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Sample records for sativa seed extract

  1. Evaluation of phenolic profile, enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts

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    Anela Topcagic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. [N.sativa] seed extracts demonstrated numerous beneficial biological effects including, among others, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. To better understand the phytochemical composition of N. sativa seeds, methanol seed extracts were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid content. Furthermore, we tested N. sativa methanol, n-hexane, and aqueous seed extracts for their inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and catalase (CAT as well as for antimicrobial activity against several bacterial and a yeast strains. The phenolic content of N. sativa was analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The inhibition of BChE was assessed by modified Ellman’s method, and the inhibition of CAT was determined by monitoring hydrogen peroxide consumption. The extracts were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli using the agar diffusion method. The UHPLC-MS/MS method allowed the identification and quantification of 23 phenolic compounds within 15 minutes. The major components found in N. sativa seed extract were sinapinic acid (7.22 ± 0.73 µg/mg as a phenolic acid and kaempferol (11.74 ± 0.92 µg/mg as a flavonoid. All extracts showed inhibitory activity against BChE, with methanol seed extract demonstrating the highest inhibitory activity (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50] 79.11 ± 6.06 µg/ml. The methanol seed extract also showed strong inhibitory activity against CAT with an IC50 value of 6.61 ± 0.27 µg/ml. Finally, the methanol extract exhibited considerable inhibitory activity against the tested microbial strains. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the ability of black cumin seed extracts to inhibit CAT. Our results indicate that N. sativa seed can be considered as an effective inhibitor

  2. Nigella sativa (black cumin seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.

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    Swantje C Duncker

    Full Text Available The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889 or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1. DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFNγ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy.

  3. Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.

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    Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFNγ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy.

  4. Effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on lead-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead (Pb) is a widespread toxic metal found in the environment with potential danger to human health. It is used in the manufacture of batteries, metal products, paints and other domestic substances. This study investigated the effect of aqueous seed extract of Nigella sativa on leadinduced cerebral cortex toxicity in Long ...

  5. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. The effect of Nigella Sativa Seed Extract on Male Rats Kidneys Induced by Gentamicin

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    M Khazaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Gentamicin is an aminoglycosides antibiotic which is used to treat several types of bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa extract on renal toxicity in rats induced by gentamicin. Methods: In the present experimental study, 42 Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups of 7 includes: control (normal saline 2ml/kg, i.p, gentamicin (gentamicin80mg/kg/day, i.p, positive control (400mg/kg NSE, i.p and treated groups 1, 2, 3 (gentamicin 80mg/kg/day+ NSE 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively, i.p. Nigella sativa extract was injected for 7 days after a ten days period of gentamicin injection. Results: Gentamicin caused necrosis and inflammation in the renal cortex and medullary tissues. Treatment with Nigella sativa seed extract significantly decreased serum creatinine, BUN and serum LDH in treated groups compared with the group receiving gentamicin. The greatest impact was created in high dose (P=0.001. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seed extract reduces inflammation caused by receiving gentamicin in kidney tissue and a significant reduction in creatinine, urea nitrogen and lactic dehydrogenase enzyme in treated mice compared with the control group.

  7. The effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting Candida albicans on heat cured acrylic resin

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    Hanoem EH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia has a variety of plants that can be used for medicines. One of the medicinal plants is Nigella sativa. Nigella sativa has been used for medicinal purposes, both as medicinal herb and as medicinal oil. It contains saponin and atsiri oils that have antifungal, antimicrobial and antibacterial effects. Nigella sativa has been suggested as denture cleansers since it can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Purpose: The aim of this research is to know the effectiveness of Nigella sativa seed extract in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin. Methods: Eighteen acrylic samples were divided into three groups. Group I was control group, only contaminated with C. albicans without immersing in any solution. Group II was acrylic sample immersed in sterile aquades for one hour. Group III was acrylic sample immersed in Nigella sativa seed extract for one hour. Results: There were significant differences of C. albicans (p < 0.05 among the three groups. The number of Candida albicans was significantly higher in Group I, while that in group II was lower than that in group I, and that in group III was the lowest. Conclusion: Nigella sativa seed extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans on heat cured acrylic resin.Latar belakang: Indonesia memiliki berbagai tanaman yang dapat dipakai sebagai obat, salah satu tanaman tersebut adalah jinten hitam (Nigella sativa. Pada beberapa negara jinten hitam telah digunakan untuk berbagai tujuan, baik sebagai obat herbal maupun sebagai minyak. kandungan jinten hitam adalah saponin dan minyak atsiri yang mempunyai efek anti jamur dan anti mikroba. Jinten hitam disarankan sebagai pilihan pembersih gigi tiruan yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans (C. albicans pada resin akrilik heat cured. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas dari ekstrak biji jinten hitam dalam menghambat pertumbuhan

  8. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

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    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  9. Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.

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    Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

    2011-08-24

    The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals.

  10. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

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    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  11. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

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    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  12. Effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract on cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in Sprague-Dawley rats.

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    Riyaz, Ambreena; Nazir, Shahid; Khushtar, Mohammad; Mishra, Anuradha; Jahan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Asad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract against cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying, in a rat model. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: Group I or control group, Group II (cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p at day 5), Group III (N. sativa L. 250 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5), Group IV (N. sativa L. 500 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5) and Group V (ondansetron 3 mg/kg/day, per os + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5). Phenol red meal was adopted to estimate gastric emptying in different groups of the rats. Gastric emptying was significantly increased (p cisplatin treatment alone (Group II). However, ondansetron produced significantly (p < 0.01) better reversal than N. sativa L. seed extract.

  13. Impact of Black seed (Nigella sativa extract on bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

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    N Valizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "n  "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: "nExperimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. "nMaterials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to Calcium-D supplements (2 tablets per day all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o. or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (Bone-ALP and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment. "nResults: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy. "nConclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.

  14. Bioassay Screening of the Essential Oil and Various Extracts of Nigella sativa L. Seeds Using Brine Shrimp Toxicity Assay

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    Fariba Sharififar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since cytotoxicity screening is the first step necessary for any new drug development, this study was designed to find out and compare the cytotoxicity effects of the essential oil and various extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds using Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay. Materials and Methods: Essential oils and various extracts of N. sativa were assessed by two methods of disk and solution of BSL. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS statistical package version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, 250 USA. Data were processed in probit-analysis program to estimate LC50 values. Results: All of the tested fractions demonstrated more cytotoxicity in the solution method. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of N. sativa showed the most cytotoxicity with LC50 values 7 and 21 μg/ml respectively; while aqueous and ethanolic had no significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the GC/MS analysis of the essential oil of N. sativa showed the p-cymene (48.1%, α-thujone (14.38% and dihydro carveol (9.11% as the main compounds. Conclusion: These results suggest some limitation for using this spice in diet. Furthermore, this plant could be considered as a source of cytotoxic compounds which should be studied in details.

  15. Anti-Malaria Study of Nigella sativa L. Seed Water Extract in Mus musculus Mice Balb C Strain In Vivo

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    Tunru Insan Sosiawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects, including anti-parasitic properties. This study investigated the anti-malarial effects of a water extract of N. sativa seed in Mus muculus mice infected with the Plasmodium berghei NK65 parasite. The method used was to take a blood parasitaemia count, following the use of Giemsa dye, determining the level of nitric oxide in mice that were infected with P. berghei malaria, using the spectrophotometric method, and determining their survival rate after 20 days of being infected with P. berghei malaria. The results showed that the decrease in the number of parasitaemia and the level of nitric oxide in subjects treated with doses of N. sativa was significant (p < 0.05. Further results showed that P. berghei-infected mice that were given 100 µg/kg of body weight had a better chance of survival. The conclusion is that the provision of N. sativa may reduce the number of malaria parasites and reduce levels of NO. The decrease in the number of parasites may be caused by an immune mechanism, through the regulation of NO levels (lower levels of NO, due to the influence of the anti-oxidant effects of N. sativa. Survival rates of the mice did not show significant results with reduced levels of parasitaemia and NO. This is likely to be because the levels of NO in this group were below the threshold levels at which NO can function as an anti-parasitic. It is alleged that, while NO can function as an anti-parasitic at certain levels, at lower levels its function as an antiparasitic is not optimal. On the other hand, if the levels are too high, damage will result, because of the nature of free-radicals.

  16. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...

  17. Microwave-assisted extraction of glucosinolates from Eruca sativa seeds and soil: comparison with existing methods.

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    Omirou, Michalis; Papastylianou, Ioannis; Iori, Renato; Papastephanou, Chara; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Ehaliotis, Costantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary plant metabolites that are abundant in brassicas and their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates, are toxic to soil pathogens. Efficiency and extraction time are critical for routine analysis of GSLs in plant tissues. Robust analytical procedures are required for the extraction of GSL from soil. Development and optimisation of a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method for the recovery of GSL from plant tissues and soil and comparison of its efficiency with other established extraction methods. Solvents, temperature, microwave power and extraction time were examined as parameters controlling MAE efficiency. In rocket seeds the efficiency of MAE was determined through recovery of GSLs from seeds and of sinigrin (1) that was used as internal standard. MAE was then compared with the certified ISO-9167 method and an ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). MAE was also applied for the extraction of GSLs from soils fortified with 1 at three fortification levels. The efficiency of MAE was compared with a recently proposed agitation-filtration (AGIT) extraction method. The optimum conditions identified for extraction of GSLs from seeds were: methanol extraction at 250 W and 80 degrees C for 10 min. MAE and ISO methods showed comparable efficiencies and higher than UAE. In soil, both methods resulted in nearly 100% recovery of 1 at all fortification levels, although MAE achieved this recovery after a single extraction step compared with AGIT, which required two. The MAE developed is a simple and rapid method for the extraction of GSLs from plant tissues and soil that can be applied to a large number of samples, thus reducing the time of analysis. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats

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    Abbasali Abbasnezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes impairs hippocampus neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats' hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Diabetes induced by 60 mg/kg STZ, i.p, and the rats were divided into five experimental groups (n=8-10 in each group including control (received 0.5 ml normal saline, untreated STZ-diabetic (received 0.5 ml normal saline, and treated rats received Nigella sativa extract (200 and 400 mg/kg or metformin (300 mg/kg by gavage for 42 days. Serum glucose concentration and body weight as well as hippocampus tissue malondialdehyde and thiollevels were determined by calorimetric assay. Results: Serum glucose level in the diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg Nigella sativaextract at the days 24 and 45 decreased in comparison to untreated diabetic group (p

  19. Comparison of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.

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    Kokoska, L; Havlik, J; Valterova, I; Sovova, H; Sajfrtova, M; Jankovska, I

    2008-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. seed essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), dry steam distillation (SD), steam distillation of crude oils obtained by solvent extraction (SE-SD), and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE-SD) were tested for their antibacterial activities, using the broth microdilution method and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the essential oils tested differed markedly in their chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities. The oils obtained by HD and SD were dominated by p-cymene, whereas the major constituent identified in both volatile fractions obtained by SD of extracted oils was thymoquinone (ranging between 0.36 and 0.38 g/ml, whereas in oils obtained by HD and SD, it constituted only 0.03 and 0.05 g/ml, respectively). Both oils distilled directly from seeds showed lower antimicrobial activity (MICs > or = 256 and 32 microg/ml for HD and SD, respectively) than those obtained by SE-SD and SFE-SD (MICs > or = 4 microg/ml). All oil samples were significantly more active against gram-positive than against gram-negative bacteria. Thymoquinone exhibited potent growth-inhibiting activity against gram-positive bacteria, with MICs ranging from 8 to 64 microg/ml.

  20. Extraction, chemical characterization and antioxidant activity ofLitchi chinensisSonn. andAvena sativaL. seeds extracts obtained from pressurizedn-butane.

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    Paliga, Marshall; Novello, Zuleica; Dallago, Rogério M; Scapinello, Jaqueline; Magro, Jacir Dal; Di Luccio, Marco; Tres, Marcus V; Oliveira, J Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of litchi ( Litchi chinensis Sonn.) and oat ( Avena sativa L.) seeds were investigated using n -butane as pressurized solvent by evaluating the effect of pressure in the range of 7-100 bar and temperature from 25 to 70 °C on the extract yield and chemical composition together with the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained. It was experimentally observed extraction yields for both seeds up to ~3.5 wt%, with a total phenolic content around 126.4 mg GAE/100 g of extract, and an antioxidant activity up to 78.36%. Oat seeds extract presented higher values of these parameters evaluated compared to litchi extract. Based on the results found, it seems that n -butane may be a promising solvent to conventional extraction methods, as mild operating conditions and eco-friendly solvent can be used to provide good results without any residues in the final product.

  1. Potential Antidepressant Constituents of Nigella sativa Seeds.

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    Elkhayat, Ehab S; Alorainy, Mohammad S; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Fat'hi, Shawkat

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs). Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,). The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg). However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents. Phytochemical and biological evaluation the antidepressant constituents in Nigella sativa using the tail suspension and forced swim methods afforded the isolation and identification of quercetin-3-O-α-L rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-7-O-β-D gluco pyranoside, tauroside E, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents in the polar extract of N. sativa. The isolated compounds were identified through extensive NMR analysis (1D, 2D, ESI MS). Abbreviations used: TST: Tail suspension test, FST: Forced swim test, OFT: An Open field test.

  2. Effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on number and activation of dural mast cells in rats.

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    Kilinc, E; Dagistan, Y; Kotan, B; Cetinkaya, A

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on the number and degranulation states of dural mast cells in rats. Rats were fed ad libitum with normal tap water or tap water with extract of N. sativa seed, Ramaria condensata, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius piperatus, and Tricholoma terreum for 3 days. Mast cells in dura mater were counted and evaluated in terms of granulation and degranulation states. Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, and T. terreum significantly increased the percent of degranulated mast cells in dura mater, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Moreover, T. terreum causes a significant increase in the total number of mast cells (p < 0.05). N. sativa significantly inhibited mast cell degranulation induced by both the compound 48/80 and T. terreum (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased the mast cell numbers increased by T. terreum (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that T. terreum following ingestion can contribute to headaches like migraine via dural mast cell degranulation and N. sativa may be able to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by stabilizing dural mast cells. However, investigation is needed to determine the ingredients of N. sativa that may be responsible for these beneficial effects.

  3. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    OpenAIRE

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH; Mohsen GHASEMI; Hasan ZANGANEH

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies sh...

  4. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Oil

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    Nameer Khairullah Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and cold press (CP to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO were Caryophyllene (17.47% followed by thymoquinone (TQ (11.80%, 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%, longifolene (3.5%, and carvacrol (1.82%. The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE. This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE.

  5. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  6. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Laynez Garsaball

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical compounds released by plants can to control the presence of other plants in their environment both of their own species and different ones, allelopathy is an important factor in regulating the structure of plant communities, a better understanding of these relationships is critical for appropriate agricultural development. The objective was to determine the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar Parris Island. A 15% w/v extract was prepared with leaves of tree marigold gold, it was allowed to stand for 48 h. After, diluting extracts at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% w/v were obtained and pH and electrical conductivity (S.cm-1 were determined. Sowing was carried out in trays covered with a double layer of absorbent paper on which were placed 25 seeds/tray. Irrigation was applied twice per day using leaf extracts. The control treatment received tap water. A randomized complete block design was used with four replications. Seedlings were harvested at 14 days after sowing. pH decreased and electrical conductivity increased with increases in the concentration of leaf extracts. The germination was negatively affected by extracts. A lowering effect was observed on the overall growth of lettuce seedlings.

  7. Evaluating extraction conditions of glucosinolate hydrolytic products from seeds of Eruca sativa (Mill.) Thell. using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rohit; Sharma, Deepika; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Bikram; Vig, Adarsh P; Arora, Saroj

    2014-10-01

    Glucosinolates and their hydrolytic products form an important class of plant secondary metabolites involved in various plant defense-linked mechanisms. The successful isolation of particular glucosinolate hydrolytic products is limited by a number of factors like understanding the parent glucosinolate moiety, solubility, and stability under different drying conditions. The extraction protocols currently available were modified to achieve both an increased yield as well as an increased number of hydrolytic products. Eruca sativa (Mill.) Thell. (called arugula in the U.S.A.), a rich source of varied glucosinolates, was used for the standardization of different extraction protocols. We exploited the volatile nature of the glucosinolates and developed a method that not only enhanced the yield of glucosinolate hydrolytic products, but also reduced undesired compounds. Among all the tested protocols, hydrodistillation using Clevenger apparatus was judged as the best protocol, which was evident from an enhanced yield as well as an increased number of hydrolytic products when compared to the other methods as monitored by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Glucosinolate hydrolytic products are important volatile metabolites that are difficult to extract. The different conditions, such as extraction method, solvent, and dryingmethods, are responsible for successful extractions. An improved extraction method will help in a better isolation of these valuable compounds, which may then be used for different biological activities such as anticancer, antimutagenic, bioherbicidal, antimicrobial, antigenotoxic, and antitumor activities. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  9. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Results: Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Conclusion: Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan) PMID:24799863

  10. Effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis in NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Radan, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    One of the considerable uses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed in traditional medicine has been to reduce semen, sperm and sexuality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of lettuce seed on testosterone level and spermatogenesis. In this experimental study 24 adult male NMRI mice weighing 20-25gr were purchased. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: controls, hydro-alcoholic (200 mg/kg) and aqueous extracts (50, 100mg/kg). The extracts were injected intraperitoneally once a day for 10 consecutive days. 2 weeks after the last injection, the mice were anaesthetized by ether and after laparatomy blood was collected from the heart to determine testosterone by ELISA assay kit. Then testis and cauda epididymis of all animals were removed for analyzing testis morphology and sperm count and viability. Testis weight in hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.001) and aqueous extract 50 mg/kg (p=0.008) groups was increased. Sperm viability in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 50 (p=0.026), 100 mg/kg (p=0.045) groups was decreased, Also the results showed a significant decrease in sperm count in hydro-alcoholic (p=0.035) and aqueous extracts 50 mg/kg (p=0.006) groups in comparison with control group. Also there was a significant increase in serum level of testosterone in aqueous extract 50 mg/kg group in comparison with control (p=0.002) hydro-alcoholic (p=0.001) and aqueous extracts 100 mg/kg (p=0.003) groups. Present results demonstrated that hydro-alcoholic and aqueous 50 mg/kg extracts of lettuce seed have antispermatogenic effects, also aqueous extract 50 mg/kg increased serum level of testosterone in mice. Therefore we can suggest that lettuce seed could be a potential contraceptive agent. This article extracted from M.Sc. student research project. (Ali Akbar Oroojan).

  11. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  12. Assessment of Cellular Responses to Oxidative Stress using MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells, Black Seed (N. Sativa L. Extracts and H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Farah

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Black seed (N. Sativa L is an oriental spice of the family Ranunculaceae that has long been rationally used as a natural medicine for treatment of many acute as well as chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease and immunological disorders. It has been used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, and dermatological conditions. There have been very few studies on the effects of N. Sativa as a chemoprevention of chronic diseases as well as in cancer prevention and/or therapy. Oxidative stress is a condition that underlies many acute as well as chronic conditions. The combination and role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in vivo is still a matter of conjecture. Our objective for the present study was to expose MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro (as a chronic disease example to aqueous and alcohol extracts and in combination with H2O2 as an oxidative stressor. Measurement of cell survival under various concentrations and mixtures was conducted using standard cell culture techniques, exposure protocols in 96 well plates and Fluorospectrosphotometry. Following cellular growth to 90% confluencey, exposure to water (WE and ethanol (AE extracts of N. sativa and H2O2 was performed. Cell survival indices were calculated from percent survival using regression analysis. Results showed that the alcohol extract and its mixtures were able to influence the survival of MCF-7 cells (indices ranged from 357.15- 809.50 Bg/ml in descending potency for H2O2+AE to the mix of 3. In contrast, H2O2 alone reduced effectively the survival of MCF-7 cells and the least effective combinations in descending potency were AE+H2O2, WE+H2O2, AE+WE, and WE+AE+H2O2. Mixtures other than AE+H2O2 showed possible interactions and loss of potency. In conclusion, N. Sativa alone or in combination with oxidative stress was found to be effective (in vitro in influencing the survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, unveiling promising opportunities in the field of cancer

  13. Purification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz defatted seed press cake contains a number of phytochemicals, including the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), an acylated quercetin glycoside, and three glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonyl-glucosinolate) glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decyl-gl...

  14. Allelopathic effect of medicinal plant Cannabis sativa L. on Lactuca sativa L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa MAHMOODZADEH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine allelopathic effect of Cannabis sativa L. on germination capability and seedling growth of Lactuca sativa L., a study was performed in laboratory conditions. Treatments were set up in randomised block design in four replications for each of four concentration ranges of 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of aqueous extract made of shoot parts and 4 identical extract concentrations made of root of cannabis. Control variant was lettuce seed treated by distilled water. During the studies shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings were measured after treatments with different concentrations of extracts made of root and shoot parts of cannabis, and the obtained values were compared with the control. The obtained results suggest that the extract from the shoot parts of cannabis in high concentrations of 75 and 100 % had inhibiting effect to the germination indices while the extract from the root had no statistically significant effect on germination of lettuce seeds. Extract made of root part of cannabis showed also stimulatory effect to shoot and seminal root length of lettuce seedlings in extract concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 %.

  15. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seeds, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Potential Overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M; Bello, Angelica M; Wasilewski, Ewa; Clarke, Hance A; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds are popular for their high nutrient content, and strict regulations are in place to limit the amount of potentially harmful phytocannabinoids, especially Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). In Canada, this limit is 10 μg of Δ9-THC per gram of hemp seeds (10 ppm), and other jurisdictions in the world follow similar guidelines. Materials and Methods: We investigated three different brands of consumer-grade hemp seeds using four different procedures to extract phytocannabinoids, and quantified total Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Discussion: We discovered that Δ9-THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ9-THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ9-THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ9-THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ9-THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason. Conclusion: Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds.

  16. A Simple Method for Determining Aphelenchoides besseyi Infestation Level of Oryza sativa Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshino, Shigeru; Togashi, Katsumi

    1999-01-01

    A simple extraction method was developed for obtaining the white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, from single seeds of rice, Oryza sativa. The method was as follows: Individual rice seeds were split longitudinally and then transferred into single pipet tips. Tips containing a split seed were then singly placed upright in glass vials with water to extract the nematodes. This method was more efficient than the Baermann funnel technique and allowed nearly 100% recovery of living A....

  17. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Nigella sativa Seeds on Serum Estradiol and Prolactin Levels and obstetric Criteria due to Hypothyroidism in Rat

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    Roghayeh Pakdel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa (NS seeds on hypothyroid pregnant rats and their progenies. Materials and Methods: Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil (PTU 0.03% in drinking water. Female rats were divided into seven groups: control, PTU, PTU-NS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, and NS (100 and 400 mg/kg. All treatments were done 20 days before mating and during pregnancy. The weight of rat dams and progenies, number of progenies and serum T4, estradiol and prolactin (PRL levels in rat dams were measured for all groups. Results: Serum T4 in all PTU-NS groups before mating was significantly increased versus PTU group. Body weight of rat dams before mating in all groups of PTU-NS was increased versus PTU group by P < 0.001, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively and in NS 100 and NS 400 was increased versus control group (P < 0.001. The number of offspring was significantly decreased in PTU and PTU-NS versus control group. The weight of progenies in NS 400 was higher than control group (P < 0.001 and was increased in PTU-NS 200 and PTU-NS 400 versus PTU group by P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively. Serum PRL level in rat dams in control, PTU, and PTU-NS groups were not statistically different between groups but significantly increased in NS 400 group when compared to control group. Estradiol levels were not significantly different in rat dams at 5 days after delivery. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that feeding of rat dams with NS extract before mating has positive protective effects on progenies. These effects may be due to antioxidant properties of NS in reducing oxidative stress and thyroid damages induced by PTU.

  18. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds, which are by-products of the wine industry. Grape seed extract is available in capsules and ... take anticoagulants (blood thinners), such as warfarin or aspirin. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care ...

  19. [Quality standard of uygur medicine Medicago sativa seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Huan; Xu, Hai-Yan; Wang, Dong-Dong; Li, Jie; Tian, Shu-Ge

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, microscopic identification method was adopted to observe the microscopic characters of ten batches of Medicago sativa seeds. And M. sativa seeds were identificated by TLC method in contrast to trigonelline and stachydrine hydrochloride. The impurities, moisture, ash, sour insoluble ash were detected based on Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version (Vol I ). An HPLC method was also established for determination of trigonelline in the M. sativa seeds. The contents of impurities, moisture, ash, sour insoluble ash should not exceed 5%, 10%, 6%, and 2%, respectively. The content of trigonelline should be not less than 0.795 6 mg x g(-1). The experimental methods were accurate and reliable, and can be used as the quality control of the seeds of M. sativa.

  20. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

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    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  1. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  2. Antibacterial and allelopathic activity of extract from Castanea sativa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Giordano, S; Ricciardi, L; Ferrara, S; Montesano, D; Castaldo Cobianchi, R; Vuotto, M L; Ferrara, L

    2000-08-01

    Following the extraction of Castanea sativa with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid (pH 3.0), the ethyl acetate soluble fraction was tested for its antibacterial and allelopathic activity. The extract was shown to have pronounced antibacterial effects against seven of the eight strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used (MIC in the range of 64-256 microg/ml and MBC in the range of 256-512 microg/ml). The active fraction was analyzed by TLC and HPLC showing the presence of rutin, hesperidin, quercetin, apigenin, morin, naringin, galangin and kaempferol. Standards of the identified flavonoids were tested against the same bacterial strains. The highest activity was shown by quercetin, rutin and apigenin. The allelopathic effect was tested against Raphanus sativus seed germination. The extract, quercetin, rutin and apigenin caused a decrease in the percentage of seed germination and root and epicotyl growth.

  3. Effect of Standardized Decoction of Nigella sativa Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Standardized Decoction of Nigella sativa Seed, Hemidesmus indicus Root and Smilax glabra Rhizome on the Expression of p53 and p21 Genes in Human Hepatoma Cells (HepG2) and Mouse Liver with Chemically-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis.

  4. Effect of Standardized Decoction of Nigella sativa Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    as resveratrol, curcumin and eurycomanone. [23] mediate their anti-proliferative effects trough apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Decoction comprising of N. sativa seed, H. indicus root, and S. glabra rhizome investigated in the present study also appears to exert anti-proliferative and anti carcinogenic effects via apoptosis and ...

  5. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02μm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youjun; Yu, Laura; Yung, Ka-Fu; Leung, Dennis Yc; Sun, Feng; Lim, Boon L

    2012-04-02

    Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  7. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youjun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2 promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive.

  8. Ethanol and supercritical fluid extracts of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L. increase gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Hong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: In conclusion, the findings of our study demonstrated that the hemp seed effectively inhibited H2O2 mediated oxidative stress and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in preventing oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  9. Deodorizing Substance in Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasugi, Toru; Murakawa, Takushi; Shibuya, Koji; Morimoto, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    A deodorizing substance in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), a spice for curry and vegetable foods in Southwest Asia, was examined. The essential oil prepared from the seeds of this plant exhibited strong deodorizing activity against methyl mercaptan, which is a main factor in oral malodor. After purification with silica gel column chromatography, the active substance in black cumin seed oil was identified as thymoquinone. This monoterpenic quinone functions as the main deodorizing substance in this oil against methyl mercaptan. Metabolite analysis suggested that the deodorizing activity may be generated by the addition of a reactive quinone molecule to methyl mercaptan. In the present study, the menthane-type quinone and phenol derivatives exhibited deodorizing activities via this mechanism.

  10. Anti-tumor properties of blackseed (Nigella sativa L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ait Mbarek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts. The essential oil (IC50 = 0.6%, v/v and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 0.75% extracts were more cytotoxic against the P815 cell line than the butanol extract (IC50 = 2%. Similar results were obtained with the Vero cell line. Although all extracts had a comparable cytotoxic effect against the ICO1 cell line, with IC50 values ranging from 0.2 to 0.26% (v/v, tests on the BSR cell line revealed a high cytotoxic effect of the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 0.2% compared to the essential oil (IC50 = 1.2%. These data show that the cytotoxicity of each extract depends on the tumor cell type. In vivo, using the DBA2/P815 (H2d mouse model, our results clearly showed that the injection of the essential oil into the tumor site significantly inhibited solid tumor development. Indeed, on the 30th day of treatment, the tumor volume of the control animals was 2.5 ± 0.6 cm³, whereas the tumor volumes of the essential oil-treated animals were 0.22 ± 0.1 and 0.16 ± 0.1 cm³ when the animals were injected with 30 µL (28.5 mg/mouse and 50 µL (47.5 mg/mouse per 48 h (six times, respectively. Interestingly, the administration of the essential oil into the tumor site inhibited the incidence of liver metastasis development and improved mouse survival.

  11. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  13. Isolation and primary structure of a methionine- and cystine-rich seed protein of Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, S; Odani, S

    1998-04-01

    A 10-kDa protein was isolated from resting seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa) by buffer extraction, gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The protein did not inhibit bovine trypsin. It consisted of subunits composed of 27 and 61 residues and was held together by two disulfide bonds. The complete amino acid sequence was identified by protein analysis, and had 20 mole% of amino acids containing sulfur. The protein was most similar to a methionine-rich protein of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and to Mabinlin IV, a sweetness-inducing protein of Capparis masaikai. The high methionine content and the absence of trypsin inhibitory activity suggested that the seed protein can be used to improve the nutritional quality of plant food-stuffs.

  14. Utilización de extractos de avena sativa l. en dermatitis Utilization of avena sativa l. extract in dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L López Agüero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los polifenoles (flavonoides y antocianinas están ampliamente distribuidos entre las diferentes especies vegetales. Estos poseen gran capacidad antioxidante; existiendo correlación positiva entre la actividad antioxidante y los polifenoles totales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar: 1° El contenido de polifenoles y antocianas totales de semillas, glumelas y extracto acuoso de Avena sativa L. 2° El efecto de la aplicación tópica de extracto acuoso de avena en 45 casos (10 mujeres y 35 hombres, entre 1 y 56 años de edad con dermatitis atópica, dermatitis de contacto irritativa y dermatitis de contacto alérgica; y 30 controles normales (15 mujeres y 15 hombres, entre 1 y 60 años de edad. Tratamiento: aplicación de compresas del extracto crudo de avena en la piel dañada durante 5 minutos, seguida de la colocación de la biomasa (T°= 33 + 2°C cubierta por una tela de gasa durante 5 minutos. Dicha biomasa se retira con el extracto de avena líquido. Entre 1 y 36 meses de iniciado el tratamiento se observó remisión de los síntomas cutáneos. El extracto acuoso, la biomasa de Avena sativa L., glumelas y semillas enteras contenían 6.12+0,45, 46,11+0,36, 212,81+0,19 y 286,60+0,50 mg/100 g ác. Gálico, respectivamente, de polifenoles totales.Polyphenols (flavonoids and anthocyanins are widely spread among the different vegetables species. They have a big antioxidant capacity. One important correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and the quantity of total polyphenols. The objective of this work was to evaluate: 1- the contents of polyphenols and anthocyanins of whole seeds, glumes and aqueous extract of Avena Sativa L., 2- the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of Avena sativa L. in 45 patients (10 females and 35 males, between 1 and 56 years olds with Atopic Dermatitis, Contact Irritative Dermatitis and Contact Allergic Dermatitis, and 30 normal controls (15 females and 15 males, between 1 and 60 years

  15. Optimized analysis and quantification of glucosinolates from Camelina sativa seeds by reverse-phase liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-of-pleasure or false flax (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) presscake contains three relatively unique glucosinolates: glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl) nonylglucosinolate)glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate), and 11-(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate. Using defatted seed material...

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction ofNigella sativaL. essential oil and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Abdol-Samad; Rismanchi, Marjan; Shahdoostkhany, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    It has been previously reported that the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds and its major active component, thymoquinone (TQ), possess a broad variety of biological activities and therapeutic properties. In this work, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the essential oil from Nigella sativa L. seeds and its antioxidant activity were studied. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to evaluate the effects of extraction time, irradiation power and moisture content on extraction yield and TQ content. Optimal parameters obtained by CCD and RSM were extraction time 30 min, irradiation power 450 W, and moisture content 50%. The extraction yield and TQ content of the essential oil were 0.33 and 20% under the optimum conditions, respectively. In contrast, extraction yield and TQ amount of oil obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) were 0.23 and 3.71%, respectively. The main constituents of the essential oil extracted by MAE and HD were p -cymene, TQ, α-thujene and longifolene, comprising more than 60% of total peak area. The antioxidant capacity of essential oils extracted by different methods were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assays, and compared with traditional antioxidants. The results showed that MAE method was a viable alternative to HD for the essential oil extraction from N. sativa seeds due to the excellent extraction efficiency, higher thymoquinone content, and stronger antioxidant activity.

  17. Lipid analysis of developing Camelina sativa seeds and cultured embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mike; Martin, Tina M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-10-01

    Camelina sativa is a cultivated oilseed rich in triacylglycerols containing oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic and eicosenoic acids. As it holds promise as a model species, its lipid synthesis was characterized in vivo and in culture. Lipid accumulates at a maximum rate of about 26 μg/day/seed (11.5 mg lipid/day/g fresh seed weight), a rate comparable with other oilseeds. Noteworthy is a late stage surge in α-linolenic acid accumulation. Small amounts of unusual epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids are also present in the triacylglycerols. These include 15,16-epoxy- and 15-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids and homologous series of ω7-hydroxy-alk-ω9-enoic and ω9/10-hydroxy-alkanoic acids. Mid-maturation embryos cultured in vitro have growth and lipid deposition rates and fatty acid compositions that closely match that of seeds, but extended culture periods allow these rates to rise and surpass those observed in planta. Optimized thin layer chromatography systems for characterization of labeled products from acetate or glycerol labeling are described. Glycerol label is only found in acylglycerols, largely as the intact glyceryl backbone, but acetate can label acyl groups and sterols, the latter to a much higher relative specific activity. This presumably occurs because mevalonic acid precursor is derived from the non-plastid pool of acetyl-CoA that is also the source for malonyl-CoA to drive FAE1-dependent chain elongation. Particular attention has been paid to the separation of sterols and diacylglycerols, and to hydrogenation of triacylglycerols to simplify their analysis. These improved methods will allow more accurate analyses of the fluxes of lipid metabolism in cultured plant embryos. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... including p53 and p21. These findings demonstrate that EENS inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HeLa cells and suggest this extract may be a promising agent for the prevention/treatment of human cervical cancer. Key words: Nigella sativa, cervical cancers, apoptosis, caspases, cell cycle.

  19. Protective effect of Allium sativa extract against carbon tetrachloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Protective effect of Allium sativa extract against carbon tetrachloride- induced hepatic oxidative stress and .... The bulbs were chopped and further dried for 5 h in an oven at 60°C and subsequently ground with ..... Auer W, Fiber A, Hertkorn E (1990). Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia garlic helps in mild ...

  20. Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude extract of Nigella sativa inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Cervical cancer is a major cause of morbidity in women worldwide and chemotherapy for this cancer seems unsatisfactory, which demands exploring new therapeutic ...

  1. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  2. Aphrodisiac properties of Allium tuberosum seeds extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guohua, Hu; Yanhua, Lu; Rengang, Mao; Dongzhi, Wei; Zhengzhi, Ma; Hua, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of Allium tuberosum seeds extract upon the expression of male rat sexual behavior, in order to know whether Allium tuberosum seeds extract possess aphrodisiac property...

  3. Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavakkoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nigella sativa (black seed or black cumin, which belongs to the Ranunculacea family, is an annual herb with many pharmacological properties. Among its many active constituents, thymoquinone (TQ is the most abundant constituent of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa (N. sativa seeds, and it is the constituent to which most properties of this herb are attributed. Methods: PubMed-Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify randomized control trials (RCTs investigating the therapeutic effects of N. sativa and/or TQ. In this review, we investigated the clinical uses of N. sativa and TQ in the prevention and the treatment of different diseases and morbidity conditions in humans. Results: Black seed and TQ are shown to possess multiple useful effects for the treatment of patients with several diseases, such as inflammatory and auto-immune disorders, as well as metabolic syndrome. Also, other advantages, including antimicrobial, anti-nociceptive and anti-epileptic properties, have been documented. The side effects of this herbal medicine appear not to be serious, so it can be applied in clinical trials because of its many advantages. Conclusion: Some effects of N. sativa, such as its hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and bronchodilatory effects, have been sufficiently studied and are sufficiently understood to allow for the next phase of clinical trials or drug developments. However, most of its other effects and applications require further clinical and animal studies.

  4. Biofunctional properties of Eruca sativa Miller (rocket salad) hydroalcoholic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Khushbakht; Zakir, Muhammad; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdur; Akber, Noor Ul; Khan, Murad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa Miller is a worldwide common alimentary plant (rocket leaves). The aim of this study was to correlate the potential in vitro scavenging activity of the E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) with its in vivo hypoglycaemic effect. In DDPH free radical (DFR) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, HAE in a concentration dependent manner (25-100 μg/mL) displayed a strong scavenging activity with maximum effect of 88% and 75% at 100 μg/mL, respectively. Daily administration of HAE (50 mg/kg; p.o.) in the in vivo model of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits for 28 days showed significant reduction in glycaemia, also supported by recovery of body weight. In conclusion, our results give preliminary information on the potential use of this plant as a nutraceutical, useful to control and/or prevent a hyperglycaemic status.

  5. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  6. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  7. Effect of Row Spacing and Seeding Rate on Yield Component and Seed Yield of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza ABADOUZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigation the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Mesasirsa an experiment was carried out at the research farm of Khouzestan Agricultural Research Center from 2000 to 2004. This research was conducted in the form of a split plot design in a randomized complete block, with four replications. Main plot was three row spaces (50, 60 and 70 cm and sub plots were five seeding rates (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg seed ha-1. Results showed that the highest seed yield obtained in the second year. Seed yield and raceme per m2 increased with row spacing decreased. Seeding rate did not have any significant effect on pod per raceme, seed per pod and seed weight. The interaction of year and treatments on whole of traits were not significant. It was observed that correlation among seed yield and yield components was positive and significant. It was concluded that with using 15 kg seed ha-1 obtained highest seed yield due to increase in raceme per m2 and seed weight.

  8. Allelopathic Activity of Extracts from Different Brazilian Peanut (Arachis hypogaeaL.) Cultivars on Lettuce(Lactuca sativa)and Weed Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimiro, G S; Mansur, E; Pacheco, G; Garcia, R; Leal, I C R; Simas, N K

    2017-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most consumed oleaginous plant in the world, producing seeds with high contents of lipids, proteins, vitamins, and carbohydrates. Biological activities of different extracts of this species have already been evaluated by many researchers, including antioxidant, antitumoral, and antibacterial. In this work, the allelopathic activity of extracts from different Brazilian peanut cultivars against lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and two weed plants ( Commelina benghalensis and Ipomoea nil ) was studied. Aerial parts, roots, seeds, and seed coats were used for the preparation of crude extracts. Seed extract partitioning was performed with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n -butanol, and aqueous residue. Germination and growth of hypocotyls and rootlets were evaluated after one and five days of incubation with plant extracts, respectively. Crude seed extract and its dichloromethanic partition displayed highest allelopathic activity. These results contribute for the study of new potential natural herbicides.

  9. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinab, E. M. EL-Bazza; Hala, A. Farrag; Mohie, E. D. Z. EL-Fouly; Seham, Y. M. EL-Tablawy

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7×10 1 to 9.8×10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp.

  10. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F. E-mail: hfarragmassoud@hotmail.com; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10{sup 1} to 9.8x10{sup 3} c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, G{sub 2} and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B{sub 1} and G{sub 1}. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  11. Effect of atmospheric plasma treatment on seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penado, Keith Nealson M.; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S.; Culaba, Ivan B.

    2018-01-01

    Multiple methods of improving plant development have been utilized over the past decades. Despite these improvements, there still exists a need for better planting methods due to the increasing population of a global community. Studies have reported that plasma treatment affects the growth and germination of a variety of plant species, including a multitude of grains which often takes the bulk in the diet of the average human being. This study explores the effect of atmospheric air plasma jet treatment on the seed germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The seeds were treated using an atmospheric air plasma jet for 1, 2, and 3 s. The effect of plasma exposure shows a reduction of trichomes on the surface of the seed. This caused a possible increase in wettability which significantly affected the seed germ length but did not affect the seed germination count after the germination period of 72 h.

  12. Effects of Sowing Time on Yield of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. Ecotypes under Mashhad Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Javadi hedayat abad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth and yield of medicinal plants affected by planting date as an important management factor. In order to study the effects of planting dates on yield and yield components of some black seed (Nigella sativa L. ecotypes, a field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design as a split-plot with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during growing season 2009-2010. Four planting dates (24 Feb., 16 Mar., 4 Apr. and 25 Apr. and four black seed ecotypes (Birjand, Gonabad, Neyshabour and Sabzevar were allocated to the main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that there were significant differences between planting dates for number of follicles per plant, number of seeds per follicles and 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index. Maximum numbers of follicles per plant, number of seed per follicles, biological yield and seed yield were observed in first planting date, maximum 1000-seed weight was observed in fourth planting dates and maximum harvest index were recorded in the third planting date. Yield components, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index also were affected by ecotypes and interaction effects of planting dates and black cumin ecotypes. The highest and the lowest of all traits, expect 1000-seed weight were achieved in Gonabad and Neyshabour ecotypes, respectively. The maximum and minimum 1000-seed weights were obtained in Neyshabour and Gonabad ecotypes, respectively. Planting in 24 Feb., 16 Mar. and 4 Apr. have had high seed yield and there was a reduction on seed yield due to delay planting to 25 Apr. Also, Birjand ecotype in the last planting date had the highest seed yield. According to the seed yield, Gonabad and birjand ecotypes were better than from two other ecotypes in range of planting dates.

  13. A new pyrrole alkaloid from seeds of Castanea sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiermann, Alois; Kedwani, Samir; Schramm, Hans Wolfgang; Seger, Christoph

    2002-02-01

    A new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl-(5-formyl-1H-pyrrole-2-yl)-4-hydroxybutyrate (1), was isolated from sweet chestnut seeds and its structure elucidated on the basis of data from NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with synthetic analogues.

  14. Effect of Nigella sativa (seed and oil on the bacteriological quality of soft white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Alsawaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Nigella sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% on some food poisoning and pathogenic bacteria as well as on the total bacterial count TBC (cfu/g in soft white cheese prepared from raw ewe's milk and labratory pasteurized ewe's milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli at a concentration of 1×106 cfu/ml were carried out. Cheese samples were examined for bacterial count at: zero, 2nd, 4th and 6th days of storage at refrigerator temp. Results showed that there was Significant decrease (P<0.05 in TBC, Staphylococcus aureus, Brucella melitensis and Escherichia coli count in cheese samples treated with N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% with pronounced concentration dependent inhibition in contrast to control cheese samples which exerted significant increase in bacterial counts as it reached 2.8×107, 2.95×106, 2.22×106 and 2.885×106 cfu/g for TBC, Staph. aureus, Br. melitensis and E. coli respectively at the 6th day of storage at refrigerator temp. N. sativa oil (0.3% and 1% was significantly more affective (P<0.05 as antibacterial agent than seed (1% and 3% respectively. No significant differences (P<0.05 in the susceptibility of Staph. aureus, Br.melitensis and E. coli to the antibacterial effect of N. sativa seed (1% and 3% and oil (0.3% and 1% were observed in treated soft white cheese.

  15. NEPHROPROTECTIVE AND DIURETIC EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA L SEEDS OIL ON LITHIASIC WISTAR RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhelima, Abdelkader; Kaid-Omar, Zohra; Hemida, Houari; Benmahdi, Tarek; Addou, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to study the influences, preventive and diuretic, of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil (NSSO) on calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis induced in Wistar male rats. Methodology: Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (N.S) were analysed for the evaluation of the concentration of oxalate and calcium. Nigella sativa L. seeds oil is obtained by hydrodistillation and HPTLC densitometric method was adopted to determine the amount of thymoquinone (TQ) present. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups (N=6). Group I, negative control, drank tap water. The other groups were II Positive control, III, IV and V received a treatment model inducing calcium oxalate urolithiasis for 28 days, using an aqueous solution involve 0.75% (EG) ethylene glycol and 1.0 % (AC) chloride ammonium. Rats in group III received in addition, 750 mg/kg Cystone from the beginning to the end of calculi induction experimentation. However, rats in Groups IV and V received (NSSO) at 5 ml/kg b.w by gavage on days 1st to 28th and 15th to 28th days, respectively. On days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, body weights were measured and the 24-hour urine samples were accumulated and analysed for biochemical elements. On the 28th day, blood samples were collected for the estimation of serum parameters including creatinine, BUN and uric acid. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and the kidneys were detached for histopathological examination. Results: Administration of (NSSO) at 5 ml/kg body weight/dose/day for 28 days exerts a protective effect by reducing significantly (p <0.01) urinary and serum rates of calcium, phosphate and oxalate. This preventive diet could increase the volume of urine excreted. Conclusion: The nephroprotectrice and diuretic activity demonstrated by Nigella sativa L. gives a scientific basis that approves their traditional use like a remedy against urolithiasis. List of Abbreviations: NSSO: Nigella sativa L. Seeds oil

  16. [Determination of Hard Rate of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds with Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xun; Chen, Ling-ling; Zhang, Yun-wei; Mao, Pei-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most commonly grown forage crop due to its better quality characteristics and high adaptability in China. However, there was 20%-80% hard seeds in alfalfa which could not be identified easily from non hard seeds which would cause the loss of seed utilization value and plant production. This experiment was designed for 121 samples of alfalfa. Seeds were collected according to different regions, harvested year and varieties. 31 samples were artificial matched as hard rates ranging from 20% to 80% to establish a model for hard seed rate by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with Partial Least Square (PLS). The objective of this study was to establish a model and to estimate the efficiency of NIRS for determining hard rate of alfalfa seeds. The results showed that the correlation coefficient (R2(cal)) of calibration model was 0.981 6, root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) was 5.32, and the ratio of prediction to deviation (RPD) was 3.58. The forecast model in this experiment presented the satisfied precision. The proposed method using NIRS technology is feasible for identification and classification of hard seed in alfalfa. A new method, as nondestructive testing of hard seed rate, was provided to theoretical basis for fast nondestructive detection of hard seed rates in alfalfa.

  17. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effects of Nigella sativa powder (black seed) and Echinacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 2Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran. 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran. 4Legume department. Dry land Agricultural research Sub-institute. .... fed on feeds supplemented with 1% grounded NS seeds.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of α-Amylase Inhibitor From Avena sativa Seeds on Life History and Physiological Characteristics of Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, Ehsan; Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Naseri, Bahram

    2017-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of Avena sativa L. seed extract were studied on life history and some physiological aspects of Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The inhibition of α-amylase activity in vitro by A. sativa proteinaceous extract suggested its potential antimetabolic effect on S. cerealella larvae. Although, chronic ingestion of A. sativa inhibitor (I10: 0.108 mg protein/artificial seed) did not show significant reduction of the growth and development of S. cerealella. However, a delay in the developmental time of immature stages was detected when S. cerealella larvae were continuously fed on I30 and I50 concentrations (0.429 and 1.11 mg protein/artificial seed, respectively) of the inhibitor. The highest realized fecundity was recorded for females which came from larvae fed on I10 concentration (102.46 ± 2.50 eggs/female), and the lowest fecundity was observed for females which came from larvae fed on I50 concentration (31.64 ± 3.17 eggs/female). The lightest weight of pupae of S. cerealella was observed on I50 concentration (2.76 ± 0.07 mg). The lowest glycogen and lipid contents of the pupae were detected on I50 concentration (50.00 ± 3.53 and 289.57 ± 29.00 µg/pupa, respectively). The lower survival rate of pupae at low temperature indicated that S. cerealella fed on I50 concentration of the inhibitor was less cold tolerant than control insects. The inhibitory studies indicated that A. sativa proteinaceous extract is a good candidate as an inhibitor of the α-amylase of this pest. This inhibitor can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to S. cerealella. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Antioxidant Properties of Phenolics in Castanea sativa Mill. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Živković

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy, antioxidant properties of chestnut extracts have been investigated as a source of phenolic compounds. In addition to their high antioxidant activities against hydroxyl and organic free (DPPH radicals, phenolics showed to be potent protectors of membranes from lipid peroxidation. To the best of our knowledge, the ability of an antioxidant to overcome body’s refractory response towards antioxidant supplementation has been examined for the first time. The water soluble extracts obtained from leaves, catkins, and outer brown peel of Castanea sativa Mill. showed high antioxidant activity in scavenging ·OH and DPPH radical. All extracts, except for sweet chestnut catkins, showed the ability to protect liposomes from peroxidation. Phenolic compounds, as active antioxidants, have the ability to enter and protect cell membranes from lipid peroxidation, thus overcoming the body’s refractory response to the antioxidant supplements in the diet. It is shown that phenolics are easily accessible natural antioxidants that can be used as food supplements or for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions related to oxidative stress.

  1. Lipid composition and emulsifying properties of Camelina sativa seed lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Henok D; Wehling, Randy L; Cahoon, Edgar; Ciftci, Ozan N

    2018-03-01

    There is no information on the chemical composition of camelina seed lecithin; therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and emulsifying properties of lecithin recovered from camelina seed oil by water (WDCL) and enzymatic degumming (EDCL) using phospholipase A1 (PLA1). The lecithin obtained by both WDLC and EDLC was rich in phosphatidylinositol (PI), and contents were 37.8 and 25.2wt%, respectively. Lecithin recovered by enzymatic degumming contained more lysophospholipids compared to water degumming. The saturated fatty acid content of the EDCL was significantly higher than that of the WDCL. Emulsions stabilized using EDCL resulted in the highest stability when deionized water was used as the aqueous phase (original pH); however, at pH=7.5, emulsions stabilized using EDCL and WDCL were less stable compared to the emulsion stabilized with soy lecithin. Results showed that camelina seed lecithin is a promising alternative PI-rich emulsifier for various food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  4. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) ... medicinal radish seed oil. Keywords: Radish seed oil, Different extraction methods, Fatty acid composition, Tocopherol, ..... Evaluation of grape seed, monascus, gardenia and red radish extracts as ...

  5. Silymarin and Nigella sativa extract ameliorate paracetamol induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Zakaria Hamza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative role of silymarin or/and Nigella sativa (N. sativa water extract against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP-induced renal function deterioration in male mice at the biochemical levels. Methods: The mice were divided into seven groups (10/group. The first group was served as control. The second group was treated with dose of APAP. The third and fourth groups were treated with silymarin alone and N. sativa water extract alone, respectively. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with combination of APAP with silymarin and APAP with N. sativa water extract, respectively. The seventh group was treated with a combination of both ameliorative compounds (silymarin and N. sativa water extract with APAP and all animals were treated for a period of 30 days. Results: Exposure to APAP at the treated dose for mice led to an alteration of kidney function parameters, increase in the level of serum urea and creatinine. Also, paracetamol administration induced oxidative stress in kidney homogenates by increasing malondialdhyde level and decreasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and this stress was ameliorated by administration of either silymarin or N. sativa water extract. Conclusions: Administration of silymarin or/and N. sativa water extract to APAP-treated mice alleviate the toxicity of APAP, and this appeared clearly by biochemical improvement of kidney function parameters and antioxidant parameters. But, the alleviation is more pronounced with the both antioxidants. Thus, the pronounce effect of silymarin and N. sativa water extract is most effective in reducing the toxicity induced by APAP and improving the kidney function parameters and antioxidant status of kidney of male mice.

  6. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaohui; Wu, Qian; Dalal, Jyoti; Vasani, Naresh; Lopez, Harry O; Sederoff, Heike W; Qu, Rongda

    2017-01-01

    With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt.) was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0) and myristate (C14:0) were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0), from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  7. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  8. Effects of bimetallic nanoparticles on seed germination frequency and biochemical characterisation of Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Mehreen; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2017-04-01

    In the modern era of science and technology, nanotechnology is becoming popular science field because materials at nanoscale contain improved physical, chemical and biological properties. This study aimed to explore the capacity of bimetallic nanoparticle alloys of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), gold (Au) in different ratios to evaluate the effects on medicinally important plant Eruca sativa. Biochemical parameters of Eruca sativa were studied by applying bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Seeds of Eruca sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension employed in concentration of (30 µg/ml). Bimetallic alloys were considered as a stress inducing factor in plants while studying the phytotoxicity. Many secondary metabolites were released because defensive mechanism of plants was active in response to stress. Such secondary metabolites produced in medicinal plants have a great capability in treating the human diseases. In the authors' study, nanoparticles of small size and of high toxicity effect produced more secondary metabolites like total protein content, total flavonoids and total phenolic content.

  9. Variability in Seed Traits in a Collection of Cannabis sativa L. Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, Incoronata; Russo, Roberto; Mapelli, Sergio; Ponzoni, Elena; Brambilla, Ida M.; Battelli, Giovanna; Reggiani, Remo

    2016-01-01

    The seed of Cannabis sativa L. is an expanding source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals. In this study, the proximate composition of a collection of hemp cultivars and accessions of different geographical origins grown under the same conditions for 1 year was analyzed in order to identify potential accessions to improve hemp cultivars. Fatty acids, tocopherols, and antinutritional components, as well as concentrations of crude protein and oil were quantified. The seed oil concentrations varied between 285 and 360 g kg−1 dry seed (DS), while crude protein ranged between 316 and 356 g kg−1 dry matter (DM). The seed oil was mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids and, as expected, the dominant fatty acids were linoleic and α-linolenic acid. A high variability among the cultivars and accessions was also detected for polyphenolic content which ranged from 5.88 to 10.63 g kg−1 DM, cv. Felina was the richest, whereas cv. Finola had the lowest polyphenolic content. Regarding antinutritional compounds in seed, a high variability was detected among all genotypes analyzed and phytic acid was particularly abundant (ranging between 43 and 75 g kg−1 DM). In conclusion, our results reveal noticeable differences among hemp seed genotypes for antinutritional components, oil and protein content. Collectively, this study suggests that the hemp seed is an interesting product in terms of protein, oil and antioxidant molecules but a reduction of phytic acid would be desirable for both humans and monogastric animals. The high variability detected among the different genotypes indicates that an improvement of hemp seed might be possible by conventional and/or molecular breeding. PMID:27242881

  10. Impact of Thiamethoxam Seed Treatment on Growth and Yield of Rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanka, S K; Senthil-Nathan, S; Blouin, D J; Stout, M J

    2017-04-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are widely used in agriculture. In rice, Oryza sativa L., in the southern United States, neonicotinoid seed treatments are used to manage early-season populations of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. In addition to their effects on pests, neonicotinoid seed treatments may benefit crop plants directly by increasing plant growth or altering plant responses to stresses. As part of an effort to assess the overall benefits of thiamethoxam seed treatment in rice, rice emergence, growth, and yield were evaluated. In a growth chamber, rice emergence from the soil was 1-2 d more rapid from treated than untreated seeds. These laboratory results were supported by field experiments that revealed higher stand counts from thiamethoxam-treated plots than from untreated plots. Yields from thiamethoxam treatments were no higher than those from untreated plots under conditions in which weevil larvae were absent, a result inconsistent with the hypothesis that thiamethoxam imparts direct yield benefits. In a series of field experiments conducted to compare the relationship between weevil larval densities and rice yields in plots treated with several rates of thiamethoxam or chlorantraniliprole (another widely used seed treatment insecticide), the relationship between weevil density and yield did not differ markedly among both seed treatments. Overall yields from both seed treatments did not differ significantly, despite more effective control in chlorantraniliprole-treated plots. These results provide strong support for effect of thiamethoxam on early-season growth of rice, but only weak support for its direct effect on rice yields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.) with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihoc, Marcela; Pop, Georgeta; Alexa, Ersilia; Radulov, Isidora

    2012-10-23

    The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd), for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82%) followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%), Armanca (29.27-25.32%), Silvana (28.89-25.04%) and Denise (26.96-25.30%). Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140-156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144-955 mg/100 g seed), Mg (237-694 mg/100 g seed), K (463-2821 mg/100 g seed), Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63-110 mg.kg-1) and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1). For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100-2520 mg.kg-1), Mg (320-376 mg.kg-1) and K (232-257 mg.kg-1). Mn (156-197 mg.kg-1) and Zn (54-67 mg.kg-1) remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000-20430 mg.kg-1). The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1), Mn (63-110 mg.kg-1), Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1) are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, zinc and iron.

  12. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L. with special focus on oil and metal contents of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoc Marcela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd, for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil. Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of 2011, losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety (26.54-20.82% followed by Zenit varieties (27.37-22.97%, Armanca (29.27-25.32%, Silvana (28.89-25.04% and Denise (26.96-25.30%. Siccative hemp oil has a yellowish green color and an iodine index of 140–156 g I2/100 g oil. Hemp seed are rich in mineral based Ca (144–955 mg/100 g seed, Mg (237–694 mg/100 g seed, K (463–2821 mg/100 g seed, Fe (1133-2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1 and Zn (42-94 mg.kg-1. For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: Ca (2100–2520 mg.kg-1, Mg (320–376 mg.kg-1 and K (232–257 mg.kg-1. Mn (156–197 mg.kg-1 and Zn (54–67 mg.kg-1 remain within normal limits for Romania. The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe (19000–20430 mg.kg-1. The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients (Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products. Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe (1133–2400 mg.kg-1, Mn (63–110 mg.kg-1, Zn (42–94 mg.kg-1 and Cd (1.3-4.0 mg.kg-1 are found in hemp seeds. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is included among plants suitable for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium

  13. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaison, Anne Marie; Tixier, Marie

    1986-01-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa. PMID:16664882

  15. Toxic effects of palpoluck Polygonum hydropepper L. and Bhang Cannabis sativa L. plants extracts against termites Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A research project was carried out aimed at to study the toxic effects of Palpoluck Polygonum hydropipper L. and Bhang Cannabis sativa L. crude extracts against two species of termites i.e. Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann at Nuclear institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA Peshawar, Pakistan in April 2002. Results revealed that after ten days of feeding maximum percent mortality in case of Polygonum hydropipper L. leaf and flower extracts was 28.0, 52.0, 28 and 74.7 for H. indicola and Coptotermes heimi respectively, while in control only 10.7 and 12.0% mortality were recorded. Similarly, for the same species of termites the percent mortality in Cannabis sativa L. extracts was 54.7, 64.0, 58.7 and 70.7 for leaf and seed extracts respectively, while in control only 12.0 and 10.7% mortality were observed. In each extract mortality was significantly different from that of control. Toxic effects of both extracts (leaf and flower were more profound against Coptotermes heimi than Heterotermes indicola during these ten days of feeding. Also the seed extracts caused more mortality than the leaves for both species, suggesting the availability of high contents of toxic materials in seed.

  16. Occurrence of transgenic feral alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in alfalfa seed production areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa) was commercialized in 2011. The potential risk of transgene dispersal into the environment is not clearly understood for alfalfa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral and tr...

  17. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract on Blastocystis hominis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wakil, Shala S

    2007-12-01

    The effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract was evaluated against the in vitro growth of 2 different isolates of the intestinal protozoan parasite Blastocystis hominis. Different concentrations (10, 100, 500 microg/ml) of Nigella aqueous extract and metronidazole, an active standard drug for B. hominis, were incubated with B. hominis isolates in culture media at 37 degrees C. Their possible effect on B. hominnis living cell count (LCC) was assessed on Day 1, 3 & 6. The aqueous extract of N. sativa at concentrations of 100 and 500 microg/ml showed a potent lethal effect on both B. homninis isolates, but with different extent. There is no significant difference between the inhibitory effect of N. sativa and metronidazole on the LCC on the 6th day. On assessment of living cell rate (LCR) which calculate percentage rate of living cell, N. sativa at 500 microg/ml concentration has a significant inhibitory effect on both isolates. So, it is considered as the most active concentration of Nigella aqueous extract. These results prove that N. sativa aqueous extract could be useful in the treatment of B. hominis.

  18. Mutagenesis of the FAE1 genes significantly changes fatty acid composition in seeds of Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseyhan, Mehmet E; Kang, Jinling; Mu, Xiaopeng; Lu, Chaofu

    2017-12-02

    Camelina sativa is a re-emerging low-input oilseed crop that has great potentials. It is necessary to ameliorate camelina oils for optimized fatty acid composition that can meet different application requirements. Camelina seed contains significant amounts of C20-C24 very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) that may not be desirable. We demonstrated that these VLCFAs can be effectively reduced by deactivating the Fatty Acid Elongase1 (FAE1) in camelina. The allohexaploid camelina contains three alleles of FAE1 genes. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced mutation at the FAE1-B gene caused over 60% reduction of VLCFAs in seed. Homozygous knockout mutants were successfully created in a single generation by simultaneously targeting three FAE1 alleles using the CRISPR technology with an egg cell-specific Cas9 expression. VLCFAs were reduced to less than 2% of total fatty acids compared to over 22% in the wild type, and the C18 unsaturated fatty acids were concomitantly increased. The fae1 mutants were indistinguishable from wild type in seed physiology and plant growth. This study demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 technology can be effectively applied to the polyploid crop camelina to rapidly obtain desired traits such as optimal fatty acid composition in its seed oil. Knocking out FAE1 also provides a means to increase the levels of oleic acid or α-linolenic acid in camelina oils that are desirable for industrial or food/feed uses. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Effect of presoaking seeds in biostimulant solution on germination and vigor of Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lucio Melo Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the germination and seed vigor of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars that were presoaked in biostimulant solutions. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications in a 2x7 factorial arrangement. Seeds of the cultivars Bariri and Maravilha das Quatro Estações (MQE were presoaked for 16h in solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30mL.L–1 of a commercial biostimulant. The percentage of germination, germination speed index, seedling length at 7 days after sowing and the ratio between the shoot and radicle of the seedlings were evaluated. The cv. Bariri was significantly superior in all aspects. The use of presoaking seeds in plant growth regulator did not affect the germination, but influenced seedling vigor. Presoaking Bariri in 10mL.L–1 resulted in the highest germination speed index (19.60 while for MQE the best result was obtained after presoaking in 15mL.L–1 (17.75. The results suggest that in favorable conditions presoaking lettuce seeds in biostimulant does not alter the germination, but improves germination speed and seedling vigor, and increases the chances of crop establishment.

  20. Extracellular superoxide production, viability and redox poise in response to desiccation in recalcitrant Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Colville, Louise; Whitaker, Claire; Chen, Hongying; Bailly, Christophe; Kranner, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in seed death following dehydration in desiccation-intolerant 'recalcitrant' seeds. However, it is unknown if and how ROS are produced in the apoplast and if they play a role in stress signalling during desiccation. We studied intracellular damage and extracellular superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production upon desiccation in Castanea sativa seeds, mechanisms of O(2)(.-) production and the effect of exogenously supplied ROS. A transient increase in extracellular O(2)(.-) production by the embryonic axes preceded significant desiccation-induced viability loss. Thereafter, progressively more oxidizing intracellular conditions, as indicated by a significant shift in glutathione half-cell reduction potential, accompanied cell and axis death, coinciding with the disruption of nuclear membranes. Most hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-dependent O(2)(.-) production was found in a cell wall fraction that contained extracellular peroxidases (ECPOX) with molecular masses of approximately 50 kDa. Cinnamic acid was identified as a potential reductant required for ECPOX-mediated O(2)(.-) production. H(2)O(2), applied exogenously to mimic the transient ROS burst at the onset of desiccation, counteracted viability loss of sub-lethally desiccation-stressed seeds and of excised embryonic axes grown in tissue culture. Hence, extracellular ROS produced by embryonic axes appear to be important signalling components involved in wound response, regeneration and growth.

  1. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti pupae to neem seed kernal extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater.

  2. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W

    2015-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolate catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits. Expressing the photorespiratory bypass genes in camelina reduced photorespiration and increased photosynthesis in both partial and full bypass expressing lines. Expression of partial bypass increased seed yield by 50-57 %, while expression of full bypass increased seed yield by 57-73 %, with no loss in seed quality. The transgenic plants also showed increased vegetative biomass and faster development; they flowered, set seed and reached seed maturity about 1 week earlier than WT. At the transcriptional level, transgenic plants showed differential expression in categories such as respiration, amino acid biosynthesis and fatty acid metabolism. The increased growth of the bypass transgenics compared to WT was only observed in ambient or low CO

  3. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  4. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; Marín-Aguilar, F; García-Giménez, M D; Fernández-Arche, M A

    2014-02-05

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L., collectively namely as "hemp", have been an interesting source of food, fiber, and medicine for thousands of years. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. The lipid profile showed that linoleic (55%), α-linolenic (16%), and oleic (11%) were the most abundant fatty acids. A yield (1.84-1.92%) of unsaponifiable matter was obtained, and the most interesting compounds were β-sitosterol (1905.00 ± 59.27 mg/kg of oil), campesterol (505.69 ± 32.04 mg/kg of oil), phytol (167.59 ± 1.81 mg/kg of oil), cycloartenol (90.55 ± 3.44 mg/kg of oil), and γ-tocopherol (73.38 ± 2.86 mg/100 g of oil). This study is an interesting contribution for C. sativa L. consideration as a source of bioactive compounds contributing to novel research applications for hemp seed oil in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic food, and other non-food industries.

  5. Simultaneous Targeting of Multiple Gene Homeologs to Alter Seed Oil Production in Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, J A; Durrett, T P

    2017-07-01

    The ability to transform Camelina sativa easily with biosynthetic enzymes derived from other plants has made this oil seed crop an ideal platform for the production of unusual lipids valuable for different applications. However, in addition to expressing transgenic enzymes, the suppression of endogenous enzyme activity to reduce competition for common substrates or cofactors is also required to enhance the production of target compounds. As camelina possesses a relatively undifferentiated hexaploid genome, up to three gene homeologs can code for any particular enzymatic activity, complicating efforts to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways. New genome editing technologies, such as that offered by the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) system, offer the capability to introduce mutations into specifically targeted genomic sites. Here, by using a carefully designed guide RNA identical to all three homeologs, we demonstrate the ability of the CRISPR/Cas genome editing system to introduce mutations in all three CsDGAT1 or CsPDAT1 homeologous genes important for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in developing seeds. Sequence analysis from transgenic T1 plants revealed that each CsDGAT1 or each CsPDAT1 homeolog was altered by multiple mutations, resulting in a genetic mosaic in the plants. Interestingly, seed harvested from both CsDGAT1- and CsPDAT1-targeted lines was often shrunken and wrinkled. Further, lipid analysis revealed that many lines produced seed with reduced oil content and altered fatty acid composition, consistent with the role of the targeted genes in seed oil biosynthesis. The CRISPR/Cas system therefore represents a useful method to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways efficiently in polyploid species such as camelina. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on long-storage seeds of Oryza sativa (cv. 2233) and their surface infecting fungal diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, J.P. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India); University Grant Commission, Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101 Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jyoti_maity@yahoo.com; Kar, S. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India); Banerjee, S. [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Chakraborty, A. [University Grant Commission, Department of Atomic Energy Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Center, 3/LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Santra, S.C. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2009-11-15

    We have reported an effective {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation method for the removal and long-time prevention of contaminating fungi of Oryza sativa cv-2233, without the losses of seed viabilities. The fungal growth and their population on gamma treated seeds was found to decrease significantly (p<0.05) with the increasing irradiation dose and storage time. Immediately after irradiation, the depletion of fungal population on rice seed was noticed (>50%) at 2 kGy, whereas total inhibition was noticed at 3 kGy after 1.5 month.

  7. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisleidy Águila Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish, Lactuca sativa L (lettuce and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato. The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the lettuce was the most sensitive species for this type of study. It was concluded that the extracts could be poured to the means to minor concentrations that 0.01% with a margin of security that they are not going to affect the processes of germination and elongacion of the roots. It was determined that one could use the alone rehearsal using the seeds of lettuce like species of rehearsal.

  8. Anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa and its effect on behavioral activities of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Singapura Nagesh; Anilakumar, Kandangath Raghavan

    2013-01-01

    Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of seeds oil isolated from Camelina sativa (L cultivated in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chantsalnyam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Camelina sativa L is a cruciferous oilseed plant. This plant is cultivated as an oilseed crop mainly in Europe and in North America and over the past years the cultivation has arranged in our country. The analyzed oil is obtained from the seeds of Camelina sativa L, growing in Bornuur, Tuv province. The goal of this study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics and fatty acids composition of Camelina sativa L seed oil cultivated in Mongolia. According to our analysis total lipid was determined 38.52 %, moisture 4.80 % and total mineral elements 4.02 %, respectively. Mineral elements in Camelina sativa L seeds contain calcium (0.56 %, phosphorous (1.22 %, potassium (1.39 %, magnesium (0.53 % in dominated amounts; iron, zinc, manganese and copper in trace amounts. Eight nonessential amino acids in seeds of this plant with total amount of 75.9 % were identified; phenylalanine was detected in highest amount among the all identified amino acids, while lysine, tryptophan and arginine are followed. The following characteristics in Camelina sativa seeds oil were determined. The refractive index was 1.4774 at 20°C, the peroxide value of fresh oil was 0.03 meq H2O2 /kg, saponification value 185.8 mg KOH/g, iodine value 143.33 g J2 and acidic value 6.27 mg KOH /g. Carotenoid was determined as 16.77 mg %, by spectrometry in Camelina sativa seeds oil. The analysis of fatty acids composition showed that there are 12.5 % saturated and 87.5 % unsaturated fatty acids. In particular, oleic acid (C18:1 14.0 %, linoleic acid (C18:2 9.0 %, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 10.5 % and gondoic acid (C20:1 32.8 %, were composed the major part of unsaturated fatty acids. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.205 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p80-83

  10. The Protective Role of Black Seeds (Nigella sativa) on the Tissues of Liver and Kidney in Female Rabbits Treated with Green Lean Body Capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Muna M. Ismail; Rabab A. Naser; Mohammed Saad Almuslehi; Ahmmed M. Salah

    2014-01-01

    The seeds of Nigella sativa (Ranunculaceae herbaceous plant), commonly known as black seed or black cumin, are used as herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of disease and conditions like asthma, diarrhea and dyslipidaemia. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa in protection of the liver and kidney tissues against pathological changes caused by green lean body capsule in female rabbits. Fifteen female rabbits w...

  11. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on oil yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of radish seeds. Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE).

  12. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Åsa; Hayden, Daniel M.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development. PMID:19036843

  13. Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nilanjan; Berhow, Mark A; Angelino, Donato; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2014-08-20

    Camelina sativa L. Crantz is under development as a novel oilseed crop, yet bioefficacy of camelina phytochemicals is unknown. Defatted camelina seed meal contains two major aliphatic glucosinolates (GSLs), glucoarabin (9-(methylsulfinyl)nonylglucosinolate; GSL 9) and glucocamelinin (10-(methylsulfinyl)decylglucosinolate; GSL 10), with traces of a third, 11(methylsulfinyl)undecylglucosinolate and several flavonoids, mostly quercetin glycosides. In Hepa1c1c7 cells, hydrolyzed GSLs (hGSLs) 9 and 10 upregulated the phase II detoxification enzyme quinone reductase (NQO1), with no effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 activity. Isobologram graphs revealed synergy of NQO1 induction for a combination of hGSL 9 and quercetin. These findings suggest that defatted camelina seed meal should be evaluated for anticancer activity, similar to broccoli and other Brassicaceae family members. Interestingly, synergy of NQO1 induction was also seen for physiologically relevant doses of sulforaphane (SF) and quercetin, two key bioactives present in broccoli. This suggests that SF within broccoli may be more potent than purified SF.

  14. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Asa; Hayden, Daniel M; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development.

  15. Kenaf seed oil from supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenaf seed oil from supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction shows cytotoxic effects towards various cancer cell lines. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Even though kenaf seed oil from both varieties were cytotoxic to all the cancer cells, kenaf seed oil variety V36 extracted by SFE at 600 bars 40°C (V600/40) was the ...

  16. Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extracts of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds induce apoptosis of human stomach cancer cell line SGC-7901 in vitro. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... apoptosis activity of Sophora moorcroftiana seeds, the ethanolic extracts from the seeds was prepared and added into the culture of human stomach cancer cell ...

  17. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Bingham

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids. However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed.

  18. The Hybridization Barrier between Herbaceous Medicago sativa and Woody M. arborea Is Weakened by Selection of Seed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Edwin; Armour, David; Irwin, John

    2013-01-01

    Medicago sativa, alfalfa or lucerne, and M. arborea were considered reproductively isolated until recently. Then, in 2003, an alfalfa genotype was identified that produced a few seeds and progeny with hybrid traits after a large number of pollinations by M. arborea. A derivative of this alfalfa genotype also produced a low frequency of progeny with hybrid traits. Thus, the hybridization barrier was weakened by selection of seed parents. Hybrids from both events expressed traits from M. arborea and M. arborea-specific DNA bands, although more of the M. sativa genome was retained, based on the DNA results. Thus, there was chromatin elimination during embryogenesis, resulting in partial hybrids (hereafter hybrids). However, more than 30 hybrids with an array of M. arborea traits have been obtained thus far, and research continues on the nature of the hybrids. Traits have been genetically transmitted in crosses, and selected traits are in use for alfalfa breeding. This paper reviews the first hybrids and then focuses on further weakening of the hybridization barrier with the discovery of a more efficient hybridizer derived from crossing Medicago sativa subspecies, sativa, coerulea and falcata. This genotype was found to have reproductive abnormalities associated with its complex subspecies origin that are best described as hybrid breakdown. In effect, this subspecies derivative is a bridge-cross parent that consistently produces hybrids. Reproductive abnormalities in the bridge-cross parent are reported and discussed. PMID:27137379

  19. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and IndianNigella sativaL. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P extraction technique. The present study showed that SFE can be used as a more efficient technique for extraction of N. Sativa L. essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  20. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Nigella sativa leaf extract in comparison with chemical silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Saeri, Mohammad Reza; Azizi, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Despite the development potential in the field of nanotechnology, there is a concern about possible effects of nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by 'green' and 'chemical' methods. In the wet-chemistry method, sodium borohydrate, sodium citrate and silver nitrate were used as raw materials. Leaf extract of Nigella sativa was used as reducing as well as capping agent to reduce silver nitrate in the green synthesis method. In addition, toxic responses of both synthesized AgNPs were monitored on bone-building stem cells of mice as well as seed germination and seedling growth of six different plants (Lolium, wheat, bean and common vetch, lettuce and canola). In both synthesis methods, the colorless reaction mixtures turned brown and UV-visible spectra confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed the predominance of silver nanosized crystallites and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process. MTT assay showed cell viability of bone-building stem cells of mice was further in the green AgNPs synthesized using black cumin extract than chemical AgNPs. IC50 (inhibitory concentrations) values for seed germination, root and shoot length for 6 plants in green AgNPs exposures were higher than the chemical AgNPs. These results suggest that cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of the green synthesized AgNPs were significantly less than wet-chemistry synthesized ones. This study indicated an economical, simple and efficient ecofriendly technique using leaves of N. sativa for synthesis of AgNPs and confirmed that green AgNPs are safer than chemically-synthesized AgNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Vermicompost Extract and Vermicompost-Derived Humic Acids on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Hemp

    OpenAIRE

    Ievinsh Gederts; Vikmane Māra; Ķirse Agnese; Karlsons Andis

    2017-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars grown for industrial use have recently emerged as a sustainable alternative source of industrial fibre and bioenergy, and is a highly valuable food and animal feed resource. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract, vermicompost mineral nutrient composition, and vermicompost-derived humic and fulvic acids on seed germination and growth of hemp seedlings. In general, separate application of all vermicompost components s...

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of metal nanoparticles and their effects on seed germination and seedling growth in commercially important Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaka, Mehreen; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Latif-Ur; Shah, Afzal; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis, characterisation and application of metal nanoparticles have become an important and attractive branch of nanotechnology. In current study, metallic nanoparticles of silver, copper, and gold were synthesised using environment friendly method (polyols process), and applied on medicinally important plant: Eruca sativa. Effects of application of these nanoparticles were evaluated on seed germination frequency and biochemical parameters of plant tissues. Seeds of E. sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium incorporated with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension (30 µg/ml). Phytotoxicity study showed that nanoparticles could induce stress in plants by manipulating the endogenous mechanisms. In response to these stresses, plants release various defensive compounds; known as antioxidant secondary metabolites. These plants derived secondary metabolites having a great potential in treating the common human ailments. In the authors study, small-sized nanoparticles showed higher toxicity levels and enhanced secondary metabolites production, total protein content, total flavonoids content and total phenolics content.

  4. Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tauseef Sultan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L. is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin seed in reducing the risk of hypercholesterolemia. For the purpose, thirty Sprague dawley rats were procured from the National Institute of Health (NIH in Islamabad, Pakistan, and further split up into three groups, (10 rats each. Experimental diets were prepared using powdered black cumin (PBC at 1% and 2%, and compared with the placebo. Results: The results revealed that PBC was effective in reducing the serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL. Additionally, the experimental diets resulted in a non-significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Overall, powdered black cumin at 1% and 2% reduced cholesterol level by 6.73, and 4.48%, LDL by 24.79, and 24.32% respectively. However, the supplementation of PBC at 2% resulted in marked variations as increasing tendency, which was recorded for cholesterol and triglycerides contents after 28 days of study. Conclusion: Present research investigation brightened the prospects of using powdered black cumin seed in diet based therapies to improve the lipid profile. Further studies are still required to assess the phytochemistry of the plants and indeed the functional ingredients responsible for such health benefits. Such studies would bring meticulousness for utilization of black cumin seeds as a functional food.

  5. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Randa M. Mostafa; Moustafa, Yasser M.; Zien Mirghani; Ghader M AlKusayer; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds? consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ? 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) ...

  6. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  7. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket) Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition) and Antithrombotic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Alarcón, Marcelo; Fuentes, Manuel; Carrasco, Gilda; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL), was evaluated on human platelets: (i) P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii) platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii) IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv) activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v) antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg) and (vi) bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL) inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2) induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity. PMID:25514563

  8. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane ...

  9. Proteomic and Physiological Analysis of the Response of Oat (Avena sativa) Seeds to Heat Stress under Different Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Kong, Lingqi; Xia, Fangshan; Yan, Huifang; Zhu, Yanqiao; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to high temperature and moisture content (MC) during storage. The expression and metabolism of proteins plays a critical role in seed resistance to heat stress. However, the proteome response to heat stress in oat (Avena sativa) seeds during storage has not been revealed. To understand mechanisms of heat stress acclimation and tolerance in oat seeds, an integrated physiological and comparative proteomic analysis was performed on oat seeds with different MC during heat stress. Oat seeds with 10% and 16% MC were subjected to high temperatures (35, 45, and 50°C) for 24 and 2 days, respectively, and changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that seed vigor decreased significantly with temperature increase from 35 to 50°C. Also, the proline content in 10% MC seeds decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas that in 16% MC seeds increased significantly (p < 0.05) during heat treatment from 35 to 50°C. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde content in 10% MC seeds with temperature from 35 to 50°C, but a significant (p < 0.05) decline occurred in 16% MC seeds at 45°C. Proteome analysis revealed 21 significantly different proteins, including 19 down-regulated and two up-regulated proteins. The down-regulated proteins, notably six heat shock proteins and two ATP synthases, have important roles in the mobilization of carbohydrates and energy, and in the balance between synthesis and degradation of other proteins during seed deterioration. The up-regulation of argininosuccinate synthase participated in proline biosynthesis at 16% MC, which is important for maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis for the resistance of heat stress. In summary, heat-responsive protein species and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism were sensitive to high temperature and MC treatment. These studies provide a new insight into acclimation and tolerance to heat stress in

  10. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-07-25

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS+ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 and vanillic acid (2, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants.

  12. Determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity of black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed quinone compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarova, Hana; Svobodova, Blanka; Kokoska, Ladislav; Marsik, Petr; Pribylova, Marie; Landa, Premysl; Vadlejch, Jaroslav

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the antioxidant capacities of main quinone constituents of Nigella sativa seeds, namely dithymoquinone (1), thymohydroquinone (2) and thymoquinone (3), were compared using DPPH and ORAC methods. The best scavenging activity was produced by 2, which showed a remarkable activity of 2.60 Trolox equivalents (TE) in a concentration range between 1.6 and 6.4 microg/mL and IC50 value of 2.4 microg/mL in ORAC and DPPH assays, respectively. Contrastingly, 3 possessed only weak DPPH scavenging efficacy (IC50 = 170 microg/mL) but significant antioxidative action of 1.91 TE in ORAC assay. No effect has been observed for 1. Additionally, modified protocol for synthesis of 2 has been developed with aim to enhance its availability for further studies as well as for its future potential use. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that 2 could be considered as a compound with prospective antioxidative properties.

  13. Microsporomyces hainanensis sp. nov., Isolated from Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feirong; Liu, Yang; Li, Ni; Yao, Su; Li, Nannan; Wang, Weiping; Cheng, Chi

    2016-10-01

    A total of five strains were isolated from two different hybrid rice seeds samples (Oryza sativa L. Shenliangyou 5814 and Yliangyou 900) in Sanya city, Hainan province, China. Sequence analysis and physiological characteristics indicated that these strains were identical and represented a novel species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer regions revealed that this new species is located in the Microsporomyces clade, with four closely related species, namely, M. magnisporus, M. orientalis, M. bloemfonteinensis, and M. pini. The novel species differed from these four described species in ability to assimilate sorbose, cellobiose, lactose, D-arabinose, and maltose. Based on these results, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Microsporomyces hainanensis sp. nov. with the type strain of Z8(T) (CICC 33066(T) = CBS 14092(T)) belongs to phylum Basidiomycota, subphylum Pucciniomycotina, class Cystobasidiomycetes, family Microsporomycetaceae. The new species were registered in MycoBank under MB 815471.

  14. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum and black seeds (Nigella sativa in healthy postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa M Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds’ consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Results: Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Discussion: Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  15. Effect of treated and untreated domestic wastewater on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase and lipase activities in Avena sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendri, Imen; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Ben Halima, Nihed; Gdoura, Radhouane; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2013-05-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a potential economically viable source of lipids and starch for use in foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of treated and untreated urban wastewater on seed germination, growth parameters and lipase and amylase activities in A. sativa. Untreated wastewater was highly toxic in nature and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth. However, after bacterial treatment, its toxicity was significantly reduced and it showed improved seed germination. It was observed that treated wastewater had no inhibitory effect on seedling growth parameters. However, A. sativa seeds treated with untreated effluent showed reduced lipase and amylase activities. Treated wastewater could be used for irrigation purposes provided that it satisfies other conditions fixed by legislation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of volatile compounds from industrial Cannabis sativa L. inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, C.; Decorti, D.; Natolino, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary. This study investigated the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to recovery  volatile compounds from the inflorescences of a fiber type Cannabis sativa L. cultivar. The results show that ultrasonic treatment not longer than 5 min allows to obtain an enhanced concentration of terpenes in comparison with maceration. Instead, an ultrasonic treatment longer than 5 min increased  the concentration of δ-9-tetraidrocannabinol (THC). A preliminary screening of cannabis inflorescences...

  17. Extraction and analysis of tea ( Camellia sinensis ) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides data on the physico-chemical properties of Kenyan tea seed oil from selected clones of tea seeds to ascertain its potential applications. Soxhlet extraction using hexane was employed to obtain tea seed oil followed by chemical analysis to assess its properties. Oil yield, iodine value, saponification value, ...

  18. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from Camelina sativa: cloning, enzymatic characterization and implication in seed oil fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Manuel Fernando; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are intraplastidial enzymes that terminate de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in the plastids of higher plants by hydrolyzing the thioester bond between ACP and the fatty acid synthesized. Free fatty acids are then esterified with coenzyme A prior to being incorporated into the glycerolipids synthesized through the eukaryotic pathway. Acyl-ACP thioesterases belong to the TE14 family of thioester-active enzymes and can be classified as FatAs and FatBs, which differ in their amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. Here, the FatA and FatB thioesterases from Camelina sativa seeds, a crop of interest in plant biotechnology, were cloned, sequenced and characterized. The mature proteins encoded by these genes were characterized biochemically after they were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. C. sativa contained three different alleles of both the FatA and FatB genes. These genes were expressed most strongly in expanding tissues in which lipids are very actively synthesized, such as developing seed endosperm. The CsFatA enzyme displayed high catalytic efficiency on oleoyl-ACP and CsFatB acted efficiently on palmitoyl-ACP. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of C. sativa oil was discussed in the light of these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Sindiswa T; Motadi, Lesetja R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. To achieve our aim, phytochemical screening, MTT assay, cell growth analysis, flow cytometry, morphology analysis, Western blot, caspase 3/7 assay, and ATP measurement assay were conducted. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. They further revealed that apoptosis was induced by cannabidiol as shown by increased subG0/G1 and apoptosis through annexin V. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. Apoptosis induction was further confirmed by morphological changes, an increase in Caspase 3/7 and a decrease in the ATP levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.

  20. Effects of Lactuca sativa extract on exploratory behavior pattern, locomotor activity and anxiety in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Harsha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antianxiety property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties belongs to Asteraceae family. Methods: Elevated plus maze (EPM, open field test (OFT, rat exposure test, hyponeophagia and marble burying test were performed in mice models to assess the exploratory behaviour and to assess anxiolytic property of hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body wt. served as the standard anxiolytic agent for all the tests. The dried extract of the plant leaf in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to mice for duration of 15 or 30 days and evaluated exploratory behaviour, locomotor and anxiolytic activities. Results: Time spent and number of entries into the open arm was measured in EPM followed by total locomotor activity in OFT and latency to enter the food zone in hyponeophagia. Conclusions: The study suggested that hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa leaves possess potent anxiolytic property.

  1. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS-1-(4-Chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylpentan-3-ol] (PBZ, a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine. Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011 and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5 were applied (soil application at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4 resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future.

  2. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown Camelina sativa L. Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Satyanarayana, Jella; Guha, Anirban; Chaitanya, Bsk; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-03-13

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future.

  3. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

  4. Protective effect of Castanea sativa and Quercus robur leaf extracts against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José L F C; Costa, P C; Bahia, M F

    2008-05-29

    Topical natural antioxidants are a useful strategy for the prevention of photoaging and oxidative stress mediated skin diseases. In view of this underlying principle, the screening of natural plant extracts with scavenging activity for pro-oxidant reactive species is a primary requirement for the development of new topical antioxidant formulations. In the present study, an ethanol:water (7:3) extract from Castanea sativa leaves and a ethanol:water (2:3) extract from Quercus robur leaves were evaluated for their putative in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) namely superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()), peroxyl radical (ROO()), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) as well as on reactive nitrogen species (RNS) namely nitric oxide (()NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The extracts presented a high potency to scavenge the tested reactive species, all the IC(50)s being found at the microg/mL level. IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for the ROS O(2)(-),HO(),H(2)O(2) and (1)O(2) were 13.6+/-1.8; 216+/-4; 410+/-8; 12.3+/-0.7 microug/mL, respectively, for C. sativa, and 11.0+/-0.5; 285+/-22; 251+/-32; 7.90+/-0.56 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The ORAC values obtained for ROO() were 1.24+/-0.13 for C. sativa and 1.09+/-0.06 for Q. robur. The IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for ()NO and ONOO(-) were 3.10+/-0.14 and 1.49+/-0.10 microg/mL, respectively, for C. sativa and 3.13+/-0.11 and 0.95+/-0.02 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The content of total phenolics for C. sativa and Q. robur were 284+/-9 and 346+/-4 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of lyophilized extract respectively. The observed effects might be of relevance considering the putative interest of these extracts as topical antioxidants.

  5. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  7. Ultrasound Energy Effect on Solvent Extraction of Amaranth Seed Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Il; Chung, Ki Won; Lee, Seung Bum; Hong, In Kwon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kyung Ai [Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasonic energy has been widely applied to cleaning, medical appliances, extraction, etc. And ultrasonic energy can be applied to solvent extraction of plant oil from amaranth seed. Amaranth seed oil contains small amount of squalene. Squalene is polyunsaturated branched hydrocarbon, which is an essential part of the human body. In this study, the seed oil was extracted from amaranth seed by ultrasonic solvent extraction process. Ultrasonic irradiation time was 1, 3 ,5, 10, 20 and 30 min and extraction temperature was 20, 30, and 40 degree C. And ultrasonic power was 390 W and 520 W. The extracted amounts of amaranth seed oil and squalene were increased with the increase of ultrasonic power and irradiation time. Using ultrasonic energy in solvent extraction, extraction time was very shorten. The optimum extraction temperature was 30 degree C, it was caused that ultrasonic energy effects were increased in the matters of low temperature. The maximum extracted amount of amaranth seed oil was 0.746 g and squalene was 37.54 mg per 10 g amaranth seed at 30 degree C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  9. Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) Seed Oil Methods of Extraction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to discuss the various extraction methods of the sesame seed oil and its industrial applications particularly its application in cosmetic production. The review focused mainly on the traditional African methods of extraction and the utilization of the seed oil in soap making and production of skin moisturizers.

  10. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the ...

  11. Effect of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Schisandraceae seed extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Schisandra chinensis is a plant used in traditional Chinese and Russian medicine. An S. chinensis seed extract was tested for its ability to potentiate the effects of the anticancer agent cisplatin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methods: S. chinensis seeds were extracted with ethanol and the ethanol was evaporated ...

  12. Phytochemistry of methanol seed extract of Abrus precatorius and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemistry of methanol seed extract of Abrus precatorius and its effect on spermatogenesis in rats. ... In conclusion, the methanol seed extract of Abrus precatorius contain important phytochemical constituents possessing pharmacological activities and it is relatively safe but has no effects on sperm cell production.

  13. Effect of cream formulation of fenugreek seed extract on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella Foneum-Graecum L) seed extract on some mechanical parameters of the skin of healthy human volunteers. Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, and a similar formulation ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  15. Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L . on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae) was evaluated against some pathogenic bacterial strains. Chloroform extract of seeds exhibited varying level of antibacterial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 2.0 - 5.0 mg/ml, against both Gram-positive and ...

  16. THE USE OF SEED EXTRACTS OF THE PHYSIC NUT ( Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment on the use of Jatropha curcas (L.) seed extracts to control maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamaise) was conducted in the Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri, between November 2000 and February 2001. Two forms of the seed extracts were ...

  17. Contribution to the improvement of seed extraction in larch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, G. [Cemagref - Forest nurseries and Plant genetics division, Nogent-sur-Vernisson (France)

    1995-12-31

    Industrial techniques in a seed plant resulted in the extraction of a small percentage of seed potential (18% in hybrid larch and 40% in European larch). It was determined that the seeds remaining within the cones were as viable as the seeds extracted. Thus, the quantity of marketable seeds was directly proportional to the quantity of seeds extracted and an important gain in seed yield could be achieved by improving extraction techniques. Among the five techniques tested in a second experiment, the two cone grinding treatments, done in a hammer mill, were characterized by the best extraction rate (up to 80% of seed potential) but they resulted in a decrease in seed viability. However, cone grinding applied to large volume of cones produced highly viable seeds. The difference was attributed to the number of cones treated. With regard to other techniques, cone drying followed by cone threshing was more efficient when it was applied to cones previously cut in two or let outside for a couple of months. All these techniques gave better results when cones were collected in spring rather than in autumn whereas cone grinding efficiency did not depend on cone collection date. 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  18. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Vaseghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Materials and Methods: In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617 was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Results: Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.  Conclusion: C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis.  The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  19. Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract: Cardiovascular Activity and Myocyte Protection against Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chiarini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μM in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  20. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Alberto; Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Budriesi, Roberta; Ioan, Pierfranco; Lenzi, Monia; Fimognari, Carmela; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Comandini, Patrizia; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1  μ M) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.

  1. Combined mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling of different pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds and correlation with antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Ryun; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Sarah; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-09-29

    Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA) derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD) and Ilpoom (IP) species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  2. Effect of silver nanoparticles on rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seed germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesombat, Pakvirun; Hannongbua, Supot; Akasit, Sanong; Chadchawan, Supachitra

    2014-06-01

    With the advances in nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been applied in many industries, increasing their potential exposure level in the environment, yet their environmental safety remains poorly evaluated. The possible effects of different sized AgNPs (20, 30-60, 70-120 and 150nm diameter) on jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105, were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000mg/L) upon seed germination and seedling growth. The results revealed that the level of seed germination and subsequent growth of those seedlings that germinated were both decreased with increasing sizes and concentrations of AgNPs. Based on the analysis of AgNPs accumulation in plant tissues, it implied that the higher uptake was found when the seeds were treated with the smaller AgNPs, 20nm diameter AgNPs, but it was trapped in the roots rather than transported to the leaves. These resulted in the less negative effects on seedling growth, when compared to the seed soaking with the larger AgNPs with 150nm diameter. The negative effects of AgNPs were supported by leaf cell deformation when rice seeds were treated with 150-nm-diameter AgNP at the concentration of 10 or 100mg/L during seed germination. These results further strengthen our understanding of environmental safety information with respect to nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological Mechanisms Only Tell Half Story: Multiple Biological Processes are involved in Regulating Freezing Tolerance of Imbibed Lactuca sativa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Ganesh K; Han, Yingying; Li, Weijie; Song, Danping; Song, Xiaoyan; Shen, Mengqi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Chenxue; Liu, Baolin

    2017-03-13

    The physiological mechanisms by which imbibed seeds survive freezing temperatures in their natural environment have been categorized as freezing avoidance by supercooling and freezing tolerance by extracellular freeze-desiccation, but the biochemical and molecular mechanisms conferring seed freezing tolerance is unexplored. In this study, using imbibed Lactuca sativa seeds we show that fast cooled seeds (60 °C h -1 ) suffered significantly higher membrane damage at temperature between -20 °C and -10 °C than slow cooled (3 °Ch -1 ) seeds (P  0.05). However, both SOD activity and accumulation of free proline were induced significantly after slow cooling to -20 °C compared with fast cooling. RNA-seq demonstrated that multiple pathways were differentially regulated between slow and fast cooling. Real-time verification of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that fast cooling caused mRNA level changes of plant hormone and ubiquitionation pathways at higher sub-zero temperature, whilst slow cooling caused mRNA level change of those pathways at lower sub-zero ttemperatures. Thus, we conclude that imbibed seed tolerate low temperature not only by physiological mechanisms but also by biochemical and molecular changes.

  4. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  5. Carbohydrate content and antioxidative potential of the seed of three edible indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Supratim; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep; Sanyal, Saptadwipa; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2012-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains or seeds are known to lose much of their nutrient and antioxidant contents, following polishing. The current study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the carbohydrate content and antioxidant parameters in the unpolished and polished seeds of three edible indica rice cultivars, namely Swarna (SW), the most popular indica rice cultivar in India and aromatic or scented cultivars Gobindobhog (GB) and Pusa Basmati (PB). While both the sucrose and starch content was the maximum in PB seeds (both unpolished and polished), the amylose content was the highest in SW polished seeds. SW polished seeds were superior as compared to GB and PB cultivars in terms of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and Fe(II) chelation potential, as well as the highest lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition or H2O2 scavenging potential, probably due to the maximum accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids, the two important antioxidants. The reducing power ability was, however, identical in both SW and GB polished seeds. The PB polished seeds were more potent in superoxide and hydroxyl scavenging, whereas GB in nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. The common observation noted after polishing of seeds was the reduction in the level of carbohydrates and antioxidant potential, though the extent of reduction varied in the three cultivars. The only exception was GB, where there was no alteration in NO scavenging potential even after polishing. Our study showed the better performance of SW polished seeds with respect to higher amylose content and majority of the tested parameters governing antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging potential, thus highlighting the greater dietary significance of SW over the other two cultivars.

  6. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques...

  7. Potentials of enhancing the physicochemical and functional characteristics of Nigella sativa oil by using the screw pressing technique for extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current investigation the crude oil of Nigella sativa was extracted from seeds using hydraulic and screw pressing techniques. Different parameters were evaluated in order to find out the appropriate technique to enhance the physicochemical and functional-related characteristics of the extracted crude oil. Results showed that the acid and peroxide values were significantly lower in the screw pressed oil (SPO than in the hydraulic pressed oil (HPO. The total phenolic content of the SPO was significantly higher than that of HPO. Evaluation of the oxidative stability using the Rancimat test showed that SPO recorded a much higher oxidative stability index (40.07 h than HPO (0.51 h. The yield of the volatile oil fraction and its contents of thymoquinone isolated from the SPO were higher than that from the HPO. Biological evaluation revealed that the SPO had significantly higher antimicrobial activity than HPO against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus at 40 μL/well.

  8. Analytical characterization of Hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.) oil from eight regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Zhang, Hua; Qian, Ping; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2010-06-01

    In this study, eight cultivars of hempseed were collected from different regions of China for analysis of physiochemical properties and chemical composition, as well as for seed indexes and proximate composition of seed kernel. The results indicated that Yunma No. 1 and Bama Huoma, with more than 50% oil and 30% protein in dehulled seed, could be considered as oil extraction material and protein source with respect to kernel yield. Iodine values ranging from 153.6 to 169.1 g/100 g reflected the high degree of unsaturation. The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids exceeded 90%, higher than most conventional vegetable oils. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 76.26% to 82.75% and were mainly composed of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid with a ratio close to 3:1. γ-Tocopherol was found at an average concentration of 28.23 mg/100 g of hempseed oil. The results indicated that hempseed oil is a potentially valuable vegetable oil.

  9. Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

    2003-01-01

    Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed.

  10. Seed Germination Behaviors Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L After Priming With Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkheir H.A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed Priming Is Famous Technique To Accelerate Seed Germination Behaviors. This Experiment Was Conducted To Study The Effect Of Polyethylene Glycol-8000 Peg-8000 As Priming Agent On Seed Germination Behavior Of Some Aerobic Rice Cultivars Oryza Sativa L. Experiment Was Carried Out By Using Two-Factor Three Aerobic Rice Cultivars And Peg With Four Replications Which Arranged In Factorial System Design And Conducted With Completely Randomized Design. The Factor Was Varieties Which Were Inpago 8 V1 Ir64 V2 And Situbagendit V3 Combine With 4 Levels Of Peg Concentrations 0100 And 200 Gl-1 And Control With No Treatment. Experiment Was Repeated 4 Times So Total Number Of Experimental Units Were 48. Germination Parameters Measured Were Germination Percentage Germination Index Days Of 50 Germination Seedling Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight And Root Fresh Weight Mg Seedling Dry Weigh Mg Seedling Shoot Dry Weight And Root Dry Weight Mg ShootRoot Ratio Seedling Length Cm Seedling Root Length Cm And Shoot Length Cm And Seed Vigor Index. The Results Indicated That Seed Priming Significantly Affected Germination Behaviors Compared With Control Depending Upon Varieties. The Highest Germination Was Obtained Under Laboratory And Greenhouse Condition By The Treatment Of Peg 200 G L-1 On The Situbagendit And Ir-64 Variety 90.25 And 93.33 Respectively Compared To Control In Inpago-8 In Both Laboratory 75.75 And Greenhouse 80 . As Implementation To Increase Seed And Seedling Vigor Of Rice It Is A Best Practice To Use Peg Priming With 200 Gl-1 Solutions Depend Upon Varietal Response And We Suggest That More Research About The Effect Of Peg As Seed Priming Techniques On Seed Germination Behavior Of Many Grain Crops Is Needed To Confirm The Methodology.

  11. Chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds against rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Elsayed I; Fukushima, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    Chemopreventive effects of orally administered Nigella sativa oil on the induction and development of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative preneoplastic lesions for colon cancer, were investigated in Fischer 344 rats. Starting at 6 wk of age, 45 male rats (groups 1-3) were subcutaneously injected with DMH once a week for 3 wk. Group 1 (15 rats) served as a carcinogen control group without N. sativa administration. Group 2 or 3 (15 rats each) were given the oil in the postinitiation stage or in the initiation stage, respectively. Animals of group 4 (11 rats) were injected with 0.9% saline and received N. sativa oil from the beginning until the termination. At sacrifice, 14 wk after the start, the total numbers of ACF as well as those with at least four crypts were significantly reduced in group 2 (P colonic crypts revealed the N. sativa oil to have significant antiproliferative activity in both initiation and postinitiation stages and especially in the latter. Histological examination revealed no pathological changes in the liver, kidneys, spleen, or other organs of rats treated with N. sativa. In addition, biochemical parameters of blood and urine as well as body weight gain were not affected. These findings demonstrate that the volatile oil of N. sativa has the ability to inhibit colon carcinogenesis of rats in the postinitiation stage, with no evident adverse side effects, and that the inhibition may be associated, in part, with suppression of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa.

  12. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  13. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  14. Effect of Vermicompost Extract and Vermicompost-Derived Humic Acids on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Hemp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievinsh Gederts

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cultivars grown for industrial use have recently emerged as a sustainable alternative source of industrial fibre and bioenergy, and is a highly valuable food and animal feed resource. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vermicompost extract, vermicompost mineral nutrient composition, and vermicompost-derived humic and fulvic acids on seed germination and growth of hemp seedlings. In general, separate application of all vermicompost components stimulated seed germination and hypocotyl and radicle growth, as well as increased chlorophyll concentration in cotyledons. Effective concentration range and the degree of stimulation varied significantly between the treatments. For practical purposes, application of vermicompost and vermicompost-derived extracts for stimulation of hemp growth could be useful at concentrations 5%, 0.05 mg·mL−1 and 1%, for vermicompost extract, humic acids and fulvic acids, respectively.

  15. The effect of Nigella sativa Linn. seed on memory, attention and cognition in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Asaduzzaman, Md; Morshed, Helal; Hossain, Md Monir; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Rahman, Md Rezowanur

    2013-07-30

    Experimental evidences have demonstrated that Nigella sativa Linn. seed (NS) has positive modulation effects on aged rats with memory impairments, prevents against hippocampal pyramidal cell loss and enhances consolidation of recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in rats. NS has neuroprotective, nephroprotective, lung protective, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective activities as established by previous studies on animals. Several clinical trials with NS on human have also demonstrated beneficial effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NS on memory, attention and cognition in healthy elderly volunteers. Furthermore, safety profile of NS was assessed during the nine-week study period. Forty elderly volunteers were recruited and divided randomly into group A and group B--each consisting of 20 volunteers. The treatment procedure for group A was 500 mg NS capsule twice daily for nine weeks and Group B received placebo instead of NS in the similar manner. All the volunteers were assessed for neuropsychological state and safety profile twice before treatment and after nine weeks. The neuropsychological tests were logical memory test, digit span test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, letter cancellation test, trail making test and stroop test. Safety profile was assessed by measuring biochemical markers of Cardiac (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase-MB); Liver (aspartate aminotransferase, alanin aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, bilirubin) and Kidney (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) through using commercial kits. There was significant difference (pmemory test-I and II, total score of digit span, 30 min delayed-recall, percent score in Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, time taken to complete letter cancellation test, time taken in trail making test-A and test

  16. Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Shams, Tahiatul; Fahim Hossain, Sarder; Rahman, Md Rezowanur; Mostofa, Agm; Fahim Kadir, Mohammad; Mahmood, Sharif; Asaduzzaman, Md

    2014-02-27

    Previous studies conducted on animals linked consumption of Nigella sativa L. seeds (NS) to decreased anxiety and improved memory. The present study, which was carried out at a boarding school in Bangladesh, was designed to examine probable effect of NS on mood, anxiety and cognition in adolescent human males. Forty-eight healthy adolescent human males aged between 14 to 17 years were randomly recruited as volunteers and were randomly split into two groups: A (n=24) and B (n=24). The treatment procedure for group A and B were one capsule of 500 mg placebo and 500 mg NS respectively once daily for four weeks. All the volunteers were assessed for cognition with modified California verbal learning test-II (CVLT-II), mood with Bond-Lader scale and anxiety with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at the beginning and after four weeks of either NS or placebo ingestion. No parameter showed statistically significant variation between A and B in measurements in the beginning, but after 4 weeks of one capsule of NS 500 mg intake, there was statistically significant variation of mood within group B but there was not statistically significant variation between group A and B. No significant variation was found in state anxiety within groups and between group A and B but in case of trait anxiety, significant variation was found within group B but not between group A and B. In case of CVLT II, there was significant variation within B in immediate short-term recall at trial 4 and 5 whereas this difference was found only in case of trial 5 between group A and B. Within group B, short term-free recall, long-term free recall and long-term cued recall had statistical difference whereas between group A and B long-term free recall and long-term cued recall had statistical difference. No parameters had significant variation within group A after placebo intake for 4 weeks. Over the 4 weeks study period, the use of NS as a nutritional supplement been observed to- stabilize mood, decrease

  17. Lecithin extraction and characterization from melon seeds obtained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melon seed oils from different agricultural zones of Nigeria were sampled. Oils were extracted using soxhlet extraction techniques, characterized and lecithin extracted using standard biochemical methods. The percentage oil yield was higher when n-hexane solvent system was used than when chloroform/methanol solvent ...

  18. Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, S.; Ait-Amar, H.; Lagha, A.; Esveld, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical

  19. Allelopatic effects of cyanobacteria extracts containing microcystins on Medicago sativa-Rhizobia symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oufdou, Khalid; Lahrouni, Majida; El Ghazali, Issam; Saqrane, Sanaa; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2011-03-01

    The eutrophication of water leads to massive blooms of cyanobacteria potentially producers of highly toxic substances: cyanotoxins, especially microcystins (MC). The contamination of water used for irrigation by these toxins, can cause several adverse effects on plants and microorganisms. In this work, we report the phytotoxic effects of microcystins on the development of symbiosis between the leguminous plant Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and rhizobia strains. The exposure of rhizobial strains to three different concentrations 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 μg MC ml(-1) led to decrease on the bacteria growth. The strains of rhizobia Rh L1, Rh L2, Rh L3 and Rh L4 reduced their growth to, respectively, 20.85%, 20.80%, 33.19% and 25.65%. The chronic exposure of alfalfa seeds and seedlings to different MC concentrations affects the whole stages of plant development. The germination process has also been disrupted with an inhibition, which reaches 68.34% for a 22.24 μg MC ml(-1). Further, seedlings growth and photosynthetic process were also disrupted. The toxins reduced significantly the roots length and nodule formation and leads to an oxidative stress. Thus, the MCs contained in lake water and used for irrigation affect the development of symbiosis between M. sativa and Rhizobia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... nitrogen excretion. Nutritional indices (true nitrogen digestibility, biological value and protein utilization) for all the processed neem seed cakes were ... Key words: Neem seed, processed cake, substitution, solvent extraction, nitrogen metabolism, albino rats. .... Urine out put was measured and the.

  1. Effect Of CARICAPRYL-99 Seed Alkaloid Extract On The Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percectage toxicity (10, 50 and 150 mg/kg) were separately administered orally, daily for three days to ...

  2. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  3. Mitogenic Properties Of Lectin From Mucuna Sloanei Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitogenic properties of lectin from mucuna sloanei seed extracts were studied. The seeds of mucuna sloanie were shelled and ground using an electric grinder. The powder meal was then defatted with petroleum ether, and adjusted to 10 %( w/v) in potassium inorganic phosphates k-pi (A) buffer (pH 7.5). The suspension ...

  4. Effects of aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds on membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water-extract of the seed of Garcinia kola (Henckel), a popularly consumed seed known as 'bitter kola' in Nigeria, on the stabilities of erythrocyte membranes from HbAA, HbAS and HbSS blood donors were determined. The median corpuscular fragility (MCF) of erythrocytes from the three genotypes were 3.6 + ...

  5. Antidepressant-like potentials of Buchholzia Coriacea seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    active metabolites, and the folklore documented its use in neuro-behavioral despairs. Previous study in our laboratory shows that methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea (MEBC) seeds possess antidepressant-like potentials in laboratory rodents.

  6. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. Result: The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly ( P =0.00 in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa . Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  7. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailani, M R; Moeini, H

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  8. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of relative humidity (RH while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40±2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  9. Stepwise extraction of proteins and carbohydrates from soybean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Ikehara, Hiroko

    2005-05-18

    The stepwise hot water extraction of soybeans, which were extractions in a series of procedures of whole soybean seeds, dehulled and sliced ones, and pressed ones carried out by autoclaving, was investigated to study the localization in the seed and their characteristics. The characteristics of each extraction were studied by HPLC, SDS-PAGE, components analysis, microscopic observation, and effect for some enzymes. Carbohydrates were easier to extract than protein. In the extractions, the ratio of uronic acid per total sugar was constantly about 0.3. A comparison of these extracts, soybean milk, extraction from defatted soybean meal, and soybean milk residues was also carried out, and the characteristics and the localization were investigated. Mid-sized proteins in soybean milk were easy to extract. However, hardly any high molecular weight proteins or high molecular weight carbohydrates were extracted. The proteins and carbohydrates were considered to be localized in the middle lamella and in the protein and/or oil bodies of the cell, and the proteins and carbohydrates were gradually extracted through seed and cell breaking. Gelation was observed only in the boiled extracts from whole seeds. Pepsin and trypsin digests of the high molecular weight protein had inhibitory activity against the angiotensin I converting enzyme.

  10. The Extraction and Properties of Carica papaya Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.M.; Su, N.; Yang, H. Q.; X.P. Bai; Q.X. Zhu; Liu, H. X.; Li, J. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE) for the recovery of papaya seed oil as compared to Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE). The efficiency of these two methods was assessed by comparing the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of papaya seed oil. The analytic tests were color, unsaponifiable matters, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value. The fatty acid components were analyzed by GC...

  11. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  12. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  13. Significant enhancement of fatty acid composition in seeds of the allohexaploid, Camelina sativa, using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen Zhi; Henry, Isabelle M; Lynagh, Peter G; Comai, Luca; Cahoon, Edgar B; Weeks, Donald P

    2017-05-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing, and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16% to enhanced oil composition in T3 and T4 generation Camelina seeds was associated with a combination of germ-line mutations and somatic cell mutations in FAD2 genes in each of the three Camelina subgenomes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE from Medicago sativa is involved in vitamin E biosynthesis and abscisic acid-mediated seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Chen, Zhihong; Ban, Liping; Wu, Yudi; Huang, Jianping; Chu, Jinfang; Fang, Shuang; Wang, Zan; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2017-01-01

    P-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE (HPPD) is the first committed enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin E, and is characterized by catalyzing the conversion of p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate (HPP) to homogentisic acid (HGA). Here, an HPPD gene was cloned from Medicago sativa L. and designated MsHPPD, which was expressed at high levels in alfalfa leaves. PEG 6000 (polyethylene glycol), NaCl, abscisic acid and salicylic acid were shown to significantly induce MsHPPD expression, especially in the cotyledons and root tissues. Overexpression of MsHPPD was found to significantly increase the level of β-tocotrienol and the total vitamin E content in Arabidopsis seeds. Furthermore, these transgenic Arabidopsis seeds exhibited an accelerated germination time, compared with wild-type seeds under normal conditions, as well as under NaCl and ABA treatments. Meanwhile, the expression level of several genes associated with ABA biosynthesis (NCED3, NCED5 and NCED9) and the ABA signaling pathway (RAB18, ABI3 and ABI5) were significantly down-regulated in MsHPPD-overexpressing transgenic lines, as well as the total free ABA content. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MsHPPD functions not only in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway, but also plays a critical role in seed germination via affecting ABA biosynthesis and signaling. PMID:28084442

  15. Carcass traits, fatty acid composition, gene expression, oxidative stability and quality attributes of different muscles in Dorper lambs fed Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhaib, Kifah Jumaah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2017-11-03

    This study examined the influence of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination on carcass attributes, fatty acid (FA) composition, gene expression, lipid oxidation and physicochemical properties of longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) and supraspinatus (SS) muscles in Dorper lambs. Twenty-four Dorper lambs (18.68±0.6 kg, 4-5 months old) were randomly assigned to a concentrate mixture containing either, no supplement (control, T1), 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves (T2), 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T3), or 1% Rosmarinus officinalis leaves + 1% Nigella sativa seeds (T4) on a dry matter basis. The lambs were fed the treatments with urea-treated rice straw for 90 days, slaughtered and the muscles were subjected to a 7 d postmortem chill storage. The T2 lambs had greater (p 0.05) on the expression of SCD and LPL genes in LD and ST muscles in Dorper lambs. The T2 and T3 diets up regulated the expression of PRKAA2 gene in LD and ST muscles and up regulated the expression of SREBP1 in ST muscle in Dorper lambs. Dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa seeds and Rosmarinus officinalis leaves had beneficial effects on meat quality in Dorper lambs.

  16. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EFFICACY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON BLASTOCYSTIS HOMINIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eida, Omima M; El-Shafei, Hanaa A; Nomeir, Yousra A; El Safhi, Mohammed B

    2016-04-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) was the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) with high treatment failure rate, resistance and potential mutagenic and carcinogenic effects so there is urgent need to find out new, effective and safe treatment against B. hominis. The present research aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (NS) at different doses on B. hominis in vitro and in vivo in comparison to MTZ as a control drug. Isolates of B. hominis were obtained from patients complaining of diarrhea and abdominal pain. Isolates were cultured in egg diphasic medium (LE) for in vitro study and to adjust proper inoculating dose for in vivo study. The aqueous extract of NS at concentrations of 100 & 500 µg/ml showed a potent lethal effect on B. hominis isolates in vitro. Caecal tissue of experimentally infected and treated mice with two different doses of NS (250 & 500 mg/kg/d) were examined histopathologically and compared with that of mice infected and treated by two doses of MTZ (62 & 125 mg/kg/d) as control drug and Infected untreated mice as negative control group. Histopathological examination of infected untreated group showed all pathological degrees in the caecal tissue while infected treated one showed remission of pathological changes especially with higher dose (500 mg/kg). Present study proved that N. sativa had inhibitory effect on B. hominis in vitro and prevented cytopathic effect in infected mice inoculated orally with B. hominis.

  17. Lipid labeling from acetate or glycerol in cultured embryos of Camelina sativa seeds: A tale of two substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Mike; Delamarter, Danielle; Martin, Tina M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-10-01

    Studies on the metabolism of lipids in seeds frequently use radiolabeled acetate and glycerol supplied to excised developing seeds to track the biosynthesis of acyl and lipid head groups, respectively. Such experiments are generally restricted to shorter time periods and the results may not quantitatively reflect in planta rates. These limitations can be removed by using cultured embryos, provided they mimic growth and lipid deposition observed for embryos in planta. Mid-maturation embryos from Camelina sativa were cultured in vitro to assess the use of sufficient acetate or glycerol concentrations and labeling periods for stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometric detection. Maximum incorporation of exogenous acetate into fatty acids occurred at 1mM and above. This provides about 5% of the total carbon flux entering fatty acids, enough for (13)C isotopomer analysis while maintaining normal biosynthetic rates for over 24h. Labeling analysis indicates that acetate reports lipid metabolism uniformly across the embryo. At higher acetate concentrations with longer incubations, the rate of fatty acid synthesis is reduced and the composition of newly synthesized fatty acids changes. While the mole fractions of oleate that undergo Δ12-desaturation or elongation are independent of biosynthetic flux, Δ15-desaturation shows a bimodal dependence. These observations are consistent with changes occurring in planta over seed development. Incorporation rates of the glyceryl moiety into lipids saturates at about 0.5mM exogenous glycerol. At saturation, the exogenous glycerol almost completely replaces the endogenous supply of glycerol-3-phosphate without affecting net lipid accumulation or fatty acid composition. It is concluded that acetate and glycerol labeling of cultured C. sativa embryos can provide an accurate representation of lipid metabolism in embryos in vivo, and that in Camelina embryos glycerol-3-phosphate levels do not co-limit triacylglycerol synthesis

  18. Transcriptome profiling of Camelina sativa to identify genes involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and accumulation in the developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hesham M; Akbari, Parisa; Paulose, Bibin; Schnell, Danny; Qi, Weipeng; Park, Yeonhwa; Pareek, Ashwani; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2016-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an emerging dedicated oilseed crop designed for biofuel and biodiesel applications as well as a source for edible and general-purpose oils. Such valuable oilseed crop is subjected to plant breeding programs and is suggested for large-scale production of better seed and oil quality. To accomplish this objective and to further enhance its oil content, a better understanding of lipid metabolism at the molecular level in this plant is critical. Here, we applied tissue transcriptomics and lipid composition analysis to identify and profile the genes and gene networks associated with triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, and to investigate how those genes are interacting to determine the quantity and quality of Camelina oil during seed development. Our Camelina transcriptome data analysis revealed an approximate of 57,854 and 57,973 genes actively expressing in developing seeds (RPKM ≥ 0.1) at 10-15 (Cs-14) and 16-21 (Cs-21) days after flowering (DAF), respectively. Of these, 7932 genes showed temporal and differential gene expression during the seed development (log2 fold change ≥1.5 or ≤-1.5; P ≤ 0.05). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were annotated and were found to be involved in distinct functional categories and metabolic pathways. Furthermore, performing quantitative real-time PCR for selected candidate genes associated with TAG biosynthesis validated RNA-seq data. Our results showed strong positive correlations between the expression abundance measured using both qPCR and RNA-Seq technologies. Furthermore, the analysis of fatty-acid content and composition revealed major changes throughout seed development, with the amount of oil accumulate rapidly at early mid seed development stages (from 16-28 DAF onwards), while no important changes were observed in the fatty-acid profile between seeds at 28 DAF and mature seeds. This study is highly useful for understanding the regulation of TAG biosynthesis and identifying the rate

  19. Imaging heterogeneity of membrane and storage lipids in transgenic Camelina sativa seeds with altered fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patrick J; Silva, Jillian E; Anderson, Danielle; Fuchs, Johannes; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Nazarenus, Tara J; Shulaev, Vladimir; Cahoon, Edgar B; Chapman, Kent D

    2013-10-01

    Engineering compositional changes in oilseeds is typically accomplished by introducing new enzymatic step(s) and/or by blocking or enhancing an existing enzymatic step(s) in a seed-specific manner. However, in practice, the amounts of lipid species that accumulate in seeds are often different from what one would predict from enzyme expression levels, and these incongruences may be rooted in an incomplete understanding of the regulation of seed lipid metabolism at the cellular/tissue level. Here we show by mass spectrometry imaging approaches that triacylglycerols and their phospholipid precursors are distributed differently within cotyledons and the hypocotyl/radicle axis in embryos of the oilseed crop Camelina sativa, indicating tissue-specific heterogeneity in triacylglycerol metabolism. Phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerols enriched in linoleic acid (C18:2) were preferentially localized to the axis tissues, whereas lipid classes enriched in gadoleic acid (C20:1) were preferentially localized to the cotyledons. Manipulation of seed lipid compositions by heterologous over-expression of an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, or by suppression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases, resulted in new overall seed storage lipid compositions with altered patterns of distribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol in transgenic embryos. Our results reveal previously unknown differences in acyl lipid distribution in Camelina embryos, and suggest that this spatial heterogeneity may or may not be able to be changed effectively in transgenic seeds depending upon the targeted enzyme(s)/pathway(s). Further, these studies point to the importance of resolving the location of metabolites in addition to their quantities within plant tissues. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Castanea sativa Mill. bark extract exhibits chemopreventive properties triggering extrinsic apoptotic pathway in Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Monia; Malaguti, Marco; Cocchi, Veronica; Hrelia, Silvana; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2017-05-05

    Chemoprevention represents the possibility to prevent, stop or reverse the cancerogenetic process. In this context the interest towards natural extracts and botanical drugs has constantly grown due to their phytochemical content. Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) extracts showed to exert positive effect in the prevention/counteraction of chronic/degenerative diseases, therefore, we evaluated the potential chemopreventive effect of CSM bark extract. Flow cytometry (FCM) analyses of Jurkat cells treated with CSM bark extract (0-500 μg·mL -1 ) for 24-72 h allowed evaluating its cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis through the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways. Moreover, to evaluate CSM bark extract selectivity towards cancer cells, its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect was also evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CSM bark extract induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner activating the extrinsic pathways as evidenced by the increase of activated caspase-8 positive cells. Moreover, IC 50 calculated after 24 h treatment resulted 304 and 128 μg·mL -1 in PBL and Jurkat cells respectively. Our data suggest that CSM bark extract might be considered an interesting potential anti-cancer agent, since it induces apoptosis in cancer cells without appreciable cytotoxic effects on non-transformed cells.

  1. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  2. Effect of papaya seed extract on microenvironment of cauda epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R J; Chinoy, N J

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract on microenvironment of cauda epididymis. Adult male albino rats were intramuscularly administered with 0 (control) or 0.5 mg papaya seed extract/kg body weight for 7 days. Cauda epididymal tubular content was collected by micropuncture technique; epididymal luminal fluid and sperm pellets were separately analyzed. The results revealed that the extract treatment caused significant reduction, as compared with control, in total protein and sialic acid contents in both epididymal fluid and sperm pellet. As compared with control, significantly lowered acid phosphatase activity was recorded in sperm pellet but was higher in epididymal fluid after the treatment. The extract treatment also caused significant reduction in level of inorganic phosphorus in the epididymal fluid. It is concluded that the aqueous papaya seed extract alters cauda epididymal microenvironment.

  3. Effect of Kaempferol isolated from seeds of Eruca sativa on changes of pain sensitivity in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Lalit; Kaur, Navpreet; Singh, Randhir

    2017-11-20

    Generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and cellular apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Present study was aimed to explore the effect of Eruca sativa and Kaempferol (KP) on hyperalgesia (thermal and mechanical); tactile allodynia, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and oxidative-nitrosative stress in streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental diabetes. Neuropathy developed in diabetic rats was evident from a marked hyperalgesia and allodynia; reduced MNCV associated with excess formation of AGEs and ROS. Chronic treatment with E. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (EHA; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and KP (5 and 10 mg/kg) for 30 days starting from the 60th day of STZ administration significantly ameliorated behavioral and biochemical changes linked to diabetic neuropathy. Present study suggested that EHA and KP corrected hyperglycemia and reversed the pain response partially in diabetic rats along via modulating oxidative and nitrosative stress along with reduction of AGEs formation in diabetic rats. Thus E. sativa might be beneficial in chronic diabetes, ameliorate the progression of diabetic neuropathy and may also find application in diabetic neuropathic pain.

  4. Detection, seed transmission, and control of Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  5. Hyaloperonospora camelinae on Camelina sativa (L.) in Washington State: Detection, seed transmission, and chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa [L.] Crantz) plants with symptoms of downy mildew were obtained from three different locations in Washington State. Based on PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, the causal pathogen was identified as Hyaloperonospora camelinae. The PCR primers consistently ampli...

  6. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Goldson Barnaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe caffeic acid-based pharmacokinetics of methanol extract of seed of Syzygium cumini L. in rats. Methods: A dose of the extract (500 mg, equivalent to 37.135 mg caffeic acid) was administered orally to 6 male Wister rats, weighing 200 ± 10 g. Blood samples (0.5 mL), collected from the tail vein at 0, 15,.

  8. Invivo Antimalarial Activity of Dodonaea Angustifolia Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimalarial activity of Dodonaea angustifolia in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. In the present study, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts as well as solvent fractions of the aqueous extract of D. angustifolia seeds were investigated for their antimalarial activity using Peters' 4-day ...

  9. Antioxidant activities of seed extracts from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heartwood or root of Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen is an important traditional Chinese medicine. Antioxidant activities of seed extracts from D. odorifera T. Chen were first investigated in this study. Ethanolic extracts were suspended in distilled water and partitioned successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, ...

  10. Molecular analysis of genetic fidelity in Cannabis sativa L. plants grown from synthetic (encapsulated) seeds following in vitro storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; Techen, Natascha; Khan, Ikhlas A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2011-12-01

    The increasing utilization of synthetic (encapsulated) seeds for germplasm conservation and propagation necessitates the assessment of genetic stability of conserved propagules following their plantlet conversion. We have assessed the genetic stability of synthetic seeds of Cannabis sativa L. during in vitro multiplication and storage for 6 months at different growth conditions using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) DNA fingerprinting. Molecular analysis of randomly selected plants from each batch was conducted using 14 ISSR markers. Of the 14 primers tested, nine produced 40 distinct and reproducible bands. All the ISSR profiles from in vitro stored plants were monomorphic and comparable to the mother plant which confirms the genetic stability among the clones. GC analysis of six major cannabinoids [Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol and cannabinol] showed homogeneity in the re-grown clones and the mother plant with insignificant differences in cannabinoids content, thereby confirming the stability of plants derived from synthetic seeds following 6 months storage. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  11. Evaluation of the toxic potential of coffee wastewater on seeds, roots and meristematic cells of Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-11-01

    Coffee wastewater (CWW) is an effluent produced through wet processing of coffee containing high concentration of organic matter, nutrients, salts and also agrochemicals. It is released directly into the argillaceous soil or into decantation tanks for later disposal into soils, by fertigation, subsurface infiltration or superficial draining. However, this practice is not followed by the monitoring the toxicity potential of this effluent. In this sense, the present work aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic, cytogenotoxic and mutagenic potential of CWW on seed germination, root elongation and cell cycle alterations in the plant model Lactuca sativa L. The effluent (CWW) collected was diluted in distilled water into six concentrations solutions (1.25%, 1.66%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10%, 20%). A solution of raw CWW (100%) was also applied. Distilled water was used as negative control), and the DNA alkylating agent, metilmetano sulfonate (4×10(-4)M) as positive control. Physico-chemical parameters of the CWW was accessed and it was found that the effluent contained total phenols and inorganic matter in amounts within the limits established by the National Environment Council (CONAMA). Nevertheless, the biologicals assays performed demonstrated the phytotoxicity and cytogenotoxicty of CWW. Seed germination was totally inhibited after exposure of raw CWW. In addition, a decrease in seed germination speed as well as in root growth dose-dependently manner was noticed. Moreover, nuclear and chromosomal alterations were observed in the cell cycle, mostly arising from aneugenic action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Agronomical response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., variety “Black Seed Simpson”, to Enerplant biostimulant aplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Baldoquin Hernandez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done at the school vegetable garden of Los Indios in the municipality of Rio Cauto, Granma, from March through April, 2014. The objective was to evaluate the agronomical response of the cultivation of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L variety “Black Seeded Simpson to the foliar application of three doses of Enerplant. The biostimulant was applied in the morning 7 days after transplantation. The doses used were 0.5 mL.ha-1, 1 mL.ha-1 and 1.5 mL.ha-1. The yield components were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically processed using the software package STASTISTICA 6.0 for Windows. Results showed that the three doses had a positive effect on the cultivation yield. Best results were obtained with the application of the 1.5 mL.ha-1 dose. The majority of the evaluated indicators significantly increased.

  13. In vitro and in vivo study of the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa methanol extract in dairy cow mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rakhshandeh

    2011-07-01

    Results and conclusion: The extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects on causative organisms compared to standard drugs and also induced healing of the disease. This is the first veterinary experiment, to our knowledge, that investigated the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa.

  14. Immune responses to methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Bilen, Soner; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2017-08-01

    The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg-1 of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg-1 black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg-1 black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P  0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supplementation of Powdered Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seeds Reduces the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tauseef Sultan; Masood Sadiq Butt; Rabia Shabeer Ahmad; Rizwana Batool; Ambreen Naz; Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2011-01-01

    Background: Functional and nutraceutical foods are gaining immense popularity among the masses. Plants and their bioactive molecules are of prime importance. Although various plants from different geographical areas have been tested in the past, many horizons still need to be addressed. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is one such example that is quite popular in South Asia and the Middle East. Context and purpose: The present research study was designed to expedite the role of black cumin...

  16. Extraction of bixin from annatto seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G. F.; Gamarra,Felix M. C.; Oliveira,A. L.; Cabral,F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The solubility of 93% pure bixin in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and of the bixin present in annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.) was measured. For the seeds, the measurements were made in a temperature range from 30 to 50ºC and pressure between 10 and 35 MPa and for the pure bixin, at 40ºC from 10 to 35 MPa. The main pigments of annatto seeds are bixin and norbixin, but the extracts only showed the presence of cis and trans-bixin, indicating that norbixin is not soluble in SC-CO2. The a...

  17. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-05

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis of seed embryo proteins associated with seed storability in rice (Oryza sativa L) during natural aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiadong; Fu, Hua; Zhou, Xinqiao; Chen, Zhongjian; Luo, Yi; Cui, Baiyuan; Chen, Guanghui; Liu, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Seed storability is considered an important trait in rice breeding; however, the underlying regulating mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we carried out a physiological and proteomic study to identify proteins possibly related to seed storability under natural conditions. Two hybrid cultivars, IIYou998 (IIY998) and BoYou998 (BY998), were analyzed in parallel because they share the same restorer line but have significant differences in seed storability. After a 2-year storage period, the germination percentage of IIY998 was significantly lower than that of BY998, whereas the level of malondialdehyde was reversed, indicating that IIY998 seeds may suffer from more severe damage than BY998 during storage. However, we did not find correlation between activities of antioxidant enzymes of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase and seed storability. We identified 78 embryo proteins in embryo whose abundance varied more than 3-fold different during storage or between IIY998 and BY998. More proteins changed in abundance in IIY998 embryo (67 proteins) during storage than in BY998 (10 proteins). Several redox regulation proteins, mainly glutathione-related proteins, exhibited different degree of change during storage between BY998 and IIY998 and might play an important role protecting embryo proteins from oxidation. In addition, some disease/defense proteins, including DNA-damage-repair/toleration proteins, and a putative late embryogenesis abundant protein were significantly downregulated in IIY998, whereas their levels did not change in BY998, indicating that they might be correlated with seed storability. Further studies on these candidate seed storage proteins might help improve our understanding of seed aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of High Quality RNA from Cannabis sativa Bast Fibres: A Vademecum for Molecular Biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In plants there is no universal protocol for RNA extraction, since optimizations are required depending on the species, tissues and developmental stages. Some plants/tissues are rich in secondary metabolites or synthesize thick cell walls, which hinder an efficient RNA extraction. One such example is bast fibres, long extraxylary cells characterized by a thick cellulosic cell wall. Given the economic importance of bast fibres, which are used in the textile sector, as well as in biocomposites as green substitutes of glass fibres, it is desirable to better understand their development from a molecular point of view. This knowledge favours the development of biotechnological strategies aimed at improving specific properties of bast fibres. To be able to perform high-throughput analyses, such as, for instance, transcriptomics of bast fibres, RNA extraction is a crucial and limiting step. We here detail a protocol enabling the rapid extraction of high quality RNA from the bast fibres of textile hemp, Cannabis sativa L., a multi-purpose fibre crop standing in the spotlight of research.

  1. Distribution of Primary and Specialized Metabolites in Nigella sativa Seeds, a Spice with Vast Traditional and Historical Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Lev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Black cumin (Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae is an annual herb commonly used in the Middle East, India and nowadays gaining worldwide acceptance. Historical and traditional uses are extensively documented in ancient texts and historical documents. Black cumin seeds and oil are commonly used as a traditional tonic and remedy for many ailments as well as in confectionery and bakery. Little is known however about the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and localization of its active components in the seed. Chemical and anatomical evidence indicates the presence of active compounds in seed coats. Seed volatiles consist largely of olefinic and oxygenated monoterpenes, mainly p-cymene, thymohydroquinone, thymoquinone, γ-terpinene and α-thujene, with lower levels of sesquiterpenes, mainly longifolene. Monoterpene composition changes during seed maturation. γ-Terpinene and α-thujene are the major monoterpenes accumulated in immature seeds, and the former is gradually replaced by p-cymene, carvacrol, thymo-hydroquinone and thymoquinone upon seed development. These compounds, as well as the indazole alkaloids nigellidine and nigellicine, are almost exclusively accumulated in the seed coat. In contrast, organic and amino acids are primarily accumulated in the inner seed tissues. Sugars and sugar alcohols, as well as the amino alkaloid dopamine and the saponin α-hederin accumulate both in the seed coats and the inner seed tissues at different ratios. Chemical analyses shed light to the ample traditional and historical uses of this plant.

  2. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  3. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed protein profiling is the most promising tool in determining the molecular polymorphism and genetic homology. Seed storage proteins help in cultivar identification by avoiding the external environmental influences. Electrophoretically detectable proteins in rice grains possess the potential of characterizing the ...

  4. Biogenic synthesis of Zinc oxide nanostructures from Nigella sativa seed: Prospective role as food packaging material inhibiting broad-spectrum quorum sensing and biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shabib, Nasser A; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmed, Faheem; Khan, Rais Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Alsharaeh, Edreese; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Hussain, Afzal; Rehman, Md Tabish; Yusuf, Mohammad; Hassan, Iftekhar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Alsalme, Ali Mohammed; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F; Tarasov, Vadim V; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-12-05

    Bacterial spoilage of food products is regulated by density dependent communication system called quorum sensing (QS). QS control biofilm formation in numerous food pathogens and Biofilms formed on food surfaces act as carriers of bacterial contamination leading to spoilage of food and health hazards. Agents inhibiting or interfering with bacterial QS and biofilm are gaining importance as a novel class of next-generation food preservatives/packaging material. In the present study, Zinc nanostructures were synthesised using Nigella sativa seed extract (NS-ZnNPs). Synthesized nanostructures were characterized hexagonal wurtzite structure of size ~24 nm by UV-visible, XRD, FTIR and TEM. NS-ZnNPs demonstrated broad-spectrum QS inhibition in C. violaceum and P. aeruginosa biosensor strains. Synthesized nanostructures inhibited QS regulated functions of C. violaceum CVO26 (violacein) and elastase, protease, pyocyanin and alginate production in PAO1 significantly. NS-ZnNPs at sub-inhibitory concentrations inhibited the biofilm formation of four-food pathogens viz. C. violaceum 12472, PAO1, L. monocytogenes, E. coli. Moreover, NS-ZnNPs was found effective in inhibiting pre-formed mature biofilms of the four pathogens. Therefore, the broad-spectrum inhibition of QS and biofilm by biogenic Zinc oxide nanoparticles and it is envisaged that these nontoxic bioactive nanostructures can be used as food packaging material and/or as food preservative.

  5. Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Lanuzza, Francesco; D'Angelo, Valeria; Circosta, Clara

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses. From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively. FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids. The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF. Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzyme-supported oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, E; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G M; Staubmann, R; Steiner, W

    1997-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant widely distributed in arid areas. The seeds contain about 55% of oil, which is mainly used for the production of soap as a fuel and after transesterification as biodiesel. Various methods for recovering of oil from the seeds, including extraction with organic solvents and water, have been investigated. Compared to hexane extraction (98%) the oil extraction using water only yielded 38% of the total oil content of the seeds. Using several cell wall degrading enzymes during aqueous extraction a maximum yield of 86% was obtained. The influence of cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic enzymes, as well as proteases was studied. The experiments were carried out at different pH-values and temperatures to find out the optimum for oil recovering using enzymes. , Surprisingly, the best results (86%) were obtained using an alkaline protease. Combinations of proteases with hemicellulases and/or cellulases did not further increase the extraction yield. The enzyme-supported aqueous extraction offers a nontoxic alternative to common extraction methods using organic solvents with reasonable yields.

  8. Adriamycin-induced oxidative stress is prevented by mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbati, Reza; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Mohammadian Roshan, Noema; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Hosseinian, Sara; Karimi, Sareh; Beheshti, Farimah

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress is considered to have a crucial role in induction of nephropathy. Curcuma longa (C. longa) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of N.sativa and C. longa on the oxidative stress induced by Adriamycin (ADR) in rat kidney. The animals were divided into 6 groups: control (CO), ADR, Adriamycin+ Vitamin C (ADR+VIT C), C. longa extract+ Adriamycin (C.LE+ADR), N. sativa extract+ Adriamycin (N.SE+ADR) and C. longa extract+ N. sativa extract + Adriamycin (N.S+C.L+ADR). ADR (5mg/kg) was injected intravenously, whereas VITC (100mg/kg) and extract of C. longa (1000mg/kg) and N. sativa (200mg/kg) were administrated orally. Finally, the renal tissue, urine and blood samples were collected and submitted to measure of redox markers, osmolarity and renal index. The renal content of total thiol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased in Adriamycin group compared to control group. The renal content of total thiol and SOD activity significantly enhanced and MDA concentration reduced in treated-mixed extract of C. longa and N. sativa along with ADR group compared to ADR group. The mixed extract did not restore increased renal index percentage induced by ADR. There also was no significant difference in urine and serum osmolarity between the groups. hydro-alcoholic extracts of N.sativa and C.longa led to an improvement in ADR-induced oxidative stress and mixed administration of the extracts enhanced the aforementioned therapeutic effect.

  9. Antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of Alpinia katsumadai seed phenolic extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovac, Jasna; Gavaric, Neda; Bucar, Franz; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2014-01-01

    .... We investigated antimicrobial and resistance modulatory activity of the phenolic extract, essential oil and post-distillation extract of Alpinia katsumadai seeds against Campylobacter jejuni and Staphylococcus aureus...

  10. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  11. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeic Acid from Methanol Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe caffeic acid-based pharmacokinetics of methanol extract of seed of Syzygium cumini L. in rats. Methods: A dose of the extract (500 mg, equivalent to 37.135 mg caffeic acid) was administered orally to 6 male Wister rats, weighing 200 ± 10 g. Blood samples (0.5 mL), collected from the tail vein at 0, 15, ...

  13. Effects of fruit maturity stages and seed extraction time on the seed quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Adam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is a vegetable from Solanaceae family and its fruit is used in human consumption. It is produced from seedlings in the Republic of Serbia and quantity of seed used for seedlings depends on germination and 1000 seed mass, and ranges from 250 to 350 g ha-1. The aim of this paper was to determine effect of fruit maturity stages and storage duration of harvested fruit on eggplant seed quality. Seed was extracted from technologically mature, semi-mature and botanically mature fruit. Germination energy, germination and 1000 seed mass were tested after seed extraction. Part of harvested fruit was stored for 10 and 20 days, after which seed was extracted and the same seed qualities were tested. It was determined that seed from technologically mature fruit had germination around 25%. In semi-mature fruit, germination abruptly increased from 2% (seed extracted after harvest to 88% (seed extracted 20 days after harvest. Seed obtained from botanically mature fruit had maximum germination after storing for 20 days after harvest and amounted to 99%. In all tested variants, 1000 seed mass increased with storage life, and it reached 5.48 g in botanically mature fruit.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Upe Francisca Babaiwa1, Osayemwenre Erharuyi2, Abiodun Falodun2 and John. O Akerele1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria, 2Department of.

  15. Toxicity and life expectancy effects of Moringa oleifera seed extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicity and growth regulatory effects of Moringa oleifera seed extracts were assessed on third larval instars of Anopheles gambiae, under laboratory conditions. Mortality at different concentrations varied but increased as concentration level increased. Mortality progressed on daily bases throughout the period of ...

  16. essential oil extract from moringa oleifera roots as cowpea seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACT FROM MORINGA OLEIFERA ROOTS AS COWPEA. SEED PROTECTANT AGAINST COWPEA BEETLE. O.Y. ALABI and M.M. ADEWOLE. Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Corresponding author: alabi.jummy@gmail.com, jmkalabi@yahoo.

  17. Hypoglycaemic effects of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimosoideae), its chloroform, hexane, and mother liquor fractions were evaluated in glucose-loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The methanol extract of the seed exhibited a peak percentage decrease of 64% and 44.1% in blood glucose ...

  18. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  19. Aqueous extracts effects of seeds of Thevetia peruviana and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate, the impact of aqueous extracts of seeds of “yellow oleander” Thevetia peruviana (AETP), Azadirachta indica (AEAI) “neem” and Ridomil Gold Plus 66WP in black pod disease in Cameroon during two consecutive years. Methodology and results: A completely randomize ...

  20. Carica Papaya Seed Extract Enhances Cellular Response to Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell death via apoptosis is involved in a wide range of biological and pathological processes and has been associated with oxidative stress in a number of cell systems. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the role of Carica papaya seed (CPS) extract that contains, Benzyl Isothiocyanates, one of the ...

  1. ( Euphorbiaceae ) leaf and seed aqueous extracts against Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the purpose of the present search was to explore the larvicidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. leaf and seed extracts against Culex pipiens L. The larvicidal activity was evaluated in eight different provenances recently introduced in Tunisia (Tanzania (ARU), Mozambique (MOZ), Surinam (SUR) and Brazil ...

  2. The efficacy of neem seed extract ( Azadirachta indica ) to control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the use of neem seed extract for controlling common cattle ticks of the Ixodidae species. Three bulls and three cows of the Tswana, Brahman and Simmentaler breeds were cleared of ticks using ether and hand-picking techniques. Each animal was then naturally infested with ticks.

  3. Analysis and identification of oils from seed extract of Anthonotha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Received 23 ... The volatile components obtained from the seed extract of Anthonotha Macrophylla were analyzed using gas ... untapped. One of such underutilised plant is Anthonotha.

  4. Effect of ethanol seed extract of Buccholzia coriacea (wonderful kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study suggests that ethanol extract of B. coriacea seeds have active ingredients that are capable of improving the lipid profile and thus, might be useful in the management of cardiovascular diseases caused by hyperlipidemia. Keywords: Buccholzia coriacea, triacylglycerol, high density lipoprotein, low density ...

  5. Kenaf seed oil from supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Kenaf seed oil from supercritical carbon dioxide fluid .... The cells were harvested and washed twice with phosphate- buffered saline (PBS), fixed in ice-cold 70% ethanol and ..... Extraction of coffee diterpenes and coffee oil using supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem.

  6. Effect of Cream Formulation of Fenugreek Seed Extract on Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: A water-in-oil emulsion cream base without fenugreek seed extract which served as control, ... Galactomannan is a natural effective .... single site at face. The Cutometer generates a graph depicting immediate deformation or skin extensibility (Ue), delayed distension. (Uv), final deformation (Uf), immediate.

  7. Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... (Chopra et al., 1986; Bhattacharjee et al., 2006). In view of the above, an attempt was made to evaluate the potential of A. mexicana L. seed extracts against standard bacterial strains as well as multi-drug resistant bacteria, isolated from hospital. Three Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and ...

  8. Formulation and Optimization of the Seed Extracts of Glinus lotoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Optimization of the Seed Extracts of Glinus lotoides L. Tablets Using Surface Response Method. ... disintegration time (DT). From the results of multiple linear regression analysis, surface responses and contour plots were generated that demonstrated the effects of the independent variables on H, Fr and DT.

  9. Effects of aqueous extracts of Mucuna sloanei (Fabaceae) seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna sloanei is a legume used as a soup thickener by communities in some parts of Africa countries. The effect of aqueous seed extract of M. sloanei on the haematological profile of normal albino rats was investigated for 28 days using standard methods. The results show no overall dose dependent significant difference ...

  10. Extraction and classification of lipids from seeds of persea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed lipids of Persea americana and Chrysophyllum albidum were studied. Lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol, analysed with silicic column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The total lipid content of Persea americana was 10.8% while that of Chrysophyllum albidum was 7.7%. Fractionation of ...

  11. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was concluded that oil from S. molle seeds could be used as a source of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid which would be utilised as industrial ingredients in the manufacture of soaps, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics and nutritional supplements. Keywords: Schinus molle, hexane oil extraction, fatty acids, ethnomedicine

  12. Th e eff ects of Nigella Sativa extract on renal tissue oxidative damage during neonatal and juvenile growth in propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohebbati R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa (NS on renal tissue oxidative damage associated with propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroidism during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats.

  13. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  14. Investigating Sedative, Preanaesthetic & Anti-anxiety Effects of Herbal Extract of Cannabis Sativa in Comparison with Diazepam in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A rezaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cannabis sativa is a plant that is Called Cannabis in Persian and has diversity all over the world. This plant grows in North region, Arak and Kashan in Iran. Chemical compounds of this plant are cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid and tetra hydro cannabinol that cause the increase in duration of anesthesia via injection of anesthesia drugs. This effect shows the effectiveness of this plant extraction for sedation and smoothing. It is claimed that the usage of this drug for preanesthesia causes the reduction of anesthesia duration induction and increases anesthesia persistency. It seems that Cannabis and its compounds have effects on sleep through hypothalamus and posterior nucleus hemisphere. Methods: herbal extract of Cannabis Sativa (with doses of 150, 300, 450mg/kg, IP, Diazepam (with dose of 1.2mg/kg, IP, and Di-methyl sulphoxide with the equal volume was injected intraperitoneally into two different groups of male wistar rats 30 minutes before assessing the relief sedative and preanaesthetic effects (induced sleep duration by ketamine 40mg/kg, ip & anti-anxiety effects (using elevated plus maze. Results: The results showed a meaningful increase in the period of the sleep time that had been induced with Ketamine and also a meaningful increase was observed in the time spent at open arms in the treatment groups with high and low dose of extract. Conclusion: The results showed that the Cannabis Sativa extract with dose of 350mg/kg has sedative, preanaesthetic & anti-anxiety effects.

  15. Ingested oat herb extract (Avena sativa) changes EEG spectral frequencies in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimpfel, Wilfried; Storni, Charlotte; Verbruggen, Marian

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at using quantitative assessment of human electric brain activity during mental work for determining acute effects of ingested oat herb extract on cognitive performance. Within a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, two dosages of a special oat preparation of Avena sativa herba (1250 or 2500 mg of Neuravena®) were compared to placebo. An electroencephalogram was recorded while the patient had eyes open for 6 minutes, eyes closed for 4 minutes, performance of a concentration test (d2) for 5 minutes, and performance of mental arithmetic (KLT) for 5 minutes. Source density was calculated and spectral frequency changes were averaged to give one value for each frequency range. Using quantitative brain mapping technology (CATEEM®), main effects were observed in the left frontotemporal area, known to be involved in cognitive tasks. Statistically significant differences were observed during resting (lowering of spectral δ power) and during performance of the d2-concentration test (enhancement of spectral θ power) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Also, during performance of mental arithmetic, greater enhancement of θ power was observed but only at a lower error probability (p = 0.115). No effects could be seen using the P300 paradigm during presentation of a visual stimulus. These changes suggest that oat herb extract might be effective in healthy subjects, resulting in a positive impact on cognitive performance.

  16. A cannabigerol-rich Cannabis sativa extract, devoid of [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits hyperphagia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Daniel I; Samuels, James; Duncan, Marnie; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2017-06-01

    Nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids (pCBs) from Cannabis sativa may represent novel therapeutic options for cachexia because of their pleiotropic pharmacological activities, including appetite stimulation. We have recently shown that purified cannabigerol (CBG) is a novel appetite stimulant in rats. As standardized extracts from Cannabis chemotypes dominant in one pCB [botanical drug substances (BDSs)] often show greater efficacy and/or potency than purified pCBs, we investigated the effects of a CBG-rich BDS, devoid of psychoactive [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol, on feeding behaviour. Following a 2 h prefeed satiation procedure, 16 male Lister-hooded rats were administered CBG-BDS (at 30-240 mg/kg) or vehicle. Food intake, meal pattern microstructure and locomotor activity were recorded over 2 h. The total food intake was increased by 120 and 240 mg/kg CBG-BDS (1.53 and 1.36 g, respectively, vs. 0.56 g in vehicle-treated animals). Latency to feeding onset was dose dependently decreased at all doses, and 120 and 240 mg/kg doses increased both the number of meals consumed and the cumulative size of the first two meals. No significant effect was observed on ambulatory activity or rearing behaviour. CBG-BDS is a novel appetite stimulant, which may have greater potency than purified CBG, despite the absence of [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol in the extract.

  17. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  18. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefnawy Taha M. Hefnawy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in reproductive system of rats. Methods: Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v. The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, peroxidase (POD activity, reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results: Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl 4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal

  19. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by

  20. EXTRACTION OF OIL SEED PIN (Citrullus vulgaris BY LEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Londoño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of seed oil initially consisted in physicochemical study of the seed, in order to meet their nutritional content by performing various analyzes as moisture, ash, fat, phosphorus, proteins and carbohydrates. Then we proceeded with oil extraction equipment using solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet using hexane as a solvent using the factorial design of the type 23. After, the crude oil was characterized and refined by the methodology of COVENIN norms, where the oil presented potential properties to elaborate soap in the cosmetic industry. Finally, a lipid profile was obtained by a gas chromatographic, the results showed highly unsaturated fatty acid contents (linoleic and oleic that gives it the potential to be applied as a capable oil with excellent properties and quality to human consume.

  1. Isolation, taxonomic analysis, and phenotypic characterization of bacterial endophytes present in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, José Luis; Alvarez, Florencia; Príncipe, Analía; Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; Draghi, Walter Omar; Jofré, Edgardo; Lagares, Antonio

    2017-12-29

    A growing body of evidence has reinforced the central role of microbiomes in the life of sound multicellular eukaryotes, thus more properly described as true holobionts. Though soil was considered a main source of plant microbiomes, seeds have been shown to be endophytically colonized by microorganisms thus representing natural carriers of a selected microbial inoculum to the young seedlings. In this work we have investigated the type of culturable endophytic bacteria that are carried within surface-sterilized alfalfa seeds. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the presence of bacteria that belonged to 40 separate genera, distributed within four taxa (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes). Nonsymbiotic members of the Rhizobiaceae family were also found. The evaluation of nine different in-vitro biochemical activities demonstrated isolates with complex combinations of traits that, upon a Principal-Component-Analysis, could be classified into four phenotypic groups. That isolates from nearly half of the genera identified had been able to colonize alfalfa plants grown under axenic conditions was remarkable. Further analyses should be addressed to investigating the colonization mechanisms of the alfalfa seeds, the evolutionary significance of the alfalfa-seed endophytes, and also how after germination the seed microbiome competes with spermospheric and rhizospheric soil bacteria to colonize newly emerging seedlings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoli; Tang, Jiajing; dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Nurisso, Alessandra; Simões-Pires, Claudia Avello; Ji, Mei; Lou, Hongxiang; Fan, Peihong

    2015-12-16

    Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits. This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M (2), cannabisin N (5), cannabisin O (8), and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide (10), together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed. Structures were established on the basis of NMR, HR-MS, UV, and IR as well as by comparison with the literature data. Lignanamides 2, 7, and 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

  3. Serine carboxypeptidase 46 Regulates Grain Filling and Seed Germination in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Tang, Liqun; Qiu, Jiehua; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Tong, Xiaohong; Wei, Xiangjin; Hou, Yuxuan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Serine carboxypeptidase (SCP) is one of the largest groups of enzymes catalyzing proteolysis for functional protein maturation. To date, little is known about the function of SCPs in rice. In this study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the gene structure and expression profile of 59 rice SCPs. SCP46 is dominantly expressed in developing seeds, particularly in embryo, endosperm and aleurone layers, and could be induced by ABA. Functional characterization revealed that knock-down of SCP46 resulted in smaller grain size and enhanced seed germination. Furthermore, scp46 seed germination became less sensitive to the ABA inhibition than the Wild-type did; suggesting SCP46 is involved in ABA signaling. As indicated by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis, numerous grain filling and seed dormancy related genes, such as SP, VP1 and AGPs were down-regulated in scp46. Yeast-two-hybrid assay also showed that SCP46 interacts with another ABA-inducible protein DI19-1. Taken together, we suggested that SCP46 is a master regulator of grain filling and seed germination, possibly via participating in the ABA signaling. The results of this study shed novel light into the roles of SCPs in rice.

  4. Inhibition of lymphocyte growth by Ulex seed extracts (USE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirofsky, B; Beaulieu, R; Davies, G H

    1981-01-01

    Extracts produced from the seeds of Ulex europeus (European gorse) were found to contain an inhibitor of human and murine lymphocyte growth. Interference with lymphocyte growth was demonstrated in three test systems. (1) Ulex seed extracts (USE) prevented the uptake of tritiated thymidine by stimulated human T and B lymphocytes. (2) The numbers of sensitized murine lymphocytes releasing antibody were diminished after incubation with USE. (3) Murine lymphoid tumour cells cultured in the presence of USE had a reduced growth potential. Growth inhibition occurred independently of the mode of lymphocyte stimulation. Increased metabolic activity induced by plant seed mitogens, alloantigens and direct immunization, as well as that endogenously present in rapidly growing tumour cells, was similarly restricted. The inhibition of lymphocyte growth was not the result of cytotoxicity and was easily reversible by washing lymphocytes free of USE. The USE growth inhibitor was found not to be anti-H and appeared to function as an antithesis of stimulators found in other plant seed extracts. PMID:7275170

  5. New ACE-Inhibitory Peptides from Hemp Seed (Cannabis sativa L.) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Lara P; Boschin, Giovanna; Recca, Teresa; Morelli, Carlo F; Ragona, Laura; Francescato, Pierangelo; Arnoldi, Anna; Speranza, Giovanna

    2017-12-06

    A hemp seed protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp seed meals by alkaline solubilization/acid precipitation, was subjected to extensive chemical hydrolysis under acid conditions (6 M HCl). The resulting hydrolysate was fractionated by semipreparative RP-HPLC, and the purified fractions were tested as inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Mono- and bidimensional NMR experiments and LC-MS analyses led to the identification of four potentially bioactive peptides, i.e. GVLY, IEE, LGV, and RVR. They were prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The IC50 values were GVLY 16 ± 1.5 μM, LGV 145 ± 13 μM, and RVR 526 ± 33 μM, confirming that hemp seed may be a valuable source of hypotensive peptides.

  6. Nigella sativa – a Plant with Personality in Biochemistry and Experimental Medicine Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Last decades often presented references to traditional medicine, or culinary use of natural resources for a better health status, prevention or treatment of different diseases. One of the natural plants came lately in the researches as a miracle salve: Nigella sativa. Also commonly known as black cumin, the most use of this plant are the seeds, such as, as powder, as oil extract, or as hydro or alcoholic extracts. Culinary usage of N. sativa is referring to the seeds used as spice. Medical usage of this plantis mostly used as oil or extracts administrated orally or intraperitoneal. The best demonstrated bioactive component is thymoquinone, an alkaloid, monotherpenoid compound, that seems to be the key of medical benefits of N. sativa. Experimental medicine proved that seeds of black cumin have health enhancement and pharmaceutical effects, being used in various disseases (cardiac, digestive and respiratory diseases; hepatic and renal tonic; inflammations; reproductive and neural disorders, analgesic; appetite stimulant; cancer prevention and treatment; spasmolytic and diabetes. Seeds (as powder, oil or hydro, alcoholic extracts have been demonstrated that have antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antitumoral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory action. N. sativa is easy to cultivate, storing, and offering diver potential of use as seed, seed oil, different type of seed extracts.

  7. Investigating Sedative, Preanaesthetic & Anti-anxiety Effects of Herbal Extract of Cannabis Sativa in Comparison with Diazepam in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A Rezaei; B zadefatah; Pashazadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis sativa is a plant that is Called Cannabis in Persian and has diversity all over the world. This plant grows in North region, Arak and Kashan in Iran. Chemical compounds of this plant are cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid and tetra hydro cannabinol that cause the increase in duration of anesthesia via injection of anesthesia drugs. This effect shows the effectiveness of this plant extraction for sedation and smoothing. It is claimed that the usage of this drug for preanest...

  8. The spectrum of major seed storage genes and proteins in oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Olin D

    2014-01-01

    The oat seed storage proteins are mainly composed of two classes: the globulins and avenins. Among the major cereals, the globulins are the major seed protein class in rice and oats, and along with the higher protein content of oats is the basis for the relative higher nutrition content in oats compared to the other cereals. The second major class of oat seed proteins is the avenins; also classified as prolamins - seed proteins high in proline and glutamine amino acids. The prolamins are associated with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. In spite of their importance, neither the oat globulins nor the avenins have been completely analyzed and described for any single germplasm. Using available EST resources for a single hexaploid oat cultivar, the spectrum of avenin and globulin sequences are described for the gene coding regions and the derived protein sequences. The nine unique avenin sequences are suggested to be divided into 3-4 distinct subclasses distributed in the hexaploid genome. The globulins from the same germplasm include 24 distinct sequences. Variation in globulin size results mainly from a glutamine-rich domain, similar to as in the avenins, and to variation in the C-terminal sequence domain. Two globulin genes have premature stop codons that shorten the resulting polypeptides by 9 and 17 amino acids, and eight of the globulin sequences form a branch of the globulins not previously reported. A more complete description of the major oat seed proteins should allow a more thorough analysis of their contributions to those oat seed characteristics related to nutritional value, evolutionary history, and celiac disease association.

  9. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  10. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  11. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant.

  12. Methane alleviates copper-induced seed germination inhibition and oxidative stress in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samma, Muhammad Kaleem; Zhou, Heng; Cui, Weiti; Zhu, Kaikai; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Wenbiao

    2017-02-01

    Recent results discovered the protective roles of methane (CH4) against oxidative stress in animals. However, the possible physiological roles of CH4 in plants are still unknown. By using physiological, histochemical and molecular approaches, the beneficial role of CH4 in germinating alfalfa seeds upon copper (Cu) stress was evaluated. Endogenous production of CH4 was significantly increased in Cu-stressed alfalfa seeds, which was mimicked by 0.39 mM CH4. The pretreatment with CH4 significantly alleviated the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth induced by Cu stress. Cu accumulation was obviously blocked as well. Meanwhile, α/β amylase activities and sugar contents were increased, all of which were consistent with the alleviation of seed germination inhibition triggered by CH4. The Cu-triggered oxidative stress was also mitigated, which was confirmed by the decrease of lipid peroxidation and reduction of Cu-induced loss of plasma membrane integrity in CH4-pretreated alfalfa seedlings. The results of antioxidant enzymes, including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) total or isozymatic activities, and corresponding transcripts (APX1/2, Cu/Zn SOD and Mn-SOD), indicated that CH4 reestablished cellular redox homeostasis. Further, Cu-induced proline accumulation was partly impaired by CH4, which was supported by the alternation of proline metabolism. Together, these results indicated that CH4 performs an advantageous effect on the alleviation of seed germination inhibition caused by Cu stress, and reestablishment of redox homeostasis mainly via increasing antioxidant defence.

  13. High frequency plant regeneration from mature seed of elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice ( Oryza sativa L.) CV. MR 219.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, P; Law, Y S; Ho, C-L; Harikrishna, Jennifer Ann

    2010-09-01

    An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system was established for elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice, Oryza sativa L. CV. MR 219 using mature seeds as explant on Murashige and Skoog and Chu N6 media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and kinetin either alone or in different combinations. L-proline, casein hydrolysate and L-glutamine were added to callus induction media for enhancement of embryogenic callus induction. The highest frequency of friable callus induction (84%) was observed in N6 medium containing 2.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 0.2 mg l(-1) kinetin, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 20 mg l(-1) L-glutamine and 30 g l(-1) sucrose under culture in continuous lighting conditions. The maximum regeneration frequency (71%) was observed, when 30-day-old N6 friable calli were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg l(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate and 3% maltose. Developed shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose and were successfully transplanted to soil with 95% survival. This protocol may be used for other recalcitrant indica rice genotypes and to transfer desirable genes in to Malaysian indica rice cultivar MR219 for crop improvement.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Subjected to Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizi, Claudia; Santulli, Chiara; Micucci, Matteo; Budriesi, Roberta; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldinucci, Carlo; Frosini, Maria

    2016-02-01

    One of the major features of neurodegenerative disease is the selective vulnerability of different neuronal populations that are affected in a progressive and often stereotyped manner. Despite the susceptible neuronal population varies between diseases, oxidative stress is implicated as the major pathogenic process in all of them. Natural Extract of Castanea sativa Mill. bark (ENC), recently characterized in its phenolic composition, acts as antioxidant and cardioprotective agent. Its neuroprotettive properties, however, have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess neuroprotection of ENC in in vitro models of oxidative-stress-mediate injury. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with glutamate (50 mM for 24 h) or hydrogen peroxide (25 μM for 1 h followed by 24 with medium) were used. The results showed that the addition of ENC (1-50 μg/ml) to cell medium before the neuronal damage provided neuroprotection in both experimental models used, while its addition after the injury was ineffective. In conclusion, the present results suggest that ENC could be a valuable support as dietary supplement, combining beneficial preventive neuroprotettive effects with a high antioxidant activity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Extraction of bixin from annatto seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of 93% pure bixin in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and of the bixin present in annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L. was measured. For the seeds, the measurements were made in a temperature range from 30 to 50ºC and pressure between 10 and 35 MPa and for the pure bixin, at 40ºC from 10 to 35 MPa. The main pigments of annatto seeds are bixin and norbixin, but the extracts only showed the presence of cis and trans-bixin, indicating that norbixin is not soluble in SC-CO2. The annatto seeds used in the experiments contained about 2.7% bixin and 3.1% oil. In the seeds, the crossover point of solubility was at about 28 MPa and values for solubility were about ten times higher than those of the pure bixin, giving evidence that the oil acted as a co-solvent with the CO2.

  16. Genetic analysis of seed-shattering genes in rice using an F₃:₄ population derived from an Oryza sativa x Oryza rufipogon cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S-J; Yu, J; Park, Y J; Son, J-H; Kim, N-S; Lee, J K

    2015-02-13

    Seed shattering of wild plant species is thought to be an adaptive trait to facilitate seed dispersal. For rice breeding, seed shatter-ing is an important trait for improving breeding strategies, particularly when developing lines use interspecific hybrids and introgression of genes from wild species. We developed F₃:₄ recombinant inbred lines from an interspecific cross between Oryza sativa cv. Ilpoombyeo and Oryza rufipogon. In this study, we genetically analyzed known shat-tering-related loci using the F₃:₄ population of O. sativa/O. rufipogon. CACTA-AG190 was significantly associated with the shattering trait CACTA-TD according to bulked segregant analysis results, and was found in the qSH-1 region of chromosome 1. Fine genetic mapping of the flanking regions around qSH-1 based on CACTA-AG190 revealed multiple-sequence variations. The highest limit of detection based on quantitative trait locus analysis was observed between shaap-7715 and a 518-bp insertion site. Two other quantitative trait locus analyses of seed-shattering-related loci, qSH-4 and sh-h, were performed using simple sequence repeat and allele-pecific single nucleotide polymor-phism markers. Our results can be applied for rice-breeding research, such as marker-assisted selection between cultivated and wild rice.

  17. Seed germination ecology of Echinochloa glabrescens and its implication for management in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opeña, Jhoana L; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Baltazar, Aurora M

    2014-01-01

    Echinochloa glabrescens is a C4 grass weed that is very competitive with rice when left uncontrolled. The competitive ability of weeds is intensified in direct-seeded rice production systems. A better understanding is needed of factors affecting weed seed germination, which can be used as a component of integrated weed management in direct-seeded rice. This study was conducted to determine the effects of temperature, light, salt and osmotic stress, burial depth, crop residue, time and depth of flooding, and herbicide application on the emergence, survival, and growth of two populations [Nueva Ecija (NE) and Los Baños (IR)] of E. glabrescens. Seeds from both populations germinated at all temperatures. The NE population had a higher germination rate (88%) from light stimulation than did the IR population (34%). The salt concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% of germination were 313 mM and -0.24 MPa, respectively, for the NE population and 254 mM and -0.33 MPa, respectively, for the IR population. Emergence in the NE population was totally inhibited at 4-cm burial depth in the soil, whereas that of the IR population was inhibited at 8 cm. Compared with zero residue, the addition of 5 t ha(-1) of rice residue reduced emergence in the NE and IR populations by 38% and 9%, respectively. Early flooding (within 2 days after sowing) at 2-cm depth reduced shoot growth by 50% compared with non-flooded conditions. Pretilachlor applied at 0.075 kg ai ha(-1) followed by shallow flooding (2-cm depth) reduced seedling emergence by 94-96% compared with the nontreated flooded treatment. Application of postemergence herbicides at 4-leaf stage provided 85-100% control in both populations. Results suggest that integration of different strategies may enable sustainable management of this weed and of weeds with similar germination responses.

  18. Spectrofluorometric investigation of trace metal complexation by an aqueous chestnut leaf litter extract. [Castanea sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaser, P.; Sposito, G.

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a method for quantitating trace metal complexes with the organic ligands in a water extract of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) leaf litter. Copper(II) and aluminum(III) were selected as environmentally significant metals with which to characterize the method as applied to the leaf litter extract. Solutions of Cu or Al mixed with the extract exhibited fluorescence that decreased in relative intensity as the total metal concentration and/or the pH increased. Data were obtained in the pH range 5 to 8 for total Cu concentrations up to 160 mmol m/sup -3/ and in the pH range 4 to 8 for total Al concentrations up to 100 mmol m/sup -3/. The fluorescence intensity data for Cu were comparable to those obtained in previous studies for solutions of Cu and soluble humic materials. A conventional equation was used to calculate an overall stability coefficient for metal complexation by the leaf litter extract. The pH-dependence of this stability coefficient was modeled mathematically in terms of pH-independent conditional stability constants through a new application of the Scatchard quasiparticle model. The quasiparticle species Cu(OH)/sub n/H/sub 0.9/L (n = 0 or 1; L = organic ligands) were sufficient to model the Cu data with the two pH-independent conditional stability constants, /sup c/..beta../sub 0/0.9/ = 10/sup 12.6/ and /sup c/..beta../sub 1/0.9/ = 10/sup 5.3/. For the Al data, the conditional stability constants /sup c/..beta../sub 0/0/ = 10/sup 8.55/ and /sup c/..beta../sub 2/0/ = 10/sup -1.8/ were obtained for the quasiparticle species Al(OH)/sub n/L (n = 0 or 2). These stability constants can be used in computer speciation programs to estimate organic complexation of Cu(II) or Al(III) by the leaf litter extract, but otherwise have no molecular chemical significance.

  19. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed yield in relation to phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Naser Al-Kahtani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, during the alfalfa growing season in 2014. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination on alfalfa seed production. The experiment was divided into 9 treatments of open pollination, honeybee pollination, and non-pollination with three different levels (0, 300 or 600 kg P2O5/ha/year of triple super phosphate. All vegetative growth attributes of Hassawi alfalfa were significantly higher in the non-insect pollination plots, while the yield and yield component traits were significantly higher with either open pollination or honeybee pollination in parallel with the increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer up to 600 kg P2O5/ha/year in light salt-affected loamy sand soils. There was no seed yield in Hassawi alfalfa without insect pollination. Therefore, placing honeybee colonies near the fields of Hassawi alfalfa and adding 600 kg P2O5/ha/year can increase seed production.

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed yield in relation to phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtani, Saad Naser; Taha, El-Kazafy Abdou; Al-Abdulsalam, Mohammed

    2017-07-01

    This investigation was conducted at the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, during the alfalfa growing season in 2014. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of phosphorus fertilization and honeybee pollination on alfalfa seed production. The experiment was divided into 9 treatments of open pollination, honeybee pollination, and non-pollination with three different levels (0, 300 or 600 kg P2O5/ha/year) of triple super phosphate. All vegetative growth attributes of Hassawi alfalfa were significantly higher in the non-insect pollination plots, while the yield and yield component traits were significantly higher with either open pollination or honeybee pollination in parallel with the increasing level of phosphorus fertilizer up to 600 kg P2O5/ha/year in light salt-affected loamy sand soils. There was no seed yield in Hassawi alfalfa without insect pollination. Therefore, placing honeybee colonies near the fields of Hassawi alfalfa and adding 600 kg P2O5/ha/year can increase seed production.

  1. Physiological potential of Oryza sativa seeds treated with growth regulators at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Grohs

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The rapid and uniform establishment of rice crops is important for improving production. However, this condition is influenced by several factors, including the soil temperature when planting, which may delay seed germination and compromise the final stand. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of substances which have the effect of growth regulator when applied to the seeds of different rice cultivars under low-temperature conditions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomised design with four replications in a bi-factorial scheme, where factor A was represented by the different products (gibberellic acid - AG3, tiamethoxam - TMX, Haf Plus® - HAF, and a control with water - TEST, and factor B by the irrigated rice cultivars (IRGA 424, IRGA 425, Puitá INTA CL, and Avaxi CL. In addition, the experiment was repeated at temperatures of 17 °C and 25 °C in order to simulate low-temperature conditions. The results showed that AG3 is effective in increasing seed vigour in the rice cultivars at both temperatures, with the AG3, TMX and HAF responsible for increasing germination percentage only at the temperature of 17 °C. The effect of the products is more pronounced at low temperatures, and is dependent on the cultivar; in cultivars which are sensitive to cold there is no effect from the products used.

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  3. Inhibitory activity of seed extract from Picralima nitida , (Staph) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of hydrolysis of p- nitrophenyl β-D- glucopyranoside (PNPG) by β-D glucosidase from African giant snail (Achatina achatina) has been studied in the presence of seed extracts from Picralima nitida (Staph) Th&H.D. A at a substrate concentration range of 0.04-0.2mM there was no product (P- nitrophenol) inhibition of ...

  4. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-17

    Dec 17, 2005 ... The seed oil was pretreated by methyl ester before injection. That is, 10 mL of a 10:1 (v/v) methanol and sulphuric acid mixture was added to 1 g of extracted oil, and then esterified for. 3 h in a water bath at 60 °C. After 3 h, the esterification was cooled. RESEARCH ARTICLE. Y.J. Fu, W. Wang, Y.G. Zu, ...

  5. Characterization of an antioxidant surfactant-free topical formulation containing Castanea sativa leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Maleckova, Jitka; Saffi, Raquel; Monteiro, Helena; Góios, Filipa; Amaral, Maria Helena; Costa, Paulo Cardoso; Garrido, Jorge; Silva, Paulo; Pestana, Nazaré; Bahia, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations can contribute to minimize oxidative stress in the skin, which has been associated with photoaging, several dermatosis and cancer. A Castanea sativa leaf extract with established antioxidant activity was incorporated into a semisolid surfactant-free formulation. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of this formulation. Physical, microbiological and functional stability were evaluated during 6 months storage at 20 °C and 40 °C. Microstructure elucidation (cryo-SEM), in vitro release and in vivo moisturizing effect (Corneometer® CM 825) were also assessed. Minor changes were observed in the textural and rheological properties of the formulation when stored at 20 °C for 6 months and the antioxidant activity of the plant extract remained constant throughout the storage period. Microbiological quality was confirmed at the end of the study. Under accelerated conditions, higher modifications of the evaluated parameters were observed. Cryo-SEM analysis revealed the presence of oil droplets dispersed into a gelified external phase. The release rate of the antioxidant compounds (610 ± 70 µgh(-0.5)) followed Higuchi model. A significant in vivo moisturizing effect was demonstrated, that lasted at least 4 h after product's application. The physical, functional and microbiological stability of the antioxidant formulation was established. Specific storage conditions should be recommended considering the influence of temperature on the stability. A skin hydration effect and good skin tolerance were also found which suggests that this preparation can be useful in the prevention or treatment of oxidative stress-mediated dysfunctions.

  6. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali; Chin Ping Tan; Hamed Mirhosseini; Shadi Samaram

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (...

  9. Effects of Spring Late Frost on Black Seed (Nigella sativa L. under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Khorsandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In many years plant growth strongly affected by late spring frost. In order to evaluate the effects of late frost on Black Seed plants, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out in college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and five Black Seed ecotypes (Birjsnd, Sabzewar, Ferdows, Gonabad and Neyshabour after two months growth and hardening in natural environment, were exposed to seven temperatures (0, -1.5, -3, -4.5, -6, -7.5 and -9°C in termogradient freezer. For determining cold stress damages, Lethal Temperature (LT for 50% of plants according to the Electrolyte Leakage percentage (LT50el, LT for 50% of plants according to the Survival percentage (LT50su, LT for 50% of plants according to the plant necrose in Test Tube (LT50tt and Reduced Dry Matter Temperature 50 (RDMT50 were measured. Ability of plants for recovery was recorded based on leaf number and leaf area, plant dry weight and cold damage percentage of leaves. According to the LT50tt, LT50su and RDMT50 Black Seed plants can tolerated cold stress in range between -5.7 to -9.0 °C and Sabzewar and Ferdows ecotypes had the most and the least cold tolerance, respectively. At the point of ability of plants for recovery, Ferdows ecotype had the least and Sabzewar and Neyshabour ecotypes had the best plant recovery. Moreover there were high correlations between LT50tt and LT50 based on electrolyte leakage, survival and RDMT50. Electrolyte leakage and visual scoring of cold damage in test tube are rapid methods, so for assessing cold tolerance in plants LT50el and LT50tt indeces may be useful.

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin-Based Extract of Medicago sativa in the Treatment of Mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumić, Barbara; Končić, Marijana Zovko; Jug, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses are inherited metabolic disorders resulting in the dysfunction of enzymes involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, leading to severe clinical symptoms and a significantly shortened life span of patients. Flavonoids are recognized as glycosaminoglycan metabolism modulators, able to correct glycosaminoglycan cell storage. Therefore, the aim of this work was the development of an efficient and eco-friendly extraction process of phytochemicals from Medicago sativa by simultaneous use of ultrasound extraction and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexation, and investigation of the potential of such an extract as a glycosaminoglycan metabolism modulator. The Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were used in order to optimize the extraction process, considering hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin concentration, ultrasonic power, and extraction time as the key parameters. The dependent variables included total phenolicand total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Fe2+ chelating activity, due to the importance of oxidative stress in the pathology of mucopolysaccharidoses. The developed technology using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin led to more selective flavonoid extraction from M. sativa than obtained either by the use of water or ethanol. The lyophilization of extracts resulted in products with high radical scavenging activity, suitable for further use. The application of 20 mM hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution, 432 W ultrasonic power, and an extraction time of 45 min resulted in an extract with both the highest total flavonoid content and the lowest radical scavenging activity IC50. This extract reduced the levels of glycosaminoglycans in skin fibroblasts of mucopolysaccharidose III patient in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations of 3 and 6 µg/mL, the observed levels of glycosaminoglycans were reduced by 41.2 and 51.1 %, respectively, clearly demonstrating the validity of the selected

  11. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Management on Yield and Yield Components of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P rezvani moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Given the importance of nitrogen for improving the quantitative and qualitative yield of crops (Rodrigues et al., 2006 and the need for application of chemical fertilizers in intensive agriculture to get the maximum production, nitrogen supply in adequate amounts by ecologically avowed resources is known as one of the main challenges during transition from conventional to organic farming (Rodrigues et al., 2006. Considering the sustainable nitrogen management, reconstruction and rehabilitation of agroecosystems depends on reduction the nitrogen losses due to leaching, soil erosion and volatilization (Kizilkaya, 2008. For this purpose, the use of eco-friendly bio based fertilizers that are derived from natural origin, known as effective and enforceable approaches. In this regards, the proper use of manure and free-living aerobic bacteria of soils, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum as well as mycorrhizal inoculation which can be used as a biological fertilizers, can particularly be considered (Kizilkaya, 2008. With regard to all mentioned above, the current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of biological, organic and inorganic resources of nitrogen on yield and yield components of black seed (Nigella sativa L.. Materials and methods The field experiment was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in years of 2009-2010. Experimental site was located in a semi-arid region, Khorasan Province, Northeast of Iran. The soil texture was silty loam, pH 8.36, electrical conductivity 3.72 dS.m-1, total N 0.095% and 0.195% organic carbon. The available P and K contents were 5.76 and 0.378 ppm, respectively. Experimental design was arranged by using a completely randomized block design with three replications. Experimental treatments included chemical fertilizer (urea, urea + nitroxin, urea + mycorrhizae, urea + nitroxin + mycorrhizae, urea + biosulfur, manure, manure + nitroxin, manure + mycorrhizae

  12. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  13. Development of sunscreen products containing passion fruit seed extract

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    Nattaya Lourith

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Application of sunscreen is the most established method of protecting skin from premature aging and photoaging. In this study, the passion fruit seed extract, enriched with biologically beneficial phenolics, was formulated into sun-protective makeup product. The UVB protection of concealer mousse was found have twofold higher sun protection factor (SPF than the liquid foundation (15.48 ± 1.60 and 5.88 ± 0.30, respectively. The SPF of concealer mousse as well as the liquid foundation containing 0.1% and 0.3% of the passion fruit seed extract were 18.75 ± 0.28, 18.99 ± 0.71 and 9.32 ± 0.88, 9.77 ± 1.37, respectively. Therefore, the concealers with a similar sun-protective efficacy (p>0.05 were included for stability test accordingly. The sun-protective efficacy did not significantly shift (p>0.05 because the 0.1% and 0.3% passion fruit extract concealers had SPF of 18.09 ± 1.48 and 18.60 ± 1.21. The concealers exhibited UVA photoprotection with a boot star rating of 4 and a critical wavelength wider than 370 nm. The safety of 0.1% passion fruit extract concealer mousse was assessed. It did not cause skin irritation when assessed in human volunteers. This sunscreen makeup product provides UVA and UVB protection and is therefore suitable for daily application.

  14. Evaluation of functional stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of a Castanea sativa leaf extract with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that free radicals are generated by UV irradiation being responsible for skin injury. In this regard, the topical use of formulations composed of plant extracts with antioxidant activity could represent a useful strategy for the prevention of photoaging and oxidative-stress-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the extraction method and the functional stability of a Castanea sativa leaf extract in view of its application as topical antioxidant. Measurements of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total phenols (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay) and phenolic composition (high-performance liquid chromatography unit coupled to a UV detector) were carried out on three different batches. The influence of pH and temperature on the extract's DPPH scavenging activity was assessed in aqueous and glyceric solutions (0.025% w/v) over a 3-month period. Minor differences were found between the three extract batches for all the evaluated parameters, and therefore the reproducibility of the extraction method can be inferred. pH presented a great influence in the extract functional stability. Major antioxidant activity decrease was found at pH 7.1, while lower changes were observed at pH 5. Glyceric solutions were stable throughout the test period. At 40 degrees C and pH 5, a marked decrease of activity was observed. Again, glyceric solutions were the most stable, even at 40 degrees C. Proper selection of pH and solvent is mandatory to ensure the stability of the studied extract after being incorporated in semisolid forms. In view of these results, glycerine is proposed as the best vehicle for topical formulations incorporating C. sativa leaf extract, which should have a pH around 5.

  15. Oxidative stability of refrigerated fish pates containing loquat seed extract

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    Jaqueline Piccolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extracts (EJSE as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation on fish pates subjected to refrigerated storage. Five fish pate formulations were developed. These formulations included two control pates (water-control and ascorbic acid-control and three pates with added EJSE (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4g of seed 100g-1 product, equivalent to 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6mg phenolic compounds kg-1 product, which were then stored under refrigeration for 35 days. Conjugated dienes (CD and peroxide (PV values increased along with the storage time; however, these values decreased and were similar among all samples at the end of 35 days of analysis (P<0.05. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (TBARS did not change along the storage and were not affected by the EJSE. Additionally, there was a linear increase in the protein carbonyl content of fish pates over the storage period (P<0.05, but no effect of EJSE on protein oxidation. The results show that, at the concentrations evaluated, hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extract was unable to inhibit or reduce lipid and protein oxidation in fish pates, but the observed phenolic content emphasizes the need for further studies on the wastes of this fruit.

  16. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared.

  17. Field evaluation of neem seed extract for the control of major pests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Tryb., Maruca vitrata Fab., and a complex of pod and seed-sucking bugs of cowpea ... The 15 per cent neem seed extract treatment proved as effective as that of ... The 5 per cent neem seed extract is recommended for dual-purpose cowpea ...

  18. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-04-15

    Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. Proliferation was evaluated in colorectal carcinoma (DLD-1 and HCT116) as well as in healthy colonic cells using the MTT assay. CBD BDS binding was evaluated by its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane (AOM) as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice. CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells. The effect of CBD BDS was counteracted by selective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. In binding assays, CBD BDS showed greater affinity than pure CBD for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with pure CBD having very little affinity. In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer. CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  20. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Rhee, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Chang-Won; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h. Oil was extracted from the fermented ginseng seeds using compression extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI) 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  1. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE ON GROWTH AND SEED YIELD IN SOME Camelina sativa L. VARIETIES CULTIVATED UNDER CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela PODGOREANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recently emerged interest in using renewable vegetable sources as feedstock for biofuel production requires the identification of effective solutions aimed to follow the principles of sustainable development. Biofuels from the first generation were produced from sugarcane, starch and oils derived from agricultural products, but they may not be sustainable because are competing with the agricultural production. Currently, studies are focused on the obtaining of a second generation of biofuels that originate from plants other then food crops, from agricultural residues and from municipal wastes. Being economically attractive and having certain agro-technical advantages, the Camelina sativa seed oil is considered a sustainable source for obtaining second generation biofuels. The aim of the present research was to record the effect of genotype in 3 foreign varieties of Camelina sativa (CALENA, GP 204 and GP 202 and in 3 autochthonous ones (CAMELIA, one local population Fundulea and one hybrid line as regards both the growth characteristics and the yield components in a greenhouse experiment, in order to evaluate their potential performance and adaptability in field conditions. Periodic phenological observations were performed on the occurrence of flowering, on the pod maturation and genotypic differences of the biometric measurements such as plant height, number of branches, number of pods per plant, number of seeds in pods and thousand seed weight are discussed.

  2. Variability in seed traits in a collection of Cannabis sativa L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incoronata eGalasso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hempseed could be a new source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals. In this study, the proximate composition of a collection of hempseed cultivars and accessions of different geographical origins grown under the same conditions was analyzed. Fatty acids, tocopherols and antinutritional components, as well as concentrations of crude protein and oil were quantified. Hempseed oil concentrations varied between 285 and 360 g kg-1 dry seed (DS, while crude protein ranged between 316 and 356 g kg-1 dry matter (DM. The hempseed oil was mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids and, as expected, the dominant fatty acids were linoleic and α-linolenic acid. A high variability among the cultivars and accessions was also detected for polyphenolic content which ranged from 5.88 to 10.63 g kg-1 DM, cv. Felina was the richest, whereas cv. Finola had the lowest polyphenolic content. Regarding antinutritional compounds in seed, a high variability was detected among all genotypes analyzed and phytic acid was particularly abundant (ranging between 43 and 75 g kg-1 DM. In conclusion, our results reveal noticeable differences among hempseed genotypes for antinutritional components, oil and protein content. Collectively, this study suggests that the hempseed is an interesting product in terms of protein, oil and antioxidant molecules but a reduction of phytic acid would be desirable for both humans and monogastric animals. The high variability detected among the different genotypes indicates that an improvement of hempseed might be possible by conventional and/or molecular breeding.

  3. Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of Punica granatum seed extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A K; Mandal, S C; Banerjee, S K; Sinha, S; Das, J; Saha, B P; Pal, M

    1999-12-15

    Methanol extract of Punica granatum seed was evaluated for antidiarrhoeal activity against different experimental models of diarrhoea in rats. P. granatum seed extract treated animals showed significant inhibitory activity against castrol-oil induced diarrhoea and PGE2 induced enteropooling in rats. The extract also showed a significant reduction in gastro-intestinal motility in charcoal meal test in rats. The results obtained established the efficacy of P. granatum seed extract as an antidiarrhoeal agent.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Camelina sativa Seeds Overexpressing the AGG3 Gene to Identify the Proteomic Basis of Increased Yield and Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sophie; Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Sivagnanam, Kumaran; Hicks, Leslie M; Pandey, Sona

    2015-06-05

    Camelina sativa, a close relative of Arabidopsis, is an oilseed plant that is emerging as an important biofuel resource. The genome and transcriptome maps of Camelina have become available recently, but its proteome composition remained unexplored. A labeling LC-based quantitative proteomics approach was applied to decipher the Camelina seed proteome, which led to the identification of 1532 proteins. In addition, the effect of overexpression of the Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) on the Camelina seed proteome was elucidated to identify the proteomic basis of its increased seed size and improved stress tolerance. The comparative analysis showed a significantly higher expression of proteins involved in primary and secondary metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and abscisic acid related responses, corroborating the physiological effects of AGG3 overexpression. More importantly, the proteomic data suggested involvement of the AGG3 protein in the regulation of oxidative stress and heavy metal stress tolerance. These observations were confirmed by the physiological and biochemical characterization of AGG3-overexpressing seeds, which exhibit a higher tolerance to exogenous cadmium in a glutathione-dependent manner. The activity of multiple redox-regulating enzymes is higher in seeds expressing enhanced levels of AGG3. Overall, these data provide critical evidence for the role of redox regulation by the AGG3 protein in mediating important seed-related traits.

  5. A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Deepti; Elias, Ryan J; Lambert, Joshua D; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing consumer demand for and scientific interest in new natural colorants. Avocado (Persea americana) seed when crushed with water develops an orange color (= 480 nm) in a time-dependent manner. Heat treatment of the seed prevented color development, whereas the addition of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but not peroxidase restored color development. Color development was also inhibited by the addition of tropolone, an inhibitor of PPO. Color formation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols indicating utilization for color formation. The orange color intensified as the pH was adjusted from 2.0 to 11.0, and these changes were only partially reversible when pH was adjusted from 7.5 to 11.0 in the presence of oxygen, but completely reversible when the pH was changed in the absence of oxygen. The color was found to be stable in solution at -18 °C for 2 mo. These results suggest that the avocado seed may be a potential source of natural colorant, and that color development is PPO-dependent. There is growing public and scientific interest in the development of natural alternatives to synthetic colorants in foods. Extracts of turmeric, paprika, and beets are examples of food-derived natural colorants. Avocado seeds, which represent an under-utilized waste stream, form a stable orange color when crushed in the presence of air. Our data indicate that avocado seed represents a potential source of new natural colorants for use in foods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Influence of extraction conditions on properties of seed xyloglucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Karen Cristina; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Xyloglucans are water-soluble polysaccharides that serve as storage in cotyledonary tissues from seeds of Hymenaea courbaril among other Leguminosae. The use of xyloglucans is dependent on their solution properties. We now examine the influence of different times of extractions on its properties. Xyloglucans were obtained from milled and defatted cotyledons of H. courbaril by aqueous extraction at 25 degrees C for 0.25, 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 24, and 48 h. Composition data showed that increase in time lead to the increased protein contamination and arabinose content. Xyloglucans obtained with longer times of extraction had an average molar mass greater than those obtained with shorter times. The hydrodynamic radius and the radius of gyration also increased with the increase in the time of extraction. The ratio R(g)/R(h) was calculated and the values decreased slightly for increasing times of extraction. The effect of time also affected the viscosity which increased with the increase in time of extraction, and the longer ones probably contributing to the aggregation of xyloglucans. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Osmotic Stress on Seed Germination Indices of Nigella sativa and Silybum marianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Balouchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of medicinal plants to drought and salt stress tolerance, in an attempt to plant them under drought and saline regions, is of utmost importance. Environmental stresses, especially drought and salt, reduce the global crop yields more than other factors. Selection of drought tolerant crops at germination stage, usually is, the fast and low cost method. In order to study the effect of osmotic stress on germination indices of black cumin and milk thistle, an experiment carried out in a completely randomized design with four replications at the Seed Technology Laboratoary of Yasouj University in 2008. Treatments were 0 (as control, -2.4, -4.8, -7.2 and -9.4 bar osmotic potentials created by using PEG 6000. Results showed that, decreasing of osmotic potential reduced speed of germination and its percentage, root and shoot lengths and dry matter in these two plants. Black cumin showed higher tolerance, to -4.8 bar osmotic potential, as compared to milk thistle. However, milk thistle showed higher tolerance to drought stress, up to this osmotic potential (-4.8 bar, compared to black cumin. Milk thistle had lower germination speed and percentage at higher drought stress as compared to black cumin. Generally, milk thistle showed better growth and survival than black cumin due to its higher root and shoot length and dry matter.

  8. Constitutive or seed-specific overexpression of Arabidopsis G-protein γ subunit 3 (AGG3) results in increased seed and oil production and improved stress tolerance in Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Riesselman, Adam J; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits play an integral role in mediating multiple signalling pathways in plants. A novel, recently identified plant-specific Gγ protein, AGG3, has been proposed to be an important regulator of organ size and mediator of stress responses in Arabidopsis, whereas its potential homologs in rice are major quantitative trait loci for seed size and panicle branching. To evaluate the role of AGG3 towards seed and oil yield improvement, the gene was overexpressed in Camelina sativa, an oilseed crop of the Brassicaceae family. Analysis of multiple homozygous T4 transgenic Camelina lines showed that constitutive overexpression of AGG3 resulted in faster vegetative as well as reproductive growth accompanied by an increase in photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, when expressed constitutively or specifically in seed tissue, AGG3 was found to increase seed size, seed mass and seed number per plant by 15%-40%, effectively resulting in significantly higher oil yield per plant. AGG3 overexpressing Camelina plants also exhibited improved stress tolerance. These observations draw a strong link between the roles of AGG3 in regulating two critical yield parameters, seed traits and plant stress responses, and reveal an effective biotechnological tool to dramatically increase yield in agricultural crops. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Allelopathic Effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. Weed Extracts on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice and Soyabean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. in relation to the germination and primary growth of Oryza sativa L. (rice and Glycine max L. (soyabean. Effects of dichloromethane (DCM and double distilled water soluble (DDW fractions of E. colona L. and C. iria L. root and aerial part extracts reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of rice and soyabean. With increase in extract concentration from 1 to 100 mg/mL, a gradual decrease in seed germination and seedling length occurred. The highest growth of G. max seedling was recorded in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract at 1 mg/mL concentration with 94% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria root extract at 100 mg/mL concentration with 65% germination. In O. sativa, the highest length was noted at 1 mg/mL concentration in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract with 82% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria and E. colona root extracts with germination 57% and 62%, respectively, at 100 mg/mL concentration. The results suggested that these weeds had good allelopathic potential which reduces germination and plant growth.

  10. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Cicero, Nicola; D'Angelo, Valeria; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Circosta, Clara

    2018-02-07

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Pereira, Teresa M; Amaral, M Helena; Costa, Paulo C; Bahia, M Fernanda

    2008-11-01

    Topical application of natural antioxidants has proven to be effective in protecting the skin against ultraviolet-mediated oxidative damage and provides a straightforward way to strengthen the endogenous protection system. However, natural products can provoke skin adverse effects, such as allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Skin irritation potential of Castanea sativa leaf ethanol:water (7:3) extract was investigated by performing an in vivo patch test in 20 volunteers. Before performing the irritation test, the selection of the solvent and extraction method was guided by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging test and polyphenols extraction (measured by the Folin Ciocalteu assay). Iron-chelating activity and the phenolic composition (high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection) were evaluated for the extract obtained under optimized conditions. The extraction method adopted consisted in 5 short extractions (10 min.) with ethanol:water (7:3), performed at 40 degrees. The IC(50) found for the iron chelation and DPPH scavenging assays were 132.94 +/- 9.72 and 12.58 +/- 0.54 microg/ml (mean +/- S.E.M.), respectively. The total phenolic content was found to be 283.8 +/- 8.74 mg GAE/g extract (mean +/- S.E.M.). Five phenolic compounds were identified in the extract, namely, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside. The patch test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, this extract can be regarded as safe for topical application.

  12. Antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. seeds in experimental rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Akhtar, Naveed; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the antipyretic activity of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. (HMEMA) seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. (HMECM) seeds in experimental animals. Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in rabbits which were divided into six groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered distilled water (control), paracetamol (reference standard, 150mg/kg), HMEMA (250mg/kg), HMEMA (500mg/kg), HMECM (250mg/kg) and HMECM (500mg/kg) respectively. HMEMA and HMECM were also phytochemically screened for tannins, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Results indicate that hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach Linn. Seeds (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg) significantly (pMelia azedarach L. seeds in treating fever. This property can be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents present in the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach L. seeds and the exact mechanism need to be evaluated.

  13. Recovery of bioactive molecules from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by-products through extraction by different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Filomena Monica; Laratta, Bruna; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2017-09-18

    The underutilised forest and industrial biomass of Castanea sativa (Mill.) is generally discarded during post-harvest and food processing, with high impact on environmental quality. The searching on alternative sources of natural antioxidants from low-cost supplies, by methods involving environment-friendly techniques, has become a major goal of numerous researches in recent times. The aim of the present study was the set-up of a biomolecules extraction procedure from chestnut leaves, burs and shells and the assessing of their potential antioxidant activity. Boiling water was the best extraction solvent referring to polyphenols from chestnut shells and burs, whereas the most efficient for leaves resulted 60% ethanol at room temperature. Greatest polyphenol contents were 90.35, 60.01 and 17.68 mg gallic acid equivalents g -1 in leaves, burs and shells, respectively. Moreover, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were assessed on the best extract obtained from each chestnut by-product.

  14. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo effects of Cannabis sativa L. extract on blood coagulation, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cannabis sativa is used in indigenous medicine as a treatment for various ailments, including diabetes, and also as an early treatment for snake-bite. In diabetic patients, approximately eighty percent die from a thrombotic death and the development of atherosclerosis is accelerated. This study investigated the effects of ...

  16. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  17. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  18. Antidiabetic effects of Acacia tortilis seed extract in normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Uma; Misra, Piyush; Singh, S.P; Verma, Rakesh C

    2013-01-01

    The concerned study reveals the first time experimental investigation of Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of seed extract of Acacia tortilis plant was in normoglycaemic and Alloxan-induced...

  19. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle; therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  20. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  1. The antibacterial effects of aqueous extract of Medicago sativa L. in comparsion with three antibiotics (Gentamicin, Ciprofloxacin and Penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam Rezaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, it has been recommended to use natural materials, instead of chemically synthesized drugs with side effects, in the control and treatment of infections. Increasing use of medicinal plants for medical treatment made for this branch of complementary medicine a unique position. The present research was done to study anti-microbial effect of Medicago sativa exctract in comparison with Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains and phatogenic bacteria such as P. aeruginosa , E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. Materials and Methods: Experiments were conducted using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods, and MIC and MBC of the plant have been evaluatead. Results: MIC Medicago sativa extract was effective on gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes on the 206.25 and 6600 µg/ml and on the gram-negative bacteria tested in this study had no effect. Conclusion: Based on the research findings, mentioned herbal extract can be a good candidates for laboratory studies to separate active compounds in this plant to achieve effective antimicrobial drugs.

  2. Engineering Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz for enhanced oil and seed yields by combining diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Sudesh; Abdullah, Hesham M; Akbari, Parisa; Schnell, Danny; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2017-10-04

    Plant seed oil-based liquid transportation fuels (i.e., biodiesel and green diesel) have tremendous potential as environmentally, economically and technologically feasible alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. Due to their nutritional and industrial importance, one of the major objectives is to increase the seed yield and oil production of oilseed crops via biotechnological approaches. Camelina sativa, an emerging oilseed crop, has been proposed as an ideal crop for biodiesel and bioproduct applications. Further increase in seed oil yield by increasing the flux of carbon from increased photosynthesis into triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis will make this crop more profitable. To increase the oil yield, we engineered Camelina by co-expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) and a yeast cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) genes under the control of seed-specific promoters. Plants co-expressing DGAT1 and GPD1 exhibited up to 13% higher seed oil content and up to 52% increase in seed mass compared to wild-type plants. Further, DGAT1- and GDP1-co-expressing lines showed significantly higher seed and oil yields on a dry weight basis than the wild-type controls or plants expressing DGAT1 and GPD1 alone. The oil harvest index (g oil per g total dry matter) for DGTA1- and GPD1-co-expressing lines was almost twofold higher as compared to wild type and the lines expressing DGAT1 and GPD1 alone. Therefore, combining the overexpression of TAG biosynthetic genes, DGAT1 and GPD1, appears to be a positive strategy to achieve a synergistic effect on the flux through the TAG synthesis pathway, and thereby further increase the oil yield. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Optimization of castor seed oil extraction process using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Mosquera-Artamonov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the oil extraction yield from castor seed using three different seed conditions: whole, minced and bare endosperm. Taguchi design was used to determine the contribution of the following parameters: seed condition, seed load in the extractor, temperature, and pressure. It was proved that it is necessary to introduce the whole seed and that the presence of the pericarp increases the extraction yield. The contribution of the control factors has an extraction yield limit. After determining which factors contributed to the process, these were left at their optimum levels aiming to reduce the control factors to only two. The complete analysis was done using a surface response methodology giving the best parameter for temperature and pressure that allows a better yielding mechanical extraction. The oil extraction yield can be kept up to 35% of the seed.

  4. Sambucus nigra extracts inhibit infectious bronchitis virus at an early point during replication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Christie; Zuckerman, David M; Brantley, Susanna; Sharpe, Michka; Childress, Kevin; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Pendleton, Amanda R

    2014-01-01

    .... Non-cytotoxic, crude ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea roots, Nigella sativa seeds, and Sambucus nigra fruit were tested for anti-IBV activity, since these safe, widely used plant tissues contain...

  5. Effects of Botanical Extracts on the Mycelial Growth of Seed-Borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of crude ethanolic plant extracts of Garcinia kola seeds and Nauclea latifolia root on mycelial growth of seed-borne fungi of African yam bean at different concentrations (100 mg/ml, 60 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml) were investigated. The seed-borne fungi were Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium sp.

  6. Protective effect of C. sativa leaf extract against UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I F; Pinto, A S; Monteiro, C; Monteiro, H; Belo, L; Fernandes, J; Bento, A R; Duarte, T L; Garrido, J; Bahia, M F; Sousa Lobo, J M; Costa, P C

    2015-03-01

    Toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on skin include protein and lipid oxidation, and DNA damage. The latter is known to play a major role in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Many plant extracts and natural compounds are emerging as photoprotective agents. Castanea sativa leaf extract is able to scavenge several reactive species that have been associated to UV-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to analyze the protective effect of C. sativa extract (ECS) at different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 μg/mL) against the UV mediated-DNA damage in a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). For this purpose, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used. Elucidation of the protective mechanism was undertaken regarding UV absorption, influence on (1)O₂ mediated effects or NRF2 activation. ECS presented a concentration-dependent protective effect against UV-mediated DNA damage in HaCaT cells. The maximum protection afforded (66.4%) was achieved with the concentration of 0.1 μg/mL. This effect was found to be related to a direct antioxidant effect (involving (1)O₂) rather than activation of the endogenous antioxidant response coordinated by NRF2. Electrochemical studies showed that the good antioxidant capacity of the ECS can be ascribed to the presence of a pool of different phenolic antioxidants. No genotoxic or phototoxic effects were observed after incubation of HaCaT cells with ECS (up to 0.1 μg/mL). Taken together these results reinforce the putative application of this plant extract in the prevention/minimization of UV deleterious effects on skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailoring seed oil composition in the real world: optimising omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Haslam, Richard P; Michaelson, Louise V; Sturtevant, Drew; Aziz, Mina; Chapman, Kent D; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A

    2017-07-26

    There is considerable interest in the de novo production of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not least of all given the importance of these fatty acids in both aquaculture and human nutrition. Previously we have demonstrated the feasibility of using metabolic engineering in transgenic plants (Camelina sativa) to modify the seed oil composition to now include EPA and/or DHA. In this study, we further tailored the seed oil profile to reduce the omega-6 content, and evaluated the performance of such GM plants under field conditions (i.e. environmental releases), in terms of agronomic performance and also the lipidomic profile of seed oil. We used MALDI- mass spectrometry imaging to identify discrete tissue-types in the seed in which these non-native fatty acids preferentially accumulated. Collectively, these data provide new insights into the complexity of plant lipid metabolism and the challenges associated with predictive manipulation of these pathways. However, this study identified the likely dispensable nature of a Δ12-desturase activity in our omega-3 metabolic engineering rationales for Camelina.

  8. Seed priming with polyethylene glycol regulating the physiological and molecular mechanism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under nano-ZnO stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Sheteiwy Mohamed; Yajing, Guan; Dongdong, Cao; Jie, Li; Aamir, Nawaz; Qijuan, Hu; Weimin, Hu; Mingyu, Ning; Jin, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to highlight the impact of seed priming with polyethylene glycol on physiological and molecular mechanism of two cultivars of Oryza sativa L. under different levels of zinc oxide nanorods (0, 250, 500 and 750 mg L−1). Plant growth parameters were significantly increased in seed priming with 30% PEG under nano-ZnO stress in both cultivars. Whereas, this increase was more prominent in cultivar Qian You No. 1 as compared to cultivar Zhu Liang You 06. Significant increase in photosynthetic pigment with PEG priming under stress. Antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were significantly reduced with PEG priming under nano-ZnO stress. Gene expression analysis also suggested that expression of APXa, APXb, CATa, CATb, CATc, SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3 genes were down regulated with PEG priming as compared to non-primed seeds under stress. The ultrastructural analysis showed that leaf mesophyll and root cells were significantly damaged under nano-ZnO stress in both cultivars but the damage was prominent in Zhu Liang You 06. However, seed priming with PEG significantly alleviate the toxic effects of nano-ZnO stress and improved the cell structures of leaf and roots in both cultivars. PMID:26419216

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  11. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaf extracts in sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatouillat, Grégory; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul; Bertin, Eric; Okiemy-Akeli, Marie-Genevieve; Morjani, Hamid; Lavaud, Catherine; Madoulet, Claudie

    2014-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has been used to cure a wide variety of ailments. However, only a few studies have reported its anticancer effects. In this study, extracts were obtained from alfalfa leaves and their cytotoxic effects were assessed on several sensitive and multidrug-resistant tumor cells lines. Using the mouse leukaemia P388 cell line and its doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (P388/DOX), we showed that the inhibition of cell growth induced by alfalfa leaf extracts was mediated through the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation analysis. The execution of programmed cell death was achieved via the activation of caspase-3, leading to PARP cleavage. Fractionation of toluene extract (To-1), the most active extract obtained from crude extract, led to the identification of 3 terpene derivatives and 5 flavonoids. Among them, (-)-medicarpin, (-)-melilotocarpan E, millepurpan, tricin, and chrysoeriol showed cytotoxic effects in P388 as well as P388/DOX cells. These results demonstrate that alfalfa leaf extract may have interesting potential in cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  12. Squalene Extraction by Supercritical Fluids from Traditionally Puffed Amaranthus hypochondriacus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rosales-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of squalene, a potent natural antioxidant, from puffed A. hypochondriacus seeds was performed by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE; besides, to have a blank for comparison, extraction was performed also by Soxhlet method using organic solvents (hexane. Chemical proximal composition and seed morphology were determined in raw, puffed, and SCFE-extracted seeds. Extracts were obtained with a 500 mL capacity commercial supercritical extractor and performed between 10 and 30 MPa at 313, 323, and 333 K under constant CO2 flow of 0.18 kg CO2/h during 8 h. The squalene content was determined and the fatty acids present in the extracts were identified by GC-MS. The extract obtained by SCFE from puffed amaranth seeds reached 460 ± 28.1 g/kg squalene in oily extract at 313 K/20 MPa.

  13. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-08-01

    Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  14. Repellency to ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of extracts of nigella sativa L.(Ranunculaceae) and the anti-inflammatory DogsBestFriend™

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motivated by observations that the canine anti-inflammatory cream DogsBestFriend™ (DBF) appeared to deter flies, mosquitoes, and ticks from treated animals, repellent efficacy bioassays using four species of ticks were conducted with three extracts of Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae), a constituent...

  15. Efficacy of certain plant extracts against seed-borne infection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam, Vernonia amygdalina and Annona muricata were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea (Vigna uniguculata). The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v) of the leaves for 6, 12 and 18 h. All these ...

  16. Effect of Carica papaya (paw-paw) seeds ethanolic extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activity of Carica papaya seeds extract on the pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands of rats were investigated. The ethanolic extract of C. papaya seeds (50 and 200 mg/kg) was administered orally daily to sexually mature male wistar rats for one and eight weeks. Histology of pituitary and thyroids were prepared.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum aqueous seed extracts against some pathogenic bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Ramesa Shafi; Al-daihan, Sooad

    2014-01-01

    Seeds aqueous extracts from Litchi chinensis and Nephelium lappaceum were investigated for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method and protein profile. Both seed aqueous extracts show moderate inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, both gram positive including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacilllus subtillis and gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Overall analysis of the antibacterial activity of tested samples revealed ...

  18. Suitability of Protein-Rich Extract from Okra Seed for Formulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein-rich extract (PRE) was made from okra (Abelmuscus esculentus) seeds. Three versions of feed A, B, and C were formulated using: as sources of protein, A – protein-rich extract from okra seed, B – dehulled and de-fatted okra seed flour (34% protein), C – casein. Each of the feeds was fed to a group of six rats (21 ...

  19. EFFECT OF PLANT EXTRACTS ON SPORULATION AND SPORE GERMINATION OF STORED MELON SEED FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Amadi J.E.; Adeleke E.E.; Olahan G.; Garuba T.; Adebola M.O.

    2017-01-01

    Frequently, stored melon seeds fail to preserve to their time of use. Storage fungi invade these seeds and cause their deterioration. A study was, therefore, carried out to determine the effect of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf and ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome extracts on the sporulation and spore germination of the invading seed fungi. Dried leaves and rhizomes were ground in sterile mortar, filtered through a wire sieve and then extracted using three different solvents. Results rev...

  20. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi I. Doulgeraki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria–Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  1. Effect of Rocket (Eruca sativa) Extract on MRSA Growth and Proteome: Metabolic Adjustments in Plant-Based Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Efthimiou, Georgios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Pappas, Katherine M; Typas, Milton A; Nychas, George-John

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food has provoked a great concern about the presence of MRSA in associated foodstuff. Although MRSA is often detected in various retailed meat products, it seems that food handlers are more strongly associated with this type of food contamination. Thus, it can be easily postulated that any food could be contaminated with this pathogen in an industrial environment or in household and cause food poisoning. To this direction, the effect of rocket (Eruca sativa) extract on MRSA growth and proteome was examined in the present study. This goal was achieved with the comparative study of the MRSA strain COL proteome, cultivated in rocket extract versus the standard Luria-Bertani growth medium. The obtained results showed that MRSA was able to grow in rocket extract. In addition, proteome analysis using 2-DE method showed that MRSA strain COL is taking advantage of the sugar-, lipid-, and vitamin-rich substrate in the liquid rocket extract, although its growth was delayed in rocket extract compared to Luria-Bertani medium. This work could initiate further research about bacterial metabolism in plant-based media and defense mechanisms against plant-derived antibacterials.

  2. Bioactivities in the tamarind seed extracts: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sukant; Muangman, Thanchanok; Huifu, He; Ling, Li; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2018-01-01

    Stress is a state that triggers change in normal physiology and recognized by human body and brain as an unfavorable event causing concern, worry or anxiety. It may vary from physical, metabolic, physiological or emotional often culminating into wide range of ailments that may range from common cold, decline in functional efficacy of body systems or even cancer. Skin is the largest tissue of the body and makes the first interface with the environment. Skin color and characteristics are highly influenced by environment stress. A variety of natural compounds have been used for anti-stress and disease preventive potentials in worldwide traditional home medicine systems. They have recently attracted attention in research laboratories to dissect their mode of action to promote safe and economic drug development. We have earlier identified anti-stress and anti-aging activities in Withania somnifera, Helicteres angustifolia and honeybee propolis using human cultured normal and cancer cells. In the present study, we explored the effect of tamarind seed extracts prepared in water or 95% ethanol. In cell-based assays, we found that the extracts were safe to use in viable cells (in the range of 0.01-1.0%, for at least 4 weeks). Consistently, molecular studies revealed no effect on the expression/activity of cancer promoting proteins. We recruited oxidative stress models, such as, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ultraviolet radiation (UV) and diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG). Investigation on anti-stress potential of the extracts revealed that they do not offer remarkable protection against stress caused by either H2O2 or UV, however, significantly compromised OAG-induced melanogenesis. The preliminary data warrant further investigations on the active components and mechanism of action to develop useful natural compounds/extracts for manipulation of melanogenesis that plays important role in response of cells to UV and its consequences including DNA damage

  3. In vitro ovicidal activity of Peganum harmala seeds extract on the eggs of Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Saadaty Ardakani, Zahra Sadat; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Jalaei, Jafar; Khademolhoseini, Ali Asghar; Shams Esfand Abad, Shahab; Mootabi Alavi, Amir

    2017-06-01

    Peganum harmala seeds extract has been previously reported to have antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ovicidal activity of the methanolic extract of P. harmala seeds against the eggs of F. hepatica. The phenolic compounds of the methanolic extract of P. harmala seeds were identified by HPLC analysis. Catechin, rutin, p-Coumaric acid, chloregenic acid and hesperetin were found to be the major phenolic compounds. F. hepatica eggs were collected from the gall bladder of naturally infected sheep. The eggs were exposed to two concentrations of P. harmala seeds extract (1 and 3 mg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. To investigate the effect of the P. harmala seeds extract on the miracidial formation, the treated eggs were incubated at 28 °C for 14 days. The results indicated that F. hepatica eggs were susceptible to the methanolic extract of P. harmala seeds. Following 24 h exposure of the eggs to P. harmala seeds extract with concentrations of 1 and 3 mg/mL, the miracidial formation reduced to 5 and 2.2 % respectively (compared with 60 % for the control group). Following 48 h of exposure of the eggs to P. harmala seeds extract with 1 mg/mL concentration, the miracidial formation reduced to 0.5 %. In this exposure time, no miracidial formation was observed in the eggs exposed to P. harmala seeds extract with concentration of 3 mg/mL. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that P. harmala seeds extract has high ovicidal activity against the eggs of F. hepatica. Accordingly, this extract may have the potential flukicidal activity against the immature and mature F. hepatica.

  4. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  5. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  6. Effect of Planting Methods and Seeding Rates on Yield of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. CV. Hamedani in Bajgah, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yazdani

    2015-06-01

    ha-1, respectively. Seeding rates also had a significant effect on number of weeds so that maximum and minimum weed numbers were obtained in 20 kg and 5 kg seed ha-1. Our results showed that 20 kg seed ha-1 and furrow planting method was the best treatment to gain maximum forage yield and minimum weed's detrimental impact.

  7. Overexpression of Medicago sativa TMT elevates the α-tocopherol content in Arabidopsis seeds, alfalfa leaves, and delays dark-induced leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishan; Jia, Huili; Feng, Guangyan; Wang, Zan; Li, Jun; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-08-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a major forage legume for livestock and a target for improving their dietary quality. Vitamin E is an essential vitamin that animals must obtain from their diet for proper growth and development. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT), which catalyzes the conversion of δ- and γ-tocopherols (or tocotrienols) to β- and α-tocopherols (or tocotrienols), respectively, is the final enzyme involved in the vitamin E biosynthetic pathway. The overexpression of M. sativa L.'s γ-TMT (MsTMT) increased the α-tocopherol content 10-15 fold above that of wild type Arabidopsis seeds without altering the total content of vitamin E. Additionally, in response to osmotic stress, the biomass and the expression levels of several osmotic marker genes were significantly higher in the transgenic lines compared with wild type. Overexpression of MsTMT in alfalfa led to a modest, albeit significant, increase in α-tocopherol in leaves and was also responsible for a delayed leaf senescence phenotype. Additionally, the crude protein content was increased, while the acid and neutral detergent fiber contents were unchanged in these transgenic lines. Thus, increased α-tocopherol content occurred in transgenic alfalfa without compromising the nutritional qualities. The targeted metabolic engineering of vitamin E biosynthesis through MsTMT overexpression provides a promising approach to improve the α-tocopherol content of forage crops. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  9. Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin E from Brazilian grape seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Richter, Marc François; Silva, Andréia Loviane da; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-07-18

    The goal of this paper is to optimize the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of vitamin E from grape seed oil from residues of the wine industry. For this purpose an experimental planning to optimize the extraction of Brazilian grape seed oil by means of PLE with hexane as solvent was applied and the results are compared with conventional methods (Soxhlet and mechanical press extraction). Vitamin E was separated and analyzed using HPLC with UV detection. This study demonstrates the ability of the PLE in extracting grape seed oil rich in vitamin E.

  10. Effects of Organic, Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Crude Protein, Oil Yields and Fatty Acids of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rezvani Moghaddam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on crude protein and oil yields and fatty acids composition in black seed (Nigella sativa L., a field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2009-2010. The experiment was arranged by using a complete randomized block design based on factorial arrangement with three replications and 12 treatments. The experimental treatments included fertilizer sources (vermi compost, urea fertilizer and control as first factor and different biological fertilizers (nitroxin (including Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp, mycorrhizae, biosulfur (including Thiobacillus sp. + sulfur and control (no biofertilizer as second factor. Results showed that crude protein and oil yields of black seed in vermi compost were significantly higher than urea fertilizer. In addition, the biological fertilizer had no significant increasing effects on crude protein and oil yields, except biosulfur + sulfur. Chemical analysis of black seeds showed a composition of 10.9% crude protein and 24.5% fat. Linoleic (49.18% and oleic acids (26.77% was the major unsaturated while palmitic acid (12.68% was the main saturated fatty acid.

  11. Particle trajectories in seeds of Lactuca sativa and chromosome aberrations after exposure to cosmic heavy ions on cosmos biosatellites 8 and 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facius, R.; Scherer, K.; Reitz, G.; Bücker, H.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.

    1994-10-01

    The potentially specific importance of the heavy ions of the galactic cosmic radiation for radiation protection in manned spaceflight continues to stimulate in situ, i.e., spaceflight experiments to investigate their radiobiological properties. Chromosome aberrations as an expression of a direct assault on the genome are of particular interest in view of cancerogenesis being the primary radiation risk for man in space. In such investigations the establishment of the geometrical correlation between heavy ions' trajectories and the location of radiation sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved for the identification of particle trajectories in the order of 2~10 μm as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed. We describe how this was achieved for seeds of Lactuca sativa as biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographies displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The incidence of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed during the COSMOS 1887 (Biosatellite 8) and the COSMOS 2044 (Biosatellite 9) mission was determined for seeds hit by cosmic heavy ions. In those seeds the incidence of both single and multiple chromosome aberrations was enhanced. The results of the Biosatellite 9 experiment, however, are confounded by spaceflight effects unrelated to the passage of heavy ions.

  12. Naturally occurring glucosinolates in plant extracts of rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) identified by liquid chromatography coupled with negative ion electrospray ionization and quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Rubino, Alessandra; Lelario, Filomena; Bufo, Sabino A

    2007-01-01

    A method for the comprehensive profiling of intact glucosinolates (GLSs), major and minor, occurring in leaves and seeds of rocket salad (Eruca sativa L.) is presented using optimized reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) with electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). ESI-ITMS in the negative mode was confirmed to be very suitable to analyze these compounds in crude extracts. After extraction from the plant material with methanol/water (70:30 v/v) at 70 degrees C, the analytes of interest were separated on a C18 column using an eluent acidified with formic acid (0.1%) and modified with acetonitrile. All the GLSs found in leaves of rocket salad gave good signals corresponding to the deprotonated precursor ion, [M-H]-. Although the mass spectra also exhibited an analytically important non-covalent adduct ion at [2M-H]-, the structures of glucosinolates were confirmed by extensive sequential MS analysis, thereby substantially improving the identification of unknown compounds. The results obtained not only revealed in leaves of E. sativa at least twelve species of GLSs including seven aliphatic compounds (glucoraphanin with [M-H]- at m/z ratio of 436, glucoerucin at m/z 420, 4-mercaptobutyl-GLS at m/z 406, progoitrin/epiprogoitrin at m/z 388, sinigrin at m/z 358, 4-methylpentyl- and n-hexyl-GLS at m/z 402) and three indole glucosinolates (i.e., three N-heterocyclic compounds: 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin and 5-hydroxyglucobrassicin at m/z 463, and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin at m/z 477), but also two structurally related compounds containing one intermolecular disulfide linkage (4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyldisulfanyl)butyl-GLS at m/z 600 and a dimeric 4-mercaptobutyl-GLS at m/z 811). This latter symmetric disulfide was previously considered as an artefact formed during extraction of GLSs from vegetative tissues. Glucosinolates were detected in the leaves with a wide range of contents (10-200 micromol/g) and a great variation in the composition. Only

  13. Effect of plant seeds protein extract on the Sunn pest, Eurygaste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amaranthus seed proteinous extract caused slight increase in development time. Triticale extract did not affect nymph growth and development and there were no significant differences between developmental time of triticale extract and control. Azocaseinolytic activity of gut extract of E. integriceps was affected greatly by ...

  14. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  15. Acute effects of an Avena sativa herb extract on responses to the Stroop Color-Word test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Robinson, Matthew J; Bryan, Janet; Buckley, Jonathan D; Murphy, Karen J; Howe, Peter R C

    2011-07-01

    Extracts from oat (Avena sativa) herb may benefit cognitive performance. This study investigated whether Neuravena(®), an oat herb extract, could acutely improve responses to the Stroop Color-Word test, a measure of attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus. Elderly volunteers with below-average cognitive performance consumed single doses (0, 1600, and 2400 mg) of oat herb extract at weekly intervals in a double-blind, randomized, crossover comparison. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed before and after supplementation, and a Stroop test was performed. Significantly fewer errors were made during the color-naming component of the Stroop test after consuming the 1600-mg dose than after the 0-mg or 2400-mg doses (F (1,36)=18.85, p<0.001). In 7 subjects with suspected cognitive impairment, Stroop interference score was also improved by the 1600-mg dose compared to 0- and 2400-mg doses (F (1, 34)=2.40, p<0.01). Resting BP was unaffected by supplementation. Taking 1600 mg of oat herb extract may acutely improve attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus in older adults with differing levels of cognitive status.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de Verano) under different farming methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Pepe, Giacomo; Sommella, Eduardo; Manfra, Michele; Scopa, Antonio; Sofo, Adriano; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Russo, Mariateresa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Autore, Giuseppina; Campiglia, Pietro; Marzocco, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Besides their nutritional value, vegetables are a source of health-promoting compounds, such as polyphenols, and their content can be influenced by the particular farming method. In this study polyphenolic extracts from Lactuca sativa (var. Maravilla de verano) plants cultivated with different farming methods were chemically characterised and tested in vitro and ex vivo inflammation models. The tested extacts (250-2.5 µg mL(-1) ) were able to reduce both the inflammatory and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 murine monocyte macrophage cells, by lowering the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; (Nrf2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this regard, quantitative profiles revealed different amounts of polyphenols, in particular quercetin levels were higher in plants under mineral fertilised treatment. Those extract showed an enhanced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Our data showed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of Maravilla de Verano polyphenolic extracts. The effect of farming methods on polyphenolic levels was highlighted. The higher reduction of inflammatory mediators release in extracts from plants cultivated under mineral fertilisation treatment was correlated to the higher amount of quercetin. These results can be useful for both nutraceutical or agronomic purposes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Extraction solvent’s effect on biogas production from mixtures of date seed and wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeef Wameed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of extraction solvent on biogas production from mixtures of date (Phoenix dactylifera seed and wastewater treatment sludge. Date palm seed is a locally produced waste which is used in different useful purposes. Date seed is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and have the potential for biogas enhancement. In this study, three extraction solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate and Ethanol:water (1:1, were used on two types of date seeds (locally known as Khalas and Khudari. Date seed powder of size 0.425 – 0.6 mm after extraction was mixed with wastewater treatment sludge at dry date seed/dry sludge solids ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. The study showed a direct relationship between biogas production and ratio of date seeds/wastewater sludge in the mixture. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the quantity of biogas produced from samples containing raw date seed was almost same as the quantity produced from samples containing date seed after extraction. The results revealed that the used extraction solvents had no effect on biogas production

  18. Larvicidal efficacy of ethanol leaf and seed extracts of Picralima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical (qualitative) screening of the leaves and seeds of P. nitida detected the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, saponins and terpenes. In addition, flavonoids and tannins were detected in the seeds. This preliminary investigation has revealed that the leaves and seeds of P. intida have larvicidal potentials, ...

  19. Response of snap bean growth and seed yield to seed size, plant density and foliar application with algae extract

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    Yehia I. Abu Seif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted during the two growing summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, at the experimental farm of vegetables at Kaha, Qalyubia Governorate, Agriculture Research Center (ARC, Egypt, in order to investigate the effect of seed size, plant density and foliar application with some algae extracts on growth and seed yield of snap bean cv. valentino. A split–split plot design was used with three replications, where three sizes i.e., large, small and control (without grading were randomly distributed in the main plots, two plant density rates (22 and 33 plants per m2 arranged in subplots and foliar spray with seaweed extract (algost, fresh water algae (spirulina, mixture of them and control (sprayed with distilled water allocated in sub–subplots. Results showed a clear positively enhancement of plant vegetative growth parameters, chlorophyll, N, P, and K contents of leaves and seed yield quantity and quality positively by sowing large seeds compared with other seed sizes. Meanwhile, higher plant density (33 plants per m2 gave the highest values of plant length and seed yield per feddan, while the lower plant density (22 plants per m2 gave the highest values in other studied parameters except weight of 100 seeds where there were no significant differences between the two plant densities. All foliar applications with algae extracts significantly increased all the studied parameters compared to the control treatment. The superior application was the mixture of seaweeds and fresh water algae extracts together followed by seaweed extract alone in the two seasons, respectively.

  20. Frakcja lipidowa i białkowa nasion konopi siewnych (C. sativa L.) oraz jej korzystny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka = Lipid and protein fraction of hemp seed (C. sativa L.) and its beneficial influence on human health

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Grzegorz; Skrajda, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Dąbrowski Grzegorz, Skrajda Marta. Frakcja lipidowa i białkowa nasion konopi siewnych (C. sativa L.) oraz jej korzystny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka = Lipid and protein fraction of hemp seed (C. sativa L.) and its beneficial influence on human health. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(9):357-366. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.62002 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3839 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Sci...

  1. Evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts and lectins from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Cardoso Corrêa Araújo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work, and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts and lectins from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract.

  3. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the

  4. Extraction of grape seed oil using compressed carbon dioxide and propane: extraction yields and characterization of free glycerol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Dariva, Cláudio; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-04-23

    The main objective of this work was to compare the extraction of grape seed oil with compressed carbon dioxide and propane on the extraction yields and chemical characteristics of free glycerol compounds. The experiments were performed in a laboratory scale unit in the temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C and pressures from 60 to 254 bar. The results showed that propane is a more suitable solvent for grape seed oil extraction than carbon dioxide, as higher extractions yields and a very fast kinetic of extraction were achieved with this solvent. In relation to compressed carbon dioxide extractions, both temperature and density presented a very pronounced and positive effect on the extraction yield. The oils extracted were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with regard to the free glycerol compounds, mainly fatty acids, ethyl, and methyl esters. The results showed that these compounds are present in low concentration in vegetable oil (oil than samples extracted with carbon dioxide.

  5. The protective effect of a mix of Lactarius deterrimus and Castanea sativa extracts on streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and pancreatic β-cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Arambašić, Jelena; Mihailović, Mirjana; Uskoković, Aleksandra; Marković, Jelena; Poznanović, Goran; Vidović, Senka; Zeković, Zoran; Mujić, Aida; Mujić, Ibrahim; Vidaković, Melita

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic β-cell death or dysfunction mediated by oxidative stress underlies the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we tested extracts from the edible mushroom Lactarius deterrimus and the chestnut Castanea sativa, as well as their mixture (MIX Ld/Cs), for potential beneficial effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced pancreatic β-cell death. Analysis of chelating effects, reducing power and radical-scavenging assays revealed strong antioxidant effects of the C. sativa extract and MIX Ld/Cs, while the L. deterrimus extract displayed a weak to moderate effect. The antioxidative effect of the chestnut extract corresponds with the high content of phenolics and flavonoids identified by HPLC analysis. In contrast, the mushroom extract contains relatively small amounts of phenols and flavonoids. However, both extracts, and especially their combination MIX Ld/Cs, increased cell viability after the STZ treatment as a result of a significant reduction of DNA damage and improved redox status. The chestnut extract and MIX Ld/Cs significantly lowered the STZ-induced increases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, while the mushroom extract had no impact on the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. However, the L. deterrimus extract exhibited good NO-scavenging activity. Different mechanisms that underlie antioxidant effects of the mushroom and chestnut extracts were discussed. When combined as in the MIX Ld/Cs, the extracts exhibited diverse but synergistic actions that ultimately exerted beneficial and protective effects against STZ-induced pancreatic β-cell death.

  6. ¹H NMR and HPLC/DAD for Cannabis sativa L. chemotype distinction, extract profiling and specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland; Politi, Matteo

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal use of different chemovars and extracts of Cannabis sativa L. requires standardization beyond ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with complementing methods. We investigated the suitability of (1)H NMR key signals for distinction of four chemotypes measured in deuterated dimethylsulfoxide together with two new validated HPLC/DAD methods used for identification and extract profiling based on the main pattern of cannabinoids and other phenolics alongside the assayed content of THC, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) their acidic counterparts (THCA, CBDA, CBGA), cannabinol (CBN) and cannflavin A and B. Effects on cell viability (MTT assay, HeLa) were tested. The dominant cannabinoid pairs allowed chemotype recognition via assignment of selective proton signals and via HPLC even in cannabinoid-low extracts from the THC, CBD and CBG type. Substantial concentrations of cannabinoid acids in non-heated extracts suggest their consideration for total values in chemotype distinction and specifications of herbal drugs and extracts. Cannflavin A/B are extracted and detected together with cannabinoids but always subordinated, while other phenolics can be accumulated via fractionation and detected in a wide fingerprint but may equally serve as qualitative marker only. Cell viability reduction in HeLa was more determined by the total cannabinoid content than by the specific cannabinoid profile. Therefore the analysis and labeling of total cannabinoids together with the content of THC and 2-4 lead cannabinoids are considered essential. The suitability of analytical methods and the range of compound groups summarized in group and ratio markers are discussed regarding plant classification and pharmaceutical specification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction purification and characterization of trypsin inhibitors from Andean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Castillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the conditions of covalent immobilization of trypsin on a Sepharose matrix, which could be applied for the purification of trypsin inhibitors. The higher values of retention of enzymatic activity and immobilized enzymatic activity were obtained with a Sepharose 6B-CL matrix, at room temperature, a pH value of 10.5, an enzymatic load of 25 mg/mL, and a minimum immobilization time of 12 hours, in order to obtain a stable immobilization. The most active trypsin inhibitors were selected through the comparison of, extracts obtained from the seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., pea (Pisum sativum, lupine or “chocho” (Lupinus mutabilis, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and “sangorache” (Amaranthus hybridus L.. The inhibitors were partially purified using centrifugal ultrafiltration, heat treatment, and TCA precipitation. The permeated and retained fractions of “sangorache” were selected as the most active trypsin inhibitors, and they were selectively purified using affinity chromatography in a Trypsin - Glyoxyl - Sepharose 6B-CL matrix. The kinetic characterization showed the presence of two inhibitors; the first one corresponded to a competitive inhibitor, while the second one behaved as a mixed inhibitor.

  8. Extraction and identification of isothiocyanates from broccolini seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

    2011-01-01

    Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica x Alboglabra) is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan (Chinese broccoli), which contains abundant glucosinolates. The intact glucosinolates are believed to be inactive, while their hydrolysis products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), are found to have bacteriocidal and anticarcinogenic activities. So far, no report is available about generation of ITCs during the process of glucosinolate hydrolysis in broccolini. In this study, the hydrolysis of broccolini seed glucosinolates was investigated under controlled conditions of pH, time and temperature, and the ITCs produced were determined. The results showed that an optimum hydrolysis of glucosinolates could be achieved at a temperature of 250C, at pH 7.0, and a reaction time of eight hours. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that the extracted ITCs primarily were: 3-BITC (3-benzyl-ITC) (10.8%), 4-methylpentyl-ITC (0.5%), 1-isothiocyanato-butane (26.8%), PEITC (phenethyl-ITC) (22.6%) and SFN (sulforaphane) (19.2%).

  9. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuo-Hui; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T; Li, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Danhong; Wojcik, Kim; Anderson, Travis; Qin, Yimin; Dey, Lucy; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2003-06-01

    This study sought to test whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress induced in chick cardiomyocytes and whether this cytoprotection is mediated by PKC activation, mito K(ATP) channel opening, NO production, oxidant scavenging, or iron chelating effects. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (exogenous oxidant stress, 0.5mM) or antimycin A (endogenous oxidant stress, 100 micro M) for 2h following pretreatment with GSPE at various concentrations for 2h. Cells were also pretreated with GSPE or with inhibitors of PKC (chelerytherine), mito K(ATP) channel (5-hydroxydecanoate), nitric oxide synthase (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) for 2h. Oxidant stress was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide. Free radical scavenging and iron chelating ability was tested in vitro. GSPE dose-dependently attenuated oxidant formation and significantly improved cell survival and contractile function. However, inhibitors of PKC, mito K(ATP) channel or NO synthase failed to abolish the protective action of GSPE during H(2)O(2) or antimycin A exposure. In vitro studies suggested that GSPE scavenges H(2)O(2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron. These results indicate that GSPE confers cardioprotection against exogenous H(2)O(2)- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito K(ATP) channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron chelating directly.

  10. The efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, P. N. R.; Akrom; Darmawan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a conditions caused by metabolic abnormalities include central obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. HbA1c examination is required to study the long-term glycemic status and to prevent diabetic complications of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil and hypoglycemic drug combination to reduce HbA1c level in patients with metabolic syndrome risk. This research performed using an experimental randomized single - blind controlled trial design. A total of 99 outpatients at the Jetis I Public Health Center, Yogyakarta, Indonesia with metabolic syndrome risk were divided into three groups: The control group received placebo and two treatment groups received black seed oil orally at dose of 1.5 mL/day and 3 mL/day, respectively, for 20 days. The clinical conditions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, BMI, blood glucose serum and HbA1c levels were examined on day 0 and 21. The results obtained were analyzed with one-way ANOVA test. The mean of HbA1c levels of all groups before treatment was higher than the normal values and there was no significant difference in HbA1c value on day 0. Administration of 1.5 and 3 mL/day of black seed oil for 20 days decreased (padministration of black cumin seed oil and hypoglycemic drug combination for 20 days in patients at risk of metabolic syndrome may reduce to HbA1c levels.

  11. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  12. The effects of Nigella sativa extract on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Farimah; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Simagol; Vafaee, Farzaneh; Zarepoor, Leila

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that hypothyroidism-induced oxidative damage in brain tissue is involved in its adverse effects on learning and memory. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) has been suggested to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats. Thirty pregnant rats were kept in separate cages. After delivery, the mothers and their offspring were randomly divided into six groups including: (1) control, (2) PTU (propylthiouracil), (3) PTU-NS 100, (4) PTU-NS 200, (5) PTU-NS 400, and (6) PTU-Vit C (vitamin C). All dams except the control group received 0.005% PTU in their drinking water during lactation. Besides PTU, dams in groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg N. sativa extract, or 100 mg/kg Vit C, respectively. After lactation period, pups continued to receive same experimental treatment for the first 8 weeks of their life. Then, 10 male offspring of each group were randomly selected and assessed for the learning and memory abilities by using Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Blood samples were collected for thyroxine assessment, animals were euthanized, and the brain tissues were removed and analyzed for total thiol groups and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. PTU exposure significantly increased the time latency in MWM test, while reduced the time spent in target quadrant, and decreased the latency for entering the dark compartment in PA test. These effects were associated with significant reduction in serum thyroxine levels and brain levels of thiol groups, and significant elevation in hippocampal MDA. Administration of 400 mg/kg N. sativa extract and 100 mg/kg Vit C reduced the time latency, while increased the time spent in target quadrant compared to the PTU group in MWM test. Treatment by 100-400 mg/kg of N. sativa extract

  13. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  14. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the seed and leaf extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engwa Azeh Godwill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the seed and leaf extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum (C. albidum. Methods: After assessing the in vitro ferric reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities as well as the flavonoid and flavanol contents, the seed and leaf extracts were administered to diabetic rats for 7 days. The animals were sacrificed and serum was obtained for the determination of blood glucose level while liver sample was used for the quantification of glycogen level as well as lipidic peroxidation and catalase activity. Results: Seed and leaf extracts of C. albidum showed ferric reducing activity and very high hydrogen peroxide scavenging potential. After the administration of treatment in diabetic rats, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in blood sugar level and a significant increase (P < 0.05 in liver glycogen level in Groups 3 and 4 animals administered the leaf and seed extracts respectively compared to Group 1 (the negative control. Also, catalase activity and malondialdehyde levels increased in Groups 3 and 4 administered the extracts compared to Group 1 animals (the negative control. Flavonoids and flavanol were present and significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the leaf than seed extract. In all, the leaf extract showed the greatest activities. Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of C. albidum possess both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities in scavenging free radicals as well as antidiabetic activity, and as such, a potentially important compound in antidiabetic drug discovery.

  16. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  17. β-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Ličková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

  18. β-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Sajfrtová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 °C. Oil and β-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of β-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of β-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both β-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide.

  19. Inhibition of Coix seed extract on fatty acid synthase, a novel target for anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Gao, Jing; Zeng, Yong; Liu, Chang-Xiao

    2008-09-26

    Coix seed has been traditionally used to treat cancers in folk medicine. Study the anticancer action mechanism of Coix seed extract. After the treatment with Coix seed extract (10 microl/ml), the residual activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) as overall reaction, beta-ketoacyl reduction, enoyl reduction, and acetyl acetyl coenzyme A (AcAcCoA) reduction was separately detected at 340 nm in the UV-190 spectrophotometer. After rats were administrated Coix seed extract (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 ml/kg) intragastrically for 10 days consecutively, activities of FAS, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), lipid protein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL), triglyceride (TG), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in the plasma, liver and fatty tissues were determined. Experiments in vitro showed that the inhibition of Coix seed extract on FAS activity was significant and dose dependent, and two active sites inhibited were beta-ketoacyl reductases (KR) and enoyl reductase (ER). Experiments in vivo showed that Coix seed extract inhibited FAS activity in the liver, and elevated LPL and HL activity in the plasma, and effected G-6-PD activity. The study supports that FAS is a novel target for anticancer activity, and provides a theoretical foundation for the wide application of Coix seed extract in traditional medicine.

  20. Comparison of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, S.; Lagha, A.; AitAmar, H.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction experiments with hexane were carried out at atmospheric pressure in Soxhlet, conventional and ultrasound extractions of flaked caraway seeds, and detailed results are given for two major plant extract components, carvone and limonene. The results indicate that carvone yield and plant

  1. The Postprandial Hypoglycemic Activity of Fenugreek Seed and Seeds' Extract in Type 2 Diabetics: A Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiba Bawadi; Sofyan Maghaydah; Rabab Tayyem; Reema Tayyem

    2009-01-01

    .... One hundred sixty--six D2T patients were assigned into three groups: FGO (control group: placebo drink), FG2.5 (2.5g of fenugreek), and FG5 (5g of fenugreek). Participants were instructed to drink the extract and chew the seeds...

  2. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extract on cell death in hippocampal neurons following experimental global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbenaghi, R; Javanbakht, J; Sadeghzadeh, Sh; Kheradmand, D; Abdi, F S; Jaberi, M H; Mohammadiyan, M R; Khadivar, F; Mollaei, Y

    2014-02-15

    Global cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, leads to extensive neuronal damage, particularly the neurons in the hippocampal CA region. Recent studies have demonstrated that pharmacological agents, such as Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) that is an annual herbaceous flowering plant, given at the time of reperfusion afforded protection against ischemia, which is referred to as pharmacological post conditioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa in the hippocampus neurons of rats exposed to global ischemia/reperfusion. In the present study 30 Wister rats (200-250 g) were divided into 5 groups namely sham (operated without treatment), control (operation with normal saline treatment), and 3 treatment groups with Nigella sativa 1mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 50mg/kg. Firstly, the animals were anesthetized by ketamin and xylazine, and then the right carotid artery was operated upon dissection of the soft tissues around it and ligation by a clamp for 20 min. The Nigella sativa extraction was used during surgery through IP route and after 72 h the animals were euthanized and their brain removed, fixed and prepared for histopathological examinations. In treatment group (1mg/kg) the interstitial neuron frequency which contains cytoplasmic edema, along with CA, was 28 cells, whereas the edematous astrocyte number along with CA in this group was 115 cells. In the treatment group (10mg/kg) the interstitial neurons of cornua ammonis (CA) were 15 and the edematous astrocytes were 122 cells and in the treatment group (50mg/kg) the number of edematous interstitial neurons was 7 cells in distance of 2900 μ of CA. In such group the number of edematous interstitial neurons was less as well. In this group the appearance of CA cells was more similar to control group, not only the edema decreased in interstitial and astrocyte cells, but it dramatically decreased in pyramidal cells. Our study revealed that the Nigella sativa extraction could

  3. Garcinia Kola Seeds: Is the Aqueous Extract a True Aphrodisiac in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male ...

  4. effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Summary: Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percectage toxicity (10, 50 and 150 mg/kg) were separately administered orally, daily for three days to ...

  5. Effect of fermented seed extract of Carica papaya on litters of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to determine the effects of fermented seeds of Carica papaya on litters of female Wistar rats, and ascertain its safety as a food condiment. Animals in group one served as control, and were given only water; those in groups two and three were given the aqueous extract of the fermented seeds of C.

  6. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 °C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 °C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  8. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  9. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  10. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as

  11. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Shahraki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own.

  12. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own. PMID:26870685

  13. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  14. Assessing of the contributions of pod photosynthesis to carbon acquisition of seed in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxu; Mao, Peisheng; Li, Yuan; Wang, Mingya; Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Hui

    2017-02-07

    The distribution of carbon from a branch setting pod in alfalfa was investigated during the seed development of seeds to determine the relative contribution of pod and leaf photoassimilates to the total C balance and to investigate the partitioning of these photoassimilates to other plant organs. A 13Clabeling procedure was used to label C photoassimilates of pods and leaves in alfalfa, and the Δ13C values of a pod, leaves, a section of stem and roots were measured during seed development on day 10, 15, 20 and 25 after labeling of the pod. The results showed that the alfalfa pod had photosynthetic capacity early in the development of seeds, and that pod photosynthesis could provide carbon to alfalfa organs including seeds, pods, leaves, stems and roots, in addition to leaf photosynthesis. Photosynthesis in the pod affected the total C balance of the alfalfa branch with the redistribution of a portion of pod assimilates to other plant organs. The assimilated 13C of the pod was used for the growth requirements of plant seeds and pods. The requirements for assimilated C came primarily from the young pod in early seed development, with later requirements provided primarily from the leaf.

  15. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Cumin Seed Extracts against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Vero Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. [family Apiaceae]seed essential oil is reported to have antiseptic activity.Until now the antiviral properties of cumin seed extracts onviruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 have not beenstudied. The objective of this study was to investigate the invitro effects of aqueous, methanolic and hydroalcoholic extractsof cumin seed on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line.Methods: Antiviral activity of various concentrations aqueous,hydroalcoholic and methanolic extracts of cumin seed in Verocells were studied using plaque reduction assays. The 50%cytotoxic concentration (CC50, 50% inhibitory concentration(IC50, and therapeutic index of the effective extracts were calculated.Results: Methanolic extract of cumin seed showed a significantantiviral activity on HSV-1 in Vero cell line. Its CC50 forVero cells, IC50 and the therapeutic index for HSV-1 were0.45, 0.18 mg/mL and 2.5, respectively. Aqueous and hydroalcoholicextracts of cumin seeds showed no inhibitory effecton HSV-1.Conclusion: The methanolic extract of cumin seed producesanti-HSV-1 effect. Probable interference of phenolic compoundswith fusion of Vero cell membrane and HSV-1 envelopemight be the mechanism of such inhibitory effect. Furtherstudies are required to ascertain its in vivo antiviral propertiesand potential toxicity.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 304-309.

  17. The effect of melliferous bee (Apis mellifera carnica poll and mechanical means on seed yield, yield components and quality of alfalfa seed (Medicago sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of alfalfa pollinators in free pollination was investigated as well as effect of measures that promote pollination alfalfa (using sugar syrup and mechanical means. In first year of investigations, with higher precipitation, higher number of others pollinators (80,8 then honeybees (45,6 on alfalfa field was determined. In second year, there were much more honeybees (139,5 then all others alfalfa pollinators (12,37. Pollination improvement with sugar syrup had positive effect on seed yield and seed yield components since by this way more seeds were obtained compare to free pollination and by using mechanical means. Highest seed yield was obtained with sugar syrup (44,90 gm-2, with mechanical improvement of pollination 40,74 gm-2 and in free pollination 30,41 gm-2. As for yield components pollination improvement gave better results compare to free pollination. Pod setting and number of seeds per pod were especially significant compare to control. There were no statistically significant differences between free pollination and improved pollination for seed quality components (mass of 1000 seeds, energy of germination and germination ability.

  18. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh B Ishnava

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria.The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0. Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract.The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50 value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein.Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

  19. Evaluation of the proximate composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of mango seed kernel extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mutua, Jane K.; Imathiu, Samuel; Owino, Willis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After pulp extraction in fruit processing industry, a significant quantity of mango seed kernels are discarded as solid wastes. These seed kernels can be ideal raw materials for obtaining extracts rich in bioactive compounds with good antioxidant properties. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine their potential use, this study evaluated some of the ...

  20. Antifungal activity of Momordica charantia seed extracts toward the pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani L.

    OpenAIRE

    Shuzhen Wang; Yongliang Zheng; Fu Xiang; Shiming Li; Guliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia L., a vegetable crop with high nutritional value, has been used as an antimutagenic, antihelminthic, anticancer, antifertility, and antidiabetic agent in traditional folk medicine. In this study, the antifungal activity of M. charantia seed extract toward Fusarium solani L. was evaluated. Results showed that M. charantia seed extract effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of F. solani, with a 50% inhibitory rate (IC50) value of 108.934 μg/mL. Further analysis with optic...

  1. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos; Moisés Martínez-Velázquez; José Miguel Flores-Fernández; Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals t...

  2. Unripe Papaya (Carica papaya L. Seed Hexane Fraction Extract Inhibits Male Mice (Mus musculus Spermatogenesis Stronger Than Unripe Papaya Seed Methanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Komang Satriyasa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men and women have the same rights and obligations in family planning program. Practically, participation in family planning program is still predominated by women while participation of men is still low. Low participation of men in family planning program is due to very limited choices in male contraceptive method. In recent years, studies have been refocused on investigating traditional plants as antifertility herbal medicine for men. Studies on antifertility effects of unripe papaya seeds have been done. However, similar studies on hexane fraction extract have not yet been done. In this study, unripe seeds were collected from local Balinese papaya (Carica papaya fruits. Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effect of unripe papaya seeds hexane fraction extract on spermatogenesis and the testosterone level of male mice. Hexane fraction extract of unripe papaya seeds contains glycosides and triterpenoids, which is assumed to have an antifertility property, so it can be used as a male contraceptive, although the mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. Method: This study used pre-test and post-test control group design, using 30 male mice of balb C strain, 12 weeks of age, weighing 20-22 gram, which were randomly grouped into 3 groups, each consisting of 10 male mice. One control group (P0 = control group was given double-distilled water, and two treatment groups were given hexane fraction extract of unripe Carica papaya seeds 20 mg/20gram/day, and methanolic extract of unripe Carica papaya seeds 20 mg/20 gram/day (P1 and P2, respectively. After 36 days of treatment, evaluation of the testes and blood of the male mice was conducted. Results: Data were analysed by normality test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness of Fit, homogeneity test, and Anova test. This study showed that spermatogonia A, primary pachytene spermatocytes, spermatid and Sertoli cells were decreased significantly (p < 0,05 but Leydig cells and testosterone

  3. Evaluation of acute toxicity of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, Shori Amal

    2013-07-15

    This study 'in vivo' was applied on rats "Rattus norvegicus" to determine the acute toxicity of water extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds during 48 hours and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values were calculated. Different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and seeds were injected to the rats (Rattus norvegicus) and the percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study, found that the percentage of death in all treated rats with A. indica leaves and seeds water extracts were increased by doses increased (R2 = 0.9). Rats injected with higher doses of water extract ofA. indica leaves (0.1 and 0.092 g mL(-1)) and seeds (0.2 g mL(-1)) showed 100% death. The LD50 of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds were 6.2, 9.4 mL kg(-1), respectively. Based on these results, it may be concluded that doses of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds injected to rats showed significant acute toxicity.

  4. Inhibitory effect of eugenol on seed germination and pre-harvest sprouting of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Qijuan; Lin, Cheng; Guan, Yajing; Sheteiwy, Mohamed Salah; Hu, Weimin; Hu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is a constrain problem in hybrid rice production. The present study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of eugenol on seed germination and PHS of hybrid rice variety (Qian You 1). The results showed that seed germination speed and the activities of ?-amylase were inhibited by eugenol pre-soaking and these effects enhanced with the increasing of eugenol concentrations; while seedling growth was not negatively affected. In field trials, eugenol applica...

  5. Extraction and the Fatty Acid Profile of Rosa acicularis Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huanan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Ruchun; Zhang, Lu; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2017-12-01

    Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work. The tocopherol content was 200.6±0.3 mg/100 g oil. The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid (56.5%) and oleic acid (34.2%). The saturated fatty acids included palmitic acid (4%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid (60.6%), oleic acid (33.6%) and linolenic acid (3.2%). According to the 1,3-random-2-random hypothesis, the dominant triacylglycerols were LLL (18%), LLnL (1%), LLP (2%), LOL (10%), LLSt (1.2%), PLP (0.2%), LLnP (0.1%), LLnO (0.6%) and LOP (1.1%). This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.

  6. Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, J A; Chitambar, J J; Hamerlynck, M J; Duarte, E O

    1999-12-01

    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina were individually analyzed. Only one procedure, a new live recovery test, yielded nematodes in all 11 samples and is recommended as the best method for use by regulatory agencies. In comparison, although the other three extraction procedures resulted in greater numbers of Anguina agrostis juveniles per gram of seed, they failed to yield any nematodes in as many as four seed lots with low infection levels.

  8. Kenaf seed oil from supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus cannabinus) variety V36 extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) with different combinations of pressure (bars) and temperature (°C). Extracted oils were tested on human promyelocytic HL-60, murine ...

  9. Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/jbsc/030/02/0237-0244. Keywords. Annona squamosa seed; cytotoxicity; GSH; ROS; tumour cells. Abstract. Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, ...

  10. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of phenolic extracts from olive leaves and grape skins and seeds - Impact of encapsulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadić, Dorde; Čadež, Neža; Ota, Ajda

    2012-01-01

    Olive leaves and grape skin with seeds produced as by-products in olive oil and wine production constitute a cheap source of plant material with certain amount of bio-active substances. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of the phenolic extracts were reported...... by broth microdilution method for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of phenolic extracts from olive leaves (Olea europaea, cv. "Leccino") and grape skins and seeds (Vitis vinifera L, cv "Zelen") against 14 strains of Candida, Pichia and Ogataea sp., which were isolated from spoiled olive oil...... extracts from olive leaves and grape skins with seeds expressed high efficiency against most isolates of spoilage yeasts. Encapsulated olive leaves extracts showed the same or better efficiency than non-encapsulated extracts in broth microdilution screening test and during yeast growth inhibition in liquid...

  12. The fatty acid-rich fraction of Eruca sativa (rocket salad) leaf extract exerts antidiabetic effects in cultured skeletal muscle, adipocytes and liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetta, Mona H; Owis, Asmaa I; Haddad, Pierre S; Eid, Hoda M

    2017-12-01

    Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae), commonly known as rocket salad, is a popular leafy-green vegetable with many health benefits. To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of this plant in major insulin-responsive tissues. Five E. sativa leaf extracts of varying polarity were prepared (aqueous extract, 70% and 95% ethanol extracts, the n-hexane-soluble fraction of the 95% ethanol extract (ES3) and the defatted 95% ethanol extract). Eruca sativa extracts were investigated through a variety of cell-based in vitro bioassays for antidiabetic activities in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, H4IIE hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Guided by the results of these bioassays, ES3 was fractionated into the saponifiable (SM) and the unspaonifiable (USM) fractions. Glucose uptake was measured using [ 3 H]-deoxy-glucose, while the effects on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and adipogenesis were assessed using Wako AutoKit Glucose and AdipoRed assays, respectively. ES3 and its SM fraction significantly stimulated glucose uptake with EC 50 values of 8.0 and 5.8 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts significantly inhibited G6Pase activity (IC 50 values of 4.8 and 9.3 μg/mL, respectively). Moreover, ES3 and SM showed significant adipogenic activities with EC 50 of 4.3 and 6.1 μg/mL, respectively. Fatty acid content of SM was identified by GC-MS. trans-Vaccenic and palmitoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids, while palmitic and azelaic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. These findings indicate that ES3 and its fatty acid-rich fraction exhibit antidiabetic activities in insulin-responsive cell lines and may hence prove useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Genome-wide association mapping revealed a diverse genetic basis of seed dormancy across subpopulations in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magwa, Risper Auma; Zhao, Hu; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-25

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait employed by flowering plants to avoid harsh environmental conditions for the continuity of their next generations. In cereal crops, moderate seed dormancy could help prevent pre-harvest sprouting and improve grain yield and quality. We performed a genome wide association study (GWAS) for dormancy, based on seed germination percentage (GP) in freshly harvested seeds (FHS) and after-ripened seeds (ARS) in 350 worldwide accessions that were characterized with strong population structure of indica, japonica and Aus subpopulations. The germination tests revealed that Aus and indica rice had stronger seed dormancy than japonica rice in FHS. Association analysis revealed 16 loci significantly associated with GP in FHS and 38 in ARS. Three out of the 38 loci detected in ARS were also detected in FHS and 13 of the ARS loci were detected near previously mapped dormancy QTL. In FHS, three of the association loci were located within 100 kb around previously cloned GA/IAA inactivation genes such as GA2ox3, EUI1 and GH3-2 and one near dormancy gene, Sdr4. In ARS, an association signal was detected near ABA signaling gene ABI5. No association peaks were commonly detected among the sub-populations in FHS and only one association peak was detected in both indica and japonica populations in ARS. Sdr4 and GA2OX3 haplotype analysis showed that Aus and indica II (IndII) varieties had stronger dormancy alleles whereas indica I (IndI) and japonica had weak or non-dormancy alleles. The association study and haplotype analysis together, indicate an involvement of independent genes and alleles contributing towards regulation and natural variation of seed dormancy among the rice sub-populations.

  14. Substrate specificity screening of oat (Avena sativa) seeds aminopeptidase demonstrate unusually broad tolerance in S1 pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna D; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Drag, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity profiling of oat (Avena sativa) aminopeptidase. Interestingly, we have found that this enzyme recognizes effectively among the natural amino acids basic residues like Arg and Lys, hydrophobic Phe, Leu and Met, but also to some extent acidic residues Asp and Glu. In the case of unnatural amino acids hydrophobic residues (hPhe and hCha) and basic hArg were preferentially recognized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  16. Effect of papaya seed extract on contractile response of cauda epididymal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R J; Chinoy, N J

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the administration of Carica papaya seed extract on the contractility of cauda epididymal tubules in male rats. Adult male albino rats were administered intramuscularly papaya seed extract at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Animals were killed, cauda epididymal tubules of 5 cm length were isolated and the contractile response to different concentrations of adrenalin (1-500 microg/25mL) was examined. In another group of animals, the contractile response was assayed 3 months after withdrawal of the treatment. Papaya seed extract brought about a significant decrease in the contractile response of epididymal tubules as compared with the control. After three months of papaya withdrawal, a nearly normal pattern of contraction was regained. Papaya seed treatment reversibly reduces the contractile response of cauda epididymal tubules.

  17. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  18. Nondestructive determination of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) using multispectral imaging and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xuzhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2014-06-15

    Crop-to-crop transgene flow may affect the seed purity of non-transgenic rice varieties, resulting in unwanted biosafety consequences. The feasibility of a rapid and nondestructive determination of transgenic rice seeds from its non-transgenic counterparts was examined by using multispectral imaging system combined with chemometric data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM), and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) methods were applied to classify rice seeds according to their genetic origins. The results demonstrated that clear differences between non-transgenic and transgenic rice seeds could be easily visualized with the nondestructive determination method developed through this study and an excellent classification (up to 100% with LS-SVM model) can be achieved. It is concluded that multispectral imaging together with chemometric data analysis is a promising technique to identify transgenic rice seeds with high efficiency, providing bright prospects for future applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Row Spacing and Seeding Rate on Forage Yield Local Alfalfa, c.v. Gara Yonjeh (Medicago sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salek Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify suitable seeding rate and row spacing and their interaction effects on local alfalfa (Gara Yonjeh C.V. forage yield, this experiment was carried out at Maragheh Dryland Research Station for four years. Experimental design was strip plot with 4 replications. Row spacing was assigned to horizontal plots (A1= 25 cm, A2= 30 cm, A3= 40 cm and seeding rate to vertical plots (B1= 15 kg/ha, B2= 20 kg/ha, B3= 30 kg/ha, B4= 40 kg/ha. The Combined analyses of data in 3 years showed that there were significant differences between row spacing but there were not significant differences among seeding rates. Interactions of row space × seeding rate were not significant. Means comparisons showed that yield of A1B3 entry (row space=25 cm, seed rate=30 kg/ha with 3135 kg/ha dry forage and 5653 kg/ha wet forage was higher than the yields of other entries. Relation of Yield related to rainfall was found to be a polynomial function.

  20. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Castanea sativa Mill. Bark Extract Protects U-373 MG Cells and Rat Brain Slices Against Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Chiara; Brizi, Claudia; Micucci, Matteo; Del Genio, Ambra; De Cristofaro, Assunta; Bracco, Federica; Pepe, Giuseppina Lucia; di Perna, Ilaria; Budriesi, Roberta; Chiarini, Alberto; Frosini, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Ischemic brain injury is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. The use of one-drug-multi-target agents based on natural compounds is a promising therapeutic option for cerebral ischemia due to their pleiotropic properties. This study assessed the neuroprotective properties of Castanea sativa Mill. bark extract (ENC) in human astrocytoma U-373 MG cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion and rat cortical slices subjected to ischemia-like conditions or treated with glutamate or hydrogen peroxide. Neuroprotective effects were determined by assessing cells or slices viability (MTT assay), ROS formation (DCFH-DA assay), apoptosis (sub G0/G1 peak), nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation (DAPI staining) as well as changes in lysosomes and mitochondria morphology (Acridine Orange and Rhodamine123 staining, respectively). ENC treatment before injury on U-373 MG cells (5-50 μg/ml) and cortical slices (50-100 μg/ml) provided neuroprotection, while lower or higher concentrations (100 μg/ml U-373 MG cells, 200 μg/ml brain slices) were ineffective. ENC addition during reperfusion or after the injury was not found to be effective. The results suggest that ENC might hold potential as preventive neuroprotective agent, and indicate the importance of further studies exploring its mechanism of action. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 839-850, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Seed treatment with an aqueous extract of Agave sisalana improves seed health and seedling growth of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Marianne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mbega, Ernest R.

    2015-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sisal agave, A. sisalana, was prepared from dried stem tissue by boiling in water. The sisal extract (SE) displayed a broad inhibition of the seed-borne mycoflora when applied to farmer-saved seeds of Sorghum bicolor. Species of Fusarium (belonging to the Gibberella...

  4. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  5. Essential oil extract from Moringa oleifera roots as cowpea seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) roots essential oil extract on the survival of Callosobruchus maculatus. Behaviour of Hexane extract of powdered Moringa oleifera roots was obtained by the Soxhlet extraction method. Moringa roots oil extract was applied at dosages of 0.5 l, ...

  6. Antifungal evaluation studies of copper sulfide nano-aquaformulations and its impact on seed quality of rice ( Oryzae sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anjali; Barmota, Heena; Bala, Anju

    2017-11-01

    Surface capped copper sulfide nano-aquaformulations were prepared by in situ combination of copper ions with sulfide ions using sonochemical method, followed by microwave irradiations, in the presence of capping agents. Prepared nano-aquaformulations were characterized for particle size, morphology and optical properties. The in vitro antifungal evaluations studies indicated multifold efficacy against Alternaria alternata, Drechslera oryzae and Curvularia lunata in comparison to standard used. The in vivo seed treatment on discoloured paddy seeds showed the optimum results on application @ 7μg/ml for 2 h in case of citrate capped copper sulfide nanoformulation (NCuS3). Significant reduction in seed rot and seedling blight was observed with favourable effect on germination and growth parameters at this concentration.

  7. Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

    2002-06-21

    To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient.

  8. Size and Density of Artemisia annua Stomata Soaked in Water Extract of Gloriosa superba Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indah Rahmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua is a herbaceous plant that produces artemisinin as a malaria drug, haemorrhoids therapy, aromatherapy, antiviral, anticancer and antibacterial. Gloriosa superba is a plant that contains high colchicine compounds, especially on the seeds. Gloriosa superba extracts of tubers, stems, seeds, and leaves were used as biomutagen for many plants. Colchicine contains of these plants as antimitotic have been studied and proven by the mitotic index plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds was used as a mutagen for Artemisia annua. The aim of this study was to determine the size and density of Artemisia annua stomata soaked in water extract of Gloriosa superba seeds as a mutagen. Extraction of Gloriosa superba seeds obtained naturally on Krakal Beach, Gunung Kidul by using a maceration method with water solvent (1:1. Artemisia annua sprouts were obtained from B2P2TOOT Tawangmangu. Variables treatment on sprouts using water extract concentration of Gloriosa superba seeds and soaking time of Artemisia annua sprouts. Measurements of stomatal length, width and density were conducted in epidermis of Artemisia annua leaf. Observation and measurements of the stomata were conducted by using a light microscope. The results showed that the length and width of stomata were 0.025 mm and 0.017 mm respectively. The stomatal density of the control leaf (174.69 amount/mm2 was lower than the other treated plants. Stomatal size and density has increased with the increasing concentration extracts on treated plants. Water extracts of Gloriosa superba seeds proved the effects on stomatal size and density of treated plants.  

  9. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  10. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  12. Microwave assisted extraction of biodiesel feedstock from the seeds of invasive chinese tallow tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldor, Dorin; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Terigar, Beatrice G; Leonardi, Claudia; Lima, Marybeth; Breitenbeck, Gary A

    2010-05-15

    Chinese tallow tree (TT) seeds are a rich source of lipids and have the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock, but currently, its invasive nature does not favor large scale cultivation. Being a nonfood material, they have many advantages over conventional crops that are used for biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal oil extraction parameters in a batch-type and laboratory scale continuous-flow microwave system to obtain maximum oil recovery from whole TT seeds using ethanol as the extracting solvent. For the batch system, extractions were carried out for different time-temperature combinations ranging from 60 to 120 degrees C for up to 20 min. The batch system was modified for continuous extractions, which were carried out at 50, 60, and 73 degrees C and maintained for various residence times of up to 20 min. Control runs were performed under similar extraction conditions and the results compared well, especially when accounting for extremely short extraction times (minutes vs hours). Maximum yields of 35.32% and 32.51% (by weight of dry mass) were obtained for the continuous and batch process, respectively. The major advantage of microwave assisted solvent extraction is the reduced time of extraction required to obtain total recoverable lipids, with corresponding reduction in energy consumption costs per unit of lipid extracted. This study indicates that microwave extraction using ethanol as a solvent can be used as a viable alternative to conventional lipid extraction techniques for TT seeds.

  13. Conductimetric analysis of the ion binding properties of three leaf extracts of chestnut (Castanea sativa), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and oak (Quercus robur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, F; Pérez-Asenjo, M; Machado, A A; Facal, P; Ferreira, M A; Toja, A

    1995-12-01

    Humic materials extracted from tree leaves of chestnut (Castanea sativa), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and oak (Quercus robur) were analyzed by performing conductimetric titrations. Values between about 84 and 236 muS cm(-1) for the molar conductivity and between 0.42 and 0.74 for the charge distribution parameter were obtained when the concentrations of the extract are increased from 40 to 100 mg 1(-1). These variations were explained by using the counterion condensation theory, and the distance between the charged groups of the polyions, the volume of the counterion condensation and the Debye-Hückel potential were also calculated.

  14. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  15. Effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on ovulation, oestrous cycle and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Garcinia kola (G. kola) seed extract on oestrous cycle, ovulation and foetal development were studied in adult female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Cyclic female rats weighing 150 to 200g were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. Group 1 was fed with 200mg/kg body weight of the extract ...

  16. Evaluation of neem seed extract for the control of major field pests of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insect pests studied were the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, legume bud thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Tryb, legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fab. and pod sucking bugs under the application of 5% aqueous extract of neem seed kernel extract (NSKE). The trials were conducted during the early and late ...

  17. Extraction And Stability Of Natural Colorant From Red Glutinous Rice Bran (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirza Hanum

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Three extraction methods were studied to isolate natural colorant from red glutinous rice bran. Stability of extracts in relation to processing conditions and in the model beverages was determined at room temperature. Identifications of anthocyanidins was performed using reversed phase HPLC. Extraction method using acidified methanol solvent showed the highest yield (260,24+28,64 mg/100g. HPLC patern indicated the presence of six major anthocyanidins, two of them were identified as apigenidin and apigenin. Stability of anthocyanin colorant was higher in a lower acid condition and was reduced to the lowest value of 49,4, 65,4, 40,8 and 36,6% by high temperature, UV light, sunlight, and the presence of oxidator agent. respectively. Retention of antocyanin in tanin and ascorbic acid added into the model beverages was lower than in protein containing beverage or control.

  18. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    Full Text Available The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4% was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  19. TALEN-Based Mutagenesis of Lipoxygenase LOX3 Enhances the Storage Tolerance of Rice (Oryza sativa) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Zhu, Fugui; Li, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xin; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with at least one cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene to form hydroperoxide, which is a major factor influencing seed longevity and viability. Recently, genome editing, an essential tool employed in reverse genetics, has been used experimentally to investigate basic plant biology or to modify crop plants for the improvement of important agricultural traits. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis in rice using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to improve seed storability. A modified ligation-independent cloning method (LIC) was employed to allow for the quick and efficient directional insertion of TALEN monomer modules into destination vectors used in plants. We demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility of the technology by developing a set of modular vectors for genome editing. After construction and validation, the TALEN pairs were used to create stable transgenic rice lines via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. One heterozygous mutant (4%) was recovered from 25 transgenic NPTII-resistant lines, and the mutation was transmitted to the next generation. Further molecular and protein level experiments verified LOX3 deficiency and demonstrated the improvement of seed storability. Our work provides a flexible genome editing tool for improving important agronomic traits, as well as direct evidence that Lox3 has only a limited impact on seed longevity.

  20. Comparative mapping of seed dormancy loci between tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotypic variation for seed dormancy (SD) in a species contributes to plant adaptation and weed persistence in agroecosystems. This research aimed to address the similarity of SD genes between distinct ecotypes using weedy rice as a model system. Quantitative trait locus mapping identified a total ...

  1. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  2. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-06

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts.

  3. Detection of DNA polymerase λ activity during seed germination and enhancement after salinity stress and dehydration in the plumules of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, Sayantani; Bakshi, Sankar; Sengupta, Dibyendu Narayan

    2015-02-01

    DNA polymerase λ (DNA pol λ) is the only reported X-family DNA polymerases in plants and has been shown to play a significant role in dry quiescent seeds, growth, development and nuclear DNA repair. cDNA for DNA pol λ has been reported in Arabidopsis and japonica rice cultivar and has been characterized from E. coli expressed protein, but very little is known about its activity at protein level in plants. The enzymatic activity of DNA pol λ was studied in dry, imbibed and during different germination stages of indica rice IR-8 (salt sensitive) by in-gel activity assay to determine its physiological role in important stages of growth and development. The upstream sequence was also analyzed using plantCARE database and was found to contain several cis-acting elements, including light responsive elements, dehydration responsive elements, Myb binding sites, etc. Hence, 4-day-old germinating seedlings of IR29, a salt-sensitive, but high yielding indica rice cultivar and Nonabokra, a salt-tolerant, but low yielding cultivar were treated with water (control) or 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethyleneglycol-6000 for 4 and 8 h. The protein was analyzed by in vitro DNA pol λ activity assay, in-gel activity assay and Western blot analysis. DNA pol λ was not detected in dry seeds, but enhanced after imbibition and detectable from low level to high level during subsequent germination steps. Both salinity and dehydration stress led to the enhancement of the activity and protein level of DNA pol λ, as compared to control tissues. This is the first evidence of the salinity or dehydration stress induced enhancement of DNA pol λ activity in the plumules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

  4. rapid mini-prep DNA extraction method in rice (Oryza sativa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    method, optimized for rice, which was achieved via some modifications in present DNA extraction methods, especially in first step of cell wall lyses and the use of cheap and frequent chemicals found in every laboratory is presented. Normal quality and quantity was obtained by the method. The PCR based assays also ...

  5. Extraction, composition, and functional properties of dried alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) leaf protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...

  6. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dongyan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli; Yue, Tianli; Zhang, Ang; Li, Xuan

    2012-08-01

    Value of tomato seed has not been fully recognized. The objectives of this research were to establish suitable processing conditions for extracting oil from tomato seed by using solvent, determine the impact of processing conditions on yield and antioxidant activity of extracted oil, and elucidate kinetics of the oil extraction process. Four processing parameters, including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size were studied. A second order model was established to describe the oil extraction process. Based on the results, increasing temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, and extraction time increased oil yield. In contrast, larger particle size reduced the oil yield. The recommended oil extraction conditions were 8 min of extraction time at temperature of 25 °C, solvent-to-solids ratio of 5/1 (v/w) and particle size of 0.38 mm, which gave oil yield of 20.32% with recovery rate of 78.56%. The DPPH scavenging activity of extracted oil was not significantly affected by the extraction parameters. The inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) of tomato seed oil was 8.67 mg/mL which was notably low compared to most vegetable oils. A 2nd order model successfully described the kinetics of tomato oil extraction process and parameters of extraction kinetics including initial extraction rate (h), equilibrium concentration of oil (C(s) ), and the extraction rate constant (k) could be precisely predicted with R(2) of at least 0.957. The study revealed that tomato seed which is typically treated as a low value byproduct of tomato processing has great potential in producing oil with high antioxidant capability. The impact of processing conditions including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size on yield, and antioxidant activity of extracted tomato seed oil are reported. Optimal conditions and models which describe the extraction process are recommended. The information is vital for determining the extraction processing conditions for industrial

  7. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Abert Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm2 for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumptio...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanolic extract of leaves exhibited high total phenolic content (278.80 mg GAE/g extract) and had low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 125 μg/ml against Listeria monocytogenes. Salmonella typhimurium strain was found to be resistant against all tested extracts. The antilisterial activity of the ...

  9. Kinetic Modelling of Oil Extraction from Neem Seed | Ogunleye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suitability of three different types of extraction kinetic models (one- step, two –step and three – step models) for neem oil was investigated in this study. Solvent extraction using n-hexane at temperatures range between 303K and 323 K ; 360minutes of extraction time were experimented and the oil yield calculated.

  10. Optimization of a new extraction technique for analysis of verbenone and cis-verbenol in pine seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Liazid, Ali; Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2007-01-01

    Results from a systematic study of the factors affecting extraction of cis-verbenol and verbenone from pine seeds are presented. Five extraction conditions were investigated: extraction solvent, method of extraction, extraction temperature, volume of solvent, and the ratio of the mass of sample to the amount of extraction solvent.

  11. Preliminary study on the effects of Buchholzia Coriacea seed extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    (2011). Hypoglycemic activity of Buchholzia coriacea (Capparaceae) seeds in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats and mice. Elsevier Gmbh ,. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 63(7-8); 619-25. Adjanohoun J.E., Aboubakar N., Dramane K., Ebot. M.E., Ekpere J.A., Enoworock E.G., Focho D.,. Gbile Z.O., Kamanyi A., Kamsu K.J., Keita A.,.

  12. phytochemistry of methanol seed extract of abrus precatorius and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of ... glycosides, terpenoids, saponins and flavonoids. ... traditional medicine. Various African tribes use the powdered seeds as oral contraceptives. (Chopra et al, 1956; Chopra, 1958) and in the treatment of watery sperm ...

  13. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive influence on reduction of risks of a number of cancers and cardiovascular diseases, due to its content of some beneficial phytochemicals [1-3]. In traditional Chinese medicine, Raphanus sativus seed oil, which is rich in sulforaphene, is used to improve intestinal.

  14. Could grape seed extract modulate nephritic damage induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methomex (Metho) is classified as a carbamate insecticide. The present study was designed to examine the influence of grape seed oil (GSO) on the histopathological changes in methomex-induced kidney damage in male rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups, the first of which was considered as the control. The 2nd group ...

  15. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil | Shivani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas L. is a multipurpose shrub with a variety of applications and enormous economic potentials for its seed oil, which can be converted into biodiesel- an alternative to petro-diesel. It aims to overcome energy crisis problem and also to reduce environmental changes. The fact that the oil of J. curcas cannot be ...

  16. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted with 24 albino rats (wistar strain) ages 3 weeks to determine the effect of substitution of diets with processed neem seed cake on growth, performance and nitrogen metabolism of rats. Group 1 and those of groups II and III were fed experimental diets containing water, 75% methanol and 75% ethanol ...

  17. (Azadirachta indica) seed extract for tick control in Small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Matayo David

    This approach has had limited success and lack of sustainability (poor efficiency, poor adoption rate by the ... would result in a more sustainable livestock production in southern Africa. Azadirachta indica or ... powder (crushed with a wooden mortar and pestle) sun-dried seeds collected from ripe fruits. The control animals ...

  18. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  19. Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society.

  20. Anxiolytic-like effect of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill. seed extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, G; Di Viesti, V; Zavatti, M; Zanoli, P

    2011-07-15

    The seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill., a tropical shrub native to West Africa, are rich in 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a direct precursor in the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT). In spite of the modern therapeutic application of Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract in mood disorders, no scientific evidence has been provided till now. For this reason the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract on anxiety behavior. Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract, dosed at 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg, was orally administered in rats which were submitted to the dark-light test and open field test, 60 min after the treatment. In the dark-light test, the administration of the extract at the doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg was able to significantly increase the time spent in the light compartment (PGriffonia simplicifolia seed extract exerts anxiolytic-like effect in rats and suggest its potential usefulness for the treatment of anxiety in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, condensed tannin content and antioxidant potential in Marwa (Origanum majorana seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju B. Dhull

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of seed extracts of Origanum majorana was evaluated and correlated with total phenolic content (TPC and condensed tannin content (CTC. Ethanol, methanol, acetone and chloroform were used to extract bioactive compounds from seeds of Origanum majorana at 45 °C for 45 minutes. As compared to other solvents, methanol seems to be an important extraction solvent, as maximum amount of bioactive compounds (1.18 mg GAE/g dwb with antioxidant potential was observed in methanolic extract. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FC reagent method. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were in the range of 0.10–1.18 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight basis (mg GAE/g dwb. HPLC study confirmed the presence of catechin, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant potential in seed extracts of Origanum majorana confirmed the presence of nutraceutical properties in them which will further be helpful in the preparation of various functional food products.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M L Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2012-10-01

    To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  3. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-02-01

    Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil-containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial.

  5. A Transgenic Camelina sativa Seed Oil Effectively Replaces Fish Oil as a Dietary Source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Noemi; Vauzour, David; Betancor, Monica B; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Cochard, Marianne; Rigby, Neil; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Menoyo, David; Tocher, Douglas R; Napier, Johnathan A; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fish currently supplies only 40% of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) required to allow all individuals globally to meet the minimum intake recommendation of 500 mg/d. Therefore, alternative sustainable sources are needed. Objective: The main objective was to investigate the ability of genetically engineered Camelina sativa (20% EPA) oil (CO) to enrich tissue EPA and DHA relative to an EPA-rich fish oil (FO) in mammals. Methods: Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 10 wk either a palm oil–containing control (C) diet or diets supplemented with EPA-CO or FO, with the C, low-EPA CO (COL), high-EPA CO (COH), low-EPA FO (FOL), and high-EPA FO (FOH) diets providing 0, 0.4, 3.4, 0.3, and 2.9 g EPA/kg diet, respectively. Liver, muscle, and brain were collected for fatty acid analysis, and blood glucose and serum lipids were quantified. The expression of selected hepatic genes involved in EPA and DHA biosynthesis and in modulating their cellular impact was determined. Results: The oils were well tolerated, with significantly greater weight gain in the COH and FOH groups relative to the C group (P Camelina is a bioavailable source of EPA in mice. These data provide support for the future assessment of this oil in a human feeding trial. PMID:26791554

  6. OPTIMISATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER CONDITIONS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF JATROPHA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD DANI SUPARDAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.

  7. Comparative effects of using black seed (Nigella sativa), cumin seed (Cuminum cyminum), probiotic or prebiotic on growth performance, blood haematology and serum biochemistry of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohamadi, K; Taherpour, K; Ghasemi, H A; Fatahnia, F

    2014-06-01

    A 42-day trial was conducted to compare the effects of the following seven experimental diets, which varied in black seed, cumin seed, probiotic or prebiotic concentrations, on the broiler chicks: control (no additives), diet BS1 (4 g/kg black seed), diet BS2 (8 g/kg black seed), diet CS1 (4 g/kg cumin seed), diet CS2 (8 g/kg cumin seed), diet Pro (1 g/kg probiotic Primalac(®)) and diet Pre (2 g/kg prebiotic Fermacto(®)). A total of 420 1-day-old male broiler chicks, initially weighing an average of 43 g, were distributed into 28 floor pens at a stocking density of 15 birds per pen. At 28 day of age, the body weight in the birds fed diets BS2, CS2 and Pro was significantly higher than in the control group, but final body weight was not affected. Additionally, the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre exhibited better feed conversion ratio than control birds from 0 to 42 day of age. Diets BS2, CS2 and Pro also statistically increased the relative weight of thymus and bursa of Fabricius, whereas only diet Pro decreased the abdominal fat percentage compared with control diet. Regarding the haematological parameters, feeding diet BS2 yielded a significant increase in red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared with control diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the birds fed diets BS2, Pro and Pre were also significantly lower than in the birds fed the control diet. Without exception, no diets affected feed intake, internal organs weights, carcass characteristics, antibody titres against Newcastle and influenza viruses and leucocyte subsets. In general, current study showed promising results regarding the use of spice additives as growth and health promoters, especially at higher levels of their incorporation in the diets, which were comparable to the probiotic- or prebiotic-containing diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Morpho- Physiological Changes of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L. Traits as Affected by Seed Priming with Folic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Karbalaye Golizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of seed priming of hempseed with folic acid and hydrogen peroxide on some morphological and physiological traits a factorial greenhouse experiment based on randomized complete design with four replications was conducted at Islamic Azad University, Mahabad Branch. Treatments consisted of hydrogen peroxide at five levels (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5, 30 mm/liter as the first factor and the four leveld of folic acid (5, 10, 20, 27 mm/liter as the second factor.Seeds, to be primed, were immersed into solution of folic acid for 24 hours and hydrogen peroxide for 6 hours. The characteristics like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll content, relative water content, plant height, root length, allometric coefficient, plant fresh and dry weights, were measured. Result of analysis of variance showed that the effects of folic acid and hydrogen peroxide on all characters were significant, but the interaction between the two treatments were only significant on relative water content and allometric coefficient. In this study, seed priming with 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5mm folic acid resulted in highest chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll contents, plant height, root length, fresh and dry weights. Increasing hydrogen peroxide level above 15mm/liter affected traits negatively. Combinated treatments of 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5 and 10 mm of folic acid resulted in highest relative water content and allometric coefficient, respectively. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that priming seeds with 15 mm/liter of hydrogen peroxide and 5mm folic acid is recommended to produce proper morphological and physiological traits.

  9. Evaluate Effect of Water Stress and Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Seed Quality of Black Cumin (Nigella Sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heidari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on grian yield and accumulation macronutrients included: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrient included: iron, zinc, manganese and copper, oil, protein and thymoquinone contents in seed of black cumin, a field experiment was conducted as split plot design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Zahak, Zabol during growing season of 2010-2011. Water stress treatments included: W1= control, W2= no irrigation at stem elongation stage to flowering, W3= irrigation at flowering stage until the beginning of grain filling and W4= no irrigation at flowering and grain filling as the main plots and four levels of nitrogen application fertilizer, including N1= control or without any fertilizer consumption, N2= 30 kg N/ha, N3= 60 kg N/ha and N4= 90 kg N/ha in sub plot. Results showed that water stress had significant effect on the grain yield and accumulation of macro and micronutrient in the seed of Black Cumin. Except for and iron, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, copper and zinc and the lowest amount of grain yield were obtained at W4 treatment and manganese at W3 treatment. In this experiment the interaction effect between stress and nitrogen fertilizer except grain yield and potassium had significant impact on others elements. The results indicated that water stress at flowering and grain filling (W4 stages, the maximum amount of micro and macronutrients in seed was obtained at N1 and N2 nitrogen treatment. Also, water stress and nitrogen treatments increased the percentage of protein, oil and thymoquinone contents of seed, but during the onset of water stress and the use of nitrogen fertilizer, the highest percentage of protein in and thymoquinone were obtained in W4N4.

  10. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Descurainia Sophia Seed Extract and Ferric chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mazyar Peyda; Tooran Yarahmadi; Mehran Mohammadian Fazli; Rezan Rezaeian; Negin Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Background Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity. Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared...

  11. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  12. Sequence, expression and tissue localization of a gene encoding a makorin RING zinc-finger protein in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Thangavelu U; Davies, Eric; Morita, Eugene Hayato; Abe, Shunnosuke

    2007-01-01

    The makorin (MKRN) RING finger protein gene family encodes proteins (makorins) with a characteristic array of zinc-finger motifs and which are present in a wide array of eukaryotes. In the present study, we analyzed the structure and expression of a putative makorin RING finger protein gene in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare). From the analysis of the genomic (AP003543), mRNA (AK120250) and deduced protein (BAD61603) sequences of the putative MKRN gene of rice, obtained from GenBank, we found that it was indeed a bona fide member of the MKRN gene family. The rice MKRN cDNA encoded a protein with four C3H zinc-finger-motifs, one putative Cys-His zinc-finger motif, and one RING zinc-finger motif. The presence of this distinct motif organization and overall amino acid identity clearly indicate that this gene is indeed a true MKRN ortholog. We isolated RNA from embryonic axes of rice seeds at various stages of imbibition and germination and studied the temporal expression profile of MKRN by RT-PCR. This analysis revealed that MKRN transcripts were present at all the time points studied. It was at very low levels in dry seeds, increased slowly during imbibition and germination, and slightly declined in the seedling growth stage. After 6days of germination, an organ-dependent expression pattern of MKRN was observed: highest in roots and moderate in leaves. Similarly to MKRN transcripts, transcripts of cytoskeletal actin and tubulin were also detected in dry embryos, steadily increased during imbibition and germination and leveled off after 24h of germination. We studied the spatial expression profile of MKRN in rice tissues, by using a relatively fast, simple and effective non-radioactive mRNA in situ hybridization (NRISH) technique, which provided the first spatial experimental data that hints at the function of a plant makorin. This analysis revealed that MKRN transcripts were expressed in young plumules, lateral root primordia, leaf primordia

  13. Extraction and nutritional properties of Solanum nigrum L seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry matter content of the seeds is 94.22%. Average lipids content varies between 34.5 and 37.5% dry matter, proteins content is 17% dry matter and crude ash content averages 7.18% dry matter and the principal mineral element is Mg (180 mg/100g). The acid value of the oil is about 2.5, saponification value varies ...

  14. the effect of aqueous seed extract of trigonella foenum graecum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    graecum (Hu-lupa) Fitoterapia 56, 232 235. Amin. R., Abdul-Ghani, A.S. and. Suleiman, R.S. (198). Effect of fenugreek,. Lupine seeds on the development of experimental diabetes in rats. Planta Med. 54, 4:286- 290. Cameron, A.S. and Carmichael, J. (1941). A note on the effect of fenugreek on the rate of growth of the white ...

  15. Acacia catechu Ethanolic Seed Extract Triggers Apoptosis of SCC-25 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Thangavelu; Ezhilarasan, Devaraj; Nagaich, Upendra; Vijayaragavan, Rajagopal

    2017-10-01

    Acacia catechu Willd (Fabaceae), commonly known as catechu, cachou, and black cutch, has been studied for its hepatoprotective, antipyretic, antidiarrheal, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antinociceptive, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of A. catechu seed (ACS) against SCC-25 human oral squamous carcinoma cell line. Cytotoxic effect of ACS extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, using concentrations of 0.1-1000 μg/mL for 24 h. A. catechu ethanol seed extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL. At the end of treatment period, apoptotic marker gene expressions such as caspase 8, 9, Bcl-2, Bax, and cytochrome c were evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Morphological changes of ACS treated SCC-25 cells was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation was evaluated by propidium iodide (PI) staining. A. catechu ethanol seed extract treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 value of 100 μg/mL. Apoptotic markers caspases 8 and 9, cytochrome c, Bax gene expressions were significantly increased upon ACS extract treatment indicate the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. This treatment also caused significant downregulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing, and nuclear membrane distortion further confirms the apoptosis induction by ACS treatment in SCC-25 cells. The ethanol seed extracts of A. catechu was found to be cytotoxic at lower concentrations and induced apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells. Acacia catechu ethanolic seed extract contains phytochemicals such as epicatechin, rutin, and quercetinAcacia catechu seed (ACS) extract significantly (P extract treatment to SCC-25 cells significantly modulated the gene

  16. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bannazadeh Amirkhiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug. Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells. Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices.

  17. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

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    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  18. Inactivation disinfection property of Moringa Oleifera seed extract: optimization and kinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, M. A.; Jami, M. S.; Hammed, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the statistical optimization study of disinfection inactivation parameters of defatted Moringa oleifera seed extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells. Three level factorial design was used to estimate the optimum range and the kinetics of the inactivation process was also carried. The inactivation process involved comparing different disinfection models of Chicks-Watson, Collins-Selleck and Homs models. The results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization process revealed that only contact time was significant. The optimum disinfection range of the seed extract was 125 mg/L, 30 minutes and 120rpm agitation. At the optimum dose, the inactivation kinetics followed the Collin-Selleck model with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.6320. This study is the first of its kind in determining the inactivation kinetics of pseudomonas aeruginosa using the defatted seed extract.

  19. In vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of the Seed Extract of Embelia Ribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, A Sabitha; Saritha, K; Nagamani, V; Sulakshana, G

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal activity of Embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg). All the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. Among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. Among all the fungi, high inhibition zones were observed in Colletotricum crassipes (18 mm). This was followed by Cladosporium (17.5 mm), Armillaria mellea (17 mm), Colletotricum capsici (17 mm), Aspergillus niger (16.5 mm), Rhizopus oryzae (16.5 mm), respectively. Aspergillus terreus and Candida albicans showed less inhibition zones (15.5 and 16.0 mm) compared to other organisms. The present study clearly demonstrated the antifungal properties of Embelia ribes. PMID:22303075

  20. Recent advances on the anti-cancer properties of Nigella sativa, a widely used food additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin F. Majdalawieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of naturally-occurring agents to regulate tumorigenesis is on the rise. Several herbal extracts, pure plant-derived active constituents, and food additives have been reported to possess potent anti-cancer properties and cancer-ameliorating effects. The wide-range anti-cancer effects of Nigella sativa, also known as black seed or black cumin, have been extensively studied using different in vitro and in vivo models. Here, we provide a comprehensive, analytical review of the reported anti-cancer properties of N. sativa seed extracts. This review focuses on analyzing experimental findings related to the ability of N. sativa to exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic, anti-mutagenic, anti-metastatic, and NK cytotoxic activity enhancing effects against various primary cancer cells and cancer cell lines. Moreover, we underline the molecular mechanisms of action and the signal transduction pathways implicated in the suppression of tumorigenesis by N. sativa. The major signaling pathway utilized by N. sativa to manifest its anti-cancer activity is the iNOS signaling pathway. This review underscores the recent developments that highlight an effective therapeutic potential of N. sativa to suppress tumor development, reduce tumor incidence, and ameliorate carcinogenesis. In sum, experimental findings reported in the last two decades strongly suggest that N. sativa fractions could serve, alone or in combination with known chemotherapeutic drugs, as effective agents to control tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis, and hence, treatment of a wide range of cancers.

  1. Phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. extract on three weed plants

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzar, A.; Siddiqui, M.B.; Arerath, U.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the potential and nature of allelopathic interference of Calotropis procera on seed germination and seedling growth of three weed species (Ageratum conyzoides L., Cannabis sativa L. and Trifolium repens L). Aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0% concentrations were applied to determine their effect on seed germination and seedling growth of test plants under laboratory conditions. The aqueous extracts had retardary effect on seed ge...

  2. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate.

  3. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Descurainia Sophia Seed Extract and Ferric chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Peyda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity. Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared with Ferric chloride. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale. The coagulation experiments were done with kaolin as a model soil to produce turbidity in distilled water. The turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract and Ferric chloride were conducted with jar test apparatus. In all experiments, initial turbidity was kept constant 100(NTU. Optimum combination of independent variables was used to compare two different types of coagulants. Result: The obtained results showed that Ferric chloride could remove 89.75% of the initial turbidity, while in case of Descurainia Sophia this value was 43.13%. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis of the treated water using seed extract showed an increased concentration of TOC equal to 0.99 mg/L. Conclusions: This research has shown that Descurainia Sophia seed extract has an acceptable potential in the coagulation/flocculation process to treat turbid water.

  4. Hypouricemia and nephroprotection of Coix lacryma-jobi L. seed extract

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    Ormjai Taejarernwiriyakul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Coix lacryma-jobi L. or Adlay seed has been used as a healthy food and herb in many Asian countries. A previous in vitro study found that it has an inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase (XOD activity but its use as a traditional medicine in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout has a lacked scientific evidence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Adlay seed extract on the level of plasma uric acid (Pua, reduction in fractional excretion of urate (%FEua, decreasing creatinine clearance (Ccr, and increasing plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen in hyperuricemic mice. The steps of the study comprised collecting and inducing the sample mice by giving potassium oxonate and uric acid and treating the hyperuricemic mice by giving Adlay seed extract at doses of 0.1 to 100 mg/kg for 10 days. The results showed that Adlay seed extract significantly reduced Pua in a dose-dependent manner, increased %FEua and Ccr to normal level at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg and also inhibited XOD activity in liver and plasma in hyperuricemic mice. From this results indicated that Adlay seed extract has hypouricemia and nephroprotective action in hyperuricemic mice.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

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    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  6. In vivo hypoglycemic study of Manilkara zapota leave and seed extracts

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    Saikat Ranjan Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic activity of pet-ether extracts of leaves and methanol extracts of seeds of Manilkara zapota was evaluated in the study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in mice treated with 2 mg/kg glucose solution and the blood glucose level was determined after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of administration. Alloxan (70 mg/kg was injected intravenously to induce diabetes in mice. The hypoglycemic study was carried out 7 days. In glucose tolerance test all extracts achieved significant p values (p<0.0001 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes compared to the glucose control. In hypoglycemic study all extracts started to reduce the blood glucose level rapidly even starting from the 2nd day of treatment and significant p values (p<0.0001 were achieved. So, the study evinced the hypoglycemic potency of the leave and seed extracts of M. zapota.

  7. In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2011-07-15

    Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low μg/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Maliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of major parameters of the lipid extraction from flax seed, in relation to the recovery of oil as well as the oil quality properties. The independent variables of extraction were proposed as: organic solvents, temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. The following quantitative and qualitative parameters were chosen as dependent variables: yield of the lipid fraction, acid value of oil and the absorbance at 490 nm. After calculating the optimal values of the extraction, the validation analysis was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variables were in agreement with the optimal extraction parameters.doi:10.5219/168

  9. Evaluation of the proximate composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of mango seed kernel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Jane K; Imathiu, Samuel; Owino, Willis

    2017-03-01

    After pulp extraction in fruit processing industry, a significant quantity of mango seed kernels are discarded as solid wastes. These seed kernels can be ideal raw materials for obtaining extracts rich in bioactive compounds with good antioxidant properties. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine their potential use, this study evaluated some of the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial potential of mango seed kernel extracts on medically important human bacterial and fungal pathogens. Four mango varieties (Apple, Ngowe, Kent and Sabine) from Makueni and Embu counties in Kenya were used for this study. The analyzed mango seed kernel powders were found to contain on average, 6.74-9.20% protein content. Apple and Ngowe mango seed kernels had significantly higher fat content of 13.04 and 13.08, respectively, while Sabine from Makueni had the least fat content of 9.84%. The ash, fiber, and carbohydrate contents ranged from 1.78 to 2.87%, 2.64 to 3.71% and 72.86 to 75.92%, respectively. The mean percentage scavenging ability of mango kernel extracts at the concentration of 20 mg/mL was 92.22%. Apple and Sabine mango kernel extracts had significantly high inhibition zones of 1.93 and 1.73 compared to Kent and Ngowe with 1.13 and 1.10, respectively, against E. coli. For C. albicans, the inhibition of Kent mango kernel extract, 1.63, was significantly lower than that of Ngowe, Apple, and Sabine with 2.23, 2.13, and 1.83, respectively. This study demonstrates that mango seed powder is an abundant and cost-effective potential natural antibiotic and antifungal that can be utilized in addressing the challenge of food poisoning and infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the food industry.

  10. Tailoring the composition of novel wax esters in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa through systematic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Broughton, Richard; Usher, Sarah; Salas, Joaquin J; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Beaudoin, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    The functional characterization of wax biosynthetic enzymes in transgenic plants has opened the possibility of producing tailored wax esters (WEs) in the seeds of a suitable host crop. In this study, in addition to systematically evaluating a panel of WE biosynthetic activities, we have also modulated the acyl-CoA substrate pool, through the co-expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases, to direct the accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. Using this combinatorial approach, we determined the additive contribution of both the varied acyl-CoA pool and biosynthetic enzyme substrate specificity to the accumulation of non-native WEs in the seeds of transgenic Camelina plants. A total of fourteen constructs were prepared containing selected FAR and WS genes in combination with an acyl-ACP thioesterase. All enzyme combinations led to the successful production of wax esters, of differing compositions. The impact of acyl-CoA thioesterase expression on wax ester accumulation varied depending on the substrate specificity of the WS. Hence, co-expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases with Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus WS and Marinobacter aquaeolei FAR resulted in the production of WEs with reduced chain lengths, whereas the co-expression of the same acyl-ACP thioesterases in combination with Mus musculus WS and M. aquaeolei FAR had little impact on the overall final wax composition. This was despite substantial remodelling of the acyl-CoA pool, suggesting that these substrates were not efficiently incorporated into WEs. These results indicate that modification of the substrate pool requires careful selection of the WS and FAR activities for the successful high accumulation of these novel wax ester species in Camelina seeds. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiacea) Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymes linked with diabetes mellitus and Phytochemical characterization of its bioactive constituents. Crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared successively in a soxhlet apparatus at 50ºC. Subsequently, extraction of crude enzymes from porcine pancreas and rat intestine, thin layer ...

  12. Anthelminthic efficacy of aqueous extracts of Garcina kola seed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the 100mg/ml concentration of each extract, the reduction in egg hatch was comparable to those obtained with various dilutions of levamisole and albendazole both of which showed 100% reduction in egg hatch. The extracts therefore showed promise for use as possible anthelminthic for the regular treatment and control ...

  13. Antimicrobial Potency of Pentaclethra Macrophylla Seed Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The least inhibitory zone (25.0mm) was best recorded in ethanol extract against A. niger and C. albicans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts ranges between 62.5-250mg/ml on the test isolates. However, the antimicrobial potency of Pentaclethra macrophylla was more prominent against bacterial isolates ...

  14. Evaluation of Hypoglycaemic Efficacy of Aqueous Seed Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that oral administration of aqueous extract of A. melegueta to diabetic rats lowered blood glucose to normal level within 6 days of administration, while metformin took 14 days. There was no significant difference in the duration of lowering the blood glucose by the two doses of extract administered.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Garcinia kola and Cola nitida Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other organisms showed sensitivity to the alcohol extract of Cola nitida, but higher sensitivity was observed with the hot water extract of the plant. Some of the results provided scientific evidence for the use of the plants by traditional herbalists in the treatment of microbial infections. Key word: Garcinia kola, Bitter Kola, ...

  16. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  17. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  18. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

  19. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  20. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Xu, Zhenbo; Zheng, Baodong; Martin Lo, Y

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) was evaluated using a variety of solvents. Petroleum ether was the most effective for oil extraction, followed by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, acetone, and isopropanol. Several variables, such as ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and the ratio of solvent volume and seed weight (S/S ratio) were studied for optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest oil yield, 25.11% (w/w), was obtained using petroleum ether under optimal conditions for ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and S/S ratio at 140 W, 40 °C, 36 min, and 10 ml/g, respectively. The PSO yield extracted by UAE was significantly higher than by using Soxhlet extraction (SE; 20.50%) and supercriti cal fluid extraction (SFE; 15.72%). The fatty acid compositions were significantly different among the PSO extracted by Soxhlet extraction, SFE, and UAE, with punicic acid (>65%) being the most dominant using UAE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.