to untreated controls, application of B. subtilis FZB24 significantly increased leaf length, flowers per corm, weight of the first flower stigma, total stigma biomass; microbe addition also significantly decreased the time required for corms to sprout and the number of shoot sprouts. Compared to the controls, picrocrocin, crocetin and safranal compounds were significantly increased when the plants were soil drenched with the spore solution 14 weeks after sowing; in contrast crocin was highest in untreated controls. Results of this study suggest that application of B. subtilis FZB24 may provide some benefit to saffron growers by speeding corm growth (earlier shoot emergence) and increasing stigma biomass yield by 12 %. While some treatment conditions also increased saffron chemical composition, these were generally not the same treatments that simultaneously improved growth yields and thus, more study is required.

  6. Is Stigma Internalized? The Longitudinal Impact of Public Stigma on Self-Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Bitman, Rachel L.; Hammer, Joseph H.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Stigma is considered an important barrier to seeking mental health services. Two types of stigma exist: public stigma and self-stigma. Theoretically, it has been argued that public stigma leads to the development of self-stigma. However, the empirical support for this assertion is limited to cross-sectional data. Therefore, the goal of this…

  7. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Borji, Abasalt

    2014-01-01

    Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries. Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. PMID:24761112

  8. Safety evaluation of saffron (Crocus sativus) tablets in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaghegh, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahabian, Masoud; Esmaeili, Habib-Allah; Rajbai, Omid; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2008-12-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) stigma tablets were evaluated for short-term safety and tolerability in healthy adult volunteers. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled design consisting of a 1 week treatment of saffron tablets. Volunteers were divided into 3 groups of 10 each (5 males and 5 females). Group I received placebo; groups 2 and 3 received 200 and 400mg saffron tablets, respectively, for 7 days. General measures of health were recorded during the study such as hematological, biochemical and electrocardiographic parameters done in pre- and post-treatment periods. Clinical examination showed no gross changes in all volunteers after intervention. Saffron with higher dose (400mg) decreased standing systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures significantly. Saffron decreased slightly some hematological parameters such as red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets. Saffron increased sodium, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. This study showed that saffron tablets may change some hematological and biochemical parameters. However, these alterations were in normal ranges and they were not important clinically.

  9. Stigma and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kučukalić, Sabina; Kučukalić, Abdulah

    2017-12-01

    Suicide is one of the major mental health problems in the world. It is estimated that one million suicide are committed per year and that after every suicide six people from the surrounding suffer or develop major life changes. After suicide survivors are at higher risk of developing major psychological changes and suicidal ideations as well. They go through the complicated process of grief which is specifically characterized by the felling of guilt, shame, denial and anger. The griefing process, more often than in other causes of death, doesn't integrate but is complicated with prolonged grief. This represents a very favorable state for perceiving stigma. Stigma is most often defined as a mark of disgrace or infamy; a stain or reproach, as on one's reputation. In suicide we talk about public and self stigma. Both forms of stigma can separately cause social isolation, demoralization, the felling of hopelessness and other consequences that interfere with the previous functioning. Because of the high incidence of psychological changes after stigma it is crucial for the bereaved to have close mental health services. But stigma is a barrier to treatment seeking. After suicide most survivors fell stigmatized but it is not yet known which factors modify the perception of stigma. Other causes of death like natural death are less related to stigma. On the other side traumatic death like an accident or homicide seem to be related to perception of stigma in the same way survivors perceive after suicide. Suicide and stigma are related in a two way direction meaning that suicide can cause stigma but stigma can lead to suicidal thoughts as well. Even suicide attempters fell stigmatized by colleagues, medical staff and their closest surrounding. There is a need for interventions. The effect of broad anti-stigma campaigns and targeted programs still have to be examines. In clinical settings, interventions that reduce self stigma, stigma-stress and shame might successfully reduce

  10. 'The stigma attached isn't true of real life': Challenging public perception of dementia through a participatory approach involving people with dementia (Innovative Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Laura; Innes, Anthea; Poyner, Christopher; Hambidge, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the potential impact of viewing public performances of an orchestra comprising people with dementia, family members, student volunteers and professional symphony orchestra members in contributing to challenging negative perceptions of dementia. Negative perceptions of dementia abound despite recent policy attempts to challenge the stigma associated with the condition. This paper reports on the findings from the performance element of a music project for people with dementia, known as the BUDI Orchestra, designed to replicate the traditional rehearse and perform cycle of musicians. Data were collected via self-completion questionnaires from audience members ( N = 109) at three public performances. The performances exceeded the expectations of the general public, and findings suggest a positive impact on perceptions of dementia, demonstrating the power and potential of participatory approaches showcasing the achievements of those living with dementia when attempting to raise awareness of dementia and challenge negative perceptions.

  11. Response of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and this was attributed to lack of scientific basis for advising farmers on application rates. It is also observed that information is scarce on response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to different source of animal manure. Against this background, there is need to study the effect of different organic manure source and rates in ...

  12. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativusL.var. sativus) using two-step TILLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-06-01

    Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus ), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC 1 M 1 line, that is, progenies of M 1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC 1 M 1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC 1 M 1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements.

  13. Mutant selection in the self-incompatible plant radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) using two-step TILLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Chiba, Motoko; Nagano, Soichiro; Anai, Toyoaki; Ueda, Miki U.; Oguchi, Riichi; Shirai, Kazumasa; Hanada, Kousuke; Hikosaka, Kouki; Fujii, Nobuharu

    2017-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus), a widely cultivated root vegetable crop, possesses a large sink organ (the root), implying that photosynthetic activity in radish can be enhanced by altering both the source and sink capacity of the plant. However, since radish is a self-incompatible plant, improved mutation-breeding strategies are needed for this crop. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) is a powerful method used for reverse genetics. In this study, we developed a new TILLING strategy involving a two-step mutant selection process for mutagenized radish plants: the first selection is performed to identify a BC1M1 line, that is, progenies of M1 plants crossed with wild-type, and the second step is performed to identify BC1M1 individuals with mutations. We focused on Rubisco as a target, since Rubisco is the most abundant plant protein and a key photosynthetic enzyme. We found that the radish genome contains six RBCS genes and one pseudogene encoding small Rubisco subunits. We screened 955 EMS-induced BC1M1 lines using our newly developed TILLING strategy and obtained six mutant lines for the six RsRBCS genes, encoding proteins with four different types of amino acid substitutions. Finally, we selected a homozygous mutant and subjected it to physiological measurements. PMID:28744180

  14. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  15. Lessons on Stigma: Teaching about HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; DeCoster, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the sociology of HIV/AIDS involves teaching about the causes and effects of stigma. We describe a Sociology of HIV/AIDS course at the University of Alabama in which stigma reduction was assessed as a primary objective. The syllabus involved theory-based instruction, class visits, service learning, and student research on community…

  16. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Subathra, Murugan; Edula, Jyotheeswara Reddy

    2010-09-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. It has been used in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various human ailments in India. This present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of different parts of R. sativus such as root, stem and leaves, extracted with solvents of varying polarity and investigated the molecular mechanism leading to growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in human cancer cell lines. Of the different parts, significant growth inhibitory effect was observed with hexane extract of R. sativus root. Analysis of hexane extract by GC-MS revealed the presence of several isothiocyanates (ITCs) such as 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), 4-(methylthio)-3-butyl isothiocyanate (erucin), 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphene. R. sativus root extract induced cell death both in p53 proficient and p53 deficient cell lines through induction of apoptotic signaling pathway regardless of the p53 status of cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying R. sativus-induced apoptosis may involve interactions among Bcl(2) family genes, as evidenced by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes along with activation of Caspase-3. Our findings present the first evidence that hexane extract of R. sativus root exerts potential chemopreventive efficacy and induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines through modulation of genes involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.

  17. Quality traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. produced in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Annamaria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a perennial herbaceous geophyte in the Iridaceae family. It propagates vegetatively by corm. All saffron production processes are generally conducted by hand: from bulb implantation, harvesting of flowers to stigma separation. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world because of the intensive hand labour required for production. The increasing interest in Crocus sativus cultivation and production in the Italian Alpine area could increase revenues for the rural farming economy. Twenty eight dried saffron samples were collected from different farmers of the Italian Alpine area (Lombardia, Trentino Alto Adige, Piemonte and Veneto between November 2015 and March 2016. Each sample was processed to determine their moisture content and amount of picrocrocin, crocins and safranal using the methods established by the International Organization for Standardization for saffron (ISO 3632 1,2:2010-2011. Over 82.1 % of the samples analyzed were ranked in the highest quality category of the ISO 3632. A high quality saffron product can be produced in the Italian Alpine area suggesting that this crop could serve as a sustainable source of economic revenues to diversified farms in the Alps.

  18. The stigma of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William B; Park, Jung E; Tian, Iris X; Kempner, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    People who have a disease often experience stigma, a socially and culturally embedded process through which individuals experience stereotyping, devaluation, and discrimination. Stigma has great impact on quality of life, behavior, and life chances. We do not know whether or not migraine is stigmatizing. We studied 123 episodic migraine patients, 123 chronic migraine patients, and 62 epilepsy patients in a clinical setting to investigate the extent to which stigma attaches to migraine, using epilepsy as a comparison. We used the stigma scale for chronic illness, a 24-item questionnaire suitable for studying chronic neurologic diseases, and various disease impact measures. Patients with chronic migraine had higher scores (54.0±20.2) on the stigma scale for chronic illness than either episodic migraine (41.7±14.8) or epilepsy patients (44.6±16.3) (pStigma correlated most strongly with the mental component score of the short form of the medical outcomes health survey (SF-12), then with ability to work and migraine disability score for chronic and episodic migraine and the Liverpool impact on epilepsy scale for epilepsy. Analysis of covariance showed adjusted scores for the stigma scale for chronic illness were similar for chronic migraine (49.3; 95% confidence interval, 46.2 to 52.4) and epilepsy (46.5; 95% confidence interval, 41.6 to 51.6), and lower for episodic migraine (43.7; 95% confidence interval, 40.9 to 46.6). Ability to work was the strongest predictor of stigma as measured by the stigma scale for chronic illness. In our model, adjusted stigma was similar for chronic migraine and epilepsy, which were greater than for episodic migraine. Stigma correlated most strongly with inability to work, and was greater for chronic migraine than epilepsy or episodic migraine because chronic migraine patients had less ability to work.

  19. The Stigma Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  20. Stigma, sex work, and substance use: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; McCarthy, Bill; Jansson, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Stigma is a widely used concept in social science research and an extensive literature claims that stigmatisation contributes to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies compare groups that vary in the extent to which they are stigmatised and even fewer studies examine stigma's independent and mediating effects. This article addresses these gaps in a comparative study of perceived stigma and drug use among three low-income feminised service occupations: sex work, food and alcoholic beverage serving, and barbering and hairstyling. An analysis of longitudinal data shows positive associations between sex work, perceived stigma, and socially less acceptable drug use (for example, heroin and cocaine), and that stigma mediates part of the link between sex work and the use of these drugs. Our overall findings suggest that perceived stigma is pronounced among those who work in the sex industry and negatively affects health independently of sex work involvement. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Stigma in leprosy: concepts, causes and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermrittirong, Silatham; Van Brakel, Wim H

    2014-03-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has stigmatised people affected since ancient times until now. This has resulted in difficulties in the lives of those affected. This literature review was conducted to understand the concept, causes, and determinants of stigma in leprosy. Electronic searches were undertaken using PubMed (Medline), CINAHL and PsycInfo databases. The internet was searched through Google Scholar for papers not found in these databases. The main inclusion criteria were papers related to stigma or leprosy written in Thai or English. After searching the databases, 84 papers were identified, 3 were removed because of duplication and parallel publication, and 20 were removed on abstract screening. After reading 61 full papers, 7 were excluded. Finally, 54 were included in this review. It was found that the concept of stigma involves not only characteristics considered undesirable, but also the social context of the individual or group. Reported causes and determinants of stigma related to leprosy are the external manifestations of the disease, cultural and religious beliefs, fear of transmission, association with people considered inferior and public health-related interventions. Stigma is a complex phenomenon that has multiple causes, often linked to the cultural context in which it occurs. Despite this, many similarities were found in leprosy-related stigma across countries and cultures, which would facilitate the development of interventions.

  2. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wóycicki

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10 and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth

  3. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA

  4. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive influence on reduction of risks of a number of cancers and cardiovascular diseases, due to its content of some beneficial phytochemicals [1-3]. In traditional Chinese medicine, Raphanus sativus seed oil, which is rich in sulforaphene, is used to improve intestinal.

  5. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane ...

  6. BDSM Disclosure and Stigma Management: Identifying Opportunities for Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezreh, Tanya; Weinberg, Thomas S.; Edgar, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    While participation in the activities like bondage, domination, submission/sadism, masochism that fall under the umbrella term BDSM is widespread, stigma surrounding BDSM poses risks to practitioners who wish to disclose their interest. We examined risk factors involved with disclosure to posit how sex education might diffuse stigma and warn of…

  7. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  8. Measuring mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G; Yang, Lawrence H; Phelan, Jo C; Collins, Pamela Y

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of efforts designed to address mental illness stigma will rest on our ability to understand stigma processes, the factors that produce and sustain such processes, and the mechanisms that lead from stigmatization to harmful consequences. Critical to such an understanding is our capacity to observe and measure the essential components of stigma processes. This article is designed to assist researchers in selecting or creating measures that can address critical research questions regarding stigma. Our conceptualization of stigma processes leads us to consider components of labeling, stereotyping, cognitive separating, emotional reactions, status loss, and discrimination. We review 123 empirical articles published between January 1995 and June 2003 that have sought to assess mental illness stigma and use these articles to provide a profile of current measurement in this area. From the articles we identify commonly used and promising measures and describe those measures in more detail so that readers can decide whether the described measures might be appropriate for their studies. We end by identifying gaps in stigma measurement in terms of concepts covered and populations assessed.

  9. Initial Evaluation of Active Minds: A Student Organization Dedicated to Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Kathleen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…

  10. The stigma of migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People who have a disease often experience stigma, a socially and culturally embedded process through which individuals experience stereotyping, devaluation, and discrimination. Stigma has great impact on quality of life, behavior, and life chances. We do not know whether or not migraine is stigmatizing. METHODS: We studied 123 episodic migraine patients, 123 chronic migraine patients, and 62 epilepsy patients in a clinical setting to investigate the extent to which stigma attaches to migraine, using epilepsy as a comparison. We used the stigma scale for chronic illness, a 24-item questionnaire suitable for studying chronic neurologic diseases, and various disease impact measures. RESULTS: Patients with chronic migraine had higher scores (54.0±20.2 on the stigma scale for chronic illness than either episodic migraine (41.7±14.8 or epilepsy patients (44.6±16.3 (p<0.001. Subjects with migraine reported greater inability to work than epilepsy subjects. Stigma correlated most strongly with the mental component score of the short form of the medical outcomes health survey (SF-12, then with ability to work and migraine disability score for chronic and episodic migraine and the Liverpool impact on epilepsy scale for epilepsy. Analysis of covariance showed adjusted scores for the stigma scale for chronic illness were similar for chronic migraine (49.3; 95% confidence interval, 46.2 to 52.4 and epilepsy (46.5; 95% confidence interval, 41.6 to 51.6, and lower for episodic migraine (43.7; 95% confidence interval, 40.9 to 46.6. Ability to work was the strongest predictor of stigma as measured by the stigma scale for chronic illness. CONCLUSION: In our model, adjusted stigma was similar for chronic migraine and epilepsy, which were greater than for episodic migraine. Stigma correlated most strongly with inability to work, and was greater for chronic migraine than epilepsy or episodic migraine because chronic migraine patients had less ability

  11. Effects of Salicylic Acid on Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tajik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L., the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. The stigmas contain three major compounds, crocins (carotenoid compound responsible for color, picrocrocin (responsible for taste and safranal (responsible for odor. It has been used for medicinal purposes, as a spice and condiment for food and as a dye since ancient times. Numerous studies have shown crocins as main carotenoids of saffron to be capable of a variety of pharmacological effects, such as protection against cardiovascular diseases, inhibition of cancer cell development. Salicylic acid (SA is a signaling molecule and a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the plant physiological processes. In order of importance of saffron as valuable product, the aim of this study is to investigate effects of salicylic acid application (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM on crocin and safranal content and antioxidant activity of stigma. Results showed that SA application at 1 mM were the most effective treatments in increase of crocin content and stronger antioxidant activity, but SA had a negative effect on safranal content and the highest quantity of this compound was observed in control plants.

  12. Assembly of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) somaclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kuśmirek, Wiktor; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Nowak, Robert M.

    2017-08-01

    The development of next generation sequencing opens the possibility of using sequencing in various plant studies, such as finding structural changes and small polymorphisms between species and within them. Most analyzes rely on genomic sequences and it is crucial to use well-assembled genomes of high quality and completeness. Herein we compare commonly available programs for genomic assembling and newly developed software - dnaasm. Assemblies were tested on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) lines obtained by in vitro regeneration (somaclones), showing different phenotypes. Obtained results shows that dnaasm assembler is a good tool for short read assembly, which allows obtaining genomes of high quality and completeness.

  13. Botany, Taxonomy and Cytology of Crocus sativus series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    Saffron is produced from the dried styles of Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) which is unknown as wild plant, representing a sterile triploid. These belong to subgenus Crocus series Crocus sativus – series are closely related species; and are difficult to be separated taxonomically and have a complex cytology. Botany of C. sativus – series, taxonomy of their species and their infraspecific taxa are presented, and their distribution, ecology and phenology; full description and chromosome counts are provided with key to their identification. PMID:22131743

  14. Mental health stigma: what is being done to raise awareness and reduce stigma in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuma, R; Kleintjes, S; Lund, C; Drew, N; Green, A; Flisher, A J

    2010-05-01

    Stigma plays a major role in the persistent suffering, disability and economic loss associated with mental illnesses. There is an urgent need to find effective strategies to increase awareness about mental illnesses and reduce stigma and discrimination. This study surveys the existing anti-stigma programmes in South Africa. The World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems Version 2.2 and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data on mental health education programmes in South Africa. Numerous anti-stigma campaigns are in place in both government and non-government organizations across the country. All nine provinces have had public campaigns between 2000 and 2005, targeting various groups such as the general public, youth, different ethnic groups, health care professionals, teachers and politicians. Some schools are setting up education and prevention programmes and various forms of media and art are being utilized to educate and discourage stigma and discrimination. Mental health care users are increasingly getting involved through media and talks in a wide range of settings. Yet very few of such activities are systematically evaluated for the effectiveness and very few are being published in peer-review journals or in reports where experiences and lessons can be shared and potentially applied elsewhere. A pool of evidence for anti-stigma and awareness-raising strategies currently exists that could potentially make a scientific contribution and inform policy in South Africa as well as in other countries.

  15. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  16. Stigma in Iranian Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stigma is a negative value. Many behaviors are to ward Stigmatized people. Down syndrome is one of conditions with Stigma. The aim of this study is to determine the sources of labeling in iranian Down syndrome. Methods: The View of 105 Down syndrome families concerning stigma were conducted. All of Down syndrome was under 50 years. Results: A fair proportion of Down syndrome families perceived that stigma had a negative effect from social. Causes of stigma are different. Stigma due social interaction, Media and health professionals are significant than others. Discussion: The diagnostic label of Down syndrome may render the person and his family vulnerable to stigmatization. The most causes of stigma were determined therefore, in the destigmatization programs, they must be attended. Stigma must be detected, too.

  17. Characterization of Cell Wall Composition of Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) and Maturation Related Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Brett, Anika; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-11-16

    Cell wall composition affects the texture of plant-based foods. In addition, the main components of plant cell walls are dietary fiber constituents and are responsible for potential physiological effects that are largely affected by the structural composition of the cell walls. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) is known to develop a woody and firm texture during maturation and ripening, most likely due to changes in the cell wall composition. To describe these changes chemically, radish was cultivated and harvested at different time points, followed by detailed chemical analysis of insoluble fiber polysaccharides and lignin. During maturation, changes in polysaccharide profiles were observed, with a decrease in the portion of neutral pectic side chains and an increase in the xylan portion being predominant. Radish lignin was characterized by unexpectedly high incorporation of p-coumaryl alcohol into the polymer. Maturation dependent increases in lignin contents were accompanied by compositional changes of the lignin polymers with sinapyl alcohol being preferentially incorporated.

  18. The stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Kordosi A; Saridi M; Souliotis K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The stigma of mental illness is not a modern phenomenon, but it can now be approached scientifically. The stigma, because of the mental illness which characterizes a person, can be explained by the natural propensity of man to deliver biased and stereotyped estimates to phenomena he cannot explain, accept or face. Methodology:This study is an attempt to describe the concept of stigma and the impact of the stigma of mental illness in the personal and social life of the...

  19. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.; Aparna Nair

    2011-01-01

    Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimina...

  20. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  1. Saffron (Crocus sativus L., a monomorphic or polymorphic species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nemati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. which contains exceptional anti-cancer properties is presently the world's most expensive spice. Iran is known as the original habitat of Crocus L. and a significant source of high-quality cultivated saffron production and export. Considering the importance of this species, we used 27 microsatellite markers to assess molecular variability and discriminating capacity of markers regarding their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in Iranian Crocus ecotypes. Thirty eight Iranian cultivated saffron ecotypes and 29 wild allies were evaluated in this research. The results from molecular analyses, including a molecular phylogenetic network and RB analysis, revealed two major groups and five subgroups, regardless of their geographical origins. Also, the results showed a clear distinction between C. sativus and other species of Crocus genus, taking into account their close relationship with C. speciosus and C. hausknechtii, which are assumed to be the two closest relatives of Iranian cultivated saffron among species studied. In this paper, we observed for the first time extensive genetic diversity among Iranian C. sativus despite their asexual reproduction. Considering suitable climatic conditions in Iran for cultivating saffron and the country’s leading high-quality production of Crocus sativus worldwide, studies on great genetic variability among Iranian C. sativus ecotypes as well as wild relatives native to Iran will further highlight the value of this crop. In addition, our results provide valuable information for genetic improvement, reduction of strong genetic erosion, and conservation of costly heritable resources of C. sativus in future breeding programs.

  2. Identification, expression, and functional analysis of CLE genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) storage root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancheva, Maria S; Dodueva, Irina E; Lebedeva, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Tkachenko, Alexandr A; Lutova, Ludmila A

    2016-01-27

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a widespread agricultural plant forming storage root due to extensive secondary growth which involves cambium proliferation and differentiation of secondary conductive tissues. Closely related to the model object Arabidopsis thaliana, radish is a suitable model for studying processes of secondary growth and storage root development. CLE peptides are a group of peptide phytohormones which play important role in the regulation of primary meristems such as SAM, RAM, and procambium, as well as secondary meristems. However, the role of CLE peptides in lateral growth of root during storage root formation has not been studied to date. In present work we studied the role of CLE peptides in the development of storage root in radish. We have identified 18 CLE genes of radish (RsCLEs) and measured their expression in various plant organs and also at different stages of root development in R. sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum-its close relative which does not form storage root. We observed significant decline of expression levels for genes RsCLE1, 2, 11, 13, and 16, and also multifold increase of expression levels for genes RsCLE19, and 41 during secondary root growth in R. sativus but not in R. raphanistrum. Expression of RsCLE 2, 19, and 41 in R. sativus root was confined to certain types of tissues while RsCLE1, 11, 13, and 16 expressed throughout the root. Experiments on overexpression of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 or treatment of radish plants with synthetic CLE peptides revealed that CLE19 and CLE2 increase the number of xylem elements, and CLE41 induces the formation of extra cambium foci in secondary xylem. Expression levels of RsCLE2 and 19 strongly decrease in response to exogenous cytokinin, while auxin causes dramatic increase of RsCLE19 expression level and decrease of RsCLE41 expression. Our data allow us to hypothesize about the role of RsCLE2, 19 and 41 genes in the development of storage root of Raphanus sativus, e.g. RsCLE19 may play a

  3. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaiee, Somayeh; Moini, Sohrab; Hashemi, Maryam; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-04-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. These properties are basically related to its crocins, picrocrocin and safranal contents which have all demonstrated health promoting properties. The present review article highlights the phytochemical constituents (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, degraded carotenoid compounds crocins and crocetin) that are important in antioxidant activity of saffron extracts. However, the synergistic effect of all the bioactive components presence in saffron gave a significant antioxidant activity similar to vegetables rich in carotenoids. Our study provides an updated overview focused on the antioxidant activity of saffron related to its bioactive compounds to design the different functional products in food, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  5. Fighting stigma of mental illness in midsize European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldie, Alina; den Boer, Johan A; Brain, Cecilia; Constant, Eric; Figueira, Maria Luisa; Filipcic, Igor; Gillain, Benoît; Jakovljevic, Miro; Jarema, Marek; Jelenova, Daniela; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Kores Plesnicar, Blanka; Kovacsova, Andrea; Latalova, Klara; Marksteiner, Josef; Palha, Filipa; Pecenak, Jan; Prasko, Jan; Prelipceanu, Dan; Ringen, Petter Andreas; Sartorius, Norman; Seifritz, Erich; Svestka, Jaromir; Tyszkowska, Magdalena; Wancata, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    Stigma is the most powerful obstacle to the development of mental health care. Numerous activities aiming to reduce the stigma of mental illness and the consequent negative discrimination of the mentally ill and their families have been conducted in Europe. Descriptions of many of these activities are not easily available, either because there are no publications that describe them, or because descriptions exist only in local languages. This supplement aims to help in overcoming this imbalance by providing a description of anti-stigma activities in 14 countries in Europe regardless of the language in which they were published and regardless whether they were previously published. The review was undertaken by experts who were invited to describe anti-stigma activities in the countries in which they reside. It was suggested that they use all the available evidence and that they consult others in their country to obtain a description of anti-stigma activities that is as complete as possible. The anti-stigma activities undertaken in the countries involved are presented in a tabular form. The texts contributed by the authors focus on their perception of the stigma of mental illness and of activities undertaken to combat it in their country. Although much has been done against the stigmatization and discrimination of the mentally ill, fighting stigma remains an essential task for mental health programs and for society. The descriptions summarized in this volume might serve as an inspiration for anti-stigma work and as an indication of potential collaborators in anti-stigma programs.

  6. Peran Experienced Stigma terhadap Self Esteem pada Suku Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Hutauruk, Lucy Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias ethnic. The study involved 151 people of Nias ethnic who lived in Medan. Sampling was done by incidental sampling and processed by simple linear regression test with an SPSS 17.0 Software Program. The instrument in this research are the scale of experienced stigma and self-esteem scale developed by the researchers.These results indicate there is the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias et...

  7. Migrants and HIV stigma: findings from the Stigma Index Study (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinouya, Martha; Hildreth, Anthony; Goodall, Deborah; Aspinall, Peter; Hudson, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on data collected in 2009 for the international Stigma Index Study which measured the experiences of stigma among participants living with HIV in the UK. Data were collected using a self-completed survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS, while qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis. The Stigma Index attempts to establish a baseline for documenting the experience of stigma and discrimination by people living with HIV while also acting as an advocacy tool whose power lay in the involvement of people living with HIV in the design of study instruments and data collection. Participants were recruited through collaborations with a broad range of UK HIV support organisations. The ethics protocols used were those described in the Stigma Index guidebook. A total of 867 people living with HIV took part, of whom 276 described themselves as 'immigrants'. Most of this 'migrant' subsample (70%) was women. Nearly, all (91%) identified as heterosexual, while 9% were attracted to someone of the same sex as them. Socioeconomic deprivation was a key theme and they reported other stigmatised chronic conditions in addition to HIV. It is not possible to ascertain from the questionnaire, the migrants' countries of origin and length of stay in the UK. Control of information about HIV was critically managed, with respect to family and partners. Felt stigma increased anxieties about personal safety, particularly among men. Strategies for safeguarding against the negative impact of stigma included avoiding social gatherings, intimacy, and clinical and HIV social care settings. Most participants were unaware of policies and declarations that protected them as persons living with HIV. Specific recommendations include creating awareness about rights as enshrined in various legal frameworks that protect the right of people living with HIV, which has been reconfigured as a 'disability'. © 2014 John Wiley

  8. Perceived stigma in Korean adolescents with epilepsy: Effects of knowledge about epilepsy and maternal perception of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han Uk; Lee, Sang-Ahm; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Heung-Dong

    2015-01-01

    There has been little research on whether the knowledge that adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) or their family have about the condition reduces their perception of stigma. In this study we determine the relation between AWE's perceived stigma of, and knowledge about, epilepsy and maternal perception of stigma. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study involving AWE and their mothers from 25 secondary or tertiary hospitals in Korea. The level of knowledge about epilepsy was assessed using 34 medical items of the Epilepsy Knowledge Profile-General (EKP-M). Additional questionnaires included the Child Stigma Scale, Parent Stigma Scale, and the Maternal Disclosure Management Scale. A total of 243 AWE and their mothers were included. The mean EKP-M score was 20.7 (range, 12-31) for AWE and 22.0 (range, 11-31) for their mothers. AWE and mothers had a neutral perception of stigma on average, but the maternal concealment behavior was high. Multiple linear regression indicated that AWE's knowledge about epilepsy was significantly related to their perception of stigma. Unexpectedly, AWE with a low level of knowledge reported a higher perception of stigma than those with a very low level of knowledge (β=0.280, p=0.040). In addition, higher maternal concealment behavior (β=0.070, p=0.002) and receiving polytherapy (β=0.240, p=0.046) were independent factors predicting higher perception of stigma in AWE. The knowledge that the AWE had about their epilepsy, maternal concealment behavior, and receiving polytherapy were significantly related to the AWE's perception of stigma. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stigma Management in International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    that international society is in part constructed through the stigmatization of “transgressive” and norm-violating states and their ways of coping with stigma. Drawing on Erving Goffman, this article shows that states are not passive objects of socialization, but active agents. Stigmatized states cope strategically......This article develops a theoretical approach to stigma in international relations and resituates conventional approaches to the study of norms and international order. Correcting the general understanding that common values and norms are the building blocks of social order, this article claims...... with their stigma and may, in some cases, challenge and even transform a dominant moral discourse. A typology of stigma management strategies is presented: stigma recognition (illustrated by Germany); stigma rejection (illustrated by Austria); and finally counter-stigmatization (illustrated by Cuba). Because...

  10. Adapting and Validating a Scale to Measure Sexual Stigma among Lesbian, Bisexual and Queer Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one’s group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466) in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24) and Calgary (n=20). We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72), test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  11. Adapting and validating a scale to measure sexual stigma among lesbian, bisexual and queer women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ women experience pervasive sexual stigma that harms wellbeing. Stigma is a multi-dimensional construct and includes perceived stigma, awareness of negative attitudes towards one's group, and enacted stigma, overt experiences of discrimination. Despite its complexity, sexual stigma research has generally explored singular forms of sexual stigma among LBQ women. The study objective was to develop a scale to assess perceived and enacted sexual stigma among LBQ women. We adapted a sexual stigma scale for use with LBQ women. The validation process involved 3 phases. First, we held a focus group where we engaged a purposively selected group of key informants in cognitive interviewing techniques to modify the survey items to enhance relevance to LBQ women. Second, we implemented an internet-based, cross-sectional survey with LBQ women (n=466 in Toronto, Canada. Third, we administered an internet-based survey at baseline and 6-week follow-up with LBQ women in Toronto (n=24 and Calgary (n=20. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis and descriptive statistics to explore health and demographic correlates of the sexual stigma scale. Analyses yielded one scale with two factors: perceived and enacted sexual stigma. The total scale and subscales demonstrated adequate internal reliability (total scale alpha coefficient: 0.78; perceived sub-scale: 0.70; enacted sub-scale: 0.72, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Perceived and enacted sexual stigma were associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem, social support, and self-rated health scores. Results suggest this sexual stigma scale adapted for LBQ women has good psychometric properties and addresses enacted and perceived stigma dimensions. The overwhelming majority of participants reported experiences of perceived sexual stigma. This underscores the importance of moving beyond a singular focus on

  12. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  13. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. in digestive disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee Khorasany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings.

  15. Influence of culinary processing time on saffron's bioactive compounds (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Neira, Lidia; Lage-Yusty, María Asunción; López-Hernández, Julia

    2014-12-01

    Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is used as a condiment spice. The major bioactive compounds are crocins, picrocrocin and safranal, which are responsible for the sensory profile of saffron (color, flavor and aroma, respectively), and also health-promoting properties. In this paper, the effect on the bioactive compounds of different cooking times in boiling water at 100 °C in samples of Saffron from La Mancha (safranal, picrocrocin, trans-crocin 4, cis-crocin 4 and trans-crocin 3) was investigated. Performance characteristics of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Variable Wavelength Detector method, parameters of linearity, limits of detection and quantification are reported. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array-Mass Spectrometry was used as a confirmatory technique in crocins identification. When the samples are subjected to different cooking times, they present different behaviors, depending on the bioactive compound. In this way, no changes were observed in the concentration of picrocrocin, while heat culinary treatment adversely affects the concentrations of crocins and safranal.

  16. Latent potyvirus infections in Crocus sativus artwrightianus: an underestimated problem in saffron?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRILLI CAIOLA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In over two decades, while studying saffron reproductive biology, we frequently found ultrastructural alterations typical of potyvirus infection in stigmas, styles and leaves of Crocus sativus (saffron and C. cartwrightianus (wild and ornamental species, a putative ancestor of saffron from different provenance. This suggests that these viruses are widely diffused in cultivated Crocus spp., possibly causing latent infections. The few data found in literature, while highlighting the general lack of attention given by plant virologists to Crocus spp., nevertheless confi rm that potyviruses, particularly Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, can cause asymptomatic infections in these host species. The reasons and possible implications of widely distributed potyvirus latent infections in Crocus spp. are reported and discussed, with the aim of increasing general awareness of these viruses, and of encouraging sanitary selection programs focused on saffron, that could improve the quantity and quality of yields of the most expensive spice commodity grown.

  17. Stigma and Stigma by Association in Perceptions of Straight Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    As evidence builds for straight allies' contributions to battling sexual prejudice, barriers to assuming this role must be identified and dismantled. This study investigated stigma and stigma by association in perceptions of straight allies in a college population. Adjective rating items were completed by 505 participants who identified as…

  18. Comparative expression analysis of senescence gene CsNAP and B-class floral development gene CsAP3 during different stages of flower development in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafai, Asrar H; Bukhari, Shoiab; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Amin, Asif; Wani, Zubair; Hussaini, Amjad; Mir, Javid I; Qadri, Raies A

    2015-07-01

    Crocus sativus, a monocot triploid species belonging to the Iridaceae family, is cultivated for its red stigmatic lobes of the carpel that constitute saffron. Flower development has been extensively studied in different plants. Different floral developmental pathways have been deciphered in many plants. In Crocus sativus, flower is the most important part and understanding the pathway underlying the flower development can pave the way for new avenues to improve its productivity and quality. The combination of class A genes (including APETALA1; CsAP1 and APETALA2; CsAP2), class B genes (including APETALA3; CsAP3 and PISTILLATA; CsPI) and class C genes (including AGAMOUS; CsAG) that are active in each whorl, determines the identity of the organs that will later develop in that whorl. CsAP3 is a class B homeotic gene which promotes petal and stamen formation and has a very important role in flower development. It also activates other genes playing pivotal role in flower development. It has been earlier reported that CsAP3 gene has direct role in activation of CsNAP gene which promotes senescence in plants. Present work was focused on study of relative gene expression changes of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene during different stages of flower development. CsAP3 gene expression was found maximum during late-preanthesis stages of stigma development. Expression increases from stage 5 to stage 6 of flower development and then reduces again from stage 6 to stage 7. CsNAP gene had moderate expression during stage 3 to stage 4 transition and its expression increased abruptly from stage 6 to stage 7 of flower development. There is no direct concordance in the expression of CsAP3 and CsNAP gene expression in saffron. We may conclude that some other factor(s) may be responsible for initiation of CsNAP expression and CsAP3 gene may directly/indirectly be involved in regulating the factors responsible for CsNAP activation.

  19. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...... ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides...... a valuable resource for developing elite cultivars and for studying the evolution and function of the plant vascular system....

  20. Rethinking Theoretical Approaches to Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman’s notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking “difference”. Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results. PMID:18436358

  1. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and evolutionary analysis of flowering genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Cheng, Feng; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Duan, Mengmeng; Yang, Haohui; Li, Xixiang

    2017-12-19

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to the family Brassicaceae, and is an economically important root crop grown worldwide. Flowering is necessary for plant propagation, but it is also an important agronomic trait influencing R. sativus fleshy taproot yield and quality in the case of an imbalance between vegetative and reproductive growth. There is currently a lack of detailed information regarding the pathways regulating the flowering genes or their evolution in R. sativus. The release of the R. sativus genome sequence provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the flowering genes using a comparative genomics approach. We identified 254 R. sativus flowering genes based on sequence similarities and analyses of syntenic regions. The genes were unevenly distributed on the various chromosomes. Furthermore, we discovered the existence of R. sativus core function genes in the flowering regulatory network, which revealed that basic flowering pathways are relatively conserved between Arabidopsis thaliana and R. sativus. Additional comparisons with Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa indicated that the retained flowering genes differed among species after genome triplication events. The R. sativus flowering genes were preferentially retained, especially those associated with gibberellin signaling and metabolism. Moreover, analyses of selection pressures suggested that the genes in vernalization and autonomous pathways were more variable than the genes in other R. sativus flowering pathways. Our results revealed that the core flowering genes are conserved between R. sativus and A. thaliana to a certain extent. Moreover, the copy number variation and functional differentiation of the homologous genes in R. sativus increased the complexity of the flowering regulatory networks after genome polyploidization. Our study provides an integrated framework for the R. sativus flowering pathways and insights into the evolutionary relationships between R. sativus flowering

  2. Technology transfer for cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology transfer for cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) production under protected agriculture in uplands Balochistan, Pakistan. ... The cucumbers so harvested were of higher quality (no insect damage) and were sold at premium prices during the whole production cycle. Proper crop sequencing by considering the market ...

  3. A genetic linkage map of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L) combining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers are both simple and efficient maker systems adapted to many crops and for multiple purposes. In this study a genetic map based on SRAP and ISSR markers was constructed for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) based on ...

  4. Azafrán I (Crocus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Martín, Gema; Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra una recopilación sobre las características de Crocus sativus L., el azafrán, una especie, muy apreciada desde la antigüedad. Se consideran aspectos básicos botánicos y bioquímicos así como datos sobre el cultivo, y su comercialización.

  5. Interspecific hybridisation of Lathyrus sativus (Guaya) with wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lathyrus sativus is an economically important legume crop cultivated for food and forage in Asia and Africa. The use of this hardy drought ... during early stages of development. Embryo culture was attempted to rescue these immature embryos. The response of the interspecific hybrid embryos to in vitro culture varied.

  6. Stigma Associated with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Women's Sexual Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Khuri, Jananne; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I

    2017-05-18

    The risk of intersex-related stigma often serves as social indication for "corrective" genital surgery, but has not been comprehensively documented. In preparation for the development of an intersex-specific stigma assessment tool, this qualitative project aimed to explore stigma in girls and women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. As part of a comprehensive follow-up project, 62 adult women with classical CAH (age range 18-51 years) took part in an open-ended retrospective interview focusing on the impact of CAH and its treatment on various aspects of girls' and women's lives. Deductive qualitative content analysis (Patton, 2014) of de-identified transcripts involved categorization of three types of stigma: experienced, anticipated, and internalized. Two-fifths of the participants reported CAH-related stigma in romantic/sexual situations. Stigma enactment by romantic partners occurred in reaction to both genital and non-genital sex-atypical features of CAH and sometimes included explicit questioning of the women's true gender. Stigma anticipation by the women and their related avoidance of nudity, genital exposure, and romantic involvement altogether were frequent. Internalization of stigma occurred as well. In conclusion, the data suggest that many women with CAH experience, anticipate, and/or internalize intersex-related stigma in the context of their romantic/sexual lives.

  7. Provider Opinions Regarding the Development of a Stigma-Reduction Intervention Tailored for Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Dinesh; Corrigan, Patrick; Drummond, Karen L.; Porchia, Sylvia; Sullivan, Greer

    2016-01-01

    Interventions involving contact with a person who has recovered from mental illness are most effective at reducing stigma. This study sought input from health care providers to inform the design of a contact intervention intended to reduce provider stigma toward persons with serious mental illness. Using a purposive sampling strategy, data were…

  8. ADHD stigma among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda Chi; Lefler, Elizabeth K

    2016-03-01

    The current study examined ADHD stigma within a college-enrolled young adult population, including the debate regarding the cause of stigma: label or behavior. In Phase 1, 135 college students rated stigma toward one of the four fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD alone, the behaviors associated with ADHD alone, the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or neither the label nor behaviors. In Phase 2, 48 college students rated stigma toward one of the two assigned fictitious partners described as having either: the label of ADHD and a set of behaviors associated with ADHD, or the label of Depression and a set of behaviors associated with Depression. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the label and the behaviors would cause the highest levels of ADHD stigma and that ADHD would elicit more stigma than Depression. In Phase 1, stigma was associated with the behaviors of ADHD, but not the label. In Phase 2, ADHD and Depression were found to be equally stigmatized. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

  9. Impact of use of different sources of humic, bio and nano fertilizers and nitrogen levels on saffron (.Crocus sativus L flower yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aliasghar armak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating the effect of using humic, bio and nano fertilizers and levels of nitrogen fertilizers in flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L. at the University of Torbat Heydarieh research farm located in Zaveh in 2014-2015. Treatments consisted of three levels of nitrogen application and use of fertilizer sources as the main factor, including Bioumik, Super Humic, combined Super Humic and Bioumik, Humi Ful, Nitrokara and no fertilizer as sub plots as split plot based on randomized complete block design with 18 treatments and three replications. Analysis of data showed that the effect of year and fertilizer sources on all traits measured was significant. The effect of nitrogen treatments was significant (at 1% except on number of flowers, dry style, mean dry weight stigma, and mean dry weight. Fertilizer sources increased all measured traits significantly. Application of Biomic increased petals and sepals dry weight (736.34 g/m2 by 46.78% in comparison with the control (464.19 g/m2. The highest dry weight stigma (524.2 g/m2 was seen in Super Humic + Bioumik treatment compared to the control group (443.1 g/m2. Super Humic treatment increased dry weight stigma by 86.49% relative to control. It seems that the use of humic, bio and nano fertilizers has a good effect on saffron performance.

  10. Mechanism Underlying the Onset of Internal Blue Discoloration in Japanese Radish (Raphanus sativus) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Katsunori; Masayasu, Nagata; Masuda, Daisuke

    2016-09-07

    The internal blue discoloration observed in Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots is a physiological phenomenon caused by storage following harvest at approximately 20 °C and poses a serious problem for farmers. Here, we describe the mechanism underlying the onset of internal blue discoloration of three cultivars: Hukuhomare, SC8-260, and Yuto. Each cultivar was maintained under the same conditions. Additionally, Hukuhomare radish roots were maintained at three different cultivation conditions in a related experiment. The blue discoloration in radish roots was caused by the oxidation of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin as a result of an increase in oxidative stress involving peroxidase. Thus, the extent of blue discoloration was influenced by the chemical balance involving 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin content, antioxidant capacity, and oxidation activity.

  11. Implementing a stigma reduction intervention in healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, HIV-related stigma is prevalent in healthcare settings and is a major barrier to HIV prevention and treatment adherence. Some intervention studies have showed encouraging outcomes, but a gap continues to exist between what is known and what is actually delivered in medical settings to reduce HIV-related stigma. Methods: This article describes the process of implementing a stigma reduction intervention trial that involved 1760 service providers in 40 hospitals in China. Guided by Diffusion of Innovation theory, the intervention identified and trained about 15–20% providers as popular opinion leaders (POLs to disseminate stigma reduction messages in each intervention hospital. The intervention also engaged governmental support in the provision of universal precaution supplies to all participating hospitals in the trial. The frequency of message diffusion and reception, perceived improvement in universal precaution practices and reduction in the level of stigma in hospitals were measured at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Results: Within the intervention hospitals, POL providers reported more frequent discussions with their co-workers regarding universal precaution principles, equal treatment of patients, provider-patient relationships and reducing HIV-related stigma. Service providers in the intervention hospitals reported more desirable intervention outcomes than providers in the control hospitals. Our evaluation revealed that the POL model is compatible with the target population, and that the unique intervention entry point of enhancing universal precaution and occupational safety was the key to improved acceptance by service providers. The involvement of health authorities in supporting occupational safety was an important element for sustainability. Conclusions: This report focuses on explaining the elements of our intervention rather than its outcomes. Lessons learned from the intervention implementation will

  12. Analysis of the Nicotiana tabacum Stigma/Style Transcriptome Reveals Gene Expression Differences between Wet and Dry Stigma Species1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiapim, Andréa C.; Brito, Michael S.; Bernardes, Luciano A.S.; daSilva, Idalete; Malavazi, Iran; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Molfetta-Machado, Jeanne B.; Giuliatti, Silvana; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Goldman, Maria Helena S.

    2009-01-01

    The success of plant reproduction depends on pollen-pistil interactions occurring at the stigma/style. These interactions vary depending on the stigma type: wet or dry. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) represents a model of wet stigma, and its stigmas/styles express genes to accomplish the appropriate functions. For a large-scale study of gene expression during tobacco pistil development and preparation for pollination, we generated 11,216 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from stigmas/styles and created the TOBEST database. These ESTs were assembled in 6,177 clusters, from which 52.1% are pistil transcripts/genes of unknown function. The 21 clusters with the highest number of ESTs (putative higher expression levels) correspond to genes associated with defense mechanisms or pollen-pistil interactions. The database analysis unraveled tobacco sequences homologous to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes involved in specifying pistil identity or determining normal pistil morphology and function. Additionally, 782 independent clusters were examined by macroarray, revealing 46 stigma/style preferentially expressed genes. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments validated the pistil-preferential expression for nine out of 10 genes tested. A search for these 46 genes in the Arabidopsis pistil data sets demonstrated that only 11 sequences, with putative equivalent molecular functions, are expressed in this dry stigma species. The reverse search for the Arabidopsis pistil genes in the TOBEST exposed a partial overlap between these dry and wet stigma transcriptomes. The TOBEST represents the most extensive survey of gene expression in the stigmas/styles of wet stigma plants, and our results indicate that wet and dry stigmas/styles express common as well as distinct genes in preparation for the pollination process. PMID:19052150

  13. Changing stigma through a consumer-based stigma reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Patrick J; Corrigan, Patrick W; Buchholz, Blythe; Brown, Jennifer; Arthur, Thomas; Netter, Clarissa; Macdonald-Wilson, Kim L

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the Anti-Stigma Project workshop, a contact/education intervention developed by On Our Own of Maryland, Inc. and the Maryland Mental Hygiene Administration. Two separate randomized controlled trials administered pre- and post-test questionnaire assessments. One included people with mental illness (N = 127) and a second included mental health providers (N = 131). Post-intervention, people with mental illness were more aware of stigma, had lower levels of prejudice, and increased belief in recovery. Providers were more aware of stigma, had lower levels of prejudice, and increased concurrence in self-determination of people with mental illness. Increasing providers' stigma awareness and recognition can promote higher quality service delivery. Increasing stigma awareness and recognition for people with mental illness can foster confidence in overcoming psychiatric disabilities. Using a participatory action research team, our protocol included extant and newly developed stigma change tools. Organizations seeking to conduct effective evaluation studies should consider collaborative processes including the expertise of affected constituents.

  14. Obesity stigma in sexual relationships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Eunice Y; Brown, Molly

    2005-01-01

    Obese children are stigmatized in same-sex relationships. This study examines whether, in adulthood, obesity stigma exists in adults when they are asked to rank order preferences for a sexual partner...

  15. Understanding the stigma of leprosy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    when elements of labelling, stereotyping, separation, status loss and discrimination occur in a ... to gender, age and social class9. The impact of stigma. Having a stigmatising disease like leprosy severely affects aspects of life such as social ...

  16. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2017-04-19

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  17. [Associations between stigma perception and stigma coping behavior and quality of life in schizophrenic patients treated at a community rehabilitation center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chiu-Jung; Chiou, Jeng-Yuan; Yen, Wen-Jiuan; Su, Hui-Chen; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh

    2012-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is a critical issue in mental health care. The associations between quality of life and schizophrenia patients' stigma perception and stigma coping behavior are not well understood. This study investigated quality of life in schizophrenia patients. We used a cross-sectional, correlational research design; enrolled 119 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia as participants; and used instruments including a demographics datasheet, perceived stigma scale, stigma coping behavior scale, and the World Health Organization quality of life scale, brief version to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows software. (1) Participants had an average QOL index score of 62.40, indicating moderate quality of life; (2) Long working hours, holding rehabilitation-related employment, and receiving social welfare support correlated with lower QOL; (3) Marital issues had the greatest impact on quality of life, with participants who chose secrecy ÷ concealment reporting generally better QOL; (4) Social welfare support, number of working hours, stigma perception, stigma coping, level of job satisfaction, and level of salary satisfaction together accounted for 48.8% of total QOL variance. Findings increase our understanding of the influence of socio-demographics, stigma perception, and stigma coping behavior on quality of life in individuals with schizophrenia. Greater community involvement in schizophrenia treatment programs can enhance patient satisfaction with their jobs and lives.

  18. Stigma, medication adherence and coping mechanism among people living with HIV attending General Hospital, Lagos Island, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekemi O. Sekoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA experience some form of stigma which could lead to poor medication adherence.Objectives: This study assessed the various domains of stigma experienced by PLWHAs attending an HIV clinic at General Hospital, Lagos Island, their medication adherence patterns and their coping mechanisms for ensuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy.Method: A cross-sectional study design with a sample size of 200 was used. Respondents were selected using systematic random sampling. Interviewers administered structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the domains of stigma. Data was analysedusing EPI info©. This was followed by a focus group discussion (FGD with seven participants at the clinic using an interview guide with open-ended questions.Results: Overall, stigma was experienced by 35% of the respondents. Within this group, 6.6%, 37.1%, 43.1% and 98.0% of the respondents reported experiencing negative self image stigma, personalised stigma, disclosure stigma and public attitude stigma respectively. Almost 90% of the respondents were adherent. The FGD revealed that disclosure was usually confined to family members and the coping mechanism for achieving adherence was to put antiretroviral (ARVs in unlabelled pill boxes.Conclusion: This study found that stigma was low and that the most common domain of stigma experienced was public attitude stigma. Medication adherence of respondents was good as a result of the coping mechanism, which involves putting ARVs in unlabelled pill boxes.

  19. Stigma, medication adherence and coping mechanism among people living with HIV attending General Hospital, Lagos Island, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekemi O. Sekoni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA experience some form of stigma which could lead to poor medication adherence.Objectives: This study assessed the various domains of stigma experienced by PLWHAs attending an HIV clinic at General Hospital, Lagos Island, their medication adherence patterns and their coping mechanisms for ensuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy.Method: A cross-sectional study design with a sample size of 200 was used. Respondents were selected using systematic random sampling. Interviewers administered structured questionnaires were used to collect information on the domains of stigma. Data was analysed using EPI info©. This was followed by a focus group discussion (FGD with seven participants at the clinic using an interview guide with open-ended questions.Results: Overall, stigma was experienced by 35% of the respondents. Within this group, 6.6%, 37.1%, 43.1% and 98.0% of the respondents reported experiencing negative self image stigma, personalised stigma, disclosure stigma and public attitude stigma respectively. Almost 90% of the respondents were adherent. The FGD revealed that disclosure was usually confined to family members and the coping mechanism for achieving adherence was to put antiretroviral (ARVs in unlabelled pill boxes.Conclusion: This study found that stigma was low and that the most common domain of stigma experienced was public attitude stigma. Medication adherence of respondents was good as a result of the coping mechanism, which involves putting ARVs in unlabelled pill boxes.

  20. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette

    2016-12-01

    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma(*) ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. Characterizing hepatitis B stigma in Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, S J; Cotler, S; Xie, H; Luc, B J; Layden, T J; Wong, S S

    2012-02-01

    Health-related stigma is a cause of stress, alienation and discrimination that can serve as a barrier to prevention and care for infectious diseases such as HIV. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related stigma is common in Asian immigrants, but has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the first HBV stigma instrument and to begin to evaluate HBV stigma in Chinese immigrants. The HBV stigma instrument was developed based on constructs from validated HIV stigma scales and organized into five domains. A written survey was compiled to include demographic data, HBV knowledge questions and stigma items. The survey was pilot tested in English and Chinese and then finalized. Data were obtained from 201 patients seen in an urban Chinatown Internal Medicine practice. The stigma items showed a high degree of reliability when assessed in aggregate (α = 0.85) as well as within individual domains. Stigma was greatest in the Fear of Contagion domain. Knowledge questions showed a corresponding deficit in understanding of modes of HBV transmission. An inverse relationship between stigma scores and familiarity with HBV provided evidence of construct validity. In multivariable analysis, having a family member with HBV and higher HBV knowledge subset scores were associated with lower degrees of stigma. In conclusion, the hepatitis B stigma instrument showed reliability and construct validity. The relationship identified between familiarity and knowledge regarding HBV with lower stigma scores provides the basis for the development of interventions to reduce HBV stigma. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Husek, Alanna; Van Wert, Michael J; Ewing, Whitney F; Grosso, Ashley L; Holland, Claire E; Katterl, Rachel; Rosman, Lori; Agarwal, Arnav; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men. This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%), were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma. With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  3. Measuring stigma affecting sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek

    Full Text Available Stigma involves discrediting a person or group based on a perceived attribute, behaviour or reputation associated with them. Sex workers (SW and men who have sex with men (MSM are key populations who are often at increased risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV and who are affected by stigma that can negatively impact their health and well-being. Although stigma was included as an indicator in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan and there have been consultations focused on adding a stigma indicator within PEPFAR and the Global Fund in relation to potentiating HIV risks among key populations, there remains limited consensus on the appropriate measurement of SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Consequently, this systematic review summarizes studies using quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods approaches to measure stigma affecting sex workers and men who have sex with men.This systematic review included English, French, and Spanish peer-reviewed research of any study design measuring SW- or MSM-associated stigma. Articles were published from January 1, 2004 to March 26, 2014 in PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Global Health, and World Health Organization Global Health Library Regional Indexes. Of the 541 articles reviewed, the majority measured stigma toward MSM (over 97%, were conducted in North America, used quantitative methods, and focused on internalized stigma.With the inclusion of addressing stigma in several domestic and international HIV strategies, there is a need to ensure the use of validated metrics for stigma. The field to date has completed limited measurement of stigma affecting sex workers, and limited measurement of stigma affecting MSM outside of higher income settings. Moving forward requires a concerted effort integrating validated metrics of stigma into health-related surveys and programs for key populations.

  4. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diveristy in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  5. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diversity in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  6. Understanding and measuring AIDS-related stigma in health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monitoring and evaluation in Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Malawi. She has an MD from SUNY Upstate Medical Center in New York State and an MPH from ... involvement, HIV-related stigma, migration issues, and indicators development. Dr. Pulerwitz is trained as a behavioral scientist, and received her masters and doctoral ...

  7. Validity and Reliability of Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (Cantonese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Y. N.; Pan, Jia-Yan; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Cantonese (ISMI-C). Methods: The original English version of ISMI is translated into the ISMI-C by going through forward and backward translation procedure. A cross-sectional research design is adopted that involved 295…

  8. Self-Stigma in People With Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Corrigan, Patrick; Larson, Jonathon E.; Sells, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Persons with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia may internalize mental illness stigma and experience diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy. In this article, we describe a model of self-stigma and examine a hierarchy of mediational processes within the model. Seventy-one individuals with serious mental illness were recruited from a community support program at an outpatient psychiatry department of a community hospital. All participants completed the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale along with measures of group identification (GI), perceived legitimacy (PL), self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Models examining the steps involved in self-stigma process were tested. Specifically, after conducting preliminary bivariate analyses, we examine stereotype agreement as a mediator of GI and PL on stigma self-concurrence (SSC); SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-efficacy; and SSC as a mediator of GI and PL on self-esteem. Findings provide partial support for the proposed mediational processes and point to GI, PL, and stereotype agreement as areas to be considered for intervention. PMID:17255118

  9. Stigma in response to mental disorders: a comparison of Australia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few national or cross-cultural studies of the stigma associated with mental disorders. Australia and Japan have different systems of psychiatric health care, and distinct differences in cultural values, but enjoy similar standards of living. This study seeks to compare the nature and extent of stigma among the public in the two countries. Methods A household survey of the public was conducted in each country using similar methodologies. The Australian study comprised a national survey of 3998 adults aged over 18 years. The Japanese survey involved 2000 adults aged 20 to 69 from 25 regional sites distributed across the country. Interviewees reported their personal attitudes (personal stigma, social distance and perceptions of the attitudes of others (perceived stigma, perceived discrimination in the community with respect to four case vignettes. These vignettes described a person with: depression; depression with suicidal ideation; early schizophrenia; and chronic schizophrenia. Results Personal stigma and social distance were typically greater among the Japanese than the Australian public whereas the reverse was true with respect to the perception of the attitudes and discriminatory behaviour of others. In both countries, personal stigma was significantly greater than perceived stigma. The public in both countries showed evidence of greater social distance, greater personal stigma and greater perceived stigma for schizophrenia (particularly in its chronic form than for depression. There was little evidence of a difference in stigma for depression with and without suicide for either country. However, social distance was greater for chronic compared to early schizophrenia for the Australian public. Conclusion Stigmatising attitudes were common in both countries, but negative attitudes were greater among the Japanese than the Australian public. The results suggest that there is a need to implement national public

  10. Family Stigma and Caregiver Burden in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Perla; Mittelman, Mary S.; Goldstein, Dovrat; Heinik, Jeremia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The stigma experienced by the family members of an individual with a stigmatized illness is defined by 3 dimensions: caregiver stigma, lay public stigma, and structural stigma. Research in the area of mental illness suggests that caregivers' perception of stigma is associated with increased burden. However, the effect of stigma on…

  11. Unpacking the public stigma of problem gambling: The process of stigma creation and predictors of social distancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of leaf tissue of Raphanus sativus by RNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Zhang

    Full Text Available Raphanus sativus is not only a popular edible vegetable but also an important source of medicinal compounds. However, the paucity of knowledge about the transcriptome of R. sativus greatly impedes better understanding of the functional genomics and medicinal potential of R. sativus. In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of leaf tissues in R. sativus was performed for the first time. Approximately 22 million clean reads were generated and used for transcriptome assembly. The generated unigenes were subsequently annotated against gene ontology (GO database. KEGG analysis further revealed two important pathways in the bolting stage of R.sativus including spliceosome assembly and alkaloid synthesis. In addition, a total of 6,295 simple sequence repeats (SSRs with various motifs were identified in the unigene library of R. sativus. Finally, four unigenes of R. sativus were selected for alignment with their homologs from other plants, and phylogenetic trees for each of the genes were constructed. Taken together, this study will provide a platform to facilitate gene discovery and advance functional genomic research of R. sativus.

  13. [Molecular identity of Crocus sativus and its misused substitutes by ITS sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tang, Lin; Liu, Yan-jun; He, Wei; Chen, Fang

    2007-04-01

    To find the patterns of the rDNA ITS sequence variation of Crocus sativus, Chrysanthemum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius and to establish the molecular biological method for the identification of C. sativus and the others. After the total DNA of Crocus sativus, C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p were extracted, the ITS sequence was amplified by PCR with universal primer of ITS and PCR product was sequenced after purification and cloning. The ITS sequences of Chrysanthemrnum chanetii, Nelumbo nucifera, Zea mays and Garthamus tinctorius were obtained from GenBank. The complete ITS sequence of Crocus sativus, C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p, including ITSI rDNA, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 rDNA were measured. The GenBank accession No. was DQ094185, DQ224363 and DQ224364 respectively. The similarity of ITS sequence between C. sativus and the two garden species of C. vernus was above 91%; the identity was 99.84% between C. vernus-w and C. vernus-p. The range of diversity between C. sativus and other herbs was above 46% based on ITS1 and above 41% based on ITS2. C. sativus can be distinguished from misused substitutes by the ITS sequence. The ITS sequence is an available molecular marker for identification of the C. sativus.

  14. Gender, Self-Stigma, and Public Stigma in Predicting Attitudes toward Psychological Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of university students (N = 362), the role of gender and both the self-stigma and public stigma associated with one's decision to seek psychological help in predicting attitudes toward psychological helpseeking were examined. Moreover, gender differences regarding both the self-stigma and the public stigma associated with…

  15. The prevalence and predictors of self-stigma of individuals with mental health illness in two Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus Yat-Nam

    2016-03-01

    Although self-stigma is found to have adverse effects on the lives of persons with mental illness, little is known on the self-stigma of these individuals in Chinese societies. This research study explores the prevalence rate and predicting factors of self-stigma of consumers in two Chinese cities, Hong Kong and Guangzhou. A cross-sectional research design is adopted which involves a random sample of 266 consumers from Hong Kong and a convenient sample of 208 consumers from Guangzhou. These individuals have been assessed in terms of their self-stigma, recovery, self-esteem and quality of life by using standardized assessment scales. In all, 38.3% of the Hong Kong participants and 49.5% of the Guangzhou participants report to have self-stigma. Also, self-stigma is found to be negatively related to self-esteem and quality of life. A logistic regression analysis shows that hope and well-being are predicting factors of self-stigma. Self-stigma is found to be higher in Guangzhou, probably due to the influence of traditional cultural values. Also, as hope and well-being are found to be predicting factors of self-stigma, suitable recovery-orientated interventions that facilitate hope and well-being should be developed so as to reduce self-stigma of consumers in Chinese societies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ebrahimi; Eissa Mohammadi; Mohammad Ali Mohammadi; Akbar Pirzadeh; Hamzeh Mahmoudi; Ismail Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child?s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabiliti...

  17. Weight stigma and eating behaviours in elementary school children: A prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrzyca, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-01

    The relevance of weight stigma as an important factor in disordered eating has been supported by research. However, because most of the studies were cross-sectional and focussed on older children, the causal relationships could not be fully determined in childhood. The current study explores the role of weight stigma in body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. The sample consisted of 773 girls and 713 boys, aged 6-11 years, who completed surveys assessing weight stigma experiences, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours at two points of measurement, approximately one year apart. The children's external and disordered eating was rated via parental questionnaires. As expected, the pattern of the associations between weight status, weight stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours differed by gender. Experience of weight stigma in girls led to external and restrained eating one year later, whereas in boys no such association was observed. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between weight stigma and restrained eating behaviours in girls, whereas in boys, body dissatisfaction directly influenced restrained eating behaviours. However, in both girls and boys weight status predicted body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, while weight stigma did not have a direct effect on disordered eating. Results suggest that interventions involving weight stigma should be a part of eating disorder prevention programmes, and gender-specific pathways should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Not all my fault”: Genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Michele M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical researchers and clinicians increasingly understand and present eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa) as biologically-based psychiatric disorders, with genetic risk factors established by high heritability estimates in twin studies. But there has been no research on interpretation of genetic involvement by people with eating disorders, who may hold other views. Their interpretations are particularly important given the frequent presumption that biogenetic framing will reduce stigma, and recent findings that it exacerbates stigma for other mental illnesses. To identify implications of genetic framing in eating disorders, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 US women with a history of eating disorders (half recovered, half in treatment; interviewed 2008–9 in the USA). Interviews introduced the topic of genetics, but not stigma per se. Analysis followed the general principles of grounded theory to identify perceived implications of genetic involvement; those relevant to stigma are reported here. Most anticipated that genetic reframing would help reduce stigma from personal responsibility (i.e., blame and guilt for eating disorder as ongoing choice). A third articulated ways it could add stigma, including novel forms of stigma related to genetic essentialist effacing of social factors. Despite welcoming reductions in blame and guilt, half also worried genetic framing could hamper recovery, by encouraging fatalistic self-fulfilling prophecies and genetic excuses. This study is the first to elicit perceptions of genetic involvement by those with eating disorders, and contributes to an emerging literature on perceptions of psychiatric genetics by people with mental illness. PMID:22819736

  19. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  20. Resisting and challenging stigma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mburu, Gitau; Ram, Mala; Skovdal, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Global scale up of antiretroviral therapy is changing the context of HIV-related stigma. However, stigma remains an ongoing concern in many countries. Groups of people living with HIV can contribute to the reduction of stigma. However, the pathways through which they do so are not well understood....

  1. Disease and Stigma: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of literature pertaining to disease and stigma. Specifically, a definition of stigma is provided along with an historical overview of disease and stigma and research trends related to three public health perils-AIDS, mental illness, and obesity.

  2. The Stigma of Families with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jon E.; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. Methods: The authors describe family stigma and present current research related to mental illness stigma experienced by family members. Research indicates this type of stigma…

  3. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) toward child labor that is common in some developing countries. They illustrate the positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child and household-level characteristics, the analysis uses two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous background and the househol...

  4. Child Welfare and Stigma: Principles into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Matthew; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the stigma attached to child welfare services in the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Spain. Found that stigma continues to be part of the experience of using and delivering such services, despite positive determination of policies in all three countries that this should not be so. Also found that the experience of stigma can, with…

  5. Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Pryor, John B.

    2008-01-01

    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative proces...

  6. Anti-Stigma Programs: Stigma in Campus Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, Jennifer D.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the most effective way to combat mental illness stigma is to focus on power groups who have a direct impact on the lives of persons with serious mental illness. With the increase of violence and need for mental health services on college campuses, campus police officers are seen as an important power group for persons…

  7. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of split foliar fertilisation on the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabani-Foroutagheh, Mehdi; Hamidoghli, Yousef; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most expensive medicinal and aromatic plants in the world. Due to the excessive application of chemical fertilisers in saffron farms and alkalinity of most cultivated soils, split foliar fertilisation has been suggested. The primary goal of this study was to propose split foliar fertilisation as a technique in increasing the quality and quantity of active constituents in saffron. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the most important saffron components; crocins (colour), picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (odour). This study was carried out in Kashmar, Iran, to determine the effect of split foliar fertilisations on quality and quantity of saffron in 2011 and 2012. A split-plot design experiment based on randomised complete block with three replications was conducted to examine three fertiliser types in three regimes for split foliar fertilisation. Statistical analysis showed that split foliar fertilisation and the fertiliser type significantly increased saffron yield, number of flowers and crocin; whereas it decreased the picrocrocin and safranal content of the saffron stigmas (P saffron yield and colour but decreased the taste and the odour of saffron. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Novel quantitative real-time PCR approach to determine safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) adulteration in saffron (Crocus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Caterina; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-08-15

    This work intended to develop DNA-based methods to detect and quantify safflower as an adulterant in saffron. Species-specific PCR and real-time PCR with EvaGreen dye targeting the ITS region of Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) were successfully proposed. The assays allowed absolute and relative sensitivities of 2pg of safflower DNA (∼1.4 DNA copies) and 0.1% of safflower in saffron (Crocus sativus L.), respectively. A normalised real-time PCR approach was also proposed in the range of 0.1-20% (w/w) of safflower in saffron, which was successfully validated and applied to commercial saffron samples (stigmas, powders and seasonings). From 19 samples, three were positive to safflower, though at levels below the limit of detection, suggesting cross-contamination rather than adulteration. In this work, specific, sensitive and accurate tools were proposed to authenticate saffron. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful attempt to quantify safflower by a DNA-based approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The safety assessment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability; a comparison with amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Dehesh, Mohammad-Moein

    2015-12-01

    Dry stigmas of the Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) are well known in world as a popular flavouring and therapeutic agent. The anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant and antiarrhythmic effects of saffron suggest that it may affect the autonomic control of the heart. This study assessed its safety on cardiac sympathovagal balance and heart rate variability in rat. Experimental groups were control, Saf50, Saf100, Saf200 (received saffron at dosages of 50 and 100 and 200 mg/kg/d, orally, respectively) and Amio (received 30 mg/mL/kg/d of amiodarone, orally, for 7 days) groups. On day 8, the frequency domain and time domain indices of animals' electrocardiograms were calculated. The heart rate decreased and RR interval increased in Saf200 and Amio groups (Psaffron not only has no harmful effect on activity of cardiac autonomic nervous system, but it may improve the stability of heart sympathovagal balance in normal rat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  12. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) attenuates isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury via preserving cardiac functions and strengthening antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Jaspreet; Tanwar, Vineeta; Golechha, Mahaveer; Siddiqui, Khalid M; Nag, Tapas C; Ray, Ruma; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir S

    2012-09-01

    Saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.), a naturally derived plant product, has long been used as a traditional ancient medicine against various human diseases. The aim of the series of experiments was to systematically determine whether saffron exerts cardioprotection in isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage. Male Wistar rats (150-175 g) were divided into five groups: control, isoproterenol (ISO) and three saffron (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) treatment groups. Aqueous extract of saffron or vehicle was administered orally to rats for four weeks. On days 28 and 29, the animals in ISO and saffron treatment groups were administered ISO (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 h. On day 30, after recording hemodynamics and left ventricular functions, animals were sacrificed for biochemical, histopathological and electromicroscopical examinations. Isoproterenol challenged animals showed depressed hemodynamics and left ventricular functions as evident by decreased left ventricular rate of peak positive and negative pressure change and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Structural and ultrastructural studies further confirmed the damage which was reconfirmed by increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (psaffron at all the doses exerted significant cardioprotective effect by preserving hemodynamics and left ventricular functions, maintaining structural integrity and augmenting antioxidant status. Among the different doses used, saffron at 400mg/kg dose exhibited maximum protective effects which could be due to maintenance of the redox status of the cell reinforcing its role as an antioxidant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Drought Stress on the Growth and Development of Saffron (Crocus Sativus. L in Eastern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Mzabri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L.; Iridaceae is the most expensive spice in the world. It has been cultivated in Morocco for centu-ries and has represented a traditional staple for culinary, medical and cosmetic uses. The present work is about the study of the effect of drought stress on Saffron’s mor-pho-physiological and biochemical param-eters. An experiment has been carried out on a 4-year-old saffron plantation planted in an open field located in the experimental station of the Faculty of Sciences of Oujda. The experimental treatment included three water regimes (T0: Control receiving 100% ET0, T1: moderate water deficit receiving 60% ET0, T2: pronounced water deficit re-ceiving only 40% ET0. The results show that the increase in drought stress levels has slightly influenced the different param-eters of saffron growth. At the foliar level, the effect of stress has resulted in a de-crease in the chlorophyll content, a slight decrease in the PSII quantum yield and a Proline content accumulation as soluble sugars and total phenols, which resulted in keeping the relative water content (RWC and the Malondialdehyde (MAD content at a level similar to that of the control. In gen-eral, the morpho-physiological adaptation traits were observed even at severe level of water stress (40% ET0 which resulted in an acceptable decrease in stigmas yield.

  14. Mental illness stigma and suicidality: the role of public and individual stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Waldmann, T; Staiger, T; Xu, Z; Rüsch, N

    2016-12-06

    Suicide rates are increased among unemployed individuals and mental illness stigma can contribute to both unemployment and suicidality. Persons with mental illness perceive negative attitudes among the general public and experience discrimination in their everyday life (=public stigma components) potentially leading to self-stigma and anticipated discrimination (=individual stigma components). Previous research found evidence for an association between aspects of mental illness stigma and suicidality, but has not yet clarified the underlying pathways explaining how different stigma components interact and contribute to suicidal ideation. Public and individual stigma components and their association with suicidal ideation were examined among 227 unemployed persons with mental illness. A path model linking public stigma components (experienced discrimination, perceived stigma) with suicidal ideation, mediated by individual stigma components (anticipated discrimination, self-stigma), was examined using structural equation modelling within Mplus. Our sample was equally split in terms of gender, on average 43 years old and about half reported no suicidal ideation during the past 30 days. In bivariate analyses all stigma components were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. In the path model and controlling for symptoms, the association between experienced discrimination and suicidal ideation was fully mediated by anticipated discrimination and self-stigma. Perceived stigma's contribution to suicidal ideation was fully mediated by anticipated discrimination, but not by self-stigma. In general, programmes addressing multiple stigma components seem to be most effective in improving suicide prevention. Besides interventions targeting negative attitudes and discriminating behaviours of the general public, programmes to support persons with mental illness in coping with perceived and experienced stigma could improve suicide prevention. Future studies should test

  15. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  16. The Stigma of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallhagen, Margaret I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore dimensions of stigma experienced by older adults with hearing loss and those with whom they frequently communicate to target interventions promoting engagement and positive aging. Design and Methods: This longitudinal qualitative study conducted interviews over 1 year with dyads where one partner had hearing loss. Participants…

  17. Understanding and Coping with Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Having a disability or chronic health condition saddles the person with more than just the physical complaint. One has to struggle with the social meaning of that disorder as well. Often society is not very accepting of illness and disability and the person affected becomes stigmatized as a result. Stigma is a common problem among the disabled…

  18. Understanding the stigma of leprosy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    to lack of understanding and knowledge about leprosy - which increases misconceptions about the disease's .... Risk of drug resistance developing is then very high. In general therefore stigma results in an ... Psychological or physical changes reported by the patients can predict development of participation restriction (i.e. ...

  19. Effect of Corm Density on Yield and Qualitative Traits of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. under Different Urea and Biological Fertilizers in Shahr-e-Rey Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza pazoki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of corm density on yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L. under different biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized block design with 3 replications was done in 2014 at Shahr-e-Rey region (Ghomi Abad. The experimental factors were: corm density in 3 levels (60, 120 and 180 corm per square meter and biological and chemical nitrogen fertilizers in 4 levels (without fertilizer application, 150 kg.ha-1 of Urea, 5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin and 75 kg.ha-1 of Urea +5 L.ha-1 of Nitroxin. The results indicated that the corm density affects number of daughter corm, fresh daughter corm weight, corm diameter, dry stigma and style weight, dry and fresh flower weight significantly. Mean comparisons also indicated that by increasing corm density from 6o to 180, saffron dry yield of saffron improved by 2.7 fold. However, increasing corm density reduced corm diameter, fresh corm daughter weight and their numbers per square meter. It can be concluded that nitroxin as an organic fertilizer, increases vegetative traits and saffron dry yield (stigma + style weight to 2.08 kg.ha-1 and highly improves in qualitative traits like Safranal, Picrocrocin, and Crocin. It can be also said that combined use of nitroxin and urea would be an alternative method to reduce application of urea.

  20. Relationship Depth and Associative Stigma of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Nieweglowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Family, friends and acquaintances of people with disabilities may be viewed or treated differently by the public due to their association with a stigmatized person. Previous research finds that the public are more willing to engage in relationships with people with physical disability than with mental illness. In addition, attitudes towards associating with people with disabilities has been found to vary by depth of the chosen relationship. The current study sought to examine the connections between relationship depth (friend/romantic partner/acquaintance, disability type (physical/psychiatric and associative stigma. Adult participants (N=345 were randomly presented with vignettes varying in relationship depth and disability type via an online survey platform. Analyses found no differences in associative stigma between physical and psychiatric disabilities. Participants viewed the vignette actor Rachel as socially warmer when she was a friend or romantic partner of a person with a disability than when she was an acquaintance. Participants rated Rachel as different from themselves when she was romantically involved with the person with disability and were more willing to engage socially with Rachel when she befriended the person with disability rather than when she was a mere acquaintance.

  1. Stigma, social anxiety, and illness severity in bipolar disorder: Implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Tsoy, Elena; Brodt, Madeline; Petrosyan, Karen; Malloy, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Studies indicate that comorbid anxiety disorders predict a more severe course of illness in bipolar disorder (BD). The relatively high prevalence of social anxiety in BD points to the potential role that socio-cultural factors, such as stigma, play in exacerbating the progression of this disorder. Stigma creates social anxiety in affected individuals because it essentially forces them into a vulnerable social status that is marked by public disgrace. Although the etiology of debilitating social anxiety in BD may involve multiple factors, stigma deserves particular clinical attention because research in this area indicates that it is common and its internalization is associated with poor outcome. We conducted a literature review using search terms related to stigma, social anxiety, bipolar disorder, illness severity, and outcomes. The electronic databases searched included PsychINFO, PubMed, JSTOR, and EBSCOhost Academic Search Complete with limits set to include articles published in English. The literature indicates that internalized stigma often triggers the core psychological experiences of social anxiety and is highly correlated with clinical and functional outcome in BD. On a psychological level, internalized stigma and social anxiety can create distress that triggers symptoms of BD. From a biological perspective, stigma constitutes a chronic psychosocial stressor that may interact with the pathophysiology of BD in inflammatory ways. The connection between stigma and social anxiety, and their combined effects on people with BD, carries important implications for psychiatric care. To obtain an accurate clinical formulation, initial evaluations may seek to examine stigma-related experiences and determine their relationship to anxiety symptoms and psychosocial functioning. In addition, direct interventions for reducing the ill effects of stigma in BD deserve clinical attention, because they may carry the potential to enhance outcomes.

  2. Measuring HIV stigma for PLHAs and nurses over time in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Makoae, Lucy N; Greeff, Minrie; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kohi, Thecla W; Chirwa, Maureen L; Naidoo, Joanne R; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Uys, Yvette R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this article is to document the levels of HIV stigma reported by persons living with HIV infections and nurses in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania over a 1-year period. HIV stigma has been shown to negatively affect the quality of life for people living with HIV infection, their adherence to medication, and their access to care. Few studies have documented HIV stigma by association as experienced by nurses or other health care workers who care for people living with HIV infection. This study used standardised scales to measure the level of HIV stigma over time. A repeated measures cohort design was used to follow persons living with HIV infection and nurses involved in their care from five countries over a 1-year period in a three-wave longitudinal design. The average age of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) (N=948) was 36.15 years (SD=8.69), and 67.1% (N=617) were female. The average age of nurses (N=887) was 38.44 years (SD=9.63), and 88.6% (N=784) were females. Eighty-four per cent of all PLHAs reported one or more HIV-stigma events at baseline. This declined, but was still significant 1 year later, when 64.9% reported experiencing at least one HIV-stigma event. At baseline, 80.3% of the nurses reported experiencing one or more HIV-stigma events and this increased to 83.7% 1 year later. The study documented high levels of HIV stigma as reported by both PLHAs and nurses in all five of these African countries. These results have implications for stigma reduction interventions, particularly focused at health care providers who experience HIV stigma by association.

  3. Self-Stigma and Consumer Participation in Shared Decision Making in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Johannes; Bühner, Markus; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    People with mental illness struggle with symptoms and with public stigma. Some accept common prejudices and lose self-esteem, resulting in shame and self-stigma, which may affect their interactions with mental health professionals. This study explored whether self-stigma and shame are associated with consumers' preferences for participation in medical decision making and their behavior in psychiatric consultations. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Germany, 329 individuals with a diagnosis of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or an affective disorder and their psychiatrists provided sociodemographic and illness-related information. Self-stigma, shame, locus of control, and views about clinical decision making were assessed by self-report. Psychiatrists rated their impression of the decision-making behavior of consumers. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to determine the association of self-stigma and shame with clinical decision making. Self-stigma was not related to consumers' participation preferences, but it was associated with some aspects of communicative behavior. Active and critical behavior (for example, expressing views, daring to challenge the doctor's opinion, and openly speaking out about disagreements with the doctor) was associated with less shame, less self-stigma, more self-responsibility, less attribution of external control to powerful others, and more years of education. Self-stigma and shame were associated with less participative and critical behavior, which probably leads to clinical encounters that involve less shared decision making and more paternalistic decision making. Paternalistic decision making may reinforce self-stigma and lead to poorer health outcomes. Therefore, interventions that reduce self-stigma and increase consumers' critical and participative communication may improve health outcomes.

  4. An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, B; Perry, R P; Magnusson, J

    1988-11-01

    In two experiments, we examined the perceived controllability and stability of the causes of 10 stigmas. Guided by attribution theory, we also ascertained the affective reactions of pity and anger, helping judgments, and the efficacy of five intervention techniques. In the first study we found that physically based stigmas were perceived as onset-uncontrollable, and elicited pity, no anger, and judgments to help. On the other hand, mental-behavioral stigmas were perceived as onset-controllable, and elicited little pity, much anger, and judgments to neglect. In addition, physically based stigmas were perceived as stable, or irreversible, whereas mental-behavioral stigmas were generally considered unstable, or reversible. The perceived efficacy of disparate interventions was guided in part by beliefs about stigma stability. In the second study we manipulated perceptions of causal controllability. Attributional shifts resulted in changes in affective responses and behavioral judgments. However, attributional alteration was not equally possible for all the stigmas.

  5. Constructs and concepts comprising the stigma of mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels, Patrick J.; Marcelino López; Nicolas Rüsch; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    People with mental illness frequently confront public stigma andmay experience self-stigma. This review discusses the concepts of mental illness stigma and its consequences for those with mental illness. After a conceptual overview of stigma prominent consequences pertaining to public stigma (i.e.,employment, health care quality) and self-stigma (i.e., self-confidence, quality of life, “why try” effect) are reviewed. We discuss the three main public stigma change strategies - protest, educati...

  6. Transgender Stigma and Health: A Critical Review of Stigma Determinants, Mechanisms, and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Pachankis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Transgender people in the United States experience widespread prejudice, discrimination, violence, and other forms of stigma. Objective This critical review aims to integrate the literature on stigma towards transgender people in the US. Results This review demonstrates that transgender stigma limits opportunities and access to resources in a number of critical domains (e.g., employment, healthcare), persistently affecting the physical and mental health of transgender people. The applied social ecological model employed here elucidates that transgender stigma operates at multiple levels (i.e., individual, interpersonal, structural) to impact health. Stigma prevention and coping interventions hold promise for reducing stigma and its adverse health-related effects in transgender populations. Conclusion Additional research is needed to document the causal relationship between stigma and adverse health as well as the mediators and moderators of stigma in US transgender populations. Multi-level interventions to prevent stigma towards transgender people are warranted. PMID:26599625

  7. Stigma resistance and its association with internalised stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying Wen; Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-11-01

    Studies have suggested that stigma resistance plays an important role in the recovery from mental illness. However, there has been limited research in Asian countries that has examined the benefits of stigma resistance among the mentally ill in Asian populations. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of stigma resistance and establish the socio-demographic correlates of stigma resistance, as well as its association with internalised stigma and psychosocial outcomes among a multi-ethnic population of 280 outpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders in Singapore. Prevalence of stigma resistance measured using the Stigma Resistance subscale of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale was 82.9%. ANOVA and logistic regressions were conducted and results revealed that: (i) Stigma resistance was positively associated with being separated/divorced/widowed but negatively associated with depression diagnosis; (ii) Psychosocial outcomes such as self-esteem and psychological health were positively associated with stigma resistance; and (iii) Internalised stigma was negatively associated with stigma resistance. Moving forward, treatments could emphasize on improving the self-esteem and psychological health of patients to increase their stigma resistance for counteracting effects of public and internalised stigma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of mental illness and criminality self-stigmas and racial self-concept on outcomes in a forensic psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michelle L; Vayshenker, Beth; Rotter, Merrill; Yanos, Philip T

    2015-06-01

    Research has increasingly explored mental illness self-stigma: when people with mental illness believe that society's negative beliefs are true of them. Self-stigma predicts poorer functional and treatment outcomes. Stigma research has typically investigated the impact of a single stigma on people, without considering the potential effects of multiple stigmatizing labels. People with mental illness and a history of criminal conviction, however, may experience multiple stigmas related to mental illness and criminal history. This study investigated the impact of the combination of multiple stigmatized identities on self-esteem, depression, therapeutic alliance, and treatment adherence in a forensic psychiatric sample. It extended previous research on mental illness self-stigma to a forensic psychiatric sample. Participants (N = 82) were people with mental illness and a history of criminal conviction recruited from their treatment sites. Participants completed self-report questionnaires focused on mental illness and criminality self-stigma, racial self- concept, self-esteem, depression, working alliance, and medication/psychosocial treatment adherence. Researchers confirmed demographics through a chart review and treatment adherence from participants' clinicians. Multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between self-stigma and outcome variables. Mental illness self-stigma, racial self-concept, and to a lesser extent criminality self-stigma were associated with reduced self-esteem (p ≤ .05) and medication adherence (p ≤ .05). Criminality self-stigma also appeared to magnify the effects of racial and mental illness self-stigma on outcomes. This study shows that self-stigma related to involvement in the criminal justice system may further contribute to the impact of mental illness self-stigma on important outcomes. Future research and interventions may tailor self-stigma interventions to a forensic psychiatric population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights

  9. Stigma for Seeking Therapy: Self-Stigma, Social Stigma, and Therapeutic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Thomas, LeKeldric; Rodolfa, Emil

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among clients' perceptions of self- and social stigma for seeking help, session outcomes, and working alliance. Ninety-one clients were treated by 26 therapists, at a large university counseling center. All clients were currently in therapy. We expected that clients' perceptions of self- and social…

  10. [The Stigma-discrimination Complex Associated With Mental Disorder as a Risk Factor for Suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The concept stigma-discrimination complex associated with mental disorder (SDCAMD) is proposed to encompass the terms used in the attribution theory: stigma, stereotype, prejudice and discrimination. SDCAMD is one of the most frequent disorders worldwide. Internalized and perceived SDCAMD may explain a number of suicide cases. To update the factors that may explain the association between SDCAMD and suicide, and postulate possible underlying mechanisms. Articles were identified in MEDLINE using the descriptors for "stigma", "mental disorders" and "suicide" or "suicide rate". Articles published between January 2000 and June 2014 were included. Reviews and case studies were not considered. The two included studies showed that stigma increased the risk of suicidal behaviors. It was evident that people who meet criteria for mental disorder and reported high self-stigma made a greater number of suicide attempts, and countries with high stigma in the general population have a higher suicide rate. It was considered that the relationship between SDCAMD and suicide is established by a set of interrelated mechanisms. A "direct" mechanism involving perceived stigma and is configured as a barrier to access mental health services, and an "indirect" mechanism involving the self-stigma, which increases the vulnerability to depressive episodes and repeated self-injurious behaviors that ultimately end in suicide. The SDCAMD impacts negatively on the quality of life of people who meet criteria for mental disorders, and accounts for a significant number of suicides. One way is related to the perceived stigma that is configured as a barrier to access mental health services and, the second one includes repeated self-injurious behaviors that reduce self-esteem and increases perceived stress. Further research is required to increase the knowledge of this association. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. [Stigma and related factors basing on mental illness stigma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyduch, Agnieszka; Grzywa, Anna

    2009-03-01

    Stigmatization is a common problem to overcome for people suffering from chronic diseases. It usually follows infectious diseases, disabilities and mental disorders. In our study we explained basic concepts concerning stigma, particularly health-related one, and then we presented the most important socio-demographic factors influencing attitudes towards mentally ill people exemplifying them by scientific literature on mental illness stigma. Profession, frequency of contact with mentally ill persons, level of mental health literacy, own experience, education level, culture-related factors, overall value orientation, gender and age are the most relevant factors which influence perception of people suffering from mental disorders. A review of surveys on dependencies between those factors and attitudes towards mentally ill people and tendencies to stigmatize with mental illness was presented. Mental health literacy is the most easily modifiable factor among all the presented here. Majority of campaigns concerning change of attitude towards mentally ill people consist in enhancement of mental health awareness in society.

  12. Association between public views of mental illness and self-stigma among individuals with mental illness in 14 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, S; Brohan, E; Mojtabai, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about how the views of the public are related to self-stigma among people with mental health problems. Despite increasing activity aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, there is little evidence to guide and inform specific anti-stigma campaign development and messages to be used in mass campaigns. A better understanding of the association between public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours and the internalization of stigma among people with mental health problems is needed. This study links two large, international datasets to explore the association between public stigma in 14 European countries (Eurobarometer survey) and individual reports of self-stigma, perceived discrimination and empowerment among persons with mental illness (n=1835) residing in those countries [the Global Alliance of Mental Illness Advocacy Networks (GAMIAN) study]. Individuals with mental illness living in countries with less stigmatizing attitudes, higher rates of help-seeking and treatment utilization and better perceived access to information had lower rates of self-stigma and perceived discrimination and those living in countries where the public felt more comfortable talking to people with mental illness had less self-stigma and felt more empowered. Targeting the general public through mass anti-stigma interventions may lead to a virtuous cycle by disrupting the negative feedback engendered by public stigma, thereby reducing self-stigma among people with mental health problems. A combined approach involving knowledge, attitudes and behaviour is needed; mass interventions that facilitate disclosure and positive social contact may be the most effective. Improving availability of information about mental health issues and facilitating access to care and help-seeking also show promise with regard to stigma.

  13. The Role of Neighborhood Factors and Community Stigma in Predicting Community Participation Among Persons With Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Lauren; Yanos, Philip T; Stefancic, Ana; Alexander, Mary Jane; Harney-Delehanty, Brianna

    2017-09-15

    This study examined the association between neighborhood characteristics, stigma related to mental illness reported by local community members, and measures of perceived stigma and community participation among individuals with psychiatric disabilities living in independent scattered-site housing or in congregate housing in three neighborhoods in the New York City metropolitan area. Neighborhood characteristics were drawn from the 2010 U.S. Census. Surveys focusing on attitudes and intended behavior toward people with mental illness were administered to 608 general community members, and clinical interviews were conducted with 343 persons with psychiatric disabilities. Of neighborhood characteristics, both greater socioeconomic disadvantage and more "suburban values" (lower housing density and greater political conservativism) predicted more perpetrated stigma reported by community members. There was no significant relationship between stigma reported by community members and perceived stigma among participants with psychiatric disabilities. Community stigma predicted vocational involvement and demonstrated interaction effects with housing, such that persons living in congregate housing demonstrated more community participation in communities with more stigma, whereas persons living in scattered-site housing demonstrated less participation in these communities. Perceived stigma was significantly negatively related to community participation. Findings suggest that effects of neighborhood characteristics and community stigma on people with psychiatric disabilities are complex and are partly conditioned by housing context.

  14. Syndrome-Related Stigma in the General Social Environment as Reported by Women with Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Khuri, Jananne; Ehrhardt, Anke A; New, Maria I

    2017-02-01

    Stigma defined as "undesired differentness" (Goffman, 1963) and subtyped as "experienced" or "enacted," "anticipated," and "internalized" has been documented for patients with diverse chronic diseases. However, no systematic data exist on the association of stigma with somatic intersexuality. The current report concerns women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the most prevalent intersex syndrome, and provides descriptive data on CAH-related stigma as experienced in the general social environment (excluding medical settings and romantic/sexual partners) during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. A total of 62 adult women with classical CAH [41 with the salt-wasting (SW) variant and 21 with the simple-virilizing (SV) variant] underwent a qualitative retrospective interview, which focused on the impact of CAH and its medical treatment on many aspects of women's lives. Deductive content analysis was performed on the transcribed texts. The women's accounts of CAH-related stigma were identified and excerpted as vignettes, and the vignettes categorized according to social context, stigma type, and the associated features of the CAH condition. Nearly two-thirds of women with either variant of CAH provided stigma vignettes. The vignettes included all three stigma types, and most involved some somatic or behavioral feature related to sex or gender. Stigma situations were reported for all ages and all social contexts of everyday life: family, peers, colleagues at work, strangers, and the media. We conclude that there is a need for systematic documentation of stigma in intersexuality as a basis for the development of improved approaches to prevention and intervention.

  15. Stigma and eating and weight disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-03-01

    Although research has consistently documented the prevalence and negative health implications of weight stigma, little is known about the stigma associated with eating disorders. Given that weight stigma is a risk factor associated with disordered eating, it is important to address stigma across the spectrum of eating and weight disorders. The aim of this review is to systematically review studies in the past 3 years evaluating stigma in the context of obesity and eating disorders (including binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa). Physical and psychological health consequences of stigma for individuals with obesity and eating disorders are discussed. Recent studies on weight stigma substantiate the unique influence of stigma on psychological maladjustment, eating pathology, and physiological stress. Furthermore, research documents negative stereotypes and social rejection of individuals with eating disorder subtypes, while attributions to personal responsibility promote blame and further stigmatization of these individuals. Future research should examine the association of stigma related to eating disorders and physical and emotional health correlates, as well as its role in health-care utilization and treatment outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies assessing how weight stigma influences emotional health and eating disorders can help identify adaptive coping strategies and improve clinical care of individuals with obesity and eating disorders.

  16. Polyphenolics profile and antioxidant properties of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2012-01-01

    Raphanus sativus, a common cruciferous vegetable has been attributed to possess a number of pharmacological properties. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of R. sativus root extracted with solvents of varying polarity were evaluated using different model systems. Polyphenolic content was estimated to be in the range 13.18-63.54 mg g⁻¹ dry weight, with a considerable amount being obtained with polar solvents. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the presence of an array of polyphenolics. Catechin was found to be the most abundant phenolic compound in water extract and sinapic acid, the predominant phenolic compound in methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts. The methanolic extract showed significant ferric reducing ability, moderate metal chelating activity and strong radical scavenging activity. The methanolic extract could be successfully utilised as an ingredient in functional foods. However, water extract could be more pertinent to human nutrition as it contained a significant amount of catechin, which was comparable to traditional sources like green and black tea.

  17. Does self-stigma reduce the probability of seeking mental health information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, Daniel G; Vogel, David L; Brenner, Rachel E; Abraham, W Todd; Heath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    An important first step in seeking counseling may involve obtaining information about mental health concerns and treatment options. Researchers have suggested that some people may avoid such information because it is too threatening due to self-stigma and negative attitudes, but the link to actual help-seeking decisions has not been tested. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-stigma and attitudes negatively impact decisions to seek information about mental health concerns and counseling. Probit regression models with 370 undergraduates showed that self-stigma negatively predicted decisions to seek both mental health and counseling information, with attitudes toward counseling mediating self-stigma's influence on these decisions. Among individuals experiencing higher levels of distress, the predicted probabilities of seeking mental health information (8.5%) and counseling information (8.4%) for those with high self-stigma were nearly half of those with low self-stigma (17.1% and 15.0%, respectively). This suggests that self-stigma may hinder initial decisions to seek mental health and counseling information, and implies the need for the development of early interventions designed to reduce help-seeking barriers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Courtesy stigma: a hidden health concern among front-line service providers to sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Benoit, Cecilia; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Vallance, Kate

    2012-06-01

    Courtesy stigma, also referred to as 'stigma by association', involves public disapproval evoked as a consequence of associating with a stigmatised individual or group. While a small number of sociological studies have shown how courtesy stigma limits the social support and social opportunities available to family members of stigmatised individuals, there is a paucity of research examining courtesy stigma among the large network of people who provide health and social services to stigmatised groups. This article presents results from a mixed methods study of the workplace experiences of a purposive sample of workers in a non-profit organisation providing services to sex workers in Canada. The findings demonstrate that courtesy stigma plays a role in workplace health as it shapes both the workplace environment, including the range of resources made available to staff to carry out their work activities, as well as staff perceptions of others' support. At the same time, it was evident that some workers were more vulnerable to courtesy stigma than others depending on their social location. We discuss these results in light of the existing literature on courtesy stigma and conclude that it is an under-studied determinant of workplace health among care providers serving socially denigrated groups. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Connection between self-stigma, adherence to treatment, and discontinuation of medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaradova D

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dana Kamaradova,1 Klara Latalova,1 Jan Prasko,1 Radim Kubinek,1 Kristyna Vrbova,1 Barbora Mainerova,1 Andrea Cinculova,1 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,2 Jarmila Smoldasova,1 Anezka Tichackova1 1Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, 2Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Introduction: Self-stigma plays a role in many areas of the patient’s life. Furthermore, it also discourages therapy. The aim of our study was to examine associations between self-stigma and adherence to treatment and discontinuation of medication in patients from various diagnostic groups.Methods: This cross-sectional study involved outpatients attending the Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic. The level of self-stigma was measured with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness and adherence with the Drug Attitude Inventory. The patients also anonymously filled out a demographic questionnaire which included a question asking whether they had discontinued their medication in the past.Results: We examined data from 332 patients from six basic diagnostic categories (substance abuse disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. The study showed a statistically significant negative correlation between self-stigma and adherence to treatment in all diagnostic groups. Self-stigma correlated positively and adherence negatively with the severity of disorders. Another important factor affecting both variables was partnership. Self-stigma positively correlated with doses of antidepressants and adherence with doses of anxiolytics. Self-stigma also negatively correlated with education, and positively with a number of hospitalizations and number of psychiatrists visited. Adherence was further positively correlated with age and age of onset of disorders. Regression analysis showed that self-stigma was an important factor

  20. [The social stigma of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José

    2014-01-01

    People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition.

  1. Self-Stigma, Perceived Stigma, and Help-Seeking Communication in People with Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Jen Lee Teh; David King; Bernadette Watson; Shuang Liu

    2014-01-01

    People with mental illness (PWMI) often internalise negative beliefs (self-stigma) or anticipate external sources of stigma (perceived stigma). This study examines how the two types of stigma affect the willingness to communicate for help – such communication is a vital aspect of good patient care and treatment outcome. Seventy-two participants from different ethnic backgrounds who had experienced mental illness responded to an online survey about their level of agreement with statements refl...

  2. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  3. The Fight against Stigma toward Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Cam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward mental illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. These stigmatized persons in the society are deprived of rights and benefits. In this paper, reasons and consequences of stigma associated with mental illness are reviewed and combat against mental illnesses originated stigma are discussed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(1.000: 71-78

  4. A qualitative study: experiences of stigma by people with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggett, Charlotte; Birtel, Michèle D; Awenat, Yvonne F; Fleming, Paul; Wilkes, Sophie; Williams, Shirley; Haddock, Gillian

    2018-01-18

    Prior research has examined various components involved in the impact of public and internalized stigma on people with mental health problems. However, studies have not previously investigated the subjective experiences of mental health stigma by those affected in a non-statutory treatment-seeking population. An in-depth qualitative study was conducted using thematic analysis to investigate the experiences of stigma in people with mental health problems. Eligible participants were recruited through a local mental health charity in the North West of England. The topic of stigma was examined using two focus groups of thirteen people with experience of mental health problems and stigma. Two main themes and five subthemes were identified. Participants believed that (1) the 'hierarchy of labels' has a profound cyclical impact on several levels of society: people who experience mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Furthermore, participants suggested (2) ways in which they have developed psychological resilience towards mental health stigma. It is essential to utilize the views and experiences gained in this study to aid understanding and, therefore, develop ways to reduce the negative impact of public and internal stigma. People referred to their mental health diagnosis as a label and associated that label with stigmatizing views. Promote awareness and develop improved strategies (e.g., training) to tackle the cyclical impact of the 'hierarchy of labels' on people with mental health problems, their friends and family, and institutional stigma. Ensure the implementation of clinical guidelines in providing peer support to help people to combat feeling stigmatized. Talking about mental health in psychological therapy or health care professional training helped people to take control and develop psychological resilience. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Measurement of Stigma in People with HIV: A Reexamination of the HIV Stigma Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.; Miller, Carol; Forehand, Rex

    2007-01-01

    Stigma associated with HIV infection can unfavorably impact the lives and behavior of people living with HIV/AIDS. The HIV Stigma Scale was designed to measure the perception of stigma by those who are HIV infected. Reanalysis of the psychometric properties of this scale was conducted in a new sample of 157 individuals living with HIV/AIDS in…

  6. Overlapping HIV and sex-work stigma among female sex workers recruited to 14 respondent-driven sampling surveys across Zimbabwe, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J R; Busza, J; Mushati, P; Fearon, E; Cowan, F M

    2017-06-01

    HIV stigma can inhibit uptake of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy as well as negatively affect mental health. Efforts to reduce discrimination against people living with HIV (LWH) have contributed to greater acceptance of the infection. Female sex workers (FSW) LWH may experience overlapping stigma due to both their work and HIV status, although this is poorly understood. We examined HIV and sex-work stigma experienced by FSW LWH in Zimbabwe. Using the SAPPH-IRe cluster-randomised trial baseline survey, we analysed the data from 1039 FSW self-reporting HIV. The women were recruited in 14 sites using respondent-driven sampling. We asked five questions to assess internalised and experienced stigma related to working as a sex worker, and the same questions were asked in reference to HIV. Among all FSW, 91% reported some form of sex-work stigma. This was not associated with sociodemographic or sex-work characteristics. Rates of sex-work stigma were higher than those of HIV-related stigma. For example, 38% reported being "talked badly about" for LWH compared with 77% for their involvement in sex work. Those who reported any sex-work stigma also reported experiencing more HIV stigma compared to those who did not report sex-work stigma, suggesting a layering effect. FSW in Zimbabwe experience stigma for their role as "immoral" women and this appears more prevalent than HIV stigma. As HIV stigma attenuates, other forms of social stigma associated with the disease may persist and continue to pose barriers to effective care.

  7. Mental illness stigma research in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrest, Martin; Mascayano, Franco; Ardila-Gómez, Sara Elena; Abeldaño, Ariel; Fernandez, Ruth; Geffner, Norma; Leiderman, Eduardo Adrian; Susser, Ezra S; Valencia, Eliecer; Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Zalazar, Virginia; Lipovetzky, Gustavo

    2015-11-01

    Studies regarding stigma towards mental illness in Argentina blossomed after the first National Mental Health Law was passed in 2010. Methodological limitations and contradictory results regarding community perceptions of stigma hinder comparisons across domestic and international contexts but some lessons may still be gleaned. We examine this research and derive recommendations for future research and actions to reduce stigma. These include tackling culture-specific aspects of stigma, increasing education of the general population, making more community-based services available and exposing mental health professionals to people with mental illness who are on community paths to recovery.

  8. Measuring the Impact of Programs that Challenge the Public Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Shapiro, Jenessa R.

    2010-01-01

    Public stigma robs people with mental illnesses from rightful opportunities related to work and other important life goals. Advocates have developed anti-stigma programs meant to address the prejudice and discrimination associated with these conditions. Evidence is now needed to make sense of program impact; this paper looks at measurement issues related to stigma change. Community based participatory research is central to this research and includes the involvement of a diverse collection of stakeholders in all phases of evaluation. Investigators should be cautious about measures vis-à-vis social desirability effects and should directed by social validity of targeted audiences. Conceptual domains with some research support that correspond with assessments include behavior, penetration, psychological perspective, knowledge, and physiological/information processes. These issues are summarized as ten recommendations for evaluation of anti-stigma programs. PMID:20674114

  9. Polymorphism of the S-locus glycoprotein gene (SLG) and the S-locus related gene (SLR1) in Raphanus sativus L. and self-incompatible ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, K; Kusaba, M; Nishio, T

    1998-05-01

    The S-locus glycoprotein gene, SLG, which participates in the pollen-stigma interaction of self-incompatibility, and its unlinked homologue, SLR1, were analyzed in Raphanus sativus and three self-incompatible ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae. Among twenty-nine inbred lines of R. sativus, eighteen S haplotypes were identified on the basis of DNA polymorphisms detected by genomic Southern analysis using Brassica SLG probes. DNA fragments of SLG alleles specifically amplified from eight S haplotypes by PCR with class I SLG-specific primers showed different profiles following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after digestion with a restriction endonuclease. The nucleotide sequences of the DNA fragments of these eight R. sativus SLG alleles were determined. Degrees of similarity of the nucleotide sequences to a Brassica SLG (S6SLG) ranged from 85.6% to 91.9%. Amino acid sequences deduced from these had the twelve conserved cysteine residues and the three hypervariable regions characteristic of Brassica SLGs. Phylogenetic analysis of the SLG sequences from Raphanus and Brassica revealed that the Raphanus SLGs did not form an independent cluster, but were dispersed in the tree, clustering together with Brassica SLGs. These results suggest that diversification of the SLG alleles of Raphanus and Brassica occurred before differentiation of these genera. Although SLR1 sequences from Orychophragmus violaceus were shown to be relatively closely related to Brassica and Raphanus SLR1 sequences, DNA fragments that are highly homologous to the Brassica SLG were not detected in this species. Two other ornamental plants in the Brassicaceae, which are related more distantly to Brassica than Orychophragmus, also lacked sequences highly homologous to Brassica SLG genes. The evolution of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae is discussed.

  10. Strategies to overcome type 1 diabetes-related social stigma in the Iranian society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Mehri Doosti; Abdoli, Samereh; Bijan, Iraj; Parvizy, Soroor; Fatemi, Naimeh Seyed; Amini, Massoud

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the strategies to overcome diabetes-related social stigma in Iran. This paper is part of an action research study which was designed in Iran in 2012 to plan and implement a program for overcoming diabetes-related stigma. Participants were people with type 1 diabetes, their family members, people without diabetes, and care providers in a diabetes center. Data collection was done through unstructured in-depth interviews, focus groups, e-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), and telephone interview. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis approach. Participants believed that it is impossible to overcome the stigma without community-based strategies. Community-based strategies include education, advocacy, contact, and protest. The anti-stigma strategies obtained in the study are based on the cultural context in Iran. They are extracted from statements of a wide range of people (with and without diabetes). However, during planning for stigma reduction, it is necessary to note that the effectiveness of social strategies varies in different studies and in different stigmatizing conditions and many factors are involved. These strategies should be implemented simultaneously at different levels to produce structural and social changes. It should be accepted that research on reducing health-related stigma has shown that it is very difficult to change beliefs and behavior. Evidence suggests that individuals and their families should be involved in all aspects of the program, and plans should be made according to the local conditions.

  11. Determinants of stigma in a cohort of hellenic patients suffering from multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostouli, Maria; Katsavos, Serafeim; Artemiadis, Artemios; Zacharis, Markos; Argyrou, Paraskevi; Theotoka, Ilia; Christidi, Fotini; Zalonis, Ioannis; Liappas, Ioannis

    2016-07-13

    Patients suffering from several neurologic disorders may bear the "stigma" of their disease, being disqualified from full social acceptance. Although stigma is considered to be present in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the factors that influence its levels are ambiguous. Aim of our study was to examine, for the first time in the literature, the basic determinants of stigma in a Hellenic MS-patients cohort, as well as how stigma affects their Quality-of-Life (QoL) profiles. Three hundred forty two patients were recruited in this study. Data collected concerned sociodemographic and disease-related variables, mental illness assessment, Multiple-Sclerosis-QoL-54 (MSQoL-54) and Stigma-Scale-for-Chronic-Illness-24 (SSCI-24) questionnaires. Potential determinants were evaluated with univariate statistical analyses for their contribution to total, internalized (inner-self derived) and externalized (society derived) stigma. Important findings were further evaluated on hierarchical regression models. Disability levels were found to be the most powerful predictor in all stigma categories, followed by the presence of mental illness. Working and caregiving status were also ascertained as determinants of internalized stigma. Stigma levels displayed strong negative correlation with all composites of MSQoL-54. Stigma is present in the social environment of MS patients and was confirmed as a barrier (according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health), with detrimental effects on their QoL levels and functioning performances. Disability and mental illness were shown as the principal determinants of stigma, while financial characteristics were not as equally involved. Further validation of these results in other MS populations may provide safer conclusions, towards more efficacious patient-centered care outcomes.

  12. Evaluation of a health setting-based stigma intervention in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Leana; Chirwa, Maureen; Kohi, Thecla; Greeff, Minrie; Naidoo, Joanne; Makoae, Lucia; Dlamini, Priscilla; Durrheim, Kevin; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2009-12-01

    The study aim is to explore the results of an HIV stigma intervention in five African health care settings. A case study approach was used. The intervention consisted of bringing together a team of approximately 10 nurses and 10 people living with HIV or AIDS (PLHA) in each setting and facilitating a process in which they planned and implemented a stigma reduction intervention, involving both information giving and empowerment. Nurses (n = 134) completed a demographic questionnaire, the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-Nurses (HASI-N), a self-efficacy scale, and a self-esteem scale, both before and after the intervention, and the team completed a similar set of instruments before and after the intervention, with the PLHA completing the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLHA (HASI-P). The intervention as implemented in all five countries was inclusive, action-oriented, and well received. It led to understanding and mutual support between nurses and PLHA and created some momentum in all the settings for continued activity. PLHA involved in the intervention teams reported less stigma and increased self-esteem. Nurses in the intervention teams and those in the settings reported no reduction in stigma or increases in self- esteem and self-efficacy, but their HIV testing behavior increased significantly. This pilot study indicates that the stigma experience of PLHA can be decreased, but that the stigma experiences of nurses are less easy to change. Further evaluation research with control groups and larger samples and measuring change over longer periods of time is indicated.

  13. The Reciprocal Relationship between Suicidality and Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Although suicidality is frequently the cause of stigma, it is conversely true that stigma may be the cause of suicidality. The present paper focuses on the complex relationships that exist between suicidal behavior and stigmatizing attitudes. A narrative review of the topic will be presented on the basis of the relevant literature collected from an electronic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases, using stigma, public stigma, structural stigma, perceived stigma, self-stigma, suicide, attempted suicide, and suicidality as key words. A negative perception is frequently held of suicidal people, labeling them as weak and unable to cope with their problems, or selfish. Individuals who have attempted suicide are subject to similar processes of stigmatization and "social distancing"; insurance policies include an exclusion clause against death by suicide. Subjects with a direct personal experience of depression or suicide strongly endorse a feeling of self-stigma; those who have attempted suicide are often ashamed and embarrassed by their behavior and tend to hide the occurrence as much as possible. Similar processes are observed among family members of subjects who have committed suicide or made a suicide attempt, with a higher perceived stigma present in those bereaved by suicide. Perceived or internalized stigma produced by mental or physical disorders, or through belonging to a minority group, may represent a significant risk factor for suicide, being severely distressing, reducing self-esteem and acting as a barrier in help-seeking behaviors. With the aim of preventing suicide, greater efforts should be made to combat the persisting stigmatizing attitudes displayed toward mental disorders and suicide itself. Indeed, the role of stigma as a risk factor for suicide should further motivate and spur more concerted efforts to combat public stigma and support those suffering from perceived or internalized stigma. Experts and scientific societies

  14. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  15. affron® a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Graham; Rao, Amanda; Beccaria, Gavin; Clayton, Paul; Inarejos-García, Antonio Manuel; Prodanov, Marin

    2017-08-01

    In recent years phytotherapy has been explored as a source for alternative treatments for mood disorders. One potential candidate is saffron (Crocus sativus L.), whose main bioactive components are crocins and safranal. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of affron®, a standardised stigmas extract from Crocus sativus L. for improving mood, stress, anxiety and sleep quality in healthy adults. In this 3 arm study, 128 participants self-reporting low mood but not diagnosed with depression, were given affron® at 28mg/day, 22mg/day, or a placebo treatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for 4 weeks. Mood was measured at baseline and at the end of the study, using the POMS (primary outcome measure) and PANAS questionnaires, and the DASS-21 scale. Sleep was monitored using Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Analysis indicated a significant decrease in negative mood and symptoms related to stress and anxiety at a 28mg/day dose (with a significant difference between 28mg/day and placebo on the POMS Total Mood Disturbance scale, p<0.001, d=-1.10), but no treatment effect at the 22mg/day dose. The main weaknesses of this investigation were found in the self-reporting nature of both the screening and the testing. affron® increased mood, reduced anxiety and managed stress without side effects, offering a natural alternative to standard treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Razi's Al-Hawi and saffron (Crocus sativus): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh, Hamid; Emami, Seyyed Ahmad; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi's Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.

  17. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  18. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Virág, István; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc; Záray, Gyula

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 micromol dm(-3) arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite.

  19. Defamation & Stigma Claims against Public Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worona, Jay; Fletcher, Cynthia Plumb

    This article, written by two lawyers, defines defamation, discusses the basic law of defamation and stigma, and focuses on recent case law on this topic. The cases are only a sample of the numerous cases that school districts across the nation face on the issues of defamation and stigma. The following topics are included in the legal review: the…

  20. Effects of Stigmas on Intergroup Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Melvin C.; Lee, Motoko Y.

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to identify the master stigma, that characteristic of an individual that he believes to have the strongest negative effects on interactions with others, as perceived by students from four developing nations. Racial background was the master stigma only for the Nigerian students and being a foreigner was for the Iranian, Taiwanese, and…

  1. Stigma in Cirrhotic Patients: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanloei, Reza; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Dolatkhah, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Stigma is one of the main problems of patients suffering from cirrhosis, and it causes many challenges for the patients and their treatment. The present study aimed to discover and define the perceived stigma by cirrhotic patients. This qualitative study was conducted through a content analysis approach. The participants were 15 patients suffering from cirrhosis. Data were collected via semistructured, in-depth interviews and analyzed on the basis of methods described by Granheme and Landman. During data analysis, stigma was categorized into four categories and 13 subcategories: external representation of social stigma (others' avoidance behaviors, inadmissible tag, discriminative behaviors of treatment personnel, blaming behaviors), internal representation of social stigma (social ostracism, social isolation, curiosity to perceive people's perceptions), external representation of self-stigma (fear of disclosure of illness, threatening situation, difficult emotional relationships), and internal representation of self-stigma (condemned to suffer, self-punishment, self-alienation). Experiencing stigma is common among cirrhotic patients and may affect patients' coping with the illness and treatment. Thus, it is specifically important that treatment personnel know patients' perception, provide comprehensive support for these patients, and plan to enhance public awareness about the disease recommended.

  2. Social Work Faculty and Mental Illness Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Fulambarker, Anjali; Kondrat, David C.; Holley, Lynn C.; Kranke, Derrick; Wilkins, Brittany T.; Stromwall, Layne K.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    Stigma is a significant barrier to recovery and full community inclusion for people with mental illnesses. Social work educators can play critical roles in addressing this stigma, yet little is known about their attitudes. Social work educators were surveyed about their general attitudes about people with mental illnesses, attitudes about practice…

  3. Tuberculosis stigma in Gezira State, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman MM, Ahmed; Sahal, Nagla; Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) stigma and to determine the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and TB stigma among TB cases and their controls in Gezira State, Sudan. METHODS: A case-control study design was used. New smear-positive TB patients registered...

  4. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna K; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children with ADHD, stigma in adults with ADHD, stigma in relatives or in people close to a patient with ADHD, and the influence of stigma on authorities' attitudes toward patients with ADHD. Variables identified to contribute to stigma in ADHD are public's uncertainty concerning the reliability/validity of an ADHD diagnosis and the related diagnostic assessment, public's perceived dangerousness of individuals with ADHD, socio-demographical factors as age, gender, and ethnicity of the respondent or the target individual with ADHD, stigmatization of ADHD treatment, for example public's skepticism toward ADHD medication and disclosure of diagnostic status as well as medication status of the individual with ADHD. The contribution of stigma associated with ADHD can be conceptualized as an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mentally well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Public as well as health professionals' concepts about ADHD are highly diverse, setting individuals with an ADHD diagnosis at greater risk to get stigmatized.

  5. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their illness on the one side, and widespread stigma and discrimination on the other. Evidence from North America and paralleling findings from research in Western Europe suggest that stigma and discrimination are major problems in the community, with negative attitudes and behaviour towards people with mental illness ...

  6. The Stigma of Mental Illness and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdibegović, Esmina; Hasanović, Mevludin

    2017-12-01

    Stigma and recovery "from" and "in" mental illness are associated in many various ways. While recovery gives opportunities, makes person stronger, gives purpose and meaning to their lives and leads to social inclusion, in the same time stigma reduces opportunities, reduces self-esteem and self-efficacy, reduces the belief in own abilities and contributes to social exclusion through discrimination. The recovery of a person with mental illness means to get and keep hope, to understand their own possibilities and impossibilities, active living, to be autonomous, to have a social identity and to give meaning and purpose of our own lives. The care system, recovery-oriented, provides help and support to people with mental disorders in his/her recovery, which contributes to reduction of self-stigma, to the elimination of stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs in mental health services which consequently may have a positive reflection in reducing the stigma of mental illness in the community. It is important to look at the stigma and recovery from the perspective of individual experience of each person with a mental illness in the process of recovery. A support to the recovery concept and the development of a recovery-oriented system of care should be one of the key segments of any strategy to combat the stigma of mental illness. Also, the cultural and the social stigma aspects of stigma would be taken into account in the developing of the recovery concept and on the recovery-oriented care system.

  7. Manifestations and reduction strategies of stigma discrimination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    against stigma and discrimination facing people living with HIV/AIDS. Key words: ... of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... fuelling HIV infection. In health care settings, stigma is the result of inability of health workers to understand and manage HIV/AIDS. They see no remedy or solution to the disease and feel that, they ...

  8. Mechanism behind the anti-tumour potential of saffron (Crocus sativus L.): The molecular perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sweta; Sarwat, Maryam; Khan, Tajdar H

    2017-07-01

    Cancer is a disorder which has noted a significant rise in incidence worldwide and continues to be the largest cause of mortality. It has a dramatic impact on human life expectancy and quality of life in spite of the increase in technology and the treatments available for cancer patients. These new therapeutic options being chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photolytic therapy and catalytic therapy are known to have many adverse reactions and also no better positive outcomes than before. Hence, research is now focused more on utilizing the vast repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge i.e. the use of flora for treatment of cancer rather than the use of chemicals. One such herb is the Crocus sativus L., commonly known as Saffron, rich in carotenoids - crocin, crocetin and safranal. Various studies have been carried out over the past few years to confirm the anti-cancer properties of saffron, both in vivo using animal models and in vitro using human malignant cell lines on various types of cancers with positive results. The proposed mechanism of actions has also been worked upon. This review is aimed to provide a brief overview on the anti-tumor potential of saffron focusing on the molecular mechanism involved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  10. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  11. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTS OF SALICYLIC ACID ON SEEDLING GROWTH AND NITROGEN METABOLISM IN CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pramod Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid is involved in the regulation of metabolic activity and defense mechanism in plants under various stress conditions. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of salicylic acid (10 to 500 μM on seedling growth, development and nitrogen use efficiency in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants with or without nitrogen nutrient. Salicylic acid increased contents of chlorophyll, total non-structural carbohydrate and total nitrogen, as well as nitrate assimilation through the induction of nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1 activity in isolated cucumber cotyledons. Accumulation of salicylic acid was two-fold higher in cotyledons without nitrate supply in comparison to that with nitrate supply. Further 50 μM of SA induced enhancement in seed germination and growth characteristics. However higher salicylic acid concentrations inhibited above physiological characteristics. Results show that, field application of salicylic acid need optimum physiological concentration (e.g., 50 μM to increase nitrogen use efficiency particularly during germination and seedling growth.

  13. Can selection on a male mating character result in evolutionary change? A selection experiment on California wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Diane L; Evans, Ann S

    2016-03-01

    Whenever more pollen grains arrive on stigmas than necessary to fertilize ovules, sexual selection is possible. However, the role of sexual selection remains controversial, in part because of lack of evidence on genetic bases of traits and the response of relevant characters to selection. In an experiment with Raphanus sativus, we selected on tendency to sire seeds in the stylar or basal regions of fruits. This character is likely related to pollen tube growth rate, and seed position affects rates of abortion and seed predation. We measured differences among families in seed siring and related characters and evaluated responses to selection. All replicates showed strong effects of pollen donor family on proportion of seeds sired per fruit in mixed pollinations. Most also showed effects of pollen donor family on number of pollen grains per flower and pollen diameter. Two of four replicates showed a response to selection on position of seeds sired. In responding replicates, we found trade-offs in pollen grain size and number; plants with larger pollen grains sired more seeds in the basal region. Our data suggest a genetic basis for pollen donor ability to sire seeds in competition. The significant response to selection in two replicates shows that position of seeds sired can respond to selection. Thus, all components for sexual selection to occur and affect traits are present. Variation in results among replicates might be due to changes in greenhouse conditions. Environmental effects may contribute to the maintenance of variation in these fitness-related characters. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Stigma, American military personnel and mental health care: challenges from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Michael; McEnany, Geoffry Phillips

    2015-02-01

    Since 2001, more than 2.5 million United States military personnel have been deployed for combat. Over one million have served multiple deployments. Combat generally involved repeated exposure to highly traumatic events. Personnel were also victims of military sexual trauma (MST), a major risk factor for psychiatric illness. Most survivors do not seek or receive mental health care. Stigma is one of the main barriers to that care. To explore the impact of stigma on personnel with psychiatric illness, and suggest some innovative ways to potentially reduce stigma and improve care. Cinahl and PubMed databases were searched from 2001 to 2014. Anonymity, the use of non-stigmatizing language, peer-to-peer, and stigma-reduction programs help military personnel receive mental health care. Technology offers the opportunity for effective and appropriate education and treatment. Although stigma is formidable, several innovative services are available or being developed for military victims of trauma. Commitment of resources for program development and further research to explore which interventions offer the best clinical outcomes are needed to increase efforts to combat stigma and ensure quality care.

  15. Women of Color Reflect on HIV-Related Stigma through PhotoVoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Mariam; Farmer, Shu; Brown, Brandon; Sami, Mojgan; Frederick, Toni

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma affects people living with HIV (PLWH), especially in communities of color. In our study, African American and Latina/Hispanic women living with HIV (WLWH) described experiences of stigma through PhotoVoice, a community-based participatory method of documentary photography. Ten WLWH from Los Angeles documented stigma experiences through photographs for up to 5 weeks and discussed their images during a focus group or semi-structured individual interview. Qualitative interpretive phenomenological analysis of participant narratives and photographs revealed lack of education and cultural myths as the main triggers of the stigma our participants faced. Stigma was experienced in health care settings, and participants identified depression, fear of intimate relationships, and nondisclosure of HIV status as its consequences. Social support and faith were noted as key coping mechanisms. WLWH recommended involving PLWH and public health officials in stigma reduction campaigns and youth education. PhotoVoice was perceived as a useful tool for education and self-improvement. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Educational video and story as effective interventions reducing epilepsy-related stigma among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Weberová, Veronika; Komárek, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    Stigma has been related to epilepsy since ancient times. Despite the importance of this issue, only a few interventions focusing on the reduction of epilepsy-related stigma may be found in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two interventions focused on the reduction of epilepsy-related stigma in children aged 9-11years. The first group of children involved in the study (n 1 =89) completed the 23-item Czech version of the SSE (Stigma Scale of Epilepsy) questionnaire and an 11-item multiple-choice knowledge test, then watched a video and completed the same questionnaire and test immediately after the intervention. The same procedure was used for the second group (n 2 =93) where a story was read by an instructor. Both groups were retested 6months later using the same methods. Both interventions resulted in long-term decrease of epilepsy-related stigma - the average value on SSE decreased from 55.15 points at baseline testing to 43.28 points in the 6-month follow-up for the case of the video (pepilepsy was also significantly improved with the average result in the knowledge test increasing from 6.58 to 9.09 points in case of the video (pepilepsy-related stigma in the given age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic intervention for internalized stigma of severe mental illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Ching, S C; Tang, K H; Lam, H T; Law, Peggy Y Y; Wan, C N

    2016-05-01

    Internalized stigma can lead to pervasive negative effects among people with severe mental illness (SMI). Although prevalence of internalized stigma is high, there is a dearth of interventions and meanwhile a lack of evidence as to their effectiveness. This study aims at unraveling the existence of different therapeutic interventions and the effectiveness internalized stigma reduction in people with SMI via a systematic review and meta-analysis. Five electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they (1) involved community or hospital based interventions on internalized stigma, (2) included participants who were given a diagnosis of SMI>50%, and (3) were empirical and quantitative in nature. Fourteen articles were selected for extensive review and five for meta-analysis. Nine studies showed significant decrease in internalized stigma and two showed sustainable effects. Meta-analysis showed that there was a small to moderate significant effect in therapeutic interventions (SMD=-0.43; p=0.003). Among the intervention elements, four studies suggested a favorable effect of psychoeducation. Meta-analysis showed that there was small to moderate significant effect (SMD=-0.40; p=0.001). Most internalized stigma reduction programs appear to be effective. This systematic review cannot make any recommendation on which intervention is more effective although psychoeducation seems most promising. More Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) on particular intervention components using standard outcome measures are recommended in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Stigma of tiger attack: Study of tiger-widows from Sundarban Delta, India*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Brahma, Arabinda; Mondal, Ranajit; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This study examined 49 widows, whose husbands were killed by tigers, in order to explore the cultural stigma related with tiger-killing and consequent discrimination and social rejection. Different psychosocial aspects of community stigma associated with tiger-killings is discussed in the context of local culture. Methods: A mix of both quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this ethnographic study in two mouzas of Sundarban adjacent to Reserve Forest, involving (1) Village Survey for Tiger-widows, (2) In-depth interview of the widows, (3) Focus Group discussions, (4) Participatory mapping and (5) Stigma assessment by using a 28 item stigma scale especially devised for this research. For comparison of stigma-burden snake-bite widows and normal widows were taken from the same community. Results: Tiger-widows showed significantly higher stigma scores on all the clusters (fear, negative feelings, disclosure, discrimination, community attitudes, and spiritual dimension) than from both normal and snake-bite widows. They also showed higher total stigma score (65.9 ± 9.8) than normal widows (35.8 ± 8.0) and snake-bite widows (40.1 ± 7.1) and this difference was highly significant (P tiger-killing. This can be seen in how the tiger-widows’ quality of life has been negatively impacted with a multitude of post-trauma psychological scars, deprivation, abuse and exploitation. Conclusions: The study proposes that administrative strategy for sustainable alternative income generation and conservation policy with integrated participatory forest management may save both human and tiger. A community ecocultural mental health programme addressing to eradicate the cultural stigma related with tiger attack, with environmental awareness may help to reduce the social

  19. "Not all my fault": genetics, stigma, and personal responsibility for women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Michele M

    2012-10-01

    Medical researchers and clinicians increasingly understand and present eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa) as biologically-based psychiatric disorders, with genetic risk factors established by high heritability estimates in twin studies. But there has been no research on interpretation of genetic involvement by people with eating disorders, who may hold other views. Their interpretations are particularly important given the frequent presumption that biogenetic framing will reduce stigma, and recent findings that it exacerbates stigma for other mental illnesses. To identify implications of genetic framing in eating disorders, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 US women with a history of eating disorders (half recovered, half in treatment; interviewed 2008-9 in the USA). Interviews introduced the topic of genetics, but not stigma per se. Analysis followed the general principles of grounded theory to identify perceived implications of genetic involvement; those relevant to stigma are reported here. Most anticipated that genetic reframing would help reduce stigma from personal responsibility (i.e., blame and guilt for eating disorder as ongoing choice). A third articulated ways it could add stigma, including novel forms of stigma related to genetic-essentialist effacing of social factors. Despite welcoming reductions in blame and guilt, half also worried genetic framing could hamper recovery, by encouraging fatalistic self-fulfilling prophecies and genetic excuses. This study is the first to elicit perceptions of genetic involvement by those with eating disorders, and contributes to an emerging literature on perceptions of psychiatric genetics by people with mental illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From discrimination to internalized mental illness stigma: The mediating roles of anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M; Williams, Michelle K; Weisz, Bradley M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future and how anticipation of stigma in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one's mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Experiences of discrimination over one's lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. From Discrimination to Internalized Mental Illness Stigma: The Mediating Roles of Anticipated Discrimination and Anticipated Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Weisz, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future, and how anticipation of stigma, in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Method Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Results Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one’s mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. PMID:25844910

  2. Adaptation into Spanish of the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness scale to assess personal stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Santacoloma-Cabero, Iciar; Gómez de Tojeiro-Roce, Juan; García-Polavieja, Bárbara; Santos-Zorrozúa, Borja; Gil-Sanz, David

    2016-03-09

    Patients with schizophrenia sometimes internalise social stigma associated to mental illness, and they develop personal stigma. Personal stigma includes self-stigma (internalisation of negative stereotypes), perceived stigma (perception of rejection), and experienced stigma (experiences of discrimination). Personal stigma is linked with a poorer treatment adherence, and worst social functioning. For this reason, it is important to have good measurements of personal stigma. One of the most frequently used measurements is the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. There is a Spanish version of the scale available, although its psychometric properties have not been studied. The main aim of this study is to analyse the psychometric properties of a new Spanish version of the ISMI scale. The new version was translated as Estigma Interiorizado de Enfermedad Mental (EIEM). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated in a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The rate of patients showing personal stigma was also studied, as well as the relationship between personal stigma and sociodemographic and clinical variables. The adapted version obtained good values of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, for the total score of the scale (0.91 and 0.95 respectively), as well as for the five subscales of the EIEM, except for the Stigma Resistance subscale (Cronbach's alpha 0.42). EIEM is an appropriate measurement tool to assess personal stigma in a Spanish population with severe mental disorder, at least in those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España.

  3. More than Skin Deep: Perceptions of, and Stigma against, Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Benjamin A.; Dula, Chris S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research indicates stigmas can produce feelings of fear, isolation, and discrimination, and that negative stigma has been and still is, associated with tattooing. Due to the rise in tattoo popularity, a method to analyze stigma against tattooed individuals is needed. The Martin Stigma Against Tattoos Survey (MSATS), was created, taken by…

  4. Effects of Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Programs Conducted Under the California Mental Health Services Authority: An Evaluation of Runyon Saltzman Einhorn, Inc., Documentary Screening Events

    OpenAIRE

    Cerully, Jennifer L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Roth, Elizabeth; Marks, Joyce; Yu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Describes the methods and results of a RAND evaluation of stigma and discrimination reduction efforts by Runyon Saltzman Einhorn, Inc., involving screenings of a documentary film called “A New State of Mind: Ending the Stigma of Mental Illness.”

  5. Manifestations of HIV stigma and their impact on retention in care for people transitioning from prisons to communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitz, Rebecca; Kuehl, Theresa C; Hochstatter, Karli R; Barker, Emily; Corey, Anna; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Repplinger, Michael D; Ehlenbach, William J; Seal, David W; Sosman, James M; Westergaard, Ryan P

    2017-12-01

    While most people living with HIV who are incarcerated in United States receive appropriate HIV care while they are in prison, interruptions in antiretroviral therapy and virologic failure are extremely common after they are released. The purpose of this study was to describe whether and how HIV stigma influences continuity of care for people living with HIV while they transition from prison to community settings. We conducted semi-structured, telephone-based interviews with 32 adults who received HIV care while residing in a Wisconsin state prison, followed by a second interview 6 months after they returned to their home community. Interview transcripts were analyzed by an interdisciplinary research team using conventional content analysis. We identified themes based on commonly-reported experiences that were characterized as internalized stigma, perceived stigma, vicarious stigma, or enacted stigma. All four forms of HIV stigma appeared to negatively influence participants' engagement in community-based HIV care. Mechanisms described by participants included care avoidance due to concerns about HIV status disclosure and symptoms of depression and anxiety caused by internalized stigma. Supportive social relationships with clinic staff, professional case managers and supportive peers appeared to mitigate the impact of HIV stigma by increasing motivation for treatment adherence. HIV stigma is manifest in several different forms by people living with HIV who were recently incarcerated, and are perceived by patients to negatively influence their desire and ability to engage in HIV care. By being cognizant of the pervasive influence of HIV stigma on the lives of criminal justice involved adults, HIV care providers and clinical support staff can ameliorate important barriers to optimal HIV care for a vulnerable group of patients.

  6. Stigma and psychological distress in suicide survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paolo; Preti, Antonio; Totaro, Stefano; Ferrari, Alessandro; Toffol, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Suicide bereavement is frequently related to clinically significant psychological distress and affected by stigma. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between psychological distress by psychopathological domains and stigma, in a sample of individuals bereaved by suicide (suicide survivors). The data were collected between January 2012 and December 2014 and included information on sociodemographic variables (gender, age, marital status and education level) and responses to the Stigma of Suicide Survivor scale (STOSSS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). One hundred and fifty-five suicide survivors completed the evaluation and were included in the study. Levels of psychological distress in suicide survivors, as measured by BSI, were positively related to levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors, as measured by STOSSS. The association was not affected by age and gender, or by marital status, education level, days from suicide or a personal history of suicide attempt. Participants with higher scores on almost all subscales of the BSI, particularly the interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation subscales, reported the highest levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Levels of distress in subjects bereaved by the suicide of a relative or friend were positively associated with levels of perceived stigma toward suicide survivors. Specific interventions dedicated to the bereavement of suicide survivors might help to alleviate not only psychological distress but also stigma towards loss by suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children.  Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software.   Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  8. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources…

  9. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-03-01

     Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P

  10. Examining Courtesy Stigma in Siblings of People with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fulk, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether siblings of people with Down syndrome face courtesy stigma, a stigma acquired as a result of an association with a person from a stigmatized group. The central hypothesis was that the majority of people who have a sibling with Down syndrome face courtesy stigma during both adolescence and adulthood. The data supports this hypothesis, showing that 76% of respondents reported courtesy stigma as adolescents and 62% reported courtesy stigma as ad...

  11. Protecting self-esteem from stigma: a test of different strategies for coping with the stigma of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Marie; Reinecke, Jost; Bohner, Gerd; Röttgers, Hans-Onno; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Frommberger, Ulrich; Corrigan, Patrick William

    2012-05-01

    To date, there has been little research into effective strategies for preventing the detrimental effects of stigma on the well-being of people with mental illness. The present research set out to identify adaptive strategies for dealing with the stigma of mental illness. On the basis of the responses of 355 people with mental illness (PWMI) a standardized questionnaire assessing 10 identity management strategies was developed. Participants also reported their personal experiences with stigma, depression and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that after controlling for depression and stigmatizing experiences, the strategies of community involvement, humour and positive ingroup stereotyping were related to higher self-esteem. Secrecy, selective disclosure and attempts at overcompensation or disproving stereotypes were related to lower self-esteem. The following strategies were unrelated to self-esteem: comparing the present social position of PWMI with that in the past, normalization of the illness within a medical model, information seeking and selective withdrawal. PWMI should be encouraged to seek support within their community and to develop a positive image of their ingroup.

  12. Self-Stigma, Perceived Stigma, and Help-Seeking Communication in People with Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Lee Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available People with mental illness (PWMI often internalise negative beliefs (self-stigma or anticipate external sources of stigma (perceived stigma. This study examines how the two types of stigma affect the willingness to communicate for help – such communication is a vital aspect of good patient care and treatment outcome. Seventy-two participants from different ethnic backgrounds who had experienced mental illness responded to an online survey about their level of agreement with statements reflecting self- and perceived stigma and their willingness to disclose to various help sources. Face-to-face interviews with 17 of these respondents provided a deeper understanding of how stigma affected their help-seeking communication. The quantitative results seemed to suggest that self-stigma has a stronger negative correlation with willingness to seek help. Respondents preferred disclosing to friends above family members and health professionals. The results highlight the importance of building resilience to reduce self-stigma and thereby increase help seeking. Given the different ethnic backgrounds of the participants, there emerged some multicultural issues that would seem to contribute to persisting mental illness stigma. These and any cultural differences are discussed.

  13. Vicious Circle of Perceived Stigma, Enacted Stigma and Depressive Symptoms among Children affected by HIV/AIDS in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found a deleterious impact of stigma on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of stigma and children’s mental health. This study explores the longitudinal reciprocal effects of depressive symptoms and stigma, specifically enacted stigma and perceived stigma, among children affected by HIV/AIDS aged 6 to 12. Longitudinal data were collected from 272 children orphaned by AIDS and 249 children of HIV-positive...

  14. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Paves, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment seeking can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma has received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample...

  15. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  16. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and

  17. Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (HAART) among Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in our local setting. ... Data on socio-demographic characteristics, stigma and adherence to drug ... and Pearson's correlation statistical tests were performed with p-value set at 0.05.

  18. Stigma of Mental Illness-1: Clinical reflections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Bureau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    .... Stigma is a risk factor leading to negative mental health outcomes. It is responsible for treatment seeking delays and reduces the likelihood that a mentally ill patient will receive adequate care...

  19. Obesity Stigma: Important Considerations for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Chelsea A.

    2010-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination toward obese persons are pervasive and pose numerous consequences for their psychological and physical health. Despite decades of science documenting weight stigma, its public health implications are widely ignored. Instead, obese persons are blamed for their weight, with common perceptions that weight stigmatization is justifiable and may motivate individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. We examine evidence to address these assumptions and discuss their public health implications. On the basis of current findings, we propose that weight stigma is not a beneficial public health tool for reducing obesity. Rather, stigmatization of obese individuals threatens health, generates health disparities, and interferes with effective obesity intervention efforts. These findings highlight weight stigma as both a social justice issue and a priority for public health. PMID:20075322

  20. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  1. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) for cancer chemoprevention: A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Prasan R

    2015-04-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases globally and there has been a sustained rise in its incidence in both developing and developed countries. Despite the growing therapeutic options for patients with cancer, their efficacy is time-limited and non-curative. Hence to overcome these drawbacks, an incessant screening for superior and safer drugs has been ongoing for numerous decades, resulting in the detection of anti-cancer properties of several phytochemicals. Chemoprevention using readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices is one of the significantly important approaches for cancer prevention in the present era. Among the spices, Crocus sativus L. (saffron; fān hóng huā) has generated interest because pharmacological experiments have established numerous beneficial properties including radical scavenging, anti-mutagenic and immuno-modulating effects. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients. This review provides a brief insight into the anticancer properties of saffron and its components.

  2. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  3. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  4. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Shemshian, Maryam; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Kermani, Tayebe; Moghiman, Toktam; Sadeghi, Akram; Mokhber, Naghme; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2016-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent serious psychiatric disorders. Several drugs are used to treat these conditions but these are often associated with serious side effects. For this reason alternative therapies, including herbal medication such as saffron, have been proposed. We aimed to assess the effects of saffron extract for the treatment of anxiety and depression using a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial design. Sixty adult patients with anxiety and depression were randomized to receive a 50 mg saffron capsule (Crocus sativus L. stigma) or a placebo capsule twice daily for 12 weeks. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) questionnaires were used at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks after initiating medication. 54 subjects completed the trial. Saffron supplements had a significant effect on the BDI and BAI scores of subjects in comparison to placebo at the 12 week time-point (pSaffron appears to have a significant impact in the treatment of anxiety and depression disorder. Side effects were rare.

  5. Use of in vitro assays to assess the potential antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in human lung cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Davoodi, Saideh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Saffron is harvested from the dried, dark red stigmas of Crocus sativus flowers. It is used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food as a perfume. It is often used for treating several diseases. We investigated the potential of the ethanolic extract of saffron to induce antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in cultured carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells in comparison with non-malignant (L929) cells. Materials and Methods: Both cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron at various concentrations for two consecutive days. Our study resulted in sequences of events marked by apoptosis, such as loss of cell viability, morphology changes that were evaluated by MTT assay and invert-microscope, respectively. Results: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of saffron decreased cell viability in malignant cells as a concentration and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the lung cancer cell line were determined as 1500 and 565 μg/ml after 24 and 48 h, respectively. However, the extract at different concentrations could not significantly decrease the cell viability in L929 cells. Morphology of MCF7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the MTT results. Conclusion: We also showed that even higher concentrations of saffron is safe for L929, but the extract exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a lung cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer. PMID:21120034

  6. A Perspective on Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) Constituent Crocin: A Potent Water-Soluble Antioxidant and Potential Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W; Gao, Song

    2017-02-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. Several factors are thought to play roles in the development and course of AD. Existing medical therapies only modestly alleviate and delay cognitive symptoms. Current research has been focused on developing antibodies to remove the aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein. This approach has achieved removal of Aβ; however, no cognitive improvement in AD patients has been reported. The biological properties of saffron, the dry stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., and particularly its main constituent crocin, have been studied extensively for many conditions including dementia and traumatic brain injury. Crocin is a unique antioxidant because it is a water-soluble carotenoid. Crocin has shown potential to improve learning and memory as well as protect brain cells. A search of the studies on saffron and crocin that have been published in recent years for their impact on AD as well as crocin's effects on Aβ and tau protein has been conducted. This review demonstrates that crocin exhibits multifunctional protective activities in the brain and could be a promising agent applied as a supplement or drug for prevention or treatment of AD.

  7. The effects of different levels of applied wheat straw in different dates on saffron (Crocus sativus L. daughter corms and flower initiation criteria in the second year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different levels of applied wheat straw as mulch in different dates on flower characteristics and corms behavior of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. in the second year, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of wheat straw as mulch (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t. ha-1 based on surface applied method in three different dates (June, August and October. The results showed that the applied wheat straw as mulch in different dates had significant effects on flower characteristics of saffron (flower number, fresh and dried flower and stigma+ style yields. Based on these results, applied wheat straw as mulch in October had highest effects on increasing flower number, fresh and dried flower yields (by 46, 61 and 65%, respectively. In addition, applied wheat straw as mulch had significant effects on number and yield of replacement corms. The applied straw as mulch in October increased yield of replacement corms with 12 g or higher weight and total corm yield of saffron by 104 and 103 %, respectively, as compared to control treatment.

  8. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  9. Stigma in Mothers of Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Mohammadi, Eissa; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Pirzadeh, Akbar; Mahmoudi, Hamzeh; Ansari, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A deaf child creates a feeling of stigma in many hearing parents. Stigma in mothers can have a negative impact on a child’s treatment and rehabilitation process. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the extent of stigma in mothers with deaf children. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among 90 mothers with deaf children. The data-collection instrument included the stigma scale in the mothers of children with disabilities. The reliability and validity of the instrument were confirmed through content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α=86%), respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 software. Results: Results showed that most mothers suffer from stigma due to having a deaf child. The mean stigma score was 96.48 ±27.72. In total, 24.4% of mothers reported that they had received strange and mocking looks; 72.2% regarded child deafness as a sign of divine retribution; and 33.3% felt ashamed of their child’s deafness. There was an inverse relationship between the mother’s level of education and mean stigma scores (P<0.033). The stigma score was higher in mothers who were living independently of their relatives (P<0.029). The mean stigma score in mothers of children with a cochlear implant was lower than that of mothers of children with earphones (86.70 vs. 99.64), and this difference tended towards significance (P=0.057). Conclusion: This study showed that half of all mothers with deaf children were scorned and felt ashamed of having a deaf child in the family because of the stigma. The majority of mothers with deaf children felt stigmatized, and only their education and residency status affected this issue. The mothers of cochlear-implanted children perceived less stigma. Due to the various social and psychological problems caused by hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the emotional health and psychological state of the mothers in addition to rehabilitation

  10. Stigma from the Viewpoint of the Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Joycelyn Sue; Joseph, Herman

    2015-01-01

    Stigma has become a primary social force facing patients in methadone and buprenorphine treatment. For quality methadone and buprenorphine treatment to flourish it will be necessary to confront and reduce this negative influence. This article, co-authored by a patient and professional, discusses stigma and prejudice from the viewpoint of patients. Educational and national strategies using the media and targeted to patients, programs, and the general public are discussed.

  11. Perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino and non-Latino male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.

  12. [Stigma of tuberculosis scale: validity and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpınar, Saliha; Taner, Şafak; Yıldırım, Gülay; Mahleç Anar, Ceyda; Altıparmak, Osman; Baydur, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    In many health conditions, stigma is receiving increasing attention. Public stigmatization toward social illness can affect particularly the patients and family memberships to help seeking behavior and treatment. This study, the aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish "Stigma of Tuberculosis Scale " which was developed to evaluate of perception of stigma with tuberkulosis patient. This methodological study was conducted with 150 with tuberculosis disease people who above 18 age and without known psychological and mental disability. In the study, "Stigma of Tuberculosis Scale" was used as data collection tool. During the study, language equivalence, content validity, reliability and construct validity of the scale was performed. The data was assessed by using mean, median, standard deviation, Spearman Correlation, Cronbach Alpha coefficient and confirmatory factor analysis. The mean age of study participants was 45.6 ± 16.1 (20 - 85). years. Spearman correlation coefficient of the scale for test-retest reliability was 0.853 and the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was 0.95. According to fit indexes of confirmatory factor analysis [x2/SD= 481.38/230= 2.09; RMSEA= 0.087; GFI= 0.776; CFI= 0.776; NNFI= 0.875] it was found that one factors were appropriate for the scale. The adoption of the translated "Stigma of Tuberculosis Scale"in Turkey is found reliable and valid to evaluate of perception of stigma with tuberkulosis patient.

  13. Mental Health Stigma: Where do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness stigma has been the focus of increasing attention in the past few years, with an exponential increase in scientific publications on the subject. This phenomenon is a source of suffering for the patient undermining the achievement of personal goals and full social integration. In this article, the authors present a selective review of the literature on mental illness stigma, going through its definition, origins, repercussions, patients’ subjective experiences and strategies to challenge stigma. The literature presents stigma as being a complex phenomenon, whose definitions derive from different epis- temological roots (sociology, psychology and psychiatry. Its impact on the lives of people with a mental illness is well acknowledged and seems to translate into decreased opportunities, loss of self-esteem and self-concept, decreased quality of life, social support and empowerment, thus limiting the adoption or performance of regular social roles. Stigma has also been shown to compromise access to health care, not only psychiatric treatment but also general medical care, thus increasing the morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. A considerable amount of effort has been put into the comprehension of this phenomenon and to designing strategies for fighting stigma, which also include promoting health-care professionals’ awareness of the topic in order to improve clinical practice and global quality of care.

  14. Stigma experienced by persons under psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struch, Naomi; Levav, Itzhak; Shereshevsky, Yechiel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Lachman, Max; Daniel, Noga; Zehavi, Tali

    2008-01-01

    Mental health-related stigma causes suffering and interferes with care and social inclusion. This study explored stigma as experienced by mental health service users. Particular attention is given to their use of coping mechanisms. Interviews were held with 167 adults undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment; two-thirds of them had previously been hospitalized. Examples of frequency of stigma-related situations included the following: Over half of service users expect people to refuse to have a person with a mental disorder as a co-worker or neighbor, or to engage in other types of social contact. A sizeable group acknowledged that they feared or had experienced rejection. A third of respondents reported they feared or had experienced inappropriate treatment by their doctor. Service users utilize several coping mechanisms to deal with stigma, among them: education, withdrawal, secrecy, and positive distinctiveness. Although we studied a convenience sample of service users, our findings provide sufficient basis to suggest different types of intervention, i.e., to address stigma in the course of treatment in the specialist settings, to promote the establishment of mutual support groups, and to raise family physicians' awareness with regard to the stigma that may be present when caring for persons with mental disorders.

  15. Public stigma and self-stigma: differential association with attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Elise; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Sercu, Charlotte; Bracke, Piet

    2014-02-01

    Individuals in need of psychiatric treatment often avoid seeking help because of stigma. This study examined the impact of two stigma dimensions on help-seeking attitudes. Perceived public stigma refers to discrimination and devaluation by others, and anticipated self-stigma refers to internalization of negative stereotypes about people who seek help. Data were from the 2009 Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study, in which face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of the general Belgian population. The study reported here included 728 respondents who received a vignette depicting major depression or schizophrenia. Perceived public stigma and anticipated self-stigma were measured with validated instruments. Respondents' attitudes toward help seeking were measured by the importance they assigned to care from formal and informal providers: general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, family members, or friends. Multiple linear regression models were estimated. Respondents with higher levels of anticipated self-stigma attached less importance to care provided by general practitioners or psychiatrists, and those with higher levels of perceived public stigma rated informal help seeking as less important. The gender and the ethnicity of the person and respondents' sociodemographic characteristics had relatively little effect on help-seeking attitudes. Anticipated self-stigma and perceived public stigma appeared to have a differential impact on attitudes toward formal and informal help seeking. Internalization of negative stereotypes was negatively associated with the perceived importance of care from medical providers (general practitioners and psychiatrists). Awareness of stereotypes held by others deterred respondents from acknowledging the importance of informal care.

  16. Self Stigma in People with Intellectual Disabilities and Courtesy Stigma in Family Carers: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Afia; Hassiotis, Angela; Strydom, Andre; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    People with intellectual disability are one of the most stigmatised groups in society. Despite this, research in this area has been limited. This paper provides a review of studies examining self stigma in people with intellectual disability, and courtesy and affiliate stigma in family carers. An electronic search of studies published between 1990…

  17. Weight stigma and eating behaviors on a college campus: Are students immune to stigma's effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewis, Alexandra; Brennhofer, Stephanie; van Woerden, Irene; Bruening, Meg

    2016-12-01

    College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit) and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls), among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls). Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of "normal" eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.

  18. Perceived provider stigma as a predictor of mental health service users' internalized stigma and disempowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Link, Bruce G; Corrigan, Patrick W; Davidson, Larry; Flanagan, Elizabeth

    2017-11-13

    Despite increasing awareness of stigma from mental health service providers as a barrier to recovery, little research has directly examined how it might influence the service users' self-perceptions and treatment experience. The present study examined the association of service users' perceived provider stigma with their experience of internalized stigma and disempowerment, two psychosocial constructs known to hinder recovery. Mental health service users (N = 350) completed questionnaires assessing perceived stigma from mental health service providers, including perceptions of negative affective reactions towards individual users and desired social distance towards people with mental illnesses across various life domains, internalized stigma, and disempowerment (i.e., diminished self-efficacy and mastery) in mental health treatment settings. Structural equation modeling showed that both perceived negative affective reactions and perceived social distance were positively associated with disempowerment. Furthermore, these associations were significantly mediated by internalized stigma. These findings illuminate how perceived stigma from providers can "get under the skin" of mental health service users and contribute to their overall sense of disempowerment in mental health settings. They also highlight the need for future stigma reduction interventions to specifically target the attitudes and beliefs held by mental health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: a Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Lang, Annie; Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2008-08-01

    A resurgence of research and policy efforts on stigma both facilitates and forces a reconsideration of the levels and types of factors that shape reactions to persons with conditions that engender prejudice and discrimination. Focusing on the case of mental illness but drawing from theories and studies of stigma across the social sciences, we propose a framework that brings together theoretical insights from micro, meso and macro level research: Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) starts with Goffman's notion that understanding stigma requires a language of social relationships, but acknowledges that individuals do not come to social interaction devoid of affect and motivation. Further, all social interactions take place in a context in which organizations, media and larger cultures structure normative expectations which create the possibility of marking "difference". Labelling theory, social network theory, the limited capacity model of media influence, the social psychology of prejudice and discrimination, and theories of the welfare state all contribute to an understanding of the complex web of expectations shaping stigma. FINIS offers the potential to build a broad-based scientific foundation based on understanding the effects of stigma on the lives of persons with mental illness, the resources devoted to the organizations and families who care for them, and policies and programs designed to combat stigma. We end by discussing the clear implications this framework holds for stigma reduction, even in the face of conflicting results.

  20. Retrospective accounts of self-stigma experienced by young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Lynn; Hennessy, Eilis; O'Driscoll, Claire; Heary, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about self-stigma experienced by young people with mental health problems, despite the fact that research has demonstrated its existence. In the present study, we sought to investigate the experiences of self-stigma in childhood and adolescence, and particularly the nature of change in self-stigma across this developmental period. Young adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression before their 18th birthdays were interviewed about their experiences within their peer groups during childhood and adolescence. This qualitative study involved open-ended interviews with 16 young adults aged 18-30 years. Interviews focused on the experience of stigmatization, responses to stigma, and how these changed over time. Three main themes pertaining to self-stigma emerged: (a) being different, (b) peer stigmatization and associated experiences of self-stigma, and (c) selective disclosure and a move toward greater openness. The findings also suggested that the passing of time and changes in young people's social networks and/or degrees of recovery were associated with changes in their experiences of self-stigma. During childhood and adolescence, self-stigma is characterized by a sense of being different from peers and negative self-evaluation as a consequence of that difference. However, our findings also demonstrated that some young people were prepared to challenge the stigma they experienced. Further research is needed to understand the factors that contribute to these differing responses and to develop antistigma interventions that facilitate the inclusion of young people with mental health problems in their peer groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: Voices of Some Young People in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Ghanaian young people's perceptions of the determinants of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and how these perceptions may influence the de-stigmatisation process. Drawing on findings from an in-depth, multi-method qualitative study involving 104 school and street young people aged between 14 and 19 years, the…

  2. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  3. Silicon improves salt tolerance by increasing root water uptake in Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Xing; Xu, Xuan-Bin; Hu, Yan-Hong; Han, Wei-Hua; Yin, Jun-Liang; Li, Huan-Li; Gong, Hai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Silicon enhances root water uptake in salt-stressed cucumber plants through up-regulating aquaporin gene expression. Osmotic adjustment is a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants. Silicon can alleviate salt stress in plants. However, the mechanism is still not fully understood, and the possible role of silicon in alleviating salt-induced osmotic stress and the underlying mechanism still remain to be investigated. In this study, the effects of silicon (0.3 mM) on Na accumulation, water uptake, and transport were investigated in two cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivars ('JinYou 1' and 'JinChun 5') under salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited the plant growth and photosynthesis and decreased leaf transpiration and water content, while added silicon ameliorated these negative effects. Silicon addition only slightly decreased the shoot Na levels per dry weight in 'JinYou 1' but not in 'JinChun 5' after 10 days of stress. Silicon addition reduced stress-induced decreases in root hydraulic conductivity and/or leaf-specific conductivity. Expressions of main plasma membrane aquaporin genes in roots were increased by added silicon, and the involvement of aquaporins in water uptake was supported by application of aquaporin inhibitor and restorative. Besides, silicon application decreased the root xylem osmotic potential and increased root soluble sugar levels in 'JinYou 1.' Our results suggest that silicon can improve salt tolerance of cucumber plants through enhancing root water uptake, and silicon-mediated up-regulation of aquaporin gene expression may in part contribute to the increase in water uptake. In addition, osmotic adjustment may be a genotype-dependent mechanism for silicon-enhanced water uptake in plants.

  4. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlotti, Andrea; Vigani, Gianpiero; Zocchi, Graziano

    2012-10-11

    Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves.

  5. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlotti Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1 activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2 and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14 an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids to the leaves.

  6. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  7. Qualitative study of HIV related stigma and discrimination: What women say in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouie, Fatemeh; Kashefi, Farzaneh; Rafii, Forough; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    HIV-related stigma is a major social problem of people living with HIV. Stigma against these people, especially women, interferes with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HIV. This study examined the experiences of HIV infected women who were stigmatized, as well as the strategies used to tackle the issue. Twenty-five women living with HIV were examined using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The data obtained was analyzed using content analysis method in MAXQDA10. The finding of this study was classified into four themes: fear, shame, rejection by family or friends and feelings of frustration. The participant strategies adopted to the perceived stigma and discrimination included isolation, nondisclosure, and loss of follow-up. HIV in women has different social interposition. It is necessary to intervene, so as to alleviate the effect of stigma on HIV infected women, in order that they gain the ability to accomplish wellness, increase life span and improve quality of life. Nurses, midwives and other professionals need to be involved to ensure public policy in providing supportive environments, and decrease stigma.

  8. Reducing mental illness stigma in health care students and professionals: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Alison

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce mental illness stigma among healthcare students and professionals. A literature search was conducted using the Cochrane Library and PubMed. Randomised controlled trial level evidence demonstrated that interventions involving direct contact, indirect filmed contact or an educational email effectively reduced stigma in the short term. Role play was the only intervention with randomised controlled trial level evidence demonstrating no effect. There was not enough evidence to suggest that any intervention can maintain stigma reduction over time. Stigma reduction in healthcare students and professionals needs to be sustained over time if it is to result in positive changes for people living with mental illness. Further research is needed to determine which interventions, if any, can achieve this. Only then will large-scale implementation of a stigma reduction intervention be feasible and beneficial to people living with mental illness. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  9. Mental health stigma and attitudes to psychiatry among Bangladeshi medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giasuddin, Noor Ahmed; Levav, Itzhak; Gal, Gilad

    2015-03-01

    The shortage of specialized human resources in mental health in Bangladesh requires active recruitment of psychiatric residents. In addition, the involvement of positively inclined health personnel, for example, medical doctors, emerges as an immediate priority. To explore stigma among medical students toward persons with mental disorders (PMDs) and their attitudes toward psychiatry. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faridpur Medical College in Bangladesh before (First year) and following psychiatric rotation (Fifth year). Students (N = 200) filled anonymous questionnaires measuring stigma toward PMDs and attitudes to psychiatry. Upper medical school year (p = .028), older age (p = .005), mother's lower academic level (p = .043), upper and lower socioeconomic level affiliation (p = .008) and self-consultation for mental or neurological complaints (p = .032) were associated with increased stigma toward PMDs. More favorable attitudes toward psychiatry were found in upper medical school year (p = .073) and were significantly associated with female gender (p = .018) and middle socioeconomic level affiliation (p = .013). The relative improvement in attitudes toward psychiatry in the upper medical school year is overshadowed by the increased stigma toward PMDs. Specific anti-stigma program in the curriculum and strategies to improve the attitudes are required. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Experienced stigma and self-stigma in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ying; Wolf, Achim; Wang, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    To investigate experienced stigma and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia in mainland China. Ninety-five patients with schizophrenia, enrolled between January 2011 and March 2011, completed Chinese versions of two self-report questionnaires: the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and the Modified Consumer Experiences of Stigma Questionnaire (MCESQ). They also completed two other self-report questionnaires: the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Patients were also assessed by a senior psychiatrist using the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). All analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 and included descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. On the ISMI, the percentage of participants who rated themselves above the mid-point of 2.5 (meaning high level of self-stigma) on subscales and overall score was 44.2% (n=42) for alienation, 14.7% (n=14) for stereotype endorsement, 25.3% (n=24) for perceived discrimination, 32.6% (n=31) for social withdrawal and 20.0% (n=19) on the overall score. On the MCESQ, the percentage of participants who rated themselves above the mid-point of 3.0 on subscales and overall score was 24.2% (n=23) for stigma, 1.1% (n=1) for discrimination and 1.1% (n=1) on the overall score. Some socioeconomic variables, but not positive or negative symptoms, were related to the severity of psychiatric stigma. Results document the seriousness of experienced stigma and self-stigma in persons with schizophrenia. Strategies are needed to improve how governments and persons with schizophrenia cope with stigma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eValle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21, provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung’s Depression Scale.Results: HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36% participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Conclusion: Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Policy Implications: Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  12. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  13. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  14. Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherani, Nooshin

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis.

  15. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  16. Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Jeroen A.; Appiano, Michela; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Visser, Richard G.F.; Schouten, Henk J.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    Background: Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited

  17. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  18. Using a clinic based creativity initiative to reduce HIV related stigma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stigma has been associated with chronic health conditions such as HIV/AIDS, leprosy, tuberculosis, Mental illness and Epilepsy. Different forms of stigma have been identified: enacted stigma, perceived stigma, and self stigma. Stigma is increasingly regarded as a key driver of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and has a ...

  19. StopAbleism: Reduksi stigma kepada penyandang disabilitas melalui intervensi bias implisit

    OpenAIRE

    Cleoputri Al Yusainy; Slamet Thohari; Rachmad Gustomy

    2016-01-01

    Diskriminasi kepada penyandang disabilitas dipengaruhi oleh dinamika antara stigma eksplisit dan stigma implisit. Eksperimen ini bertujuan untuk menguji apakah dalam konteks disabilitas fisik (1) stigma eksplisit memiliki asosiasi dengan stigma implisit, dan (2) paradigma bias implisit dapat mereduksi stigma eksplisit. Partisipan (N = 98 mahasiswa) dibagi ke dalam tiga kondisi eksperimen, yaitu kelompok yang terlebih dahulu mengerjakan (1) kuesioner stigma eksplisit (kelompok kontrol), (2) in...

  20. StopAbleism: Reduksi Stigma Kepada Penyandang Disabilitas Melalui Intervensi Bias Implisit

    OpenAIRE

    Yusainy, Cleoputri Al; Thohari, Slamet; Gustomy, Rachmad

    2016-01-01

    Diskriminasi kepada penyandang disabilitas dipengaruhi oleh dinamika antara stigma eksplisit dan stigma implisit. Eksperimen ini bertujuan untuk menguji apakah dalam konteks disabilitas fisik (1) stigma eksplisit memiliki asosiasi dengan stigma implisit, dan (2) paradigma bias implisit dapat mereduksi stigma eksplisit. Partisipan (N = 98 mahasiswa) dibagi ke dalam tiga kondisi eksperimen, yaitu kelompok yang terlebih dahulu mengerjakan (1) kuesioner stigma eksplisit (kelompok kontrol), (2) in...

  1. Exploring diabetes type 1-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Samereh; Abazari, Parvaneh; Mardanian, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Empowerment of people with diabetes means integrating diabetes with identity. However, others' stigmatization can influence it. Although diabetes is so prevalent among Iranians, there is little knowledge about diabetes-related stigma in Iran. The present study explored diabetes-related stigma in people living with type 1 diabetes in Isfahan. A conventional content analysis was used with in-depth interview with 26 people with and without diabetes from November 2011 to July 2012. A person with type 1 diabetes was stigmatized as a miserable human (always sick and unable, death reminder, and intolerable burden), rejected marriage candidate (busy spouse, high-risk pregnant), and deprived of a normal life [prisoner of (to must), deprived of pleasure]. Although, young adults with diabetes undergo all aspects of the social diabetes-related stigma; in their opinion they were just deprived of a normal life. It seems that in Isfahan, diabetes-related stigma is of great importance. In this way, conducting an appropriate intervention is necessary to improve the empowerment process in people with type 1 diabetes in order to reduce the stigma in the context.

  2. The Identity Threat of Weight Stigma in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Wren B; Robinson, Jennifer C; Stewart, Mary W; Zhang, Lei; Hand, Samuel C

    2017-08-01

    Obesity remains a serious public health issue in adolescents, who may be subjected to weight stigma leading to increased stress and poor health outcomes. Stigma can be detrimental to adolescents during self-identity formation. The purpose of this study was to examine weight stigma in adolescents in light of the Identity Threat Model of Stigma. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to examine the relationships among the variables of weight stigma, psychosocial stress, coping styles, disordered eating, and physical inactivity. Regression modeling and path analysis were used to analyze the data. Over 90% of the sample had scores indicating weight stigma or antifat bias. Avoidant coping style and psychosocial stress predicted disordered eating. The strongest path in the model was from avoidant coping to disordered eating. The Identity Threat Model of Stigma partially explained adolescents' weight stigma. Nursing practice implications are discussed.

  3. Internalized stigma and stigma resistance among patients with mental illness in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Kao, Yu-Chen; Liu, Yia-Ping; Chang, Hsin-An; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Chien-Wen; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that accurate measurement is essential in evaluating internalized stigma and abilities to combat with stigma for treatment compliances and outcomes in individuals with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS-C), which is one of the few tools available to measure internalized stigma and stigma resistance (SR) simultaneously. A total of 160 outpatients with (n = 103) and without (n = 57) psychotic disorders were administrated with the ISMIS-C, and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Overall, the 29-item ISMIS-C was presented to be internal reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90), and reliable over time (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.36-0.73). The construct validity of the ISMIS-C derived from the factor analysis was nearly identical to the original version. ISMIS-C dimension scores were well correlated with each other and measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, and hopelessness. Our data also demonstrated that psychotic patients experienced higher internalized stigma scores than those without psychotic diagnoses, but endorsed indifferently on SR scores. This scale can be used as an informative device when investigating "internalized stigma" and "SR" among individuals with or without psychotic disorders.

  4. ["StigMa" - Evaluation of a Psychological Therapy Program for Stigma-Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenner, Manuela; Kohlbauer, Daniela; Meise, Ullrich; Haller, Christina; Pixner-Huber, Martina; Stürz, Kristina; Günther, Verena

    2018-01-01

    The project "Stigma Management - StigMa" aims on the evaluation of an adaptive therapy program for patients with psychiatric illness to help them in managing internalized stigma and self-stigmatization. The patients for this pilot-study were recruited in day-hospitals of pro mente tirol. 26 patients participated in 11 group sessions, following 6 modules: "Education", "Activation of Resources", "Social Network", "Self-Esteem", "Social competence in public places" and "My personal stigma management". The control group consisted of 20 patients who did not participate in StigMa. Pre-post-evaluation was done by the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Scale 1. No significant interaction effects could be observed, although in the treatment group, the burden of perceived discrimination was significantly less pronounced after training than before it. The program, however, was evaluated as being extremely positive by the participants. The program StigMa will be adapted in accordance with the suggestions of the participants and reevaluated taking into consideration methodological optimization. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Measuring HIV stigma at the family level: psychometric assessment of the Chinese Courtesy Stigma Scales (CCSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Xu, Yongfang; Sun, Yehuan; Dumenci, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Courtesy stigma is the stigmatization a person perceives or experiences due to their association with a stigmatized individual or group. Most HIV-related stigma scales have been developed for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), but not for their HIV-uninfected family members. To date, few measurement scales have been designed to measure the degree of stigma among both PLWHAs and their HIV-uninfected family members at the family level. We developed a set of courtesy stigma scales and estimated their reliability and validity from 256 PLWHAs and 256 of their HIV-uninfected family members. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in two independent samples: a development sample (N = 216) and a validation sample (N = 296), respectively. Two factors ("public stigma" and "self-perceived stigma") had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.83-0.90) and good construct validity (standardized factor loading range: 0.37-0.95) in both samples. These findings document that the newly developed brief instrument is a psychometrically sound measure of HIV-related stigma among both PLWHAs and their HIV-uninfected family members.

  6. Mental health stigma in Ireland: exploring occupational therapists perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hanby, Louise

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Stigma is considered the main barrier to recovery for people living with a mental illness. The process of stigma can be inconspicuous, operating through individual, systemic, institutional and structural levels and can leave those working in mental health care unsure of their role in the stigma process. Semi-structured interviews explored views of nine occupational therapists working in mental health, focusing on their perspectives of stigma and drawing on experiences of ...

  7. Self-Stigma and Coming Out about One's Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.; Morris, Scott; Larson, Jon; Rafacz, Jennifer; Wassel, Abigail; Michaels, Patrick; Wilkniss, Sandra; Batia, Karen; Rusch, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Self-stigma can undermine self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental illness. Coming out may be one way of handling self-stigma and it was expected that coming out would mediate the effects of self-stigma on quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling self-stigma. Eighty-five people with…

  8. DEPRESSION STIGMA, RACE, AND TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes to...

  9. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Gillen-O’Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African-American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6–11) and diverse (African-American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European-American) students. Results indicated that ethnic-minority children reported higher stigma awareness than European-American children. For all children, stigma awareness was associated wi...

  10. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latalova K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Jan Prasko Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Palacky Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, “public stigma” and “self-stigma”. Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feelings about themselves. The result of this process is “self-stigma”. Stigma has emerged as an important barrier to the treatment of depression and other mental illnesses. ­Gender and race are related to stigma. Among depressed patients, males and African-Americans have higher levels of self-stigma than females and Caucasians. Perceived stigma and self-stigma affect willingness to seek help in both genders and races. African-Americans demonstrate a less positive attitude towards mental health treatments than Caucasians. Religious beliefs play a role in their coping with mental illness. Certain prejudicial beliefs about mental illness are shared globally. Structural modeling indicates that conformity to dominant masculine gender norms (“boys don’t cry” leads to self-stigmatization in depressed men who feel that they should be able to cope with their illness without professional help. These findings suggest that targeting men’s feelings about their depression and other mental health problems could be a more successful approach to change help-seeking attitudes than trying to change those attitudes directly. Further, the inhibitory effect of traditional masculine gender norms on help-seeking can be overcome if depressed men feel that a genuine connection leading to mutual understanding has been established with a health care professional. Keywords: stigma, self-stigma, depression, male gender

  11. Spatial Stigma and Health in Postindustrial Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Louis F; Padilla, Mark B; Lopez, William D; Stern, Alexandra M; Peterson, Jerry; Keene, Danya E

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research suggests that those who reside in socially and economically marginalized places may be marked by a stigma of place, referred to as spatial stigma, which influences their sense of self, their daily experiences, and their relations with outsiders. Researchers conducted 60 semistructured interviews at partnering community-based organizations during summer 2011 with African American and Latina/o, structurally disadvantaged youth of diverse gender and sexual identities who were between 18 and 26 years of age residing in Detroit, Michigan. The disadvantaged structural conditions and dilapidated built environment were common themes in participants' narratives. Beyond these descriptions, participants' framings and expressions of their experiences in and perceptions of these spaces alluded to reputational qualities of their city and particular areas of their city that appear related to spatial stigma. Young Detroit residents articulated the ways that they experience and navigate the symbolic degradation of their city. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Best practices: Strategic stigma change (SSC): five principles for social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2011-08-01

    This column describes strategic stigma change (SSC), which comprises five principles and corresponding practices developed as a best practice to erase prejudice and discrimination associated with mental illness and promote affirming behaviors and social inclusion. SSC principles represent more than ten years of insights from the National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment. The principles, which are centered on consumer contact that is targeted, local, credible, and continuous, were developed to inform the growth of large-scale social marketing campaigns supported by governments and nongovernmental organizations. Future social marketing efforts to address stigma and the need for evidence to determine SSC's penetration and impact are also discussed.

  13. Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of-and responsibility for-obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1) develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2) evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128) and determine mechanisms of change. The results showed (1) decreased weight stigma and controllability beliefs two weeks post-intervention in a student sample; and (2) decreased internal attributions and increased genetic attributions, knowledge, and deterministic beliefs four weeks post-intervention in a population sample. Lower weight stigma was longitudinally predicted by a decrease in controllability beliefs and an increase in the belief in genetic determinism, especially in women. The results underline the usefulness of a brief, interactive intervention promoting an interactionist view of obesity to reduce weight stigma, at least in the short term, lending support to the mechanisms of change derived from attribution theory. The increase in genetic determinism that occurred despite the intervention's gene × environment focus had no detrimental side-effect on weight stigma, but instead contributed to its reduction. Further research is warranted on the effects of how biogenetic causal information influences weight management behavior of individuals with obesity.

  14. Weight Stigma Reduction and Genetic Determinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available One major approach to weight stigma reduction consists of decreasing beliefs about the personal controllability of-and responsibility for-obesity by educating about its biogenetic causes. Evidence on the efficacy of this approach is mixed, and it remains unclear whether this would create a deterministic view, potentially leading to detrimental side-effects. Two independent studies from Germany using randomized designs with delayed-intervention control groups served to (1 develop and pilot a brief, interactive stigma reduction intervention to educate N = 128 university students on gene × environment interactions in the etiology of obesity; and to (2 evaluate this intervention in the general population (N = 128 and determine mechanisms of change. The results showed (1 decreased weight stigma and controllability beliefs two weeks post-intervention in a student sample; and (2 decreased internal attributions and increased genetic attributions, knowledge, and deterministic beliefs four weeks post-intervention in a population sample. Lower weight stigma was longitudinally predicted by a decrease in controllability beliefs and an increase in the belief in genetic determinism, especially in women. The results underline the usefulness of a brief, interactive intervention promoting an interactionist view of obesity to reduce weight stigma, at least in the short term, lending support to the mechanisms of change derived from attribution theory. The increase in genetic determinism that occurred despite the intervention's gene × environment focus had no detrimental side-effect on weight stigma, but instead contributed to its reduction. Further research is warranted on the effects of how biogenetic causal information influences weight management behavior of individuals with obesity.

  15. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  16. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated by field artificial ...

  17. The influence of stigma on voluntary HIV testing among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal and external stigmas are often lumped together while addressing issues of stigma and HIV-testing, not considering that one of them may actually affect the disposition HIV-testing than the other. This study, therefore, investigated the effect of HIV/AIDS-related internal and external stigma on the disposition of pregnant ...

  18. Addressing Mental Illness Stigma in the Psychology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranzan, K. Amanda

    2016-01-01

    A number of initiatives are aimed at reducing mental illness stigma, yet stigma remains a problem in the general population. A focus on stigma reduction with students is particularly relevant, as students often hold negative attitudes toward mental illness, have regular contact with persons experiencing mental health difficulties, and because…

  19. Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine, SAHARA-J: ... Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name- calling, and ..... Couples' experiences of stigma included: dealing with gossip,.

  20. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated.

  1. An Empirical Illustration of Positive Stigma towards Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Harry A Patrinos; Najeeb Shafiq

    2010-01-01

    This empirical note complements the qualitative and theoretical research on positive household stigma towards child labor. We use data from Guatemala and two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous background and household head's childhood work experience. We then adopt binomial probit regression methods to illustrate that positive stigma has a large effect on child labor practices, and a modest effect on school enrollment.

  2. The Stigma of Childhood Mental Disorders: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the state of the literature on stigma associated with children's mental disorders and highlight gaps in empirical work. Method: We reviewed child mental illness stigma articles in (English only) peer-reviewed journals available through Medline and PsychInfo. We augmented these with adult-oriented stigma articles that focus…

  3. Stigma as 'othering' among Christian theology students in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adrian D. Van Breda

    2012-12-14

    Dec 14, 2012 ... located in the fears of the individual (Brown, Macintyre & Trujillo. 2003) or in the structures and mores of society (Deacon et al. 2005). Here, stigma is located in the person of God. By aligning our stigma with God's alleged stigma, we adopt a tre- mendously powerful position (Schmid 2005). And power is an.

  4. Perceived alcohol stigma: factor structure and construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Joseph E; Kristjansson, Sean D; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in studying the stigma of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yet scant research has evaluated the conceptualization and measurement of alcohol stigma. This study examined the measurement properties (i.e., factor structure) and validity of the alcohol-adapted Perceived Devaluation-Discrimination scale (PDD), which assesses the construct of perceived alcohol stigma (PAS). Our sample included 34,386 respondents from the Wave 2 assessment in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a population-representative survey of noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Analytic procedures included confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. One-factor (perceived devaluation-discrimination) and 2-factor (perceived devaluation, perceived discrimination) confirmatory factor analytic models fit the data well (Comparative Fit Index = 0.958, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.942, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.056; Comparative Fit Index = 0.962, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.946, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.054; respectively) when adjusting for item wording effects with a latent method factor. Despite having a better fit to the data, χ(2) (1) = 542, p perceived interpersonal social support was strongest for persons with a stigmatized labeling status. The same was not true in analyses predicting social network involvement. A 1-factor solution of PAS had superior parsimony. The alcohol-adapted PDD appears to be a psychometrically sound measure and exhibits relationships that are consistent with modified labeling theory. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Stigma management? The links between enacted stigma and teen pregnancy trends among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Poon, Colleen S; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to "enacted stigma," or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in the community. An unexpected health disparity for lesbia n, gay and bisexual youth is their significantly higher risk of teen pregnancy involvement (between two and seven times the rate of their heterosexual peers), especially in light of declining trends in teen pregnancy across North America since the early 1990s. What is behind this higher risk? Is it getting better or worse? Using the province-wide cluster-stratified British Columbia Adolescent Health Surveys from 1992, 1998, and 2003, this paper explores the trends in pregnancy involvement, related sexual behaviours, and exposure to forms of enacted stigma that may help explain this particular health disparity for gay, lesbian and bisexual youth in Canada.

  6. Self-stigma: A personal journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfird, Awilda Correa

    2015-06-01

    This contribution describes a personal recovery journey and highlights the value and importance of engagement in peer-to-peer services to help promote growth and transformation. In this contribution, the author emphasizes the significance of educating and supporting others to overcome the barriers of self-stigma to gain both a positive self-image and self-esteem. Personal life experiences are shared and resource information is provided as a guide for readers. Encouraging individuals with a lived experience of mental illness to tell their stories is a way of educating people about mental illness and reducing stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Insights into the species-specific metabolic engineering of glucosinolates in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) based on comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Xiaowu; Yue, Zhen; Yang, Xinhua; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; He, Hongju; Li, Xixiang

    2017-11-22

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products present in Brassicales play important roles in plants against herbivores and pathogens as well as in the protection of human health. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of species-specific GSLs and their hydrolysed products in Raphanus sativus L., we performed a comparative genomics analysis between R. sativus and Arabidopsis thaliana. In total, 144 GSL metabolism genes were identified, and most of these GSL genes have expanded through whole-genome and tandem duplication in R. sativus. Crucially, the differential expression of FMOGS-OX2 in the root and silique correlates with the differential distribution of major aliphatic GSL components in these organs. Moreover, MYB118 expression specifically in the silique suggests that aliphatic GSL accumulation occurs predominantly in seeds. Furthermore, the absence of the expression of a putative non-functional epithiospecifier (ESP) gene in any tissue and the nitrile-specifier (NSP) gene in roots facilitates the accumulation of distinctive beneficial isothiocyanates in R. sativus. Elucidating the evolution of the GSL metabolic pathway in R. sativus is important for fully understanding GSL metabolic engineering and the precise genetic improvement of GSL components and their catabolites in R. sativus and other Brassicaceae crops.

  8. Contact in the Classroom: Developing a Program Model for Youth Mental Health Contact-Based Anti-stigma Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ping; Koller, Michelle; Krupa, Terry; Stuart, Heather

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated eighteen Canadian anti-stigma programs targeting high-school students. The purpose was to identify critical domains and develop a program model of contact-based interventions. Three steps were implemented. The first step involved collecting program information through twenty in-depth interviews with stakeholders and field observations of seven programs. The second step involved constructing critical ingredients into domains for conceptual clarity and component modeling. The third step involved validating the program model by stakeholders review and initial fidelity testing with program outcomes. A program model with an overarching theme "engaging contact reduces stigma" and three underlying constructs (speakers, message, and interaction) were developed. Within each construct three specific domains were identified to explain the concepts. Connection, engagement, and empowerment are critical domains of anti-stigma programs for the youth population. Findings from this study have built on the scientific knowledge about the change theory underpinning youth contact-based intervention.

  9. Comparing perceived public stigma and personal stigma of mental health treatment seeking in a young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Paves, Andrew P

    2014-09-30

    Perceived public stigma regarding seeking mental health treatment can be a barrier to accessing services for young adults. While factors associating with personal stigma regarding how one would view and treat others have been identified, the discrepancies between perceived and personal stigma have received less research attention. We designed the current study to expand on previous research and examine the discrepancies between perceived public stigma and personal stigma among a sample of 386 primarily White and Asian college students. Participants completed surveys of mental health symptoms, treatment experience and attitudes, perceived public, and personal stigma. Overall, participants generally reported greater perceived public stigma than personal stigma; an effect that was particularly evident for women and those with mental health symptoms. The majority of participants disagreed with items assessing personal stigma. Negative attitudes toward treatment and anxiety symptoms associated with perceived public stigma, while male gender, Asian ethnicity, and negative attitudes toward treatment associated with personal stigma. Findings have implications for interventions and marketing programs to help change perceptions about mental health stigma to encourage utilization of services for those young people who could benefit from care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Internalized weight stigma moderates eating behavior outcomes in women with high BMI participating in a healthy living program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is a significant socio-structural barrier to reducing health disparities and improving quality of life for higher weight individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of internalized weight stigma on eating behaviors after participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing the health benefits of a weight-neutral program to a conventional weight-management program for 80 community women with high body mass index (BMI > 30, age range: 30-45). Programs involved 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals. Assessments occurred at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and 24-months post-randomization. Eating behavior outcome measurements included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Intuitive Eating Scale. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to test for higher-order interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time. Findings revealed significant 3-way and 2-way interactions between internalized weight stigma, group, and time for disordered and adaptive eating behaviors, respectively. Only weight-neutral program participants with low internalized weight stigma improved global disordered eating scores. Participants from both programs with low internalized weight stigma improved adaptive eating at 6 months, but only weight-neutral program participants maintained changes at follow-up. Participants with high internalized weight stigma demonstrated no changes in disordered and adaptive eating, regardless of program. In order to enhance the overall benefit from weight-neutral approaches, these findings underscore the need to incorporate more innovative and direct methods to reduce internalized weight stigma for women with high BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stigma in the Area of Intellectual Disabilities: Examining a Conceptual Model of Public Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli

    2015-09-01

    Studies in the area of intellectual disability (ID) stigma are few and atheoretical. This study examined the adequacy of the conceptual framework of stigma from the mental illness field regarding ID. Telephone interviews were conducted with a nationally representative sample of 304 adults in Israel. Participants were read a vignette describing a man with ID and answered items related to cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions. Behavioral dimensions included: Withdrawal, Social distance, and Helping behaviors. The stigma process leading to Withdrawal was drawn through Negative affect, whereas the process to Social distance was drawn through Calm affect. One unique aspect of the stigma process in ID is the importance of Calm affect, which helped reduce Social distance.

  12. Changes in Mental Illness Stigma in California During the Statewide Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Roth, Elizabeth; Cerully, Jennifer L.; Marks, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Presents results of a one-year follow-up to the 2014 California Statewide Survey, which was developed to track attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to mental illness. This article focuses on items measuring stigma.

  13. Changes in Mental Illness Stigma in California During the Statewide Stigma and Discrimination Reduction Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Wong, Eunice C; Roth, Elizabeth; Cerully, Jennifer L; Marks, Joyce

    2015-11-30

    Presents results of a one-year follow-up to the 2014 California Statewide Survey, which was developed to track attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to mental illness. This article focuses on items measuring stigma.

  14. HIV-related stigma and NGO-isation in India: a historico-empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2012-06-01

    In response to World Bank critiques in 2007, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare declared that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma was a barrier to the participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the implementation of HIV prevention targeted interventions. Taking a deeper view of HIV-related stigma as a historically inflected process of devaluation, this article details the history and transformation of NGO involvement in the HIV epidemic from 1986 through economic liberalisation in the 1990s up to the Second National AIDS Control Programme (NACP II 1999-2006). It additionally examines findings from interviews and participant observation of NGO workers (N = 24) from four targeted intervention NGOs in Delhi funded under NACP II. Analysis reveals that a second wave of HIV-related NGO involvement has mushroomed in the past two decades, affording NGO workers multiple pathways to credibility in the Indian response to the epidemic. Contradictions embedded in the overlap of these pathways produce stigma, reflecting 'adverse incorporation' of the NGO workers. Drawing upon noteworthy exceptions to this trend from the first wave of Indian HIV-related NGOs, the article calls for NGO participation as an explicitly political project of addressing the social inequalities that shape stigma as well as vulnerability to illness writ large. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The stigma of mental illness in the labor market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipes, Crosby; Lucas, Jeffrey; Phelan, Jo C; White, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Mental illness labels are accompanied by devaluation and discrimination. We extend research on reactions to mental illness by utilizing a field experiment (N = 635) to test effects of mental illness labels on labor market discrimination. This study involved sending fictitious applications to job listings, some applications indicating a history of mental illness and some indicating a history of physical injury. In line with research indicating that mental illness leads to stigma, we predicted fewer callbacks to candidates with mental illness. We also predicted relatively fewer callbacks for applicants with mental illness when the jobs involved a greater likelihood for interpersonal contact with the employer. Results showed significant discrimination against applicants with mental illness, but did not indicate an effect of potential proximity to the employer. This contributes a valuable finding in a natural setting to research on labor market discrimination towards people with mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sociology, social structure and health-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambler, Graham

    2006-08-01

    There is a long and cross-disciplinary tradition of analysing chronic and disabling illness in terms of relations of stigma. The present paper offers a sociological approach which emphasizes: (a) the causal importance of social structures for grasping stigma relations; (b) the importance of understanding stigma relations in the context of wider societal change; and (c) the ways in which relations of stigma typically interact with other relations, such as those of class and command. It is suggested that consideration of specific and often condition-related strategies to reduce stigma might profitably be set in such a context.

  17. Anatomy of the unusual stigma in Orchidantha (Lowiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Johansen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    The stigma of Orchidantha is unlike any other stigma in the Zingiberales. It is zygomorphic and dorsiventral, and its complicated structure has confused botanists resulting in many different descriptions and interpretations. Basally and ventrally on the three-lobed stigma, a specialized ‘‘secretion......, however, the pollinator enters and leaves the flower the same way, and to avoid self-pollination, the stigma is pushed upwards when the pollinator enters the flower. In this position, the pollinator cannot touch the receptive parts of the stigma when it leaves the flower. The flexibility of the style...

  18. Perspectives on perceived stigma and self-stigma in adult male patients with depression

    OpenAIRE

    Latalova K; Kamaradova D; Prasko J

    2014-01-01

    Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Jan Prasko Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Palacky Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic Abstract: There are two principal types of stigma in mental illness, ie, “public stigma” and “self-stigma”. Public stigma is the perception held by others that the mentally ill individual is socially undesirable. Stigmatized persons may internalize perceived prejudices and develop negative feeling...

  19. Weight stigma and eating behaviors on a college campus: Are students immune to stigma's effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Brewis, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students. Study 2 included a measure of weight responsibility and multiple measures of eating (food frequency, alcohol intake, and 24-hour dietary recalls, among freshman students (n = 202, n = 157 with 24-hour dietary recalls. Study 1 showed that the three types of stigmas were prevalent. Study 2 had a high prevalence of weight stigma attitudes and demonstrated the occurrence of unhealthful eating and binge drinking behaviors. Both studies found no relationship between weight stigma/responsibility and eating behaviors regardless of weight status. Beyond considering limitations of the study design, we propose two possible reasons for college students' relative immunity to the effects of weight stigma. Those with very high levels of stigma could be suppressing stigmatizing attitudes based on what they think others think is acceptable in a liberal college setting, or the chaotic form of “normal” eating in this population hides the effects of weight stigma.

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of Taproot Reveals Complex Regulatory Networks during Taproot Thickening in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Ronghua; Zhu, Xianwen; Sun, Xiaochuan; Luo, Xiaobo; Xie, Yang; Everlyne, Muleke; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs) involved in radish taproot thickening process and explore the molecular mechanism underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1), cortex splitting stage (L2), and expanding stage (L3) were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%), 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24%) and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45%) reads were matched to the radish reference genes, respectively. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325, and 7392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR, and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly attributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism processes. These results could provide new insights

  1. Transcriptome profiling of taproot reveals complex regulatory networks during taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus L., is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs involved in radish taproot thickening process and explored the molecular mechanism in underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1, cortex splitting stage (L2 and expanding stage (L3 were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, respectively, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%, 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24% and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45% reads were matched to the radish reference genes. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325 and 7,392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes that formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly contributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism possesses. These results could

  2. The stigma of disability: Croatian experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljevac, Marko; Majdak, Marijana; Leutar, Zdravka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to get an insight into understanding the stigma of disability based on the experience and perception of people with disabilities and professionals who work with them. Qualitative research methods were used with two focus groups: one with people with disabilities (five participants) and other with professionals (seven participants). After data were collected, a qualitative content analysis was made. The results indicated that participants perceived and experienced stigma of disability through intrinsic and extrinsic elements of stigmatization. The intrinsic elements refer to the feeling of being different as a result of negative attitudes, prejudices and stereotypes. The extrinsic elements derive from the relationship of the system towards people with disabilities: discrimination and labelling. Some of the major findings of this research are that the stigma of disability is shown through the inability of the people with disabilities to make their own decisions, the perception of the disability as the main feature of the person, the lack of criteria during education, perceiving disability as a precondition in choosing a partner and parental capability, parents' decision-making about their children's lives, overprotection and stigmatization in education and employment. Stigmatization leads to social exclusion and influences the quality of life. The stigma of disability is manifested through the impossibility of realizing basic human rights, of living life independently and of taking equal part in a local community.

  3. Combating the Stigma of Mental Illness. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Many former mental patients see their biggest problem in resuming community life to be their inability to be accepted by other people. The National Institute of Mental Health has worked to remove the stigma associated with mental illness and research has unraveled many of the mysteries about the origins of mental illness. Deinstitutionalization,…

  4. A Theoretical Perspective on Coping with Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses existing theory and research on general stress and coping responses to describe responses to stigma-related stressors and discuss the adaptiveness of these responses. Research suggests that different stressors evoke different responses from different individuals. Stigmatized people have different life experiences than nonstigmatized people,…

  5. Helping Gifted Adolescents Cope with Social Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Mary Ann

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways of helping gifted adolescents cope with a perceived stigma. Research is cited showing that many gifted adolescents believe they are treated differently because of their abilities and behave differently because of this belief, including denial of one's giftedness. The school's role, ability grouping, and special needs of gifted girls…

  6. Perceived stigma among patients receiving antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOT) supports antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence but little is known about its association with perceived stigma in resource-constrained settings. In 2003, 234 HIV-infected adults enrolled in a two-arm randomised trial comparing a health ...

  7. Using "Shrek" to Teach about Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiori, Kala J.; Mallett, Robyn K.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an active learning exercise to teach students about social stigma. After lecturing on the topic, the instructor distributes a worksheet and shows several clips from the movie "Shrek," pausing after each clip to lead a discussion of the concepts. We provide information about the movie scenes, the student worksheet, and…

  8. Stigma and GPs' perceptions of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gove, D.; Downs, M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Small, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial to improving timely diagnosis, but little is reported about how they perceive dementia, and whether their perceptions display any elements of stigma. The aim of this study was to explore how GPs' perceptions of dementia map onto current

  9. Perceived Stigma: Prevalence and Related Factors Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theoretical model that epilepsy is globally stigmatizing was tested among Nigerian adults. The model suggested relationships among several characteristics (seizure control, age at onset of illness, duration of epilepsy, seizure type) depression, neuroticism, social support and perceived stigma. Subjects were 264 adults, ...

  10. Borderline Personality Disorder, Language, and Stigma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kling, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    ... between client and clinician. Keywords: borderline personality disorder; language; stigma; countertransference Studies spanning the last three decades find that approximately half of mental health professionals have negative and pejorative attitudes toward those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD; Fallon, 2003; Lewis & Appleby, 1988; S...

  11. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  12. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  13. Investigating Stigma within the Stress Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Christine

    1991-01-01

    This exploratory study assessed whether mental disability stigma can be usefully investigated by looking at parental (n=131) stress and (1) deviating characteristics of the child and (2) distressing reactions of others. Stress was found to be significantly associated with parents exhibiting either controlled affect or dissociation modes of coping.…

  14. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-10-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.

  15. Resisting the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoits, Peggy A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between stigmatization and the self-regard of patients/consumers with mental disorder is negative but only moderate in strength, probably because a subset of persons with mental illness resists devaluation and discrimination by others. Resistance has seldom been discussed in the stigma and labeling literatures, and thus conditions…

  16. Where has all the stigma gone?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25% of the population has a diagnosable mental disorder. A prospective study found that, by age 32yrs, 50% of ... all spoken against stigma and most of us have worn the twists of coloured ribbons on various mental ... genetic, and not something a patient can be expected to cope with or even survive without treatment, have ...

  17. Pain, objectivity and history: understanding pain stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2017-12-01

    The primary claim of this paper is that understanding the stigma so commonly endured by chronic pain sufferers today in the USA and the UK is unlikely without proper appreciation of the history of pain. Ameliorating such stigma is an ethical imperative, and yet most approaches eschew even an attempt to trace connections between historical attitudes, practices and beliefs towards pain and the stigmatisation so many pain sufferers currently endure. The manuscript aims to help fill this gap by framing pain in the modern era in context of two crucial intellectual schemes that waxed in the 19th and 20th centuries: mechanical objectivity and somaticism. The analysis explains these frameworks and applies them to exploration of primary sources connected to contested pain conditions such as railway spine. By properly situating the historical roots of what it means to cite the 'subjectivity' of pain as a problem, the modern roots of stigmatising attitudes and practices towards chronic pain sufferers become much clearer. The manuscript concludes by suggesting that interventions expressly intended to target the root causes of such stigma are much more likely to be successful than approaches that proceed in ignorance of the historical forces shaping and driving pain stigma in the present. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Albinism in Africa: stigma, slaughter and awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Inigo, Andres E; Ladizinski, Barry; Sethi, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a lack of pigment in the hair, skin, and eyes. Albinism is caused by defective or absent tyrosinase, an enzyme necessary for melanogenesis. Although rare in the western world, albinism is quite common in sub-Saharan Africa, likely as a result of consanguinity. Albinism has long been associated with stigma and superstitions, such as the belief that a white man impregnated the mother or that the child is the ghost of a European colonist. Recently, a notion has emerged that albino body parts are good-luck charms or possess magical powers. These body parts may be sold for as much as $75,000 on the black market. As a result there have been over 100 albino murders in Tanzania, Burundi, and other parts of Africa in the past decade, which is now beginning to garner international attention and thus prompting novel legislation. To ameliorate the plight of individuals with albinism in Africa, a coordinated effort must be organized, involving medical professionals (dermatologists, ophthalmologists, oncologists), public health advocates and educators, social workers, human rights and antidiscrimination activists, law-enforcement agencies, and governmental support groups. The main issues that should be addressed include skin cancer prevention education, stigma and discrimination denouncement, and swift prosecution of albino hunters and their sponsors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Stigma consciousness: the psychological legacy of social stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinel, E C

    1999-01-01

    Whereas past researchers have treated targets of stereotypes as though they have uniform reactions to their stereotyped status (e.g., J. Crocker & B. Major, 1989; C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995), it is proposed here that targets differ in the extent to which they expect to be stereotyped by others (i.e., stigma consciousness). Six studies, 5 of which validate the stigma-consciousness questionnaire (SCQ), are presented. The results suggest that the SCQ is a reliable and valid instrument for detecting differences in stigma consciousness. In addition, scores on the SCQ predict perceptions of discrimination and the ability to generate convincing examples of such discrimination. The final study highlights a behavioral consequence of stigma consciousness: the tendency for people high in stigma consciousness to forgo opportunities to invalidate stereotypes about their group. The relation of stigma consciousness to past research on targets of stereotypes is considered as is the issue of how stigma consciousness may encourage continued stereotyping.

  1. Stigma in leprosy: miles to go!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A; Kushwaha, A S; Kotwal, A; Sanghi, S; Verma, A K

    2010-01-01

    No disease has been more closely associated with stigma than leprosy such that it has become a metaphor for stigma. Stigma has been difficult to measure and little research has been done on this issue. Stigma reduction has not been an important component of anti-leprosy program. The study was undertaken to measure the stigma associated with leprosy by using P scale which is used for assessing participation restriction of those affected by the disease. This comparative questionnaire based study was carried out in two sets of patients. Two groups of 30 patients each were studied. First group belonged to a Government run Leprosarium and group two from a tertiary care skin and leprosy centre. The study used the Participation (P) scale and data was collected by interviewing the patients. Participation restriction was defined as any score equal to and more than 13. Participation restriction was observed in 27 (90%) cases of group 1while participation restriction was present in only 7 (23.3%) subjects of group 2. It was observed that mean score of participation restriction in group 1 was quite high at 31.9 while it was only 8.3 for group 2. The participation restriction was directly related to the duration of disease and the grade of disability. Longer the duration of disease, greater was the likelihood of restriction. The participation restriction was found to be negatively correlated with the education. Recommendation about prevention of disability would require program about early diagnosis of nerve damage and subsequent action at the patient-family-community level and health care providers.

  2. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  3. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Elizondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014. They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis.RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%; the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%; and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%.CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.

  4. Vicious Circle of Perceived Stigma, Enacted Stigma and Depressive Symptoms among Children affected by HIV/AIDS in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a deleterious impact of stigma on the mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of stigma and children’s mental health. This study explores the longitudinal reciprocal effects of depressive symptoms and stigma, specifically enacted stigma and perceived stigma, among children affected by HIV/AIDS aged 6 to 12. Longitudinal data were collected from 272 children orphaned by AIDS and 249 children of HIV-positive parents in rural China. Cross-lagged panel analysis was conducted in the study. Results showed that the autoregressive effects were stable for depressive symptoms, perceived stigma and enacted stigma suggesting the substantially stable individual differences over time. The cross-lagged effects indicated a vicious circle among the three variables in an order of enacted stigma→depressive symptom→perceived stigma→enacted stigma. The possibility of employing equal constraints on cross-lagged paths suggested that the cross-lagged effects were repeatable over time. The dynamic interplay of enacted stigma, perceived stigma and depressive symptoms suggests the need of a multilevel intervention in stigma reduction programming to promote mental health of children affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:24158487

  5. HIV-Related Stigma and Overlapping Stigmas Towards People Living With HIV Among Health Care Trainees in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne C; Girard, Todd; McShane, Kelly E; Margolese, Shari; Hart, Trevor A

    2017-08-01

    HIV continues to be a stigmatized disease, despite significant advances in care and concerted effort to reduce discrimination, stereotypes, and prejudice. Living with HIV is often associated with a multitude of overlapping and intersecting experiences which can, in and of themselves, also be stigmatized, and which may exacerbate HIV-related stigma. The consequences of these stigmatizing experiences are particularly impactful when the stigmatizing individual is a health care provider, as this can influence access to and quality of care. The current study empirically investigates a model of overlapping stigmas (homophobia, racism, sexism, stigma against injection drug use and stigma against sex work) potentially held by health care provider trainees in Canada to determine how these constructs overlap and intersect, and to assess whether HIV-related stigma may have unique attributes. Understanding overlapping stigmas can help inform targeted, stigma-informed training for health care trainees in order to provide effective, compassionate care for people living with HIV.

  6. Coping with HIV stigma: do proactive coping and spiritual peace buffer the effect of stigma on depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoir, Stephenie R; Norton, Wynne E; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Moneyham, Linda; Mugavero, Michael J; Hiers, Kathie M

    2012-11-01

    Although HIV stigma is a significant predictor of depression, little is known about which factors might most effectively buffer, or attenuate, this effect. We examined whether two coping-related factors-proactive coping and spiritual peace-modified the effect of HIV stigma on likelihood of depression among a sample of 465 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In a cross-sectional analysis, we conducted hierarchical logistic regressions to examine the effect of HIV stigma, proactive coping, spiritual peace, and their interactions on likelihood of significant depressive symptoms. Spiritual peace moderated the effect of HIV stigma on depression at high-but not low-levels of HIV stigma. No such effect was observed for proactive coping. Findings suggest that spiritual peace may help counteract the negative effect of HIV stigma on depression. Intervention components that enhance spiritual peace, therefore, may potentially be effective strategies for helping PLWHA cope with HIV stigma.

  7. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early stages of somatic embryogenesis in root callus of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.

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    Barbara Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures from root explants of Lathyrus sativus L. Derek were tested for their morphogenic capacity. Primary explants (fragments of roots were cultivated on three induction media. We obtained three lines of callus tissue among which we identified two non-embryogenic lines and one embryogenic line. Callus originally cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg*L-1 picloram, formed embryo-like structures upon transfer to media containing 0.1 mg*L-1 picloram or 0.9 mg*L-12,4-D. Histological examinations confirmed embryogenity of obtained structures. Previous studies had revealed that, notwithstanding efficient callus induction and proliferation, its capacity to differentiate shoots or somatic embryos is limited. Consequently, rhizogenesis was only form of complete organogenesis obtained in our experiments. However attempts to develop the methods for indirect plant regeneration in L. sativus would allow creation of new genetic variations required to improvement of this species.

  9. SELF INCOMPATIBILITY MECHANISMS IN THE CROCUS SATIVUS AGGREGATE (IRIDACEAE: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

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    R. ZANIER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two molecular mechanisms responsible for SI (Self-Incompatibility in dicotyledons were tested in the C. sativus L. aggregate. RNase and peroxidase activity assays were carried out on crude extract from un-, self- and cross-pollinated styles of C. sativus (male-sterile, C. thomasii Ten. (outfertile and C. cartwrightianus Herb (out-fertile. Results on RNase activity indicate that in the Crocus species studied the rejection mechanism of SI is not based on stylar RNase. Data on peroxidase activity indicate a relationship between pollen tube presence in the style and stylar peroxidase activity. Stylar peroxidase activity increase is related to pollen tube presence but does not stop tube growth. Compatible and incompatible pollen tubes grow along the style and their discrimination occurs in another region of the gynoecium.

  10. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L; Browning, Wesley R; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Turan, Janet M

    2017-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes (self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self-blame) are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated community stigma, which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes (social support, trust in physicians) were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, again in a serial fashion (perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated stigma, which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes). These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes-information that can be used to shape interventions.

  11. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Browning, Wesley R.; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes (self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self-blame) are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated community stigma, which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes (social support, trust in physicians) were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, again in a serial fashion (perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated stigma, which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes). These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes—information that can be used to shape interventions. PMID:27272742

  12. [Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus l. iridaceae) on blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone, and number and dynamics of body weight of offspring in female rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimova, U F; Kamilova, N K; Babaev, Kh F; Shukurova, P A; Hasanova, S I; Abbasov, R Y

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of saffron Сrocus sativus L. Iridaceae which grow in Azerbaijan on blood level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and number and dynamics of body weight of offspring in female rats. The findings indicated that the per os administration of alcoholic extract of saffron was able to decrease the FSH levels in blood of the 12-month-old rats as compared to that in the control group, involving the animals of the same age which have not received the saffron extract, and was close to the FSH levels reported for the 6-month rats. There was also an increase in number and body weight of pups from rats receiving the saffron extract prior to pairing with the intact males.

  13. Development of genomic and EST-SSR markers in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuji, Ryoichi; Hashida, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hirai, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) belongs to Brassicaceae family and is a close relative of Brassica. This species shows a wide morphological diversity, and is an important vegetable especially in Asia. However, molecular research of radish is behind compared to that of Brassica. For example, reports on SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers are limited. Here, we designed 417 radish SSR markers from SSR-enriched genomic libraries and the cDNA data. Of the 256 SSR markers succeeded in PCR, 130 showed...

  14. BEHAVIORAL EVIDENCE OF ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE ACTIVITY OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. VAR. CAUDATUS IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, and Afshan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Currently-available antidepressant agents produce various adverse effects, and are expensive. At present, various plants are being evaluated for their possible role against numerous diseases, and no doubt, the role of traditional and complementary medicines in the development of effective therapy is incredible. The present study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of Raphanus sativus L. Var. caudatus at different doses in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressa...

  15. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction, by TEM Tomography, of the Ultrastructural Modifications Occurring in Cucumis sativus L. Mitochondria under Fe Deficiency.

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    Gianpiero Vigani

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, as recently suggested, might be involved in iron sensing and signalling pathways in plant cells. For a better understanding of the role of these organelles in mediating the Fe deficiency responses in plant cells, it is crucial to provide a full overview of their modifications occurring under Fe-limited conditions. The aim of this work is to characterize the ultrastructural as well as the biochemical changes occurring in leaf mitochondria of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants grown under Fe deficiency.Mitochondrial ultrastructure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electron tomography techniques, which allowed a three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of cellular structures. These analyses reveal that mitochondria isolated from cucumber leaves appear in the cristae junction model conformation and that Fe deficiency strongly alters both the number and the volume of cristae. The ultrastructural changes observed in mitochondria isolated from Fe-deficient leaves reflect a metabolic status characterized by a respiratory chain operating at a lower rate (orthodox-like conformation with respect to mitochondria from control leaves.To our knowledge, this is the first report showing a 3D reconstruction of plant mitochondria. Furthermore, these results suggest that a detailed characterization of the link between changes in the ultrastructure and functionality of mitochondria during different nutritional conditions, can provide a successful approach to understand the role of these organelles in the plant response to Fe deficiency.

  16. Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Monoglyceride Antibolting Compound and Isolation of Related Compounds from Radish Leaves (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Tsuyoshi; Amano, Naruki; Mitsui, Yuki; Fujino, Kaien; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2017-04-28

    A monoglyceride (1) has been reported to possess an antibolting effect in radish (Raphanus sativus), but its absolute configuration at the C-2 position was not determined earlier. In this work, the absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be (2S), and it was also accompanied by one new (2) and two known monoglycerides (3 and 4). The chemical structure of 2 was determined as β-(7'Z,10'Z,13'Z)-hexadecatrienoic acid monoglyceride (β-16:3 monoglyceride). Qualitative and quantitative analytical methods for compounds 1-4 were developed, using two deuterium-labeled compounds (8 and 9) as internal standards. The results revealed a broader range of distribution of 1-4 in several annual winter crops. It was also found that these isolated compounds have an inhibitory effect on the root elongation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings at concentrations of 25 and 50 μM in the medium. However, the inhibitory effect of 1 was not dependent on coronatin-insensitive 1 (COI1) protein, which may suggest the involvement of an unidentified signaling system other than jasmonic acid signaling.

  17. Crocus sativus, Serenoa repens and Pinus massoniana extracts modulate inflammatory response in isolated rat prostate challenged with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaroli, A; Recinella, L; Ferrante, C; Locatelli, M; Carradori, S; Macchione, N; Zengin, G; Leporini, L; Leone, S; Martinotti, S; Brunetti, L; Vacca, M; Menghini, L; Orlando, G

    Prostatitis is a common prostate disease that could be promoted by bacterial or non-bacterial infectious agents. In addition, inflammatory pathways involved in prostatitis have been increasingly studied, and herbal extracts endowed with anti-inflammatory effects are under investigation, individually or in combination, for their efficacy in alleviating the burden of inflammation, with possible improvements in symptoms. Serenoa repens (Serenoa), in combination with Crocus sativus (Crocus) and Pinus massoniana (Pinus), has previously shown to improve sexual function and limit urinary symptoms in patients suffering from concomitant erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms. In this context, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Serenoa, Crocus and Pinus extracts, either alone or in combination, on immortalized prostate cells (PC3) and in an experimental model of bacterial prostatitis constituted by ex vivo prostate specimens challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that the tested extracts were able to reduce ROS production by PC3 cells and NFkB and PGE2 activity in prostate specimens challenged with LPS. In addition, the pharmacological association of the extracts displayed synergistic effects indicating a rational use of the mixture of the tested extracts as a novel anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory formulation in bacterial prostatitis. Finally, we performed analytical and in vitro evaluation to better characterize the phytochemical profile and the mechanism of action of selected secondary metabolites.

  18. Biondication of Shartashsky forest park urban soil of Ekaterinburg using Raphanus Sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baglaeva Elena Mikhailovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ekaterinburg is a large industrial center of Russia. The pollution of the environment with heavy metals is increasing due to the industrialization and human activities. Heavy metals present a very serious problem for all living beings. The aim of this paper is to identify the pollutant content changes in the environment using Raphanus Sativus. For bioindication of urbanized soil in Shartashsky forest park of Ekaterinburg city the growth of Raphanus Sativus was investigated at ten sample plots and a control one. The element concentration in the plants and soil samples was determined by X-ray analysis. The transition of zinc, titanium, iron and calcium from the soil into the Raphanus Sativus was assessed. The results of the correlation analysis of the content of chemical elements in the samples of plants and soil can be represented as a scheme: Ti (0.94> Zn (0.68> Ca (0.53> Fe (0.45. Spearman correlation coefficients are given in brackets. Zinc content in the soil and radish samples was found to be higher than the maximum allowable concentration defined in accordance with the Russian State Standard System. It is shown that radish can be used as an indicator of soil pollution with zinc.

  19. Polyphenolics profile, antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of leaves and stem of Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Gowda, Bandi Boje

    2010-03-01

    Aerial parts (leaves and stem) of Raphanus sativus, which are usually discarded were found to possess potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, as measured by standard antioxidant assays. Methanolic and acetone extracts of R. sativus leaves had total polyphenolic content of 86.16 and 78.77 mg/g dry extract, which were comparable to the traditional rich sources such as green tea and black tea. HPLC identification of polyphenolics indicated the presence of catechin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, myricetin, and quercetin in leaves and stem. Among the different extraction solvents, methanolic extract of leaves and stem showed potent reductive capacity, significantly inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation and displayed metal chelating activity. Further, they scavenged free radicals effectively with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 31 and 42 microg/ml for DPPH radical, 23 and 52 microg/ml for superoxide radical, 67 and 197 microg/ml for hydrogen peroxide,and 56 and 62 microg/ml for nitric oxide, respectively. Leaves showed most potent antioxidant and radical scavenging activity as compared to stem, which may be accounted for the high polyphenolic content. Leaves and stem of R. sativus,often under-utilized part of this vegetable, thus possessed considerable amount of polyphenolics. Hence, it should be egarded as a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be effectively employed as an ingredient in health or in functional food.

  20. AHAS Trp-574-Leu substitution in Raphanus sativus L.: screening, enzyme activity and fitness cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Roman B; Pandolfo, Claudio E; Breccia, Gabriela; Cantamutto, Miguel; Presotto, Alejandro

    2018-01-03

    Feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a problematic weed that has become resistant to AHAS (acetohydroxyacid synthase) inhibitor herbicides due to the Trp-574-Leu mutation. AHAS gene mutation that causes herbicide resistance may present negative pleiotropic effects on plant fitness. This study reports the effects of the Trp-574-Leu mutation on AHAS activity and reproductive traits of R. sativus. Eight out of 17 feral radish accessions presented resistant individuals to metsulfuron-methyl from 0.5 to up to more than 90.0 % and all the resistant individuals analyzed showed the Trp-574-Leu mutation. Without herbicide selection, the AHAS activity of a susceptible accession was 3.2-fold higher than the resistant one. The resistant accession was > 9000-fold more resistant to metsulfuron-methyl and imazethapyr than the susceptible one. Under low intraspecific competition during two growing seasons, the AHAS resistant feral radish accessions showed 22 - 38 and 21 - 47 % lower seed number and yield per plant than the susceptible ones. This is the first report of fitness cost associated with the AHAS Trp-574-Leu mutation in R. sativus populations. This fitness cost could reduce the frequency of the resistant allele without the herbicide selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal

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    Surya S Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Pham Thi Kim; Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh; Dao, Dong Thi Anh

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of flavonoid extract from white radish roots (Raphanus sativus L.). Antimicrobial activity was determined by agar diffusion method against 4 strains: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS* radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The constituent elements of flavonoid extract were identified by LC-MS. Results showed that the flavonoid extract from Raphanus sativus L. had antibacterial activity against to all four tested bacteria strains with antibacterial ring diameters in the range 8 - 20 mm in the test concentrations from 100 to 1600 mg/ml. Minimum concentration to inhibit (MIC) in the range 20 - 40 mg/ml. In addition, the extract also has the ability to eliminate ABTS* free radical with IC50 = 7.074 µg/ml. The total antioxidant capacity of extract at concentration of 100 µg/ml was 3.424 ± 0.043 mg ascorbic acid/mg. In the extract, there are three flavonoids were found: rutin, quercetin and narigenin. This is the first time narigenin was found in Raphanus sativus L. extract.

  4. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine.

  5. Effects of maternal corm weight and different levels of cow manure on corm and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Hassanzadeh Aval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different maternal corm weight and different levels of cow manure on saffron (Crocus sativus L. production, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2011- 2012 and 2012- 2013 growing seasons. For this purpose a factorial experiment was used based on complete randomized block design with three replications and 16 treatments. The experimental treatments were done at 4 levels of maternal corm weight (1.1- 3, 3.1- 5, 5.1- 7 and 7.1- 9 g and 4 levels of cow manure (0, 20, 40 and 60 t.ha-1. Variance analysis results for studied characteristics of saffron corm showed that maternal corm weight, cow manure and maternal corm weight × cow manure had significant effects on these characteristics. Among the experimental treatments, maternal corm with 7.1- 9 g weight and the use rate of 60 t.ha-1 of cow manure treatment had both the highest total corm number (510 corm.m-2 and corm yield (1044 g.m-2. It seems that the corms with higher weight in the first year produce larger number of replacement corm than the corms with lower weight. The saffron flower yield characteristics showed that flower yield in the first year increased by increasing the maternal corm weight. The results of variance analysis of the number of flowers and fresh and dry yield of flower and stigma of saffron in the second year showed that the maternal corm weight, cow manure and maternal corm weight × cow manure had significant effects on them. These characteristics increased by increasing the maternal corm weight and levels of cow manure. It seems that producing replacement corm with high weight in the first year, requires large amount of maternal corm and high levels of cow manure usage.

  6. Efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ladan; Esalatmanesh, Sophia; Eftekhari, Farzaneh; Salimi, Samrand; Foroughifar, Tahereh; Etesam, Farnaz; Safiaghdam, Hamideh; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2018-01-13

    Due to concerns regarding the side effects of hormone therapy, many studies have focused on the development of non-hormonal agents for treatment of hot flashes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of saffron (stigma of Crocus sativus) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes. Sixty women with post-menopausal hot flashes participated in this study. The patients randomly received either saffron (30 mg/day, 15 mg twice per day) or placebo for 6 weeks. The patients were assessed using the Hot Flash-Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the adverse event checklist at baseline and also at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks of the study. Fifty-six patients completed the trial. Baseline characteristics of the participants did not differ significantly between the two groups. General linear model repeated measures demonstrated significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HFRDIS score [F (3, 162) = 10.41, p = 0.0001] and HDRS score [F (3, 162) = 5.48, p = 0.001]. Frequency of adverse events was not significantly different between the two groups. Results from this study revealed that saffron is a safe and effective treatment in improving hot flashes and depressive symptoms in post-menopausal healthy women. On the other hand, saffron, with fewer side effects, may provide a non-hormonal and alternative herbal medicine option in treatment of women with hot flashes.

  7. Positive coping strategies and HIV-related stigma in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-03-01

    Whether perceived or enacted, HIV-related stigma is widespread in India, and has had a crippling effect on People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Research has shown that a positive attitude towards the illness sets a proactive framework for the individual to cope with his or her infection; therefore, healthy coping mechanisms are essential to combat HIV-related stigma. This qualitative study involving in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with PLHA affiliated with HIV support groups in South India explored positive coping strategies employed by PLHA to deal with HIV-related stigma. Interviews and focus group discussions were translated, transcribed, and analyzed for consistent themes. Taboos surrounding modes of transmission, perceiving sex workers as responsible for the spread of HIV, and avoiding associating with PLHA provided the context of HIV-related stigma. Despite these challenges, PLHA used several positive strategies, classified as Clear Knowledge and Understanding of HIV, Social Support and Family Well-Being, Selective Disclosure, Employment Building Confidence, and Participation in Positive Networks. Poor understanding of HIV and fears of being labeled immoral undermined healthy coping behavior, while improved understanding, affiliation with support groups, family support, presence of children, and financial independence enhanced PLHA confidence. Such positive coping behaviours could inform culturally relevant interventions.

  8. Communications to children about mental illness and their role in stigma development: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joanne; Callanan, Margie M; Greenwood, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Limited literature on the stigma of mental illness has examined the socio-cultural processes involved in the development of stigma around mental health in children, which emerges in mid-childhood (7-11 years). Greater understanding might inform preventative interventions. This review aims to integrate disparate theoretical and empirical research to provide an overview of social communications to children aged 7--11 years about mental illness and their role in the development of stigmatised views. Four key socio-cultural contexts (the media, school, peers, parents) of relevance to children's development will be considered. Systematic literature searches were conducted within electronic databases and abstracts were scanned to identify relevant studies. Fifteen papers were selected for the review. The review found few studies have directly examined communications about mental illness to children. Available evidence suggests messages across children's socio-cultural contexts are characterised by silence and stigma, which may shape children's developing views. Specific theoretical frameworks are lacking; possible mechanisms of transmission are discussed. This review suggests overcoming stigma will require efforts targeting young children, explicitly tackling mental illness, and spanning multiple social spheres: further research is warranted.

  9. Bipolar disorder and self-stigma: A comparison with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karidi, M V; Vassilopoulou, D; Savvidou, E; Vitoratou, S; Maillis, A; Rabavilas, A; Stefanis, C N

    2015-09-15

    Even though numerous studies have focused on the effects of self-stigma on patients with schizophrenia, little is known about self-stigma of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, a self-administered scale of self-stigmatising attitudes of patients with BD and schizophrenia was used to explore these attitudes, examine the potential differences between the two groups and study the factors that influence stigma within groups. Self-stigma of 120 patients with schizophrenia and BD was assessed with the Self-stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) and the Stigma Inventory for Mental Illness (SIMI). Presence of clinical symptoms, overall functioning and level of self-esteem were also evaluated. Self-stigma is present in both groups but differs in its intensity. Patients with BD experience self-stigma in a lesser degree without affecting their social life or overall functioning. Patients with schizophrenia adopt more intense self-stigmatising attitudes leading to social exclusion and lower level of overall functioning. The results are limited by the small sample size, whereas the inclusion of other questionnaires would broaden our insight to self-stigma. Self-stigma has a direct effect on overall functioning of patients with BD and schizophrenia tampering the clinical outcome of therapeutic interventions. Therefore, it should be incorporated in every treatment plan and be addressed as a clinical symptom of the mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. INSIGHT AND SELF-STIGMA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Domagoj; Brecić, Petrana; Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight and high level of self-stigma are often present among patients with schizophrenia and are related to poorer treatment adherence, poorer social function and rehabilitation, aggressive behavior, higher level of depression, social anxiety, lower quality of life and self-esteem. Reports on a relationship between insight and stigma are controversial. We examined the relationship of the level of insight and self-stigma in a sample of 149 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and self-stigma with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Results showed 88.6% of the patients to have high or moderate insight, with a mean value of 2.73. General insight showed the highest level (2.58) and insight in positive symptoms the lowest level (2.9). The self-stigma score in general was 2.13, with stereotype endorsement being lowest (1.98). According to study results, 77.1% of patients felt minimal or low self-stigma across all subscales, except for stigma resistance subscale. Statistically significant correlation was found between insight and four subscales of self-stigma, while no correlation was found for the stigma resistance subscale only. These results imply the need of individually tailored antistigma and insight promoting programs for patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-09-01

    To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18-49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels in accordance with the bioecological model. The results of this study

  12. Proposal of a socio-cognitive-behavioral structural equation model of internalized stigma in people with severe and persistent mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Sanz, María; Pérez-Santos, Eloísa; Quiroga, María de Los Ángeles

    2011-04-30

    The social stigma of mental illness has received much attention in recent years and its effects on diverse variables such as psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, self-esteem, self-efficacy, quality of life, and social integration are well established. However, internalized stigma in people with severe and persistent mental illness has not received the same attention. The aim of the present work was to study the relationships between the principal variables involved in the functioning of internalized stigma (sociodemographic and clinical variables, social stigma, psychosocial functioning, recovery expectations, empowerment, and discrimination experiences) in a sample of people with severe and persistent mental illness (N=108). The main characteristics of the sample and the differences between groups with high and low internalized stigma were analyzed, a correlation analysis of the variables was performed, and a structural equation model, integrating variables of social, cognitive, and behavioral content, was proposed and tested. The results indicate the relationships among social stigma, discrimination experiences, recovery expectation, and internalized stigma and their role in the psychosocial and behavioral outcomes in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  14. Stigma-Stop: A Serious Game against the Stigma toward Mental Health in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangas, Adolfo J.; Navarro, Noelia; Parra, José M. A.; Ojeda, Juan J.; Cangas, Diego; Piedra, Jose A.; Gallego, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia) and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game’s usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia. PMID:28878702

  15. Medical students and stigma of depression. Part 2. Self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwalska, Julia; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Szczygieł, Marta; Łojko, Dorota

    2017-06-18

    Up to 30% of medical students suffer from depression. They have better access to healthcare, but still receive appropriate treatment less frequently than people with depression in the general population. Most of them do not seek medical help as depression is perceived as a stigmatizing disorder, which leads to self-stigma and hampers early diagnosis and treatment. Thus, self-stigma means less effective therapy, unfavorable prognosis and relapses. According to the literature, self-stigma results in lowered self-esteem and is a major obstacle in the performance of social roles at work and in personal life. Stigmatization and self-stigma of depression among medical students are also associated with effects in their later professional life: they can lead to long-term consequences in the process of treating their patients in the future. Currently there are no unequivocal research results indicating the most effective ways of reducing stigmatization and self-stigma. It is necessary to educate about the symptoms and treatment of depression and to implement diverse intervention techniques to change behaviors and attitudes as early as possible.

  16. Stigma-Stop: A Serious Game against the Stigma toward Mental Health in Educational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo J. Cangas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game’s usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia.

  17. Stigma-Stop: A Serious Game against the Stigma toward Mental Health in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangas, Adolfo J; Navarro, Noelia; Parra, José M A; Ojeda, Juan J; Cangas, Diego; Piedra, Jose A; Gallego, Jose

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results from the application of a serious game called Stigma-Stop among a group of high school students with the aim of reducing the stigma toward mental illnesses. The video game features characters with various mental disorders (schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia) and provides information about these problems. Additionally, the game asks players about whether they have ever felt the same as the characters, if they believe the characters are psychologically well, and if they think they could help these individuals. Similarly, a variety of reactions are provided for players to choose from when they encounter the characters with these problems. A total of 552 students between the ages of 14 and 18 participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which used Stigma-Stop, or the control group, which utilized a video game completely unrelated to mental health. Both video games were used for similar lengths of time. Following the application of Stigma-Stop, a statistically significant decrease was obtained in levels of stigma toward schizophrenia, both in terms of stereotypes and, to a greater extent, its potential dangerousness. However, this was not the case in the control group. Results thus demonstrate the video game's usefulness toward eradicating erroneous notions about serious mental disorders like schizophrenia.

  18. A questionnaire to assess social stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina; Nemoianni, Eugenio; Tavormina, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Psychiatric patients often suffer for two reasons: due to the illness and due to the social stigma of mental illness, that increases the uneasiness and psychic pain of the person suffering from serious psychiatric disorder. This unwell person is often the object of stigma because he is "different" from others, and he also can be margenalised by society. In this study we intend to assess whether these margenalising attitudes might be also present among mental health professionals who have presented psychic problems in a previous period of their life, against sick persons suffering of the same illness even if he is a mental health professional. Two questionnaires have been developed, one for professionals and another for the patients, with the aim of identifying these marginalising attitudes. We intend that this study shall be a multicenter, observational and international study, promoted by the Mental Health Dept. of Naples (ASL Naples 3 South, Italy).

  19. Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Syed Sultan; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Dhand, Vivek; Ramakrishna, Damaraju Siva

    2009-01-01

    Acetone and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus were investigated for their antibacterial activity against foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC) components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R. sativus were also evaluated. Both acetone and hexane fractions of root, stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts in inhibiting the bacterial growth. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of the plant. The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC, PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC.

  20. Lesbická identita jako stigma?

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinová, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    This thesis raises the question to what extent remains lesbian identity relevant as a stigma in the Czech Republic. The theoretical part shows how sexuality and homosexuality in particular is influenced and shaped by society. I draw predominantly from scientific texts of foreign origin and for information relating to the Czech Republic I draw from Czech resources. My approach to the study of sexuality is constructivist. The research part of my study I drew from the analysis of semi-structured...

  1. Can Asia Overcome the IMF Stigma?

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries still have the IMF stigma, which originates from the experiences of the Asian crisis of 1997-98. The feeling of being unfairly treated grew even stronger afterward. The Asian countries built large foreign reserves, carried out structural reforms, and became even stronger than pre- crisis period. Asians are confident in not repeating the same mistake of falling into a crisis with too much external borrowing. Whether IMF can entice Asia to new precautionary liquidities facilitie...

  2. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma a...

  3. Transcriptome profiling of root microRNAs reveals novel insights into taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rugang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ronghua; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2015-02-03

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an economically important root vegetable crop, and the taproot-thickening process is the most critical period for the final productivity and quality formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of non-coding small RNAs that play an important regulatory function in plant growth and development. However, the characterization of miRNAs and their roles in regulating radish taproot growth and thickening remain largely unexplored. A Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to identify key miRNAs involved in taproot thickening in radish. Three small RNA libraries from 'NAU-YH' taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage, cortex splitting stage and expanding stage were constructed. In all, 175 known and 107 potential novel miRNAs were discovered, from which 85 known and 13 novel miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed during taproot thickening. Furthermore, totally 191 target genes were identified for the differentially expressed miRNAs. These target genes were annotated as transcription factors and other functional proteins, which were involved in various biological functions including plant growth and development, metabolism, cell organization and biogenesis, signal sensing and transduction, and plant defense response. RT-qPCR analysis validated miRNA expression patterns for five miRNAs and their corresponding target genes. The small RNA populations of radish taproot at different thickening stages were firstly identified by Solexa sequencing. Totally 98 differentially expressed miRNAs identified from three taproot libraries might play important regulatory roles in taproot thickening. Their targets encoding transcription factors and other functional proteins including NF-YA2, ILR1, bHLH74, XTH16, CEL41 and EXPA9 were involved in radish taproot thickening. These results could provide new insights into the regulatory roles of miRNAs during the taproot thickening and facilitate genetic improvement of

  4. Psychosocial Burden and Stigma Perception of Jordanian Patients With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalky, Heyam F; Gharaibeh, Huda; Faleh, Reem

    2017-12-01

    Epilepsy requires long-term treatment that interferes with individuals' social relationships. Because the effects of psychosocial burden and stigma perception on patients with epilepsy in Jordan have not been explored, the study assessed the relationship among psychosocial burden, stigma of epilepsy, and demographic variables. Subjects were adult patients with epilepsy ( N = 200) registered at hospital clinics. Two published instruments were used to measure outcomes. The participants in the study perceived the burden and stigma of epilepsy as moderate. A strong, positive correlation between psychosocial burden and stigma perception among participants was found. Stigma perception, employment, and education variables explained 31.6% of variation of the level of psychosocial burden. The results showed a relationship between stigma perception and psychosocial level, and this provides information that may assist health care providers in formulating strategic plans to improve the care, safety, and quality of life of patients with epilepsy in Jordan.

  5. Internalized stigma predicts erosion of morale among psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Phelan, Jo C

    2004-12-30

    Stigma in society causes harm to people with severe mental illness (SMI) and internalized stigma represents its psychological point of impact. We evaluated the extent of internalized stigma in a sample of outpatients with SMI, using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale, developed with consumer input. About a third of the sample reported high levels of internalized stigma. We tested whether internalized stigma predicted increased depressive symptoms and reduced self-esteem at 4-month follow-up, controlling for baseline levels. Depression was predicted by Alienation, Stereotype Endorsement, Social Withdrawal Scales and total ISMI score. Reduced self-esteem was predicted by Alienation. ISMI results were stronger than those for the widely used Devaluation-Discrimination Scale. The finding that alienation further reduces morale speaks to the difficulty of pulling oneself out of this type of vicious cycle without assistance.

  6. Gender differences in HIV-related stigma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugoya, George C T; Ernst, Kacey

    2014-02-01

    Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS directly and indirectly drives HIV transmission. We examined how factors associated with HIV-related stigma differed by gender, using data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Descriptive, bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted on selected HIV-related stigma indicators for men and women. Bivariate analyses showed significant gender differences in the overall HIV Stigma index with a higher proportion of women than men presented at the highest stigma level (4.9% vs 2.7%, p differences were found in employment, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, wealth and media exposure. Our results showed that women in the general Kenyan population had higher stigmatic attitudes than men. This was associated with differences in risk factor profile and confirmed previous literature on complexity of social-cultural factors associated with HIV-related stigma.

  7. A disease called stigma: the experience of stigma among African men with TB diagnosis in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinouya, M J; Adeyanju, O

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly stigmatised disease. This paper sought to explore the experiences and meanings of stigma among African men with a previous TB diagnosis. Qualitative approach with ten men recruited from a community based organisation offering health support to the men. In-depth semi-structured interviews. Men were unable to recognise TB symptoms and subsequently made late clinical presentation when they were also diagnosed with HIV. A few were diagnosed when in immigration detention centres. The experience of late diagnosis informed their understanding of the word stigma. The link between HIV and TB compounded experiences of stigma which led to depression and compromised HIV confidentiality. TB late diagnosis among the men has implications for population health. Multidisciplinary teams supporting ongoing TB education programmes should include African men's organisations, due to the close supportive links such organisations have with African men. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Bisexual Stigma and Mental Health Status: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Bisexual women often report higher rates of depression and mental health problems than their heterosexual and lesbian counterparts. These disparities likely occur, in part, as a result of the unique stigma that bisexual women face and experience. Such stigma can in turn operate as a stressor, thereby contributing to poor mental health status. The current pilot study tested a new measure of bisexual stigma and its association with mental health. Results suggest a moderate positive correlation ...

  9. INTERNALISASI STIGMA & HARGA DIRI PADA ORANG DENGAN SKIZOFRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti, Indri; Muzdalifah, Fellianti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the influence internalized stigma on self-esteem in people with schizophrenia (outpatients) in Jakarta. The research was held in Komunitas Peduli Skizofrenia Indonesia, Puskesmas Tebet, and Klender Islamic Mental Hospital on November 2012. This research used quantitative ex-post facto research method. This research used incidental sampling. Collecting data used scale of internalization stigma which is adapted from ISMI (Internalization Stigma of Mental Illn...

  10. Development and validation of an Infertility Stigma Scale for Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bing; Qin, Nan; Cheng, Li; Tang, Guanxiu; Cao, Yi; Yan, Chunli; Huang, Xin; Yan, Pingping; Zhu, Shujuan; Lei, Jun

    2015-07-01

    To develop and validate a scale of stigma for infertile Chinese women. Infertile women admitted to the Xiangya Hospital, the Second Xiangya Hospital, and the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University for treatment were approached to participate in this study. The Infertility Stigma Scale (ISS) development involved: [1] item generation based on literature, interview (experts/patients: N=5/N=20) and related scale; [2] pre-test questionnaire formation with both experts' ratings (N=9) and infertile women's feedbacks (N=30); [3] the component structure assessed by principal components analysis with varimax rotation (N=334); [4] convergent validity assessed with Social Support Rating scale, Self-Esteem scale, Family APGAR Index (N=334); and [5] reliability identified by internal consistency Cronbach's α (N=334), split-half reliability (N=334), test-retest reliability (N=20). This study yielded a 27-item ISS with 4 factors (self-devaluation, social withdrawal, public stigma, and family stigma). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that these 4 factors accounted for 58.17% of total variances. The Cronbach's α, split-half coefficient and test-retest correlation coefficient for the whole scale was 0.94, 0.90, and 0.91, respectively. The associations of the ISS with other measures suggested good convergent validity. The Content Validity Index (CVI) was 0.92. The ISS appears to be a reliable and valid measure to assess levels of stigma experienced by infertile Chinese women. It may be a useful tool to help identify infertile women at greater risks of distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perspectives on the impact of stigma in leprosy: strategies to improve access to health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Rao PSS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pamidipani SS Sundar Rao LEPRA India, Secunderabad, India Abstract: Throughout its history, leprosy has been much feared and misunderstood. Today, we have the best knowledge, expertise, therapies, and surgical and physiotherapeutic skills to virtually cure and eradicate the disease, but the continuing high levels of stigma pose insurmountable obstacles in our efforts to remove the scourges of leprosy. In this review, the medical, social, and political aspects related to the impact of stigma on leprosy are elaborated, and strategies for providing access to equitable and effective care are described. Leprosy is a biosocial disease, and experience has shown that both the medical and social dimensions must be aggressively confronted. Stigma in leprosy is based on religious, sociocultural, psychological, and demographic experience over centuries of human existence. Therefore, any attempt to eradicate or reduce stigma will require strong multifaceted approaches that will permeate psychological, social, and mental layers of the human mind and result in necessary health-seeking behaviors. What then is needed is a social multidrug therapy similar to the medical multidrug therapy, where there would be one arm for curing the medical problems of leprosy, a second arm focusing on empowering the people, especially affected persons, through appropriate education, awareness, especially for early detection and treatment, encouraging positive attitudes and perceptions, and a third arm for advocacy, attacking derogatory and discriminatory laws, enabling opportunities for persons with leprosy disabilities to be profitably employed, and providing necessary rehabilitation facilities. Health can never be adequately protected by health services without the active understanding and involvement of communities whose health is at stake. The review cautions that without a social multidisciplinary approach using community-based participatory techniques, we cannot provide

  12. Acceptability of mental health stigma-reduction training and initial effects on awareness among military personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurtado, Suzanne L; Simon-Arndt, Cynthia M; McAnany, Jennifer; Crain, Jenny A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a mental health stigma reduction toolkit and training, and the acceptability and level of stigma awareness following the stigma-reduction...

  13. Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 2: Practical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Dalal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the endeavours of the Working Group assigned to develop guidelines for interventions to reduce stigma. The group was comprised of academics and experienced field personnel, all of whom had either investigated stigma, implemented actions to address stigma, and/or had experienced stigma. The group’s mandate was to develop an intervention to reduce the stigma of leprosy, but while accepting that there are commonalities relating to stigma that cut across different health conditions, it was hoped that a generic intervention might be developed. This goal proved to be unattainable in the time given: condition-specific peculiarities and the diversity of cultural contexts presented significant challenges. The group agreed, however, that a considerable body of theory and expert opinion does exist, and that general strategies might be developed from this. The Working Group discussed a systematic review of such material. It also discussed other material that was considered to be important but had not met the criteria for the systematic review. One conclusion of the group’s deliberations was that a “Stigma Intervention Matrix” could be a useful guide for cross-checking the development of situation-specific stigma interventions. The Stigma Intervention Matrix is presented in this paper.DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.72

  14. Structural stigma: Research evidence and implications for psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

    2016-11-01

    Psychological research has provided essential insights into how stigma operates to disadvantage those who are targeted by it. At the same time, stigma research has been criticized for being too focused on the perceptions of stigmatized individuals and on microlevel interactions, rather than attending to structural forms of stigma. This article describes the relatively new field of research on structural stigma, which is defined as societal-level conditions, cultural norms, and institutional policies that constrain the opportunities, resources, and well-being of the stigmatized. I review emerging evidence that structural stigma related to mental illness and sexual orientation (a) exerts direct and synergistic effects on stigma processes that have long been the focus of psychological inquiry (e.g., concealment, rejection sensitivity), (b) serves as a contextual moderator of the efficacy of psychological interventions, and (c) contributes to numerous adverse health outcomes for members of stigmatized groups-ranging from dysregulated physiological stress responses to premature mortality-indicating that structural stigma represents an underrecognized mechanism producing health inequalities. Each of these pieces of evidence suggests that structural stigma is relevant to psychology and therefore deserves the attention of psychological scientists interested in understanding and ultimately reducing the negative effects of stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Stephen J; Puhl, Rebecca; Cook, Stephen R; Slusser, Wendelin

    2017-12-01

    The stigmatization of people with obesity is widespread and causes harm. Weight stigma is often propagated and tolerated in society because of beliefs that stigma and shame will motivate people to lose weight. However, rather than motivating positive change, this stigma contributes to behaviors such as binge eating, social isolation, avoidance of health care services, decreased physical activity, and increased weight gain, which worsen obesity and create additional barriers to healthy behavior change. Furthermore, experiences of weight stigma also dramatically impair quality of life, especially for youth. Health care professionals continue to seek effective strategies and resources to address the obesity epidemic; however, they also frequently exhibit weight bias and stigmatizing behaviors. This policy statement seeks to raise awareness regarding the prevalence and negative effects of weight stigma on pediatric patients and their families and provides 6 clinical practice and 4 advocacy recommendations regarding the role of pediatricians in addressing weight stigma. In summary, these recommendations include improving the clinical setting by modeling best practices for nonbiased behaviors and language; using empathetic and empowering counseling techniques, such as motivational interviewing, and addressing weight stigma and bullying in the clinic visit; advocating for inclusion of training and education about weight stigma in medical schools, residency programs, and continuing medical education programs; and empowering families to be advocates to address weight stigma in the home environment and school setting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Perception of stigma toward mental illness in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika T Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stigma associated with mental illnesses is one of the principal causes for mentally ill people not receiving adequate mental health care and treatment. The study was conducted to assess the extent of stigma associated with mental illness and knowledge of mental illness among the community. Materials and Methods: Community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 445 respondents from Udupi district; the community attitude toward the mentally ill (CAMI scale was used to assess stigma. The probability proportional to sampling size technique was adopted to select the wards/blocks. Household from blocks/wards were selected using convenience sampling. Self- administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Results: Of the total 445 respondents, the prevalence of stigma toward mentally ill people was 74.61% (95% confidence interval, 0.7057, 0.7866. The prevalence of stigma was high under all the four domains of CAMI scale. High prevalence of stigma was seen among females and people with higher income. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of stigma toward PWMI was found to be high. The stigma toward PWMI was associated with gender with respect to AU, BE and CMHI. Hence, the study suggests that there is a strong need to eliminate stigma associated with mental illness to improve the mental health status of the region.

  17. Mental illness stigma in the Israeli context: deliberations and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Amir; Roe, David; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we deliberate mental illness stigma in the Israeli context and suggest ways to reduce it, emphasizing the community's role in the rehabilitation of persons with mental illness. A literature review of Israeli and international literature of mental illness stigma. Community mental health, in addition to its traditional focus on developing community-based services, should focus also on community-based interventions such as the delivery of anti-stigma interventions. Providing individualized rehabilitation services in the community while addressing stigma-induced social barriers may create a better recovery ground for Israelis with mental illness.

  18. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease “neurolathyrism”, present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple. PMID:26524073

  19. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people.

  20. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people. PMID:26793243

  1. Valorization of traditional foods: nutritional and bioactive properties of Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Alzira; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional foods can enrich our diet, perpetuating important elements of local knowledge and cultural inheritance. Raw, soaked and cooked samples of two Fabaceae species (Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L.) were characterized regarding nutritional and bioactive properties. L. sativus gave the highest carbohydrate, protein, ash, saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and lowest fat and energy value. Furthermore, it also showed the highest concentration of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Cicer arietinum gave the highest concentration of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The soaking process did not significantly affect macronutrients, but cooking (boiling) decreased protein, ash, sugars and organic acids, and increased carbohydrates, fat, tocopherols, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. No differences were obtained for fatty acid composition. The present study highlights the nutritional profile and bioactive properties of these agricultural varieties of C. arietinum and L. sativus pulses, and valorizes their traditional consumption and the use in modern diets. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Identification of genes specifically or preferentially expressed in maize silk reveals similarity and diversity in transcript abundance of different dry stigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, pollination is a critical step in reproduction. During pollination, constant communication between male pollen and the female stigma is required for pollen adhesion, germination, and tube growth. The detailed mechanisms of stigma-mediated reproductive processes, however, remain largely unknown. Maize (Zea mays L., one of the world’s most important crops, has been extensively used as a model species to study molecular mechanisms of pollen and stigma interaction. A comprehensive analysis of maize silk transcriptome may provide valuable information for investigating stigma functionality. A comparative analysis of expression profiles between maize silk and dry stigmas of other species might reveal conserved and diverse mechanisms that underlie stigma-mediated reproductive processes in various plant species. Results Transcript abundance profiles of mature silk, mature pollen, mature ovary, and seedling were investigated using RNA-seq. By comparing the transcriptomes of these tissues, we identified 1,427 genes specifically or preferentially expressed in maize silk. Bioinformatic analyses of these genes revealed many genes with known functions in plant reproduction as well as novel candidate genes that encode amino acid transporters, peptide and oligopeptide transporters, and cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases. In addition, comparison of gene sets specifically or preferentially expressed in stigmas of maize, rice (Oryza sativa L., and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana [L.] Heynh. identified a number of homologous genes involved either in pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination or in initial growth and penetration of pollen tubes into the stigma surface. The comparison also indicated that maize shares a more similar profile and larger number of conserved genes with rice than with Arabidopsis, and that amino acid and lipid transport-related genes are distinctively overrepresented in maize. Conclusions Many of the

  3. How to tackle stigma and bias: Lessons from childhood diseases and disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Eilis

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of tackling the stigma of obesity and focuses particularly on what is known about the way in which stigma develops.  Stigma is considered as a complex construct comprising attitudes, prejudices and discriminatory behaviour.  In light of this conceptualisation of stigma, a range of anti-stigma interventions are discussed that have been designed to tackle the stigma associated with epilepsy, Tourette's syndrome, obesity and mental disorders. The paper conside...

  4. Stigma- and non-stigma-related treatment barriers to mental healthcare reported by service users and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Lisa; Jeffery, Debra; Schauman, Oliver; Williams, Paul; Farrelly, Simone; Bonnington, Oliver; Gabbidon, Jheanell; Lassman, Francesca; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham; Clement, Sarah

    2015-08-30

    Delayed treatment seeking for people experiencing symptoms of mental illness is common despite available mental healthcare. Poor outcomes are associated with untreated mental illness and caregivers may eventually need to seek help on the service user's behalf. More attention has recently focused on the role of stigma in delayed treatment seeking. This study aimed to establish the frequency of stigma- and non-stigma-related treatment barriers reported by 202 service users and 80 caregivers; to compare treatment barriers reported by service users and caregivers; and to investigate demographic predictors of reporting stigma-related treatment barriers. The profile of treatment barriers differed between service users and caregivers. Service users were more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers than caregivers across all stigma-related items. Service users who were female, had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or with GCSEs (UK qualifications usually obtained at age 16) were significantly more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers. Caregivers who were female or of Black ethnicities were significantly more likely to report stigma-related treatment barriers. Multifaceted approaches are needed to reduce barriers to treatment seeking for both service users and caregivers, with anti-stigma interventions being of particular importance for the former group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing a research agenda for reducing the stigma of addictions, part II: Lessons from the mental health stigma literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Schomerus, Georg; Shuman, Valery; Kraus, Dana; Perlick, Debbie; Harnish, Autumn; Kulesza, Magdalena; Kane-Willis, Kathleen; Qin, Sang; Smelson, David

    2017-01-01

    Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. A comprehensive review of the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field. In Part I of this two part paper (American Journal of Addictions, Vol 26, pages 59-66, this issue), constructs and methods from the mental health stigma literature were used to summarize research that seeks to understand the phenomena of addiction stigma. In Paper II, we use this summary, as well as the extensive literature on mental illness stigma change, to outline a research program to develop and evaluate strategies meant to diminish impact on public and self-stigma (eg, education and contact). The paper ends with recommendations for next steps in addiction stigma research. (Am J Addict 2017;26:67-74). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Evidence for the indirect effects of perceived public stigma on psychosocial outcomes: The mediating role of self-stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-06-30

    This study examined the possible mediating role of self-stigma in the relationship between perceived public stigma and psychosocial outcomes and how this mechanism may be contingent on illness severity in a non-Western (Chinese) sample. A total of 251 participants, namely 151 psychiatric outpatients with psychotic disorders and 100 psychiatric outpatients without psychotic disorders, completed a questionnaire on stigma and psychosocial outcomes that covered topics such as self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and subjective quality of life (QoL). Using a cross-sectional design, ordinary least squares regression and bootstrapping mediation analyses were used to test whether self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived public stigma and psychosocial outcomes and whether this mediating process was moderated by diagnostic status. The results indicated that self-stigma mediated the effect of perceived public stigma on psychosocial outcomes such as self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and subjective QoL among both patients with psychotic disorders and those without psychotic disorders after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics. Further, moderated mediation analyses revealed that the indirect effect of perceived public stigma on psychosocial outcomes were not moderated by the status of psychotic diagnoses. Self-stigma might be an essential and tractable target for interventions aimed at breaking the vicious cycle of discrimination and stigmatization toward people with mental illness regardless of their diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives...

  8. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  9. Mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients: findings from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Results Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. Conclusions The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. PMID:28851803

  10. Abortion providers, stigma and professional quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-12-01

    The Providers Share Workshop (PSW) provides abortion providers safe space to discuss their work experiences. Our objectives were to assess changes in abortion stigma over time and explore how stigma is related to aspects of professional quality of life, including compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue for providers participating in the workshops. Seventy-nine providers were recruited to the PSW study. Surveys were completed prior to, immediately following and 1 year after the workshops. The outcome measures were the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) survey. Baseline ProQOL scores were compared to published averages using t tests. Changes in abortion stigma and aspects of professional quality of life were assessed by fitting a two-level random-effects model with repeated measures at level 1 (period-level) and static measures (e.g., demographic data) at level 2 (person-level). Potential covariates included age, parenting status, education, organizational tenure, job type and clinic type (stand-alone vs. hospital-based clinics). Compared to other healthcare workers, abortion providers reported higher compassion satisfaction (t=2.65, p=.009) and lower burnout (t=5.13, pabortion stigma as a significant predictor of lower compassion satisfaction, higher burnout and higher compassion fatigue. Participants in PSW reported a reduction in abortion stigma over time. Further, stigma is an important predictor of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue, suggesting that interventions aimed at supporting the abortion providing workforce should likely assess abortion stigma. Stigma is an important predictor of compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue among abortion care providers. Therefore, strengthening human resources for abortion care requires stigma reduction efforts. Participants in the PSWs show reductions in stigma over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental illness sexual stigma: Implications for health and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Cournos, Francine; Wall, Melanie M; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Mann, Claudio Gruber; Pinto, Diana; Pinho, Veronica; McKinnon, Karen

    2016-06-01

    The majority of people in psychiatric care worldwide are sexually active, and studies have revealed sharply elevated rates of HIV infection in that group compared with the general population. Recovery-oriented treatment does not routinely address sexuality. We examined the relationship between gender, severe mental illness diagnosis, and stigma experiences related to sexuality among people in psychiatric outpatient care. Sexually active adults attending 8 public outpatient psychiatric clinics in Rio de Janeiro (N = 641) were interviewed for psychiatric diagnosis and stigma experiences. Stigma mechanisms well-established in the literature but not previously examined in relation to sexuality were measured with the Mental Illness Sex Stigma Questionnaire, a 27-item interview about stigma in sexual situations and activities. Experiences of stigma were reported by a majority of participants for 48% of questionnaire items. Most people reported supportive attitudes toward their sexuality from providers and family members. Those with severe mental illness diagnoses showed greater stigma on individual discrimination and structural stigma mechanisms than did those with nonsevere mental illness diagnoses, whereas there was no difference on the social psychological processes (internalized stigma) mechanism. Regardless of diagnosis or gender, a majority of participants devalued themselves as sexual partners. Adults in psychiatric outpatient care frequently reported stigma experiences related to aspects of their sexual lives. From the perspectives of both HIV prevention and recovery from mental illness, examinations of the consequences of stigma in the sexual lives of people in psychiatric care and improving their measurement would have wide applicability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Allelopathic effect of Raphanus sativus on Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa = Efeito alelopático de Raphanus sativus em Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of an extract from the leaves and roots of Raphanus sativus, on the species Urochloa decumbens and Lactuca sativa L. To obtain the extract, the leaves and roots of R. sativus were used separately, crushed at a proportion of 200 g of leaves to 1 L of water to give a crude aqueous extract (100%. Dilutions of 60%, 40% and 20%, and the control were produced from this extract. Seeds of U. decumbens and L. sativa were evenly distributed over two sheets of germitest paper, with four replications of 40 seeds each. Germination was evaluated at 7 and 14 days after sowing, together with the germination speed index (GSI, length of the shoots and roots, and dry weight. The design was completely randomised, and the values submitted to analysis of variance by F-test and regression analysis. The leaf extract gave a reduction in the germination of L. sativa at all tested doses. With application of the root extract, an increase was seen in germination, in the GSI and length of the radicle in U. decumbens at doses of from 40%. Moreover, with application of the leaf extract, the length of the shoot and radicle were also greater, irrespective of the dose applied. There was no effect from the treatments on the dry mass of the species. = Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial alelopático de extrato de folhas e raízes de Raphanus sativus, nas espécies Urochloa decumbens e Lactuca sativa L. Para obtenção do extrato, foram utilizadas separadamente folhas e raízes de R. sativus, trituradas na proporção de 200 g de folhas para 1 L de água, resultando no extrato aquoso bruto (100%. A partir desse extrato, foram realizadas as diluições de 60%, 40% e 20% e testemunha. Sementes de U. decumbens e L. sativa foram distribuídas uniformemente sobre duas folhas de papel germitest, com quatro repetições, com 40 sementes cada. As avaliações de germinação foram realizadas aos 7 e aos 14 dias

  13. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Keti; Ruparelia, Ketan C; Continenza, Maria A; Stagos, Dimitrios; Vegliò, Francesco; Arroo, Randolph R J

    2015-12-01

    Saffron from the province of L'Aquila, in the Abruzzo region of Italy, is highly prized and has been awarded a formal recognition by the European Union with EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. Despite this, the saffron regions are abandoned by the younger generations because the traditional cultivation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is labour intensive and yields only one crop of valuable saffron stamens per year. Petals of the saffron Crocus have had additional uses in traditional medicine and may add value to the crops for local farmers. This is especially important because the plant only flowers between October and November, and farmers will need to make the best use of the flowers harvested in this period. Recently, the petals of C. sativus L., which are considered a waste material in the production of saffron spice, were identified as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The antioxidants crocin and kaempferol were purified by flash column chromatography, and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC-DAD, infrared (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H &(13)C NMR) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activity was determined with the ABTS and DPPH tests. The antioxidant activities are mainly attributed to carotenoid and flavonoid compounds, notably glycosides of crocin and kaempferol. We found in dried petals 0.6% (w/w) and 12.6 (w/w) of crocin and kaempferol, respectively. Petals of C. sativus L. have commercial potential as a source for kaempferol and crocetin glycosides, natural compounds with antioxidant activity that are considered to be the active ingredients in saffron-based herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Describing perceived stigma against Alzheimer's disease in a general population in France: the STIG-MA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, Leslie Cartz; Nubukpo, Philippe; Faure, Angélique; Dumoitier, Nathalie; Couratier, Philippe; Clément, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive loss of memory and disability, especially in older people. As worldwide population grows older, AD is responsible for an important social and economical burden in many nations. People suffering from AD may experience health-related stigma that influences their attitudes towards seeking assistance. The STIG-MA survey describes perceived stigma against AD in a French population. The STIG-MA questionnaire was completed anonymously by people attending an awareness campaign about AD in Creuse, France, in September 2010. Participants answered 10 questions about how they would feel or react if they had AD. Stigma scores were compared by age, activity, and interest in AD. Thirty-three percent of people attending the campaign filled out the survey. Most were women (85%) younger than 50 years (59%); 10% were older people (older than 75 years). Twenty-one percent worked in health or social fields. Interest in AD was professional (48%), related to family (41%), or personal (11%). Professionals in health fields expressed the highest levels of stigma (p = 0.02). Low stigma was most frequent in older people (p = 0.05). Type of interest did not influence stigma. Shame, loss of self-esteem, and fear of exclusion were expressed the most. The STIG-MA survey confirms that AD is a stigmatizing condition in France. The difference between perceived stigma of older people, those most exposed to AD, and that of health professionals may influence attitudes towards screening and care. Further studies of perceived stigma in these populations are necessary to adapt intervention strategies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and depression among Malawian women. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... These findings suggest that interventions that reduce HIV-related stigma are likely to enhance psychological functioning among Malawian women, which in turn will improve the women's ...

  16. Perceived stigma among individuals with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Buron, Andrea; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep M; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Kovess, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Vilagut, Gemma

    2009-11-01

    Severe mental disorders are associated with social distance from the general population, but there is lack of data on the stigma reported by individuals with common mental disorders. To identify the correlates and the impact of stigma among individuals with common mental disorders. Cross-sectional, household interview survey of 8796 representing the non-institutionalized adults of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Two perceived stigma questions (embarrassment and discrimination) were asked to respondents with significant disability. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF-12, work and activity limitation and social limitation were also assessed. Among the 815 participants with a 12-month mental disorder and significant disability, 14.8% had perceived stigma. Stigma was significantly associated with low education, being married/living with someone and being unemployed. Perceived stigma was associated with decreased quality of life (SF-12 PCS score -4.65; pstigma if they have lower education, are married, or are unemployed. Perceived stigma is associated with considerably decrease in quality of life and role functioning. Health professionals and society at large must be aware of these findings, which suggest that fighting stigma should be a public health priority.

  17. Stigma and disability in schizophrenia: developing countries' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Kumar, Chennaveerachari Naveen

    2012-10-01

    Stigma and disability are two important consequences of schizophrenia that individuals afflicted with it experience. Sociocultural milieu can influence these. We review the literature on stigma and disability experienced by individuals with schizophrenia in the developing countries. We searched English-language literature from developing countries on stigma and disability in schizophrenia using PubMed and Scopus databases. As individual studies adopted widely varying methodologies, the retrieved papers did not yield themselves for a systematic review. We present a narrative review. Much of the literature on stigma and disability in schizophrenia has come from India and only a few other developing countries. Stigma associated with schizophrenia is highly prevalent across regions and across patients themselves, families, communities and professionals. Research is scanty with regard to determinants of stigma and interventions against stigma. A number of tools have been developed for assessment of disability. Preliminary evidence suggests that initiation and continuation of antipsychotic medications is associated with lesser disability. Psychosocial interventions may reduce disability further. Comprehensive, prospective studies evaluating the determinants of stigma and disability need to be conducted in the developing countries. Models of interventions to minimize these adverse consequences, developed based on their results, need to be tested.

  18. Does mental health stigma change across the deployment cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Boasso, Alyssa M; Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on mental health stigma in military personnel has been cross-sectional. We prospectively examined the course of perceived mental health stigma in a cohort of deployed U.S. combat Marines. Participants (N = 768) were assessed 1 month before a 7-month deployment to Afghanistan, and again at 1, 5, and 8 months postdeployment. We also examined three predictors of the course of stigma: post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, vertical and horizontal unit cohesion, and mental health treatment utilization while deployed. Perceptions of stigma remained largely stable across the deployment cycle, with latent growth curve analyses revealing a statistically significant but small decrease in stigma over time. Lower post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and greater perceived vertical and horizontal support predicted decreases in stigma over time, whereas mental health treatment utilization in theater did not predict the course of stigma. Perceived stigma was low and largely stable over time. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Understanding stigma and HIV/AIDS in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... Although stigma and its relationship to health and disease is not a new phenomenon, it has not been a major feature in the public discourse until the emergence of HIV. The range of negative responses associated with the epidemic placed stigma on the public agenda and drew attention to its complexity as ...

  20. Qualitative exploration of manifestations of HIV-related stigma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: These findings lend credence to the fact that HIVrelated stigma is a big reality in Kano State, and has some context specific manifestations, consequences and coping mechanisms. Follow-up quantitative and intervention studies are recommended. Keywords: HIV, stigma, manifestations, consequences, Nigeria ...

  1. 'The mercurial piece of the puzzle': Understanding stigma and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although stigma and its relationship to health and disease is not a new phenomenon, it has not been a major feature in the public discourse until the emergence of HIV. The range of negative responses associated with the epidemic placed stigma on the public agenda and drew attention to its complexity as a phenomenon ...

  2. Regeneration of Algerian germplasm by stigma/style somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma/style somatic embryogenesis is one of the efficient methods in plant regeneration of most Citrus ssp., without inducing somaclonal variations. Furthermore, somatic embryogenesis from style/stigma proved to be effective in the elimination of the main citrus virus and virus-like diseases. This technique was applied on ...

  3. Self-Stigma of Mental Illness in High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Leah I.; Michel, Natalie M.; Winter, Ariella; Young, Rebecca E.; Flett, Gordon L.; Goldberg, Joel O.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of mental health problems, society continues to stigmatize and discriminate against people with mental illness and in particular, schizophrenia. Among the negative consequences of stigma, is that some individuals with mental illness internalize negative stereotypes about themselves, referred to as self-stigma, which is…

  4. Assessment of Stigma Associated with Stuttering: Development and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale. Method: Two-hundred ninety-one adults who stutter were recruited from Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency…

  5. Global action to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Cynthia I; Stangl, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    There is no question that the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and AIDS can be reduced through intervention. The inclusion of stigma and discrimination reduction as a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation in recent UNAIDS, UN and PEPFAR political initiatives is promising. Yet national governments need evidence on effective interventions at the individual, community and societal levels in order to strategically incorporate stigma and discrimination reduction into national AIDS plans. Currently, the heterogeneity of stigma and discrimination reduction approaches and measurement makes it challenging to compare and contrast evaluated interventions. Moving forward, it is critical for the research community to: (1) clearly link intervention activities to the domains of stigma to be shifted; (2) assess the stigma domains in a consistent manner; and (3) link stigma and discrimination reduction with HIV prevention, care and treatment outcomes (e.g., uptake, adherence and retention of ART). These steps would further advance the scientific evidence base of stigma and discrimination reduction and allow for the identification of effective interventions that could be scaled up by national governments. PMID:24242269

  6. Depression Stigma, Race, and Treatment Seeking Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F., III

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related…

  7. Stigma in Help-Seeking: The Case of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Zipora; Vogel, David L.; Strass, Haley A.; Heath, Patrick J.

    2018-01-01

    Stigma associated with seeking help has been found to be a key help-seeking barrier, however its role is less clear for: (a) adolescents, (b) groups outside the United States and (c) different types of therapy. This study addresses these omissions by examining the relationships between perceptions of public stigma of mental illness and the…

  8. Perceived stigma and associated factors among people with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epilepsy is the world's most common neurological disorder, affecting approximately 69 million people worldwide. Perceived stigma affects many domains of the lives of people with epilepsy. However, in Ethiopia there is dearth of study on perceived stigma specifically among people with epilepsy. Objective: To ...

  9. Managing AIDS stigma | Holzemer | SAHARA-J: Journal of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ccording to anecdotal reports, AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to influence people living with and affected by HIV disease as well as their health care providers, particularly in southern Africa where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma is perceived as a major limiting factor in primary and secondary HIV/AIDS ...

  10. A critical synthesis of interventions to reduce stigma attached to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Interventions have been developed and implemented to reduce the stigma attached to mental illness. However, mental healthcare users are still stigmatised. Objective: The objective of this study was to critically synthesise the best available evidence regarding interventions to reduce stigma attached to mental ...

  11. The multidimensional nature of HIV stigma: evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV stigma continues to be a major challenge to addressing HIV/AIDS in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique. This paper explores the multidimensional nature of HIV stigma through the thematic analysis of five qualitative studies conducted in high HIV prevalence provinces in Mozambique ...

  12. A model for understanding the relationship between stigma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People living with HIV or AIDS (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa sometimes have care-seeking behaviours that result in a suboptimal quality of life. This paper seeks to examine the role of stigma in the care-seeking behaviour of PLHIV. We hypothesise that stigma relates to the behaviour of PLHIV themselves and with societal ...

  13. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  14. A comparative analysis of perceived stigma among HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to address two questions: (i) Do Ghanaian and African American males with HIV/AIDS experience different types and degrees of stigma? and (ii) Is the impact of stigma associated with HIV/AIDS on the self different for Ghanaian and African American males? A quantitative method was used, ...

  15. HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Workplaces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Stigma and discrimination against people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS undermines the effectiveness of national efforts to prevent and control the HIV epidemic. In the context of Tanzania, evidence on the incidence of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination from the perspective of the ...

  16. Stigma, identity and resistance among people living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS-related stigma can cause delays in testing, poor treatment adherence, and greater numbers of new infections. Existing studies from low- and middle-income countries focus on the negative experiences of stigma, and few document resistance strategies. In this article we document the diverse journeys of people living ...

  17. Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 1: Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silatham Sermrittirong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The contributors to the Working Group that produced this paper are like countless others who are confronted by programme realities in developing countries, such as the pressure to respond to the challenge of stigma in environments of extreme poverty, the issues of scant resources and the requirements to adapt objectives accordingly, and the competing demands for relief and emergency aid. It is in such contexts that researchers have the responsibility of making evidence-based recommendations and yet, regarding stigma interventions, they are confronted by a domain almost devoid of reliable evidence. Without examples of comparable situations that can be reviewed, it may be possible to make progress only through recourse to theoretical concepts. Broad guidelines, based on respected theories, may prove to be a sound foundation on which intervention programmes can be designed. In this article, the discrete components of stigma that should be targeted in stigma intervention programmes are identified. It is also recommended that since stigma affects different levels in society simultaneously, stigma programmes should be multi-targeted and designed with an intention to adjust interactions between groups at different societal levels. This article lays the foundation for a companion article that presents a generally applicable method by which plans for stigma interventions can be assessed (Interventions for Stigma Reduction – Part 2: Practical Applications. DOI: 10.5463/dcid.v22i3.70

  18. Level of stigma among female sex workers: comparison of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The BSS used standardized methodology to study the level of stigma among female sex workers. Female sex workers were ... We used Chi square to compare the socio-demographic variables of the two surveys and logistic regression to compare level of stigma between the two surveys. Results: There is a ...

  19. Stigma surrounding the patients using mental health services

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Zisovska, Elizabeta; Simeonovska Joveva, Elena; Serafimov, Aleksandar; Karakolevska Ilova, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Stigma is used as a synonym for designation of individuals or group with some characteristic differ from other population. This means that any disease by itself can carry stigma. But the greatest stigmatization is still associated with mental illness. Stigmatization means rewriting the negative characteristics of individual or group and creation of social distance and neglect.

  20. Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine, SAHARA-J: Journal of ... discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. .... The departure point for much of the scholarly work on stigma.

  1. Raising awareness of HIV-related stigma and its associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV Aids will remain a problem for a long time. Many people with HIV/AIDS still live in fear of discovery because of the prevalent stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination. This article examines how HIV-related stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination can be addressed in a classroom ± in the field ...

  2. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Workplaces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Effective strategies to end HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in the workplace should consider the context in which the strategies are to be implemented. HIV/AIDS-related education and availability of health and social supports to HIV/AIDS affected/infected employees could help lower self-stigma and ...

  4. Initial Validation of the Mental Health Provider Stigma Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Abell, Neil; Mennicke, Annelise

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an initial validation of the mental health provider stigma inventory (MHPSI). The MHPSI assesses stigma within the service provider--client relationship on three domains--namely, attitudes, behaviors, and coworker influence. Methods: Initial validation of the MHPSI was conducted with a sample of 212 mental health employees…

  5. Exploring the stigma related experiences of family members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This stigma subsequently perpetuates a cycle of disability on the part of the patient and family. Purpose: To explore the stigma related experiences of family members of persons with mental illness in a selected community in the iLembe district of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), in order to develop recommendations to help families ...

  6. Experience of stigma and discrimination and the implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experience of stigma and discrimination and the implications for healthcare seeking behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited setting. ... Results: It appears that the magnitude of stigma and discrimination in the area has decreased to a considerably lower level, however, the problem's severity is still ...

  7. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  8. The Impact of Teacher Credentials on ADHD Stigma Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lindsay; Long, Susanne; Garvan, Cynthia; Bussing, Regina

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is associated with high levels of stigma, which may lead to treatment barriers, self-fulfilling prophecies, and social rejection. This study established the reliability of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire…

  9. The influence of stigma on voluntary HIV testing among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, therefore, investigated the effect of HIV/AIDS-related internal and external stigma on the disposition of pregnant women in the Limpopo Province of South Africa to go for voluntary HIV-testing. Four hundred and fifty ... Furthermore, HIV/AIDS-related internal stigma came out to be a significant factor. The more ...

  10. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  11. My secret: The social meaning of HIV/AIDS stigma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Judgeo

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... Brown, Trujillo and Macintyre (2001) believed that the type and magnitude of people's reactions to this epidemic is largely due to HIV/AIDS stigma. HIV stigma remains the roadblock to a concerted action to reduce the transmission of HIV as it impedes prevention and treatment efforts (Campbell, Foulis, ...

  12. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  13. Life with an indwelling urinary catheter: the dialectic of stigma and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mary H

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenology was to describe and interpret the lived experience of long-term users of urinary catheters. Living with a urinary catheter involved a dialectical swing between acknowledgment that the catheter was "a part of me" and feelings of alienation and vulnerability when it was experienced as a stigma. Themes include Adjusting to embodied changes by perceiving the catheter as a "part of me," Shame and responding to shame by normalizing, and Embarrassment and coping with embarrassment by humor. Providers can minimize stigma related to the visibility of the catheter by coaching patients in strategies to manage going out of the home with a minimum of urine accidents or by helping develop ways to conceal the urine bag.

  14. Nitrogen release from differently aged Raphanus sativus L. nitrate catch crops during mineralization at autumn temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    radish (Raphanus sativus, L.) has emerged as a promising nitrate catch crop in cereal cropping, although the course of remineralization of residue N following termination of this frost-sensitive crucifer remains obscured. We incubated radish residues of different age (different planting and harvest dates......) with a loamy sand soil; mineralization of residue N was determined after 1, 2, 4 and 7 months of incubation at 2 °C and 10 °C. Incubations with soil only and with residues of white mustard (Sinapis alba, L) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) were included as references. Using linear regression, net N...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  16. Pengaruh Ekstrak Nenas (Ananas Sativus) Sebagai Koagulan Terhadap Kualitas Lembaran Karet

    OpenAIRE

    Hulu, Temali

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas sativus) extract kept for 1 day (N-5), 3 days (N-4), 5 days (N-3), 7 days (N-2), and 9 days (N-1) as coagulant of natural rubber have been carried out. Coagulation rate of each coagulant has been tested and they have been compared to formic acid. The impurity, ash, nitrogen, and organic volatile content, as well as retention plasticity index and Mooney viscosity of the rubber sheets produced have been analysed follow the Standard Indonesia Rubber (SIR). Those results were c...

  17. Functional characterization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Clade V MLO genes

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Jeroen A.; Appiano, Michela; Bijsterbosch, Gerard; Visser, Richard G.F.; Schouten, Henk J.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    Background Powdery mildew (PM) causing fungi are well-known pathogens, infecting over 10.000 plant species, including the economically important crop cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Loss-of-function mutations in clade V MLO genes have previously been shown to lead to recessively inherited broad-spectrum resistance to PM in several species. In cucumber, one clade V MLO homolog (CsaMLO8) was previously identified as being a susceptibility factor to PM. Two other closely related homologs (CsaMLO1...

  18. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Mental illness stigma reduction interventions: review of intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalky, Heyam F

    2012-06-01

    This article reviews the literature evaluating the effectiveness of various stigma reduction interventions related to mental health illnesses. An integrated search of the English language literature from 1998 to May 2008 was done using CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Scopus, and PsychINFO databases. The results of this review emphasize that experimental clinical trials hold promise for providing evidence-based data that can be used in mental health practice. Educational and contact-based strategies used in various stigma reduction programs resulted in the most durable gains in knowledge as well as positive attitudinal and behavioral changes needed to decrease the stigma associated with mental illness. Special stigma reduction programs are to be planned for adolescent and elderly targets. Future studies have yet to be designed to identify cost-effective stigma reduction programs. Moreover, interventional studies from different cultures are encouraged. Cross-cultural interventions need to be evaluated and modified to ensure providing culturally relevant interventions.

  20. Abortion stigma: a reconceptualization of constituents, causes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison; Bessett, Danielle; Steinberg, Julia R; Kavanaugh, Megan L; De Zordo, Silvia; Becker, Davida

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is a deeply contextual, dynamic social process; stigma from abortion is the discrediting of individuals as a result of their association with abortion. Abortion stigma is under-researched and under-theorized, and the few existing studies focus only on women who have had abortions. We build on this work, drawing from the social science literature to describe three groups whom we posit are affected by abortion stigma: Women who have had abortions, individuals who work in facilities that provide abortion, and supporters of women who have had abortions, including partners, family, and friends, as well as abortion researchers and advocates. Although these groups are not homogeneous, some common experiences within the groups--and differences between the groups--help to illuminate how people manage abortion stigma and begin to reveal the roots of this stigma itself. We discuss five reasons why abortion is stigmatized, beginning with the rationale identified by Kumar, Hessini, and Mitchell: The violation of female ideals of sexuality and motherhood. We then suggest additional causes of abortion stigma, including attributing personhood to the fetus, legal restrictions, the idea that abortion is dirty or unhealthy, and the use of stigma as a tool for anti-abortion efforts. Although not exhaustive, these causes of abortion stigma illustrate how it is made manifest for affected groups. Understanding abortion stigma will inform strategies to reduce it, which has direct implications for improving access to care and better health for those whom stigma affects. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stakeholder perceptions of mental health stigma and poverty in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizza Dorothy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background World wide, there is plentiful evidence regarding the role of stigma in mental illness, as well as the association between poverty and mental illness. The experiences of stigma catalyzed by poverty revolve around experiences of devaluation, exclusion, and disadvantage. Although the relationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness has been documented in high income countries, little has been written on this relationship in low and middle income countries. The paper describes the opinions of a range of mental health stakeholders regarding poverty, stigma, mental illness and their relationship in the Ugandan context, as part of a wider study, aimed at exploring policy interventions required to address the vicious cycle of mental ill-health and poverty. Methods Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with purposefully selected mental health stakeholders from various sectors. The interviews and FGDs were audio-recorded, and transcriptions were coded on the basis of a pre-determined coding frame. Thematic analysis of the data was conducted using NVivo7, adopting a framework analysis approach. Results Most participants identified a reciprocal relationship between poverty and mental illness. The stigma attached to mental illness was perceived as a common phenomenon, mostly associated with local belief systems regarding the causes of mental illness. Stigma associated with both poverty and mental illness serves to reinforce the vicious cycle of poverty and mental ill-health. Most participants emphasized a relationship between poverty and internalized stigma among people with mental illness in Uganda. Conclusion According to a range of mental health stakeholders in Uganda, there is a strong interrelationship between poverty, stigma and mental illness. These findings re-affirm the need to recognize material resources as a central element in the fight against stigma of mental illness, and the

  2. Developing a research agenda for understanding the stigma of addictions Part I: Lessons from the Mental Health Stigma Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick; Schomerus, Georg; Shuman, Valery; Kraus, Dana; Perlick, Debbie; Harnish, Autumn; Kulesza, Magdalena; Kane-Willis, Kathleen; Qin, Sang; Smelson, David

    2017-01-01

    Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. A review of key studies from the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field. Integration of this information led to Part I of this two part paper, development of a research paradigm seeking to understand phenomena of addiction stigma (eg, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination) and its different types (public, self, and label avoidance). In Part II paper (American Journal of Addictions, Vol 26, pages 67-74, this issue), we address how this literature informs a research program meant to develop and evaluate and stigma strategies (eg, education, contact, and protest). Both papers end with recommendations for next steps to jumpstart the addiction stigma portfolio. Here in Part I, we offer one possible list of key research issues for studies attempting to describe or explain addiction stigma. (Am J Addict 2017;26:59-66). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  4. Assessment of stigma associated with stuttering: development and evaluation of the self-stigma of stuttering scale (4S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    To create a psychometrically sound scale that measures different levels of internalized stigma (i.e., self-stigma) among adults who stutter and to analyze factor structure, reliability, and initial construct validity of the scale. Two-hundred ninety-one adults who stutter were recruited from Board Recognized Specialists in Fluency Disorders and the National Stuttering Association. Participants completed a web-based survey including an experimental scale called the Self-Stigma of Stuttering Scale (4S), designed to measure different levels of self-stigma in people who stutter, along with a series of established measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. The experimental scale demonstrated adequate reliability in internal consistency and temporal stability. Factor analysis revealed underlying components supportive of a multidimensional model of stigma. Stigma self-concurrence and, to a lesser extent, stereotype agreement and stigma awareness were negatively correlated with self-esteem, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction, supporting initial construct validity of the scale. Speech-language pathologists can identify the presence of self-stigma in their adult clients who stutter and help them to alter these beliefs. The 4S can be a means for researchers and clinicians to achieve these goals.

  5. Stigma Management in Normal-Stigmatized Interactions: Test of the Disclosure Hypothesis and a Model of Stigma Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, David R.; Thompson, Teresa L.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the efficacy of disclosure as a stigma management strategy in normal-stigmatized interactions. Path analysis of the data indicates a process leading from uncertainty, tension, and attraction to acceptance/rejection, as expected. Findings are discussed in terms of stigma attributions and relational development. (JMF)

  6. Isolation of a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 homolog in saffron (Crocus sativus L.): characterization and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Pasentsis, Konstantinos; Kalivas, Apostolos; Michailidou, Sofia; Madesis, Panagiotis; Argiriou, Anagnostis

    2012-08-01

    Genes in the phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family are instrumental in regulating the fate of meristems and flowering time. To investigate the role of these genes in the monocotyledonous plant Crocus (Crocus sativus L), an industrially important crop cultivated for its nutritional and medicinal properties, we have cloned and characterized a CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (CEN/TFL1) like gene, named CsatCEN/TFL1-like, the first reported CEN/TFL1 gene characterized from such a perennial geophyte. Sequence analysis revealed that CsatCEN/TFL1 shows high similarity to its homologous PEBP family genes CEN/TFL1, FT and MFT from a variety of plant species and maintains the same exon/intron organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the CsatCEN/TFL1 amino acid sequence confirmed that the isolated sequences belong to the CEN/TFL1 clade of the PEBP family. CsatCEN/TFL1 transcripts could be detected in corms, flower and flower organs but not in leaves. An alternative spliced transcript was also detected in the flower. Comparison of expression levels of CsatCEN/TFL1 and its alternative spliced transcript in wild type flower and a double flower mutant showed no significant differences. Overexpression of CsatCEN/TFL1 transcript in Arabidopsis tfl1 plants reversed the phenotype of early flowering and terminal flowering of the tfl1 plants to a normal one. Computational analysis of the obtained promoter sequences revealed, next to common binding motifs in CEN/TFL1-like genes as well as other flowering gene promoters, the presence of two CArG binding sites indicative of control of CEN/TFL1 by MADS-box transcription factors involved in crocus flowering and flower organ formation.

  7. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Crocetin Esters and Crocetin from Crocus sativus L. on Aortic Contractility in Rat Genetic Hypertension

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    Silvia Llorens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction, characterized by an enhancement in vasoconstriction, is clearly associated with hypertension. Saffron (Crocus sativus L. bioactive compounds have been recognized to have hypotensive properties. Recently, we have reported that crocetin exhibits potent vasodilator effects on isolated aortic rings from hypertensive rats. In this work, we have aimed to analyze the anticontractile ability of crocetin or crocetin esters pool (crocins isolated from saffron. Thus, we have studied the effects of saffron carotenoids on endothelium-dependent and -independent regulation of smooth muscle contractility in genetic hypertension. Methods: We have measured the isometric responses of aortic segments with or without endothelium obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The effects of carotenoids were studied by assessing the endothelial modulation of phenylephrine-induced contractions (10−9–10−5 M in the presence or absence of crocetin or crocins. The role of nitric oxide and prostanoids was analyzed by performing the experiments with L-NAME (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin (both 10−5 M, respectively. Results: Crocetin, and to a minor extent crocins, diminished the maximum contractility of phenylephrine in intact rings, while crocins, but not crocetin, increased this contractility in de-endothelizated vessels. In the intact vessels, the effect of crocetin on contractility was unaffected by indomethacin but was abolished by L-NAME. However, crocetin but not crocins, lowered the already increased contractility caused by L-NAME. Conclusions: Saffron compounds, but especially crocetin have endothelium-dependent prorelaxing actions. Crocins have procontractile actions that take place via smooth muscle cell mechanisms. These results suggest that crocetin and crocins activate different mechanisms involved in the vasoconstriction pathway in hypertension.

  9. Identification and characterization of Burkholderia isolates obtained from bacterial rot of saffron (Crocus sativus L. grown in Italy

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    MARIO FIORI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five isolates of Burkholderia gladioli, the causal agent of a bacterial disease recently reported on saffron (Crocus sativus L. grown in central Sardinia (Italy, were characterized using different approaches. The characteristic symptoms of the disease on saffron plants were rot of emerging shoots and leaves and spots on leaves and corms. In the field, the disease was destructive and reduced flowering by about 80%. Two types of colonies of bacteria cultured from affected plants were selected on the basis of their characteristic morphology and pigment production on nutrient-glucose-agar. One type was round, wrinkled, and producing yellowish pigment; while the second was round, smooth and without pigment. All 25 selected isolates were pathogenic on saffron leaves and corms. Ten were pathogenic on gladiolus and lily leaves. None of the tested isolates was pathogenic on onion plants. The isolates were characterized by conventional tests, Biolog, PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis. Conventional tests and PCR identified all isolates as B. gladioli. PCR-RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA products digested with the three restriction enzymes Alu I, Dde I and Bss KI, identified ten of the isolates as B. gladioli pv. gladioli. Sequencing and comparison of the 16S rDNA PCR products confirmed that ten of of the isolates were B. gladioli and the remaining 15 were an unidentified Burkholderia species. Sequencing the gene encoding for b-subunit polypeptide of DNA gyrase (gyrB did not assist identification of these isolates. This study suggests that other Burkholderia species are involved with bacterial softrot of saffron in Sardinia, and further studies are in progress to verify this hypothesis.

  10. Stigma towards PLWHA: The Role of Internalized Homosexual Stigma in Latino Gay/Bisexual Male and Transgender Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection. PMID:23631713

  11. Stigma towards PLWHA: the role of internalized homosexual stigma in Latino gay/bisexual male and transgender communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection.

  12. Investigation of the Use of "Cucumis Sativus" for Remediation of Chromium from Contaminated Environmental Matrices: An Interdisciplinary Instrumental Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lynsey R.; Edwards, Michael R.; Farmer, Russell; Greenly, Kathryn J.; Hensler, Sherri; Jenkins, Scott E.; Joyce, J. Michael; Mann, Jason A.; Prentice, Boone M.; Puckette, Andrew E.; Shuford, Christopher M.; Porter, Sarah E. G.; Rhoten, Melissa C.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary, semester-long project is presented in which students grow Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants from seeds and study the ability of the plants to remediate a heavy metal from contaminated soil or water or both. Phytoremediation strategies for environmental cleanup are presented as possible alternatives to chemical based clean-up…

  13. Use of molecular markers aids in the development of diverse inbred backcross lines in Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

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    Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a Mediterranean fresh-market type with a relatively narrow genetic base. To broaden its base for plant improvement, 42 diverse accessions were compared employing a previously defined standard marker array to choose wide-based parental lines for use in bac...

  14. Screening of Cucumis sativus as a new arsenic-accumulating plant and its arsenic accumulation in hydroponic culture.

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    Hong, Sun Hwa; Choi, Sun Ah; Yoon, Hyeon; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Phytoextraction is a remediation technology with a promising application for removing arsenic (As) from soils and waters. Several plant species were evaluated for their As accumulation capacity in hydroponic culture amended with As. Cucumis sativus (cucumber) displayed the highest tolerance against As among 4 plants tested in this study (corn, wheat, sorghum and cucumber). The germination ratio of Cucumis sativus was more than 50% at the high concentration of 5,000 mg-As/l. In Cucumis sativus grown in a solution contaminated with 25 mg-As/l, the accumulated As concentrations in the shoot and root were 675.5 ± 11.5 and 312.0 ± 163.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values of the translocation and bioaccumulation factors for As were 1.9 ± 0.9 and 21.1 ± 8.4, respectively. These results indicate Cucumis sativus is to be a candidate plant for phytoextraction of As from soils and water.

  15. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  16. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  17. Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

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    Piman Pocasap

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  18. Stroke-related stigma among West Africans: Patterns and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Nichols, Michelle; Qanungo, Suparna; Teklehaimanot, Abeba; Singh, Arti; Mensah, Nathaniel; Saulson, Raelle; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Ezinne, Uvere; Owolabi, Mayowa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2017-04-15

    Disability-adjusted life-years lost after stroke in Low & Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) is almost seven times those lost in High-income countries. Although individuals living with chronic neurological and mental disorders are prone to stigma, there is a striking paucity of literature on stroke-related stigma particularly from LMICs. To assess the prevalence, severity, determinants and psycho-social consequences of stigma among LMIC stroke survivors. Between November 2015 and February 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 200 consecutive stroke survivors attending a neurology clinic in a tertiary medical center in Ghana. The validated 8-Item Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI-8) questionnaire was administered to study participants to assess internalized and enacted domains of stigma at the personal dimension with further adaptation to capture family and community stigma experienced by stroke participants. Responses on the SSCI-8 were scored from 1 to 5 for each item, where 1=never, 2=rarely, 3=sometimes, 4=often and 5=always with a score range of 8-40. Demographic and clinical data on stroke type and severity as well as depression and Health-Related Quality of Life indicators were also collected. Predictors of stroke-related stigma were assessed using Linear Models (GLM) via Proc GENMOD in SAS 9.4. 105 (52.5%) subjects recruited were males and the mean±SD age of stroke survivors in this survey was 62.0±14.4years. Mean SSCI-8 score was highest for personal stigma (13.7±5.7), which was significantly higher than family stigma (11.9±4.6; p=0.0005) and social/community stigma (11.4±4.4; pstigma. A graded increase in scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale and Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale was observed across the three categories. Living in an urban setting was associated with higher SSCI-8 scores. Moreover, stroke subjects with more severe post-stroke residual symptom deficits reported a significantly higher frequency of stigma

  19. [Internalized Stigma of Schizophrenia: Validation of the German Version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-Scale (ISMI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibitz, Ingrid; Friedrich, Michaela Elena; Unger, Annemarie; Bachmann, Anatol; Benesch, Thomas; Amering, Michaela

    2013-03-01

    Schizophrenia is particularly associated with stigma. Especially internalized stigma, the inner subjective experience of stigma and its psychological effects resulting from applying negative stereotypes and stigmatising attitudes to oneself, is a barrier to recovery. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness-scale (ISMI) developed by Jennifer Boyd Ritsher and colleagues is a valid instrument for self-rated assessment of the subjective experience of stigma. The aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the German Version of the ISMI among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The ISMI was translated into German. Reliability and validity of the instrument were tested and predictors of internalized stigma were explored. Data of 157 people were collected on the ISMI and demographic and clinical variables. Construct validity was tested by comparing results with already established constructs such as perceived devaluation and discrimination, depression, self-esteem, empowerment, control convictions and quality of life. The German Version of the ISMI showed good psychometric properties with high internal consistency, good test-retest reliability and good construct validity among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. About one third had a mean above the midpoint of the scale indicating a high level of internalized stigma. Internalized stigma was predicted by insufficient social network, level of education less than high school and inpatient or day clinic treatment compared to outpatient treatment. Results suggest that the German version of the ISMI is comparable to its original version. With the German version of the ISMI internalized stigma can be measured reliably and validly among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Future studies may use the ISMI to record changes in internalized stigma pertinent to the achievement of therapeutic goals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Clinical Applications of Saffron (Crocus sativus) and its Constituents: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, M; Vahabzadeh, M; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-06-01

    Commonly known as saffron, Crocus sativus L and its active components have shown several useful pharmacological effects such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, radical scavenger effects, learning and memory improving effects, etc. There has been an increasing body of data on saffron use in medical databases within the last 20 years. In the current review, the strengths and weaknesses of some of the clinical trials about different pharmacological effects of saffron will be discussed C. sativus extract has been studied in 8 anti-depressant clinical trials in comparison to placebo or some antidepressant drugs, in which saffron showed effectiveness as an antidepressant drug. Clinical trials on anti-Alzheimer effect of saffron demonstrated that it was more effective than the placebo, and as effective as donepezil. 2 clinical trials on antipruritic and complexion promoter in skin care effects of saffron both confirmed that saffron was more efficient than the placebo. In another clinical trial, it was proved that in addition to the weight loss treatment, saffron could reduce snacking frequency. Clinical trials conducted on women with premenstrual syndrome showed that saffron could reduce suffering symptoms more than the placebo and similar to standard treatments.Furthermore, additional clinical trials on effects of saffron on erection dysfunction, allergies, cardiovascular and immune system as well as its safety, toxicity and human pharmacokinetics are reviewed herein. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.