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Sample records for satisfaction intrinsic motivation

  1. Keep the fire burning: Reciprocal gains of basic need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devloo, T.; Anseel, F.; Beuckelaer, A. De; Salanova, M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on insights from self-determination theory, we explored the dynamic relationship between intrinsic motivation and innovative work behaviour (IWB) over time. Specifically, we investigated how basic need satisfaction influences IWB through its effect on intrinsic motivation and how IWB in turn

  2. Relationships between intrinsic motivation, physical self-concept and satisfaction with life: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Albo, José; Núñez, Juan L; Domínguez, Evelia; León, Jaime; Tomás, José M

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationships between intrinsic motivation, physical self-concept, and satisfaction with life using cross-lagged panel models analysed via structural equation models. The sample consisted of 293 participants (148 men, 145 women) aged 18-70 years who performed diverse types of physical exercise. Three alternative models were tested. The data were better represented by a model in which physical self-concept mediates the relationships between intrinsic motivation and satisfaction with life. Specifically, the direct effects of intrinsic motivation on physical self-concept, and of physical self-concept on satisfaction with life were significant, with the amount of explained variance increasing over time. In conclusion, people who perform physical exercise regularly, and who have fun over time will tend to have a better physical self-perception and, consequently, more psychological well-being.

  3. Psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective response to exercise in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret L.; Kwan, Bethany M.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesTo further understanding of the factors influencing adolescents’ motivations for physical activity, the relationship of variables derived from Self-Determination Theory to adolescents’ affective response to exercise was examined.DesignCorrelational.MethodAdolescents (N = 182) self-reported psychological needs satisfaction (perceived competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and intrinsic motivation related to exercise. In two clinic visits, adolescents reported their affect before, dur...

  4. Intrinsic Motivation Predicting Performance Satisfaction in Athletes: Further Psychometric Evaluations of the Sport Motivation Scale-6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan Blecharz; Karolina Horodyska; Karolina Zarychta; Aleksandra Adamiec; Aleksandra Luszczynska

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated psychometric properties of the Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6), assessing intrinsic regulation, four extrinsic regulation constructs, and amotivation among athletes competing at a regional and national level...

  5. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work.

  6. Where intrinsic job satisfaction fails to work : National moderators of intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X; Van de Vliert, E

    2003-01-01

    This study sought for national characteristics that moderate the individual-level relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. Data from two distinct questionnaire surveys administered to 107,292 employees in 49 countries was analyzed by employing multilevel modeling. Results showe

  7. Where intrinsic job satisfaction fails to work : National moderators of intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X; Van de Vliert, E

    This study sought for national characteristics that moderate the individual-level relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction. Data from two distinct questionnaire surveys administered to 107,292 employees in 49 countries was analyzed by employing multilevel modeling. Results

  8. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Mot...

  9. What makes coaches tick? The impact of coaches' intrinsic and extrinsic motives on their own satisfaction and that of their athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, S

    2008-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of two types of motivational forces on coach and athlete satisfaction. The focus is on intrinsic and extrinsic motives that initiate coach-related behavior. A questionnaire that measures both types of motivation and three facets of satisfaction (i.e., satisfaction with performance, with instruction, and with the coach-athlete relationship) was completed by 138 coaches. One athlete from each of the coaches who participated in the study was also asked to complete a questionnaire that measures their satisfaction with performance, instruction, and the coach-athlete relationship. Results from a series of regression analyses indicated that while intrinsic motivation was moderately and positively related to all facets of coach satisfaction, extrinsic motivation was only related to coach satisfaction with the coach-athlete relationship. Athletes' satisfaction with the coach-athlete relationship was only associated with the coach's intrinsic motivation. Interaction effects among the two types of motivation were significant suggesting that extrinsic motivation can potentially undermine intrinsic motivation when intrinsic motivation is low. The findings are discussed based on assumptions put forward by self-determination theory.

  10. Coach Autonomy Support, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Intrinsic Motivation of Paralympic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study, grounded in self-determination theory, was to explore the relationship between Paralympic athletes' perceptions of autonomy-supportive coach behavior, basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation to know, accomplish, and experience stimulation. One hundred thirteen Canadian Paralympic athletes completed an…

  11. Coach Autonomy Support, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Intrinsic Motivation of Paralympic Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R.; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Bloom, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study, grounded in self-determination theory, was to explore the relationship between Paralympic athletes' perceptions of autonomy-supportive coach behavior, basic psychological needs, and intrinsic motivation to know, accomplish, and experience stimulation. One hundred thirteen Canadian Paralympic athletes completed an…

  12. Need Support, Need Satisfaction, Intrinsic Motivation, and Physical Activity Participation among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Solmon, Melinda A.; Kosma, Maria; Carson, Russell L.; Gu, Xiangli

    2011-01-01

    Using self-determination theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to test a structural model of hypothesized relationships among perceived need support from physical education teachers (autonomy support, competence support, and relatedness support), psychological need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), intrinsic…

  13. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  14. Illegitimate Tasks as an Impediment to Job Satisfaction and Intrinsic Motivation: Moderated Mediation Effects of Gender and Effort-Reward Imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omansky, Rachel; Eatough, Erin M; Fila, Marcus J

    2016-01-01

    The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks. Additionally, we examine perception of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) as a potential mediating mechanism through which illegitimate tasks relate to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation, highlighting a possible pathway by which these relationships are functioning. Finally, we explore gender as a socially constructed variable that could contribute to variation in responses to illegitimate tasks and moderate the mediated link between illegitimate tasks and outcomes. Results indicated that illegitimate tasks were significantly related to job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation both directly and indirectly through perceptions of ERI in the predicted directions. Moreover, a moderated-mediation effect was found such that male workers reacted more than female workers to illegitimate tasks through the mechanism of perceived ERI.

  15. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-06-21

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  16. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivationsatisfaction – performance interdependences.

  17. Intrinsic motivation and learning dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of intrinsic motivation on the dynamics of learning processes. We construct a simple model of a single agent adapting to unknown environment. Performing a repeated choice between a number of initially unexplored alternatives, the agent gains rewards for each selected alternative and in doing so gradually comprehends the environment. In our model the agent choice is governed by two stimuli. The traditional extrinsic motive inclines the agent to maximize the cumulative payoff throughout the process, while the second, intrinsic one, biases the agent towards the novel options that she inherently likes. We show that the intrinsic motivation can induce an instability and periodic dynamics of the learning process which is always stationary in the case of selfish, rational agent. Interestingly, the opposite effect can arise as well: when the impact of intrinsic motivation on the agent choice is strong, the equiprobable choice equilibrium strategy becomes stable. Based on the presented resul...

  18. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  19. Study of Intrinsic motivation in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate intrinsic motivation of the executive assistants and secretaries in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The objective in turn, was to examine how well intrinsic motivation has been achieved among these executive assistants and secretaries. How respondents evaluate their job satisfaction, work environment and motivation was also researched. Lastly, factors that increase or decrease motivation were studied, as well as if there is a need for additional...

  20. Job assignments, intrinsic motivation and explicit incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  1. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  2. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  3. [Satisfaction and motivation in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A V; Sant Anna, L R

    1996-01-01

    Something which affects the internal balance of a hospital system is its workers satisfaction/motivation rate. According to observed and discussed facts regarding our professional environment and also according to some authors assessments (Alcântara and Ribas Gomes), it seems that there is an insatisfaction among those people in relation to their chores. Therefore, based on Herzberg et all. two factors theory and more specifically on Maximiano interpretation of that theory, we made a research aiming at verifying the satisfaction and motivation in nurse work; on how satisfied/insatisfied nurses feel in their work, and if there is a relationship between job conditions (hygienic factors) with satisfaction, and between job features (motivation factors) with motivation.

  4. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  5. RUSSIAN STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    SHAROVATOVA S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article is aimed at analysing Russian teachers’ experience in developing students’ intrinsic motivation. The author’s own reflections and findings based on motivation theory and practice are also given.

  6. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION - AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of research untaken in the last decade have revealed some interesting aspects regarding the effects of different types of motivation on performance. Among the researchers who have shown interest in this field we can number: Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, Sam Glucksberg, Dan Ariely, Robert Eisenhower, Linda Shanock, analysts from London School of Economics, and others. Their findings suggest that extrinsic incentives may have a negative impact on overall performance, but a general agreement in this respect has not been reached. In this paper we intend to shed some light upon the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and performance. Experts define intrinsic motivation as being the execution of a task or activity because of the inherent satisfaction arising from it rather than due to some separate outcome. In contrast with intrinsic motivation, we speak of extrinsic motivation whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. With the purpose of contributing to the clarification of the links between concepts, we initiated and conducted an explanatory research. The research is based on the analysis of the relations between the results obtained by third year students and their predominant type of motivation. For this, we formulated and tested four work hypotheses using a combination of quantitative methods (investigation and qualitative methods (focus group. After the validation of the questionnaires, the respondents were divided into four categories: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and unmotivated. To analyze the collected data, we made use of Excel and SPSS. Some of the primary conclusions of the research are as follows: as the average increases, the percent of individuals having both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is decreasing; the highest percentage of unmotivated students is concentrated in the highest average category; Female

  7. A Study on Job Satisfaction as a Determinant of Job Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant increase of interest in job motivation among the global organizations, the role of an administrator is still unclear. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction (i.e., intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction and job motivation. A survey method was used to collect self-report survey of employees in Malaysian Fire and Rescue Department. The SmartPLS path model analysis revealed three key findings: first, job satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. Second, intrinsic satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. Third, extrinsic satisfaction is significantly correlated with job motivation. These findings demonstrate that the ability of administrators to provide adequate intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic satisfaction may lead to greater employees‟ job motivation. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are also presented.

  8. Reconciling economics and psychology on intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes how the debate on intrinsic motivation was imported from psychology into economics. The most important differences between the two disciplines are in the definition of intrinsic motivation and in the timing of the undermining effect of rewards. The economic framework of inter-temporal choices is proposed to reconcile the different empirical and theoretical results arising in the literature, and it is shown how rewards induce substitution and income effects depending on whet...

  9. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  11. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  12. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  13. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...... and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new, reliable behavioral variable—sickness absence....../healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers, and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation...

  14. Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Darhl M

    2002-10-01

    Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation.

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J.; W., Schrettl,; Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    of a public good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflects key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. In particular, instead of relying on extrinsic motives for programmers (e.g. signaling) the present model is driven by intrinsic motives of OSS...... programmers, such as user-programmers, play value or \\emph{homo ludens} payoff, and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and turn out to add new insights to the economic analysis.......This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision...

  16. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  17. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios GOULIMARIS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT, was triple: a to examine the structural validity of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS in the field of distance education, b to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance education classes and c to examine the possibility of predicting the subscales of satisfaction from the subscales of motivation in the open and distance education. The sample consisted of 144 students who participated in the course of “Arts II: Overview of Greek Music and Dance” of the Hellenic Open University. For the purposes of the study, two scales were used: a The modified Greek version (Papaioannou et al., 2007 of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS (Guay et al., 2000, b The modified Greek version (Theodorakis, & Bebetsos, 2003; Bebetsos, & Theodorakis, 2003 of the “Scale of Satisfaction” (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1997. The results of the research are considered positive for the adjustment of the instrument measuring the motivation of students in distance education. Identified regulation and intrinsic motivation presented high values, as much as the two subscales of satisfaction: personal outcome and leadership. Extrinsic motivation presented middle levels and the subscale amotivation, very low levels. The subscale personal outcome is connected positively to the self-determined forms of motivation and negatively to those which are less self-determined. Finally, it has been found that intrinsic motivation and amotivation are subscales which predict personal outcome and leadership. In conclusion, the findings of this research allow a better understanding of the motivation process, which explains the satisfaction of the students, while attending a class.

  19. The Relation Between Distance Education Students' Motivation And Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios GOULIMARIS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT, was triple: a to examine the structural validity of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS in the field of distance education, b to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance education classes and c to examine the possibility of predicting the subscales of satisfaction from the subscales of motivation in the open and distance education. The sample consisted of 144 students who participated in the course of “Arts II: Overview of Greek Music and Dance” of the Hellenic Open University. For the purposes of the study, two scales were used: a The modified Greek version (Papaioannou et al., 2007 of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS (Guay et al., 2000, b The modified Greek version (Theodorakis, & Bebetsos, 2003; Bebetsos, & Theodorakis, 2003 of the “Scale of Satisfaction” (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1997. The results of the research are considered positive for the adjustment of the instrument measuring the motivation of students in distance education. Identified regulation and intrinsic motivation presented high values, as much as the two subscales of satisfaction: personal outcome and leadership. Extrinsic motivation presented middle levels and the subscale amotivation, very low levels. The subscale personal outcome is connected positively to the self-determined forms of motivation and negatively to those which are less self-determined. Finally, it has been found that intrinsic motivation and amotivation are subscales which predict personal outcome and leadership. In conclusion, the findings of this research allow a better understanding of the motivation process, which explains the satisfaction of the students, while attending a class.

  20. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt Gregersen, Mikkel

    This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers. It is divi......This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers....... It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a creative context. These two sections frame the thesis and introduce the setting in which the research has been done....... The third section presents the research approach, which is the application of basic needs as social mechanisms. Social mechanisms are used to explain one event by a previous event by identifying the causal links between the two events. Basic needs are the needs for feelings of autonomy, competence...

  1. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  3. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  4. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  5. The Moderating Effects of Group Membership and Growth Need Strength on the Relationships between Job Characteristics and Job Satisfaction, Job Involvement, and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    1101£ ~j2.0 1.8 1_.2.5 111-64 ____ MIC Rt(OOP ISOLLM ON IISI CARI NAIIO A IV l Ai III 11 Ill THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF GROUP MEMBERSHIP AND GROWTH NEED...of job satisf ction, job involvement, and intrinsic mot- ivation. 9.; UNCLASSIFIED 5UCUmiTY CLASIFICATION OP TIS PA69tWbm Wae gaZeee Ma

  6. Metacognitive mastery and intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in intrinsic motivation (IM) have been linked to poorer outcome in schizophrenia, but its proximal mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined whether metacognitive mastery, or the capacity to use knowledge of self, others, and context to identify and cope with psychological difficulties, predicted levels of IM for 6 months among 75 participants with prolonged schizophrenia. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that high metacognitive mastery predicted consistently higher levels of IM; however, intermediate and low mastery did not produce unique IM profiles. The findings suggest that metacognitive mastery may have an important role in IM over time and could be a meaningful treatment target.

  7. The impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on the job satisfaction of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, K; Campbell, S M; Broge, B; Dörfer, C E; Brodowski, M; Szecsenyi, J

    2012-10-01

    The Two-Factor Theory of job satisfaction distinguishes between intrinsic-motivation (i.e. recognition, responsibility) and extrinsic-hygiene (i.e. job security, salary, working conditions) factors. The presence of intrinsic-motivation facilitates higher satisfaction and performance, whereas the absences of extrinsic factors help mitigate against dissatisfaction. The consideration of these factors and their impact on dentists' job satisfaction is essential for the recruitment and retention of dentists. The objective of the study is to assess the level of job satisfaction of German dentists and the factors that are associated with it. This cross-sectional study was based on a job satisfaction survey. Data were collected from 147 dentists working in 106 dental practices. Job satisfaction was measured with the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. Organizational characteristics were measured with two items. Linear regression analyses were performed in which each of the nine items of the job satisfaction scale (excluding overall satisfaction) were handled as dependent variables. A stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with overall job satisfaction as the dependent outcome variable, the nine items of job satisfaction and the two items of organizational characteristics controlled for age and gender as predictors. The response rate was 95.0%. Dentists were satisfied with 'freedom of working method' and mostly dissatisfied with their 'income'. Both variables are extrinsic factors. The regression analyses identified five items that were significantly associated with each item of the job satisfaction scale: 'age', 'mean weekly working time', 'period in the practice', 'number of dentist's assistant' and 'working atmosphere'. Within the stepwise linear regression analysis the intrinsic factor 'opportunity to use abilities' (β = 0.687) showed the highest score of explained variance (R(2) = 0.468) regarding overall job satisfaction. With respect to the Two

  8. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Yannis; Iossa, Elisabetta; Tabvuma, Vurain

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  9. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Yannis; Iossa, Elisabetta; Tabvuma, Vurain

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  10. Fostering Intrinsic Motivation in Children: A Humanistic Counseling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Randolph H., Jr.; Cashwell, Craig S.; Schweiger, Wendi K.

    2004-01-01

    Humanistic counselors working with children seek to help them grow and develop the motivation needed to make decisions and changes in their lives. Intrinsic motivation, an important component of humanistic counseling, is defined and explicated, research is reviewed, and suggestions are made for counselors who seek to foster intrinsic motivation in…

  11. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  12. A Model for Employee Motivation and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Philip C.

    1979-01-01

    To increase an employee's motivation, an employee must perceive that s/he will achieve higher satisfaction for greater effort. To generate such perception, rewards must clearly be contingent on effort and the cost of increased effort must grow at a slower rate than the increase in reward. (Author/IRT)

  13. SATISFACTION AS MEDIATORS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND LOYALTY OF DIVING TOURISTS TO BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Suardana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the relationship between extrinsic motivation, satisfaction with the product loyalty and loyalty to the service provider either directly or indirectly. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of tourists were used as predictors in determining the tourist loyalty through satisfaction. The model adopted was tested on 250 travelers who had ever been diving in Bali with structural equation modeling (SEM. The empirical results showed that the causal relationship between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and satisfaction with service loyalty and product loyalty could be confirmed. Satisfaction became a full media on the relationship between motivation and loyalty. In this model, it could be proved that there was a positive effect of service loyalty on product loyalty. This study contributes to the development of tourist loyalty which should pay attention to tourist satisfaction arising from intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of tourists. Tourist strong motivation to do diving would have an impact on the perceived satisfaction so that tourists have loyalty in service provider and loyal to the diving tourism product shown by intending to return to Bali and would recommend it to others.

  14. Toward a tripartite model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. The present article presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (i.e., engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (i.e., engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (i.e., engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The tripartite model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Across 4 studies (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 113; Study 3: N = 58; Study 4: N = 135), the 3 types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). The implications of the tripartite model of IM for motivation research are discussed.

  15. Physician motivation, satisfaction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, S E; Clement, D G

    1997-01-01

    Physicians are working harder today and enjoying it less. What has happened to create such dissatisfaction among those in one of the most autonomous professions? What can be done to address the anger, fear and unhappiness? This article is an analysis of the factors influencing human motivation. Maslow's hierarchy of needs--physiological, safety/security, social/affiliation, esteem and self-actualization--is used to suggest ways physicians can satisfy their needs in turbulent financial and professional times.

  16. Values, Norms, and Intrinsic Motivation to Act Proenvironmentally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people more consistently engage in proenvironmental actions. In this article, I discuss factors that motivate or inhibit individuals to act proenvironmentally. Many people are intrinsically motivated to engage in proenvironmental actions, because protecting t

  17. Intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Frederic H; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D; Bercovitz, Anita

    2009-10-01

    We examined predictors of intrinsic job satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave the job among nursing assistants (NAs). The study focused on NAs who worked 30 or more hours per week in a nursing home. Data on 2,146 NAs meeting this criterion came from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey, the first telephone interview survey of NAs nationwide. Regression equations were calculated in which intrinsic satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intention to leave were dependent variables. NA attributes (e.g., job tenure and education) and extrinsic job factors (e.g., assessment of supervisor behavior, pay satisfaction, and benefits) were exogenous variables. A positive assessment of the supervisor's behavior had the strongest association with intrinsic satisfaction. Pay satisfaction had the second strongest association with intrinsic satisfaction. Predictors with the strongest associations with intention to leave were overall and intrinsic satisfaction. Assessment of the supervisor was not associated directly with intention to leave. Assessments of the supervisor and pay may affect overall satisfaction and intention to leave in part through their direct effects on intrinsic satisfaction. Some facility and NA attributes were related to intrinsic satisfaction but not to overall satisfaction, suggesting that intrinsic satisfaction may be an intervening variable in the impact of these attributes on overall satisfaction. Intrinsic satisfaction and extrinsic job factors amenable to change appear central to NAs' overall satisfaction and intention to leave. A facility may be able to improve extrinsic job factors that improve NAs' job-related affects, including intrinsic satisfaction.

  18. The Effects of Blended Learning on the Intrinsic Motivation of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucaromana, Usaporn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the results of blended learning with face-to-face learning among university students studying English as a foreign language. The participants were separated by gender, and the following variables, intrinsic motivation for learning English, attitudes towards English as a subject, and satisfaction with the…

  19. Catch It If You Can: How Contagious Motivation Improves Group Projects and Course Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Anjala S.

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a theory-based contagious motivation model focusing on enhancing student perceptions of group projects and ultimately course satisfaction. Moreover, drawing from both pedagogical and organizational behavior literatures, a model is presented that ties together intrinsic motivation theory with social contagion and…

  20. Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have obtained conflicting results about the role of prosocial motivation in persistence, performance, and productivity. To resolve this discrepancy, I draw on self-determination theory, proposing that prosocial motivation is most likely to predict these outcomes when it is accompanied by intrinsic motivation. Two field studies support the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation moderates the association between prosocial motivation and persistence, performance, and productivity. In Study 1, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the overtime hour persistence of 58 firefighters. In Study 2, intrinsic motivation strengthened the relationship between prosocial motivation and the performance and productivity of 140 fundraising callers. Callers who reported high levels of both prosocial and intrinsic motivations raised more money 1 month later, and this moderated association was mediated by a larger number of calls made. I discuss implications for theory and research on work motivation.

  1. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and intention to breast-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Thompson, Nancy J; Kloeblen-Tarver, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of using the cognitive evaluation theory to examine pregnant women's intention to breast-feed. A questionnaire designed to measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was administered to 228 pregnant women. Results provide evidence for reliability and validity of the revised instrument in this population. A factor analysis suggests the instrument measures 2 types of intrinsic motivation, one type of extrinsic motivation, and motivation related to the baby. The instrument distinguished differences in motivation between women who intend to breast-feed and those who intend to formula feed. This study helps elucidate motivational factors involved in infant-feeding decisions.

  3. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  4. Creativity as Mediator for Intrinsic Motivation and Sales Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodla, Mahmood A.; Naeem, Basharat

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical literature indicates inconsistent performance implications of intrinsic motivation, suggesting the possibility of some explanatory mechanisms. However, little is known about the factors that might explain intrinsic motivation and sales force performance relation, particularly in highly competitive and…

  5. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  6. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  7. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption.

  8. Live as we choose: The role of autonomy support in facilitating intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-12-01

    According to Self-determination Theory (SDT), autonomy is a basic psychological need, satisfaction of which may lead to enhanced intrinsic motivation and related beneficial outcomes. By manipulating the opportunity to choose between tasks of equal difficulty, throughout the motivational process, the effect of autonomy support was examined both behaviorally and electrophysiologically. More negative stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) and an enlarged FRN loss-win difference wave (d-FRN) indicated an enhanced expectation toward the positive outcome (during the anticipation stage) as well as intensified intrinsic motivation toward the task (during the outcome appraisal stage) when choice was available. Taken together, results of the present study suggest d-FRN upon feedback as a real-time electrophysiological indicator of intrinsic/autonomous motivation and illustrate the important role of autonomy-supportive job design in the workplace.

  9. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  10. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  11. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  12. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Nicklin, Jessica M; Ford, Michael T

    2014-07-01

    More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance-salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k = 183, N = 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (ρ = .21-45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a "crowding out" fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Future research should consider using nonperformance criteria (e.g., well-being, job satisfaction) as well as applying the percent-of-maximum-possible (POMP) method in meta-analyses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services.

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  15. Course-Specific Intrinsic Motivation: Effects of Instructor Support and Global Academic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, J. M.; Herman, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of instructor support and students' global academic motivation on students' course-specific intrinsic motivation. The authors hypothesized, based on self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), that instructor support for students' psychological needs would enhance intrinsic motivation. Students reported their…

  16. Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Qaiser Danish

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of employees working in the banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of performance these employees demonstrate towards their organizations when they are rewarded intrinsically and when they are motivated due to these reward management system accordingly. In this study, we collected data through self-administered questionnaires applying correlational explanatory research design. We distributed 300 questionnaires among which 290 were returned resulting in a response rate of 96%. The analysis of the data revealed that intrinsic rewards have positive impact on task performance of employees working in banks and motivation and its dimensions, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and job satisfaction mediated this relationship. Considering the importance of appreciations received by bankers in the form of rewards and their effect on extra role performance and sophisticated management, policy makers should take necessary steps for improving the reward management system which will increase the task performance of employees because they will be motivated by these performance appraisal techniques.

  17. Interactional Motivation in Artificial Systems: Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeon, Olivier; Marshall, James; Gay, Simon

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces Interactional Motivation (IM) as a way to implement self-motivation in artificial systems. An interactionally motivated agent selects behaviors for the sake of enacting the behavior itself rather than for the value of the behavior’s outcome. IM contrasts with extrinsic motivation by the fact that it defines the agent’s motivation independently from the environment’s state. Because IM does not refer to the environment’s states, we argue that IM is ...

  18. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.

  19. What is intrinsic motivation? A typology of computational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Oudeyer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic motivation, the causal mechanism for spontaneous exploration and curiosity, is a central concept in developmental psychology. It has been argued to be a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development in humans, and as such has gathered a growing interest from developmental roboticists in the recent years. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, it provides a synthesis of the different approaches of intrinsic motivation in psychology. Second, by interpreting these approaches in a computational reinforcement learning framework, we argue that they are not operational and even sometimes inconsistent. Third, we set the ground for a systematic operational study of intrinsic motivation by presenting a formal typology of possible computational approaches. This typology is partly based on existing computational models, but also presents new ways of conceptualizing intrinsic motivation. We argue that this kind of computational typology might be useful for opening new avenues for research both in psychology and developmental robotics.

  20. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GOULIMARIS, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    ... of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS) in the field of distance education, b) to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance education classes and c...

  2. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative…

  3. Associations of personality with intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Nabors, Lori

    2013-06-30

    Motivation is often disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about how it relates to personality. We examined intrinsic motivation (IM), two personality domains from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and symptoms in 58 male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Analyses revealed IM may be linked to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and negative symptoms.

  4. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  5. Fostering Reading through Intrinsic Motivation: An Action Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Marilyn Z.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a two-year action research study conducted at a high school that transformed reluctant students into lifelong readers by emphasizing intrinsic motivation as opposed to programs that use rewards to motivate students to read. Explains how to design an action research question. (LRW)

  6. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  7. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Medalia, Alice

    2010-05-01

    A motivation is a telling hallmark of negative symptomatology in schizophrenia, and it impacts nearly every facet of behavior, including inclination to attempt the difficult cognitive tasks involved in cognitive remediation therapy. Experiences of external reward, reinforcement, and hedonic anticipatory enjoyment are diminished in psychosis, so therapeutics which instead target intrinsic motivation for cognitive tasks may enhance task engagement, and subsequently, remediation outcome. We examined whether outpatients could attain benefits from an intrinsically motivating instructional approach which (a) presents learning materials in a meaningful game-like context, (b) personalizes elements of the learning materials into themes of high interest value, and (c) offers choices so patients can increase their control over the learning process. We directly compared one learning method that incorporated the motivational paradigm into an arithmetic learning program against another method that carefully manipulated out the motivational variables in the same learning program. Fifty-seven subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to one of the two learning programs for 10 thirty-minute sessions while an intent-to-treat convenience subsample (n=15) was used to account for practice effect. Outcome measures were arithmetic learning, attention, motivation, self competency, and symptom severity. Results showed the motivational group (a) acquired more arithmetic skill, (b) possessed greater intrinsic motivation for the task, (c) reported greater feelings of self competency post-treatment, and (d) demonstrated better post-test attention. Interestingly, baseline perception of self competency was a significant predictor of post-test arithmetic scores. Results demonstrated that incorporating intrinsically motivating instructional techniques into a difficult cognitive task promoted greater learning of the material, higher levels of intrinsic

  8. Professionalism, Demographics, and Motivation: Predictors of Job Satisfaction Among Nigerian Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NWACHUKWU PRINCE OLOLUBE

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This research article examines the intensity of satisfaction in the teaching career amongst the secondary school teaching workforce and identifies some work-related factors associated with job satisfaction. The main focus of this study is to probe the impact of the hygiene and motivation factors as a predictor of job satisfaction and see how they align with other existing studies. For the purpose of this study, hygiene factors are factors that cause dissatisfaction and motivation factors are factors that cause employees to be satisfied with their job. A questionnaire was used for data gathering, and multiple statistical procedures were employed in the analysis. The findings revealed that both the extrinsic (hygiene and the intrinsic (motivation factors are predictors of job satisfaction. In particular, this research work is written for educational administrators, policymakers and planners that are interested in empirical information methods that might help them improve secondary schooling in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  9. Passion and intrinsic motivation in digital gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chee Keng John; Khoo, Angeline; Liu, Woon Chia; Divaharan, Shanti

    2008-02-01

    Digital gaming is fast becoming a favorite activity all over the world. Yet very few studies have examined the underlying motivational processes involved in digital gaming. One motivational force that receives little attention in psychology is passion, which could help us understand the motivation of gamers. The purpose of the present study was to identify subgroups of young people with distinctive passion profiles on self-determined regulations, flow dispositions, affect, and engagement time in gaming. One hundred fifty-five students from two secondary schools in Singapore participated in the survey. There were 134 males and 8 females (13 unspecified). The participants completed a questionnaire to measure harmonious passion (HP), obsessive passion (OP), perceived locus of causality, disposition flow, positive and negative affects, and engagement time in gaming. Cluster analysis found three clusters with distinct passion profiles. The first cluster had an average HP/OP profile, the second cluster had a low HP/OP profile, and the third cluster had a high HP/OP profile. The three clusters displayed different levels of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Cluster analysis, as this study shows, is useful in identifying groups of gamers with different passion profiles. It has helped us gain a deeper understanding of motivation in digital gaming.

  10. Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J.; W., Schrettl,; Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision...

  11. Job Satisfaction and Motivational Strategies among Library Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Niels Ole; Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a survey of Danish library directors and highlights findings associated with job satisfaction and motivational strategies. Highlights include leadership; the relation between leadership position and job satisfaction; relationship between selected variables and job satisfaction; management tools used; and time spent on leadership tasks.…

  12. Effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lucy J; Stevens, Lucy H; Threapleton, Christopher J D; Vainiute, Jurgita; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish; Gallagher, Peter

    2012-10-01

    It is well recognised that motivational factors can influence neuropsychological performance. The aim of this study was to explore individual differences in intrinsic motivation and reward-seeking and the effect of these on attentional and mnemonic processes, in the presence or absence of financial incentives. Forty participants (18-35years) completed two testing sessions where the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Newcastle Spatial Memory Test (NSMT) were administered. After a baseline assessment, participants were re-tested after randomisation to a non-motivated (control) group or to a motivated group, where payment was contingent upon performance. Performance in the motivated group was significantly improved compared to the control group on the NSMT (condition by session; F(1,33)=4.52, p=0.041) and the ANT, with participants increasing performance to cued presentations within the alerting network (F(1,36)=5.48, p=0.025) and being less distracted by incongruent stimuli in the executive control network (F(1,36)=6.74, p=0.014). There were significant negative correlations between the 'Interest/ Enjoyment' Intrinsic Motivation Inventory subscale and both NSMT between-search errors and ANT(alerting). In the motivated group, those who had higher self-reported internal motivation were less susceptible to- or affected by- the external motivation of financial incentive. The effects of motivational factors should not be overlooked when interpreting absolute levels of performance in neuropsychological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  14. Changes in Intrinsic Motivation as a Function of Negative Feedback and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Cascio, Wayne F.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that external rewards can affect intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. Money tends to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas positive verbal reinforcements tend to increase intrinsic motivation. This paper presents evidence that negative feedback and threats of punishment also decrease intrinsic motivation.…

  15. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  16. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  17. Perceived Constraints on Recreational Sport Participation: Investigating Their Relationship with Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation and Amotivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandris, Konstantinos; Tsorbatzoudis, Charalambos; Grouios, George

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influence of constraint dimensions on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation among Greek adults who reported participation in some type of sport and physical activity. Data from the Sport Motivation Scale and leisure constraints questionnaire revealed that intrapersonal constraints acted as de-motivating…

  18. Organizational commitment and intrinsic motivation of regular and contractual primary health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivated and committed employees deliver better health care, which results in better outcomes and higher patient satisfaction. Objective: To assess the Organizational Commitment and Intrinsic Motivation of Primary Health Care Providers (HCPs in New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in 2013 on a sample of 333 HCPs who were selected using multistage stage random sampling technique. The sample includes medical officers, auxiliary nurses and midwives, and pharmacists and laboratory technicians/assistants among regular and contractual staff. Data were collected using the pretested structured questionnaire for organization commitment (OC, job satisfiers, and intrinsic job motivation. Analysis was done by using SPSS version 18 and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The mean score for OC for entire regular staff is 1.6 ± 0.39 and contractual staff is 1.3 ± 0.45 which has statistically significant difference (t = 5.57; P = 0.00. In both regular and contractual staff, none of them show high emotional attachment with the organization and does not feel part of the family in the organization. Contractual staff does not feel proud to work in a present organization for rest of their career. Intrinsic motivation is high in both regular and contractual groups but intergroup difference is significant (t = 2.38; P < 0.05. Contractual staff has more dissatisfier than regular, and the difference is significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Organizational commitment and intrinsic motivation of contractual staff are lesser than the permanent staff. Appropriate changes are required in the predictors of organizational commitment and factors responsible for satisfaction in the organization to keep the contractual human resource motivated and committed to the organization.

  19. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at 30: Unresolved scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental controls (negative affect and novelty, not cognitive evaluation, may explain "undermining" effects); and biased metareviews (studies with possible floor effects excluded, but those with possible ceiling effects included). Perhaps the greatest error with the undermining theory, however, is that it does not adequately recognize the multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation (Reiss, 2004a). Advice to limit the use of applied behavior analysis based on "hidden" undermining effects is ideologically inspired and is unsupported by credible scientific evidence.

  20. The effects of cooperative and individualistic reward on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, H L; Berger, M; Duncan, M K; Miller, A; Blevin, A

    1994-03-01

    The effects of cooperative versus individualistic reward on students' intrinsic motivation were investigated. The controlling aspects of extrinsic reward may be heightened or produce greater ego threat in the individualistic situation when compared with a group situation. We predicted that students in the cooperative social situation would show higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Fifth-grade students from existing cooperative groups were assigned randomly to receive a tangible reward based on either cooperative or individualistic achievement for completing pattern block designs. Cooperation affected intrinsic motivation positively. Students in the cooperative dyad solved the block designs more quickly, interacted positively, and viewed the task as easier than did those in the individualistic situation, and they reported that their peers were helpful. There was little evidence that the controlling functions of reward or ego-threat were factors in producing the outcome. Some evidence supporting the importance of the social nature of cooperation was provided.

  1. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67) and nurses (N = 219) participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E) outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested. PMID:21080954

  2. Motivation and job satisfaction among medical and nursing staff in a Cyprus public general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontodimopoulos Nick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate how medical and nursing staff of the Nicosia General Hospital is affected by specific motivation factors, and the association between job satisfaction and motivation. Furthermore, to determine the motivational drive of socio-demographic and job related factors in terms of improving work performance. Methods A previously developed and validated instrument addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements was used. Two categories of health care professionals, medical doctors and dentists (N = 67 and nurses (N = 219 participated and motivation and job satisfaction was compared across socio-demographic and occupational variables. Results The survey revealed that achievements was ranked first among the four main motivators, followed by remuneration, co-workers and job attributes. The factor remuneration revealed statistically significant differences according to gender, and hospital sector, with female doctors and nurses and accident and emergency (A+E outpatient doctors reporting greater mean scores (p 55 years of age reported higher job satisfaction when compared to the other groups. Conclusions The results are in agreement with the literature which focuses attention to management approaches employing both monetary and non-monetary incentives to motivate health care professionals. Health care professionals tend to be motivated more by intrinsic factors, implying that this should be a target for effective employee motivation. Strategies based on the survey's results to enhance employee motivation are suggested.

  3. Managing employee motivation: Exploring the connections between managers' enforcement actions, employee perceptions, and employee intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2017-01-01

    ” enforcement of a command system (obligatory teacher-produced student plans) is associated with teacher intrinsic motivation. Results show that teachers experiencing a “hard” enforcement have lower intrinsic motivation than teachers experiencing a “soft” enforcement. As expected by motivation crowding theory......A number of studies show that the use of external interventions, such as command systems and economic incentives, can decrease employee intrinsic motivation. Our knowledge of why the size of “the hidden cost of rewards” differs between organizations is, however, still sparse. In this paper, we...... analyze whether local managers—the primary enforcers of external interventions—affect how employees perceive a command system and thereby affect employee intrinsic motivation. Using a multilevel dataset of 1,190 teachers and 32 school principals, we test whether principals’ use of “hard”, “mixed” or “soft...

  4. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Dragan; Petrović, Dejan; Vuković, Dejana; Mihailović, Dobrivoje; Dimić, Aleksandar

    2015-08-01

    Health care system is specific for each country, and therefore involves different motivation and job satisfaction factors. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and applicability of the General Nordic Questionnaire translated into Serbian for analyzing motivation and job satisfaction, as well as to analyze the motivation factors and job satisfaction of health workers at the Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation "Niska Banja". The General Nordic Questionnaire was translated into Serbian. It included 73 questions (5 answers by the Likert scale), which formed 24 scales. In May, 2012, 196 (82.3%) health workers filled in the questionnaire. A correlation of Ceronbach's alpha values between the Scandinavian study results and the results of Serbian study was statistically significant (r = 0.424; p Intrinsic motivation positively correlated with all the scales of organizational module, apart from inequality. Within this module, the degree of extrinsic motivation correlated with the support from the superior and coworkers, with fair leadership and human resources primacy. A negative correlation appeared with inequality. The general Nordic Questionnaire can be applied to a great extent to the conditions in our country. Our study shows a low consistency of the scales learning job demands, control of decision, control of work pacing, so the questions in them should be adjusted to the conditions in our country. Extrinsic motivation resulted in higher values than the values of intrinsic motivation in our workers, which is opposite to the results of the original questionnaire.

  5. Effects of Intrinsic Motivation on Feedback Processing During Learning

    OpenAIRE

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one’s actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic mot...

  6. Extending TAM for Online Learning Systems: An Intrinsic Motivation Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sheng; ZHAO Jue; TAN Weiwei

    2008-01-01

    To get a better understanding of user behavior towards online learning systems, the technology acceptance model (TAM) was extended to include an intrinsic motivational factor. An online survey posted on a campus BBS was conducted to collect research data with a total of 121 usable responses. The results support the motivational model and show that the explained variance of online learning system use behavior is 71.3% higher than that of the original TAM explanation.

  7. Effects of intrinsic motivation on feedback processing during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory.

  8. Nurses Returning to School: Motivators, Inhibitors and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick W; Burman, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Health care employers and national nursing organizations are placing increased emphasis on nurses earning a baccalaureate degree or higher. This study examines the impact of motivators (professional and personal motivation), inhibitors (time constraints and employer discouragement), and job satisfaction on intent to return to school. Approximately half of the employed nurses in Wyoming were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire in the summer of 2013. Perceived employer discouragement and time constraints continued to play a direct role on intent to return to school regardless of nurse motivation or job satisfaction. However, motivation and job satisfaction also contributed to a nurse's intent to return to school. These results suggest that motivation and job satisfaction are significant regarding intent to return to school but can be limited by both perceived discouragement of one's employer and perceived time constraints. In order to meet the increasing demands of a better-educated nursing workforce, a shift in workplace dynamics may be warranted.

  9. Intrinsic Motivation as a Mediator on Imaginative Capability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored which environmental and psychological variables influenced the imagination of video/film major university students, and the effects these variables had on their imaginative capability development. The hypothesis of the study--that "intrinsic motivation" played a mediating role in imaginative capability development--was…

  10. The Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement on Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Richard A.; Edwards, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role of extrinsic reinforcement in intrinsic motivation in cognitive attribution theory. Concludes that cognitive attribution theory lacks parsimony, in that extant reinforcement analysis can account for undermining with equal facility. Suggests undermining is of little significance due to its elusive and transient impact on operant…

  11. Teacher and Student Intrinsic Motivation in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Ma, William Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between teacher and student intrinsic motivation in project-based learning. The participants were 126 Hong Kong secondary school teachers and their 631 students who completed evaluation questionnaires after a semester-long project-based learning program. Both teachers and students were asked to indicate…

  12. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  13. Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the results of a meta analysis (E. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. Ryan, 1999) that shows that tangible extrinsic rewards do have a substantial undermining effect on intrinsic motivation. Discusses results, which support cognitive evaluation theory, in terms of their relevance for educational practice. (SLD)

  14. Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the results of a meta analysis (E. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. Ryan, 1999) that shows that tangible extrinsic rewards do have a substantial undermining effect on intrinsic motivation. Discusses results, which support cognitive evaluation theory, in terms of their relevance for educational practice. (SLD)

  15. The Impact of Motivation on Employees� Performance and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Angela-Eliza Micu

    2016-01-01

    The Impact of Motivation on Employees� Performance and Satisfaction Abstract:The employees� motivation in the workplace was and still is present for many specialists in from the organizational psychology which continues to explore how we relate to our work and what really motivates us. Although literature offers a wide range of definitions in the process of motivation in the end they all converge on the same content. In everyday language, by reasoning it is understood "the why" for which a...

  16. Enhancing the intrinsic work motivation of community nutrition educators: how supportive supervision and job design foster autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Dollahite, Jamie S; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-methods research investigated the work motivation of paraprofessional community nutrition educators (CNEs) delivering a long-running public health nutrition program. In interviews, CNEs (n = 9) emphasized "freedom," supportive supervision, and "making a difference" as key sources of motivation. Community nutrition educator surveys (n = 115) confirmed high levels of autonomy, which was associated with supervisors' delegation and support, CNE decision-making on scheduling and curricula, and job satisfaction. Supervisors (n = 32) rated CNEs' job design as having inherently motivating characteristics comparable to professional jobs. Supervisory strategies can complement job design to create structured, supportive contexts that maintain fidelity, while granting autonomy to paraprofessionals to enhance intrinsic work motivation.

  17. The Relationship between Motivation and Job Satisfaction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    revealed that motivation has strong impact on job satisfaction of retail business managers as it improves their quality of output. It was therefore ... performance goals upon which the rewards are based are attainable. In other words, retail ...

  18. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  19. Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Academic Achievement among Indian Adolescents in Canada and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and academic achievement for the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada in comparison to their counterparts in India. Descriptive discriminant analysis indicated that the Indian immigrant adolescents in Canada had higher intrinsic…

  20. Need satisfaction, motivational regulations and exercise: moderation and mediation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Weman-Josefsson, Karin; Lindwall, Magnus; Ivarsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Based on the Self-determination theory process model, this study aimed to explore relationships between the latent constructs of psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation and exercise behaviour; the mediational role of autonomous motivation in the association of psychological need satisfaction with exercise behaviour; as well as gender and age differences in the aforementioned associations. Methods Adult active members of an Internet-based exercise program (n = 1091) b...

  1. In Search of the Neural Circuits of Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Frederic; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2007-01-01

    Children seem to acquire new know-how in a continuous and open-ended manner. In this paper, we hypothesize that an intrinsic motivation to progress in learning is at the origins of the remarkable structure of children's developmental trajectories. In this view, children engage in exploratory and playful activities for their own sake, not as steps toward other extrinsic goals. The central hypothesis of this paper is that intrinsically motivating activities correspond to expected decrease in prediction error. This motivation system pushes the infant to avoid both predictable and unpredictable situations in order to focus on the ones that are expected to maximize progress in learning. Based on a computational model and a series of robotic experiments, we show how this principle can lead to organized sequences of behavior of increasing complexity characteristic of several behavioral and developmental patterns observed in humans. We then discuss the putative circuitry underlying such an intrinsic motivation system in the brain and formulate two novel hypotheses. The first one is that tonic dopamine acts as a learning progress signal. The second is that this progress signal is directly computed through a hierarchy of microcortical circuits that act both as prediction and metaprediction systems. PMID:18982131

  2. Incremental Learning of Skill Collections based on Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hendrik Metzen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite forembodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced withdifferent tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agentcan learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period,i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided.Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental andself-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discoveryapproach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learnsspecific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms thatdetermine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. Weevaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuousdomains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skilllearning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch.Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and howefficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  3. In search of the neural circuits of intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Kaplan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Children seem to acquire new know-how in a continuous and open-ended manner. In this paper, we hypothesize that an intrinsic motivation to progress in learning is at the origins of the remarkable structure of children's developmental trajectories. In this view, children engage in exploratory and playful activities for their own sake, not as steps toward other extrinsic goals. The central hypothesis of this paper is that intrinsically motivating activities correspond to expected decrease in prediction error. This motivation system pushes the infant to avoid both predictable and unpredictable situations in order to focus on the ones that are expected to maximize progress in learning. Based on a computational model and a series of robotic experiments, we show how this principle can lead to organized sequences of behavior of increasing complexity characteristic of several behavioral and developmental patterns observed in humans. We then discuss the putative circuitry underlying such an intrinsic motivation system in the brain and formulate two novel hypotheses. The first one is that tonic dopamine acts as a learning progress signal. The second is that this progress signal is directly computed through a hierarchy of microcortical circuits that act both as prediction and metaprediction systems.

  4. Job satisfaction and motivation: how do we inspire employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshallah, Sahar

    2004-01-01

    Productivity is defined as the efficient and effective use of resources with minimum waste and effort to achieve outcome. We live in a world that has limited resources. The health care industry faces this limitation more than any other industry. With these challenges facing health care administrators, the concept of productivity, job satisfaction and motivation become very important. Employee satisfaction and retention have always been an important issue for physicians, medical centers and businesses in general. Conventional human resources theories, developed some 50 years ago by Maslow and Herzberg, suggest that satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers. People are essential to productivity. The success of productivity improvement strategy is dependent on employee commitment, job satisfaction, skills, and motivation. Maslow's theory consists of a 5-level pyramid: physiologic or basic survival; physical and mental safety; sense of belonging; accomplishment, creativity, and growth; and self-actualization. Herzberg's theory suggests there are 2 groups of factors: hygiene (which satisfy) and motivation. The terms "job satisfaction" and "motivation" have, in my experience, become used interchangeably. There is a difference. Job satisfaction is an individual's emotional response to his or her current job condition, while motivation is the driving force to pursue and satisfy one's needs. Maslow and Herzberg's theories can be easily applied to the workplace. Managers can help employees achieve overall job satisfaction, which, with the employee's internal motivation drive, increase performance on the job.

  5. Implicit motives and basic need satisfaction in extreme endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Julia; Wegner, Mirko; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-06-01

    Previous research has shown that the effects of basic psychological needs on the flow experience in sports are moderated by implicit motives. However, so far, only leisure and health-oriented sports have been analyzed. In a pilot study and a main study (N = 29, 93), we tested whether the implicit achievement and affiliation motives interact with the need for competence and the need for social relatedness satisfaction, respectively, to predict flow experience and well-being in extreme endurance athletes. Results showed that highly achievement-motivated individuals benefited more from the need for competence satisfaction in terms of flow than individuals with a low achievement motive did. In addition, highly affiliation-motivated individuals whose need for social relatedness is satisfied reported higher positive affect and lower exercise addiction scores than athletes with a low motive. We discuss the differential effects of the interplay between the achievement and affiliation motives and basic needs on different outcome variables.

  6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Eng-Wah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual. A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01 between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among tenpin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25 or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61 motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among adolescent ten-pin bowlers in kuala lumpur, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Eng-Wah; Khoo, Selina; Wong, Rebecca; Wee, Eng-Hoe; Lim, Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy, Shabesan Sit

    2015-03-29

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 years were recruited in Kuala Lumpur. The Sport Motivation Scale, a 28-item self-report questionnaire measuring seven subscales (i.e., intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, extrinsic motivation to identify regulation, extrinsic motivation for introjection regulation, extrinsic motivation to external regulation, and amotivation) was administered. Results showed significant differences (t=10.43, df=239, p=0.01) between total scores of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among ten-pin bowlers. There were significant gender differences with respect to intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation to accomplish, intrinsic motivation to experience stimulation, and extrinsic motivation to identify regulation. However, no significant bowler type differences were found for either the intrinsic (t=-1.15, df=238, p=0.25) or extrinsic (t=-0.51, df=238, p=0.61) motivation dimensions. In conclusion, our study demonstrated substantial intrinsic motivation for gender effects, but no bowler type effects among adolescent ten-pin bowlers.

  8. The Relation between Distance Education Students' Motivation and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulimaris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT), was triple: a) to examine the structural validity of the "Situational Motivation Scale" (SIMS) in the field of distance education, b) to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance…

  9. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  10. Intrinsic motivation inventory: an adapted measure for schizophrenia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Mogami, Tamiko; Medalia, Alice

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the psychometric validation of a scale designed to measure intrinsic motivation (IM) in schizophrenia. Recent studies have highlighted the relationship between motivation and functional outcome in schizophrenia and identified IM as an important mediating factor between neurocognition and psychosocial outcome. It therefore becomes imperative to have validated measures of IM for empirical use. To that end, we validated a self-report IM scale that gauges the central motivational structures identified by Self-determinism Theory as pertinent to cognitive task engagement, skill acquisition, treatment compliance, and remediation outcome. Participants were schizophrenia outpatients involved in a cognitive remediation study (n = 58), a convenience subsample of clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients (n = 15), and a group of healthy normals (n = 22). The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for Schizophrenia Research (IMI-SR) is a concise instrument, possessing good internal consistency (alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = .77). Data were analyzed to abridge the original 54 items into a final 21-item questionnaire comprised of 3 domains relevant to motivation for treatments (interest/enjoyment, perceived choice, value/usefulness). The scale was highly associated with germane constructs of motivation for health-related behaviors, including perceived competency for attempting challenging tasks and autonomous treatment engagement. Importantly, the scale was able to distinguish improvers and nonimprovers on a cognitive task and actual learning exercises, delineate high vs low treatment attendance, and demonstrate sensitivity to motivational changes due to intervention variation. The IMI-SR is a viable instrument to measure IM in schizophrenia as part of a cognitive remediation protocol or psychosocial rehabilitation program.

  11. Show them the money? The role of pay, managerial need support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Anja H; Halvari, Hallgeir; Forest, Jacques; Deci, Edward L

    2015-08-01

    The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes associated with the amount of pay, and perceived distributive and procedural justice regarding pay in relation to those for perceived managerial need support. Participants were 166 bank employees who also reported on their basic psychological need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation. SEM-analyses tested a self-determination theory (SDT) model, with satisfaction of the competence and autonomy needs as an intervening variable. The primary findings were that amount of pay and employees' perceived distributive justice regarding their pay were unrelated to employees' need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation, but procedural justice regarding pay did affect these variables. However, managerial need support was the most important factor for promoting need satisfaction and intrinsic work motivation both directly, indirectly, and as a moderator in the model. Hence, the results of the present organizational field study support earlier laboratory experiments within the SDT framework showing that monetary rewards did not enhance intrinsic motivation. This seems to have profound implications for organizations concerned about motivating their employees.

  12. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-06-16

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use.

  13. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

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    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  14. Drivers of Employee Motivation: Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Azeem, Sabeen

    2016-01-01

    Employee Motivation is a growing area of importance for the Human Resource Departments organizations of all sizes. Managing the workforce efficiently and effectively has become crucial in order to achieve excellent output from the employees which would lead to the attainment of organizational goals. This study aims to understand the influence of multiple motivational factors on employee motivation of employees of Bank A. Additionally, the mediating role of job satisfaction is elaborated which...

  15. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Robert J; Gao, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    For each of the 5 needs in Maslow's motivational hierarchy (physiological, safety-security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization), operational definitions were developed from Maslow's theory of motivation. New measures were created based on the operational definitions (1) to assess the satisfaction of each need, (2) to assess their expected correlations (a) with each of the other needs and (b) with four social and personality measures (i.e., family support, traditional values, anxiety/worry, and life satisfaction), and (3) to test the ability of the satisfaction level of each need to statistically predict the satisfaction level of the next higher-level need. Psychometric tests of the scales conducted on questionnaire results from 386 adult respondents from the general population lent strong support for the validity and reliability of all 5 needs measures. Significant positive correlations among the scales were also found; that is, the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied. Additionally, as predicted, family support, traditional values, and life satisfaction had significant positive correlations with the satisfaction of all 5 needs, and the anxiety/worry facet of neuroticism had significant negative correlations with the satisfaction of all the needs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the satisfaction of each higher-level need was statistically predicted by the satisfaction of the need immediately below it in the hierarchy, as expected from Maslow's theory.

  16. Close games versus blowouts: Optimal challenge reinforces one's intrinsic motivation to win.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Pei, Guanxiong; Zheng, Jiehui; Ma, Qingguo

    2016-12-01

    When immersed in intrinsically motivating activities, individuals actively seek optimal challenge, which generally brings the most satisfaction as they play hard and finally win. To better simulate real-life scenarios in the controlled laboratory setting, a two-player online StopWatch (SW) game was developed, whose format is similar to that of a badminton tournament. During the game, a male opponent played by a confederate ensured that the same-sex participant paired with him won both matches, one with a wide margin (the lack of challenge condition) and another with a narrow one (the optimal challenge condition). Electrophysiological data were recorded during the entire experiment. An enlarged Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was observed in the optimal challenge condition, indicating a more concentrated anticipatory attention toward the feedback and a stronger intrinsic motivation during close games. Thus, this study provided original neural evidence for predictions of Self-determination theory (SDT) and Flow theory, and confirmed and emphasized the significant role of optimal challenge in promoting one's intrinsic motivation to win. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing Individual-Level Factors Supporting Student Intrinsic Motivation in Online Discussions: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.; Coombes, John

    2008-01-01

    Research has established that intrinsic motivation has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. However, little is known about the impact of different technology-supported learning activities on student intrinsic motivation or whether such learning activities significantly enhance student intrinsic motivation compared to traditional…

  18. Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and learning English as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikholeslami, Razieh; Khayyer, Mohammad

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships of amotivation, extrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation with learning the English language. The 230 Iranian students at Shiraz University were tested using the Language Learning Orientations Scales to measure Amotivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Intrinsic Motivation as explanatory variables. Grade point average in English exams was selected as a measure of English learning Achievement. Multiple regression analysis revealed that learning Achievement scores were predicted by scores on the Amotivation subscale, Introjected Regulation subscale, Knowledge subscale, and Stimulation subscale, whereas, the External and Identified Regulation and Accomplishment subscales did not have a significant relationship with Achievement. The results are discussed in terms of differences in Iranian context and culture.

  19. Predicting the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction factors on recruitment and retention of rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Diane Smith

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain which extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction areas are most predictive of rehabilitation professionals' career satisfaction and desire to stay on the job. This article discusses the results of a survey conducted on practicing occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists regarding factors that contribute to career satisfaction and desire to stay on the job. Five hundred surveys were mailed to each profession; 463 were returned, of which 328 were able to be analyzed. Results from regression analysis showed that intrinsic factors such as professional growth and having a work environment in line with personal values are more significant in predicting career satisfaction than are extrinsic factors such as pay and continuing education. These same intrinsic factors are also significant in predicting the rehabilitation professional's desire to stay on the job. These findings are significant to healthcare managers desiring to recruit and retain qualified occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists. In addition to extrinsic benefits such as pay, healthcare managers need to focus on provision of intrinsic factors such as opportunities for professional growth, recognition of accomplishments, and opportunities for departmental input to motivate rehabilitation professionals.

  20. A Latent Curve Model of Parental Motivational Practices and Developmental Decline in Math and Science Academic Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children's pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic…

  1. A Latent Curve Model of Parental Motivational Practices and Developmental Decline in Math and Science Academic Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal approach was used to examine the effects of parental task-intrinsic and task-extrinsic motivational practices on academic intrinsic motivation in the subject areas of math and science. Parental task-intrinsic practices comprise encouragement of children's pleasure and engagement in the learning process, whereas task-extrinsic…

  2. The relationship between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction amongst employees in a public organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengedzai Mafini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: There is much research on extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction in organisations. However, empirical evidence on how such factors affect employees in public organisations in developing countries is lacking.Research purpose: To examine the relationships between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction amongst employees in a public organisation.Motivation for the study: Labour strife is an endemic phenomenon in South Africa’s public sector as evidenced by the high incidences of industrial action and labour turnover. This study contributes to this subject by identifying the extrinsic factors that could be optimised with a view to enhancing job and life satisfaction amongst government employees.Research approach, design and method: The study used the quantitative research survey approach: a questionnaire was administered to 246 employees in a South African public organisation. Extrinsic motivation factors were identified using principal components analysis. Mean score ranking was used to compare the relative importance of all factors. The conceptual framework was tested using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis.Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were observed between job satisfaction and four extrinsic motivation factors: remuneration, quality of work life, supervision and teamwork. The relationship with promotion was insignificant, but a statistically significant relationship was established with life satisfaction.Practical/managerial implications: The findings may be used to implement strategies for enhancing employee performance and industrial relations within public organisations.Contribution/value-add: The study provides evidence of the interplay between extrinsic motivation, job satisfaction and life satisfaction for public servants in developing countries.

  3. Investigation of college students’ intrinsic motivation in project based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Ocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of project-based learning on the students' intrinsic motivation in a college level course. Research using qualitative and quantitative techniques together was conducted within a period of 14 weeks. As a means of data collection, Kempler (2006's adaptation of the Internal Motivation Measurement Survey was used for the quantitative research. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions related to intrinsic motivation components were conducted for the qualitative part. Research results revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between components of the learning environment and interest. Also, a moderate and significant relationship was found between components of the learning environment and cognitive engagement. Findings indicated that there was no meaningful relationship between components of the learning environment and academic efficacy. The important results from the study showed that courses will be treated as project-based learning needs careful design and good way of planning. Prepared learning environment was seen as a social learning environment by the students. Academic pressure on students occurred very often and development of information exchange was observed more frequently.

  4. Investigation of students’ intrinsic motivation in project based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Ocak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of project-based learning on the students' intrinsic motivation in a college level course. Research using qualitative and quantitative techniques together was conducted within a period of 14 weeks. As a means of data collection, Kempler (2006's adaptation of the Internal Motivation Measurement Survey was used for the quantitative research. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions related to intrinsic motivation components were conducted for the qualitative part. Research results revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between components of the learning environment and interest. Also, a moderate and significant relationship was found between components of the learning environment and cognitive engagement. Findings indicated that there was no meaningful relationship between components of the learning environment and academic efficacy. The important results from the study showed that courses will be treated as project-based learning needs careful design and good way of planning.  Prepared learning environment was seen as a social learning environment by the students. Academic pressure on students occurred very often and development of information exchange was observed more frequently.

  5. Motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in a specialized health institution in Serbia

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    Đorđević Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health care system is specific for each country, and therefore involves different motivation and job satisfaction factors. The aim of this study was to confirm the validity and applicability of the General Nordic Questionnaire translated into Serbian for analyzing motivation and job satisfaction, as well as to analyze the motivation factors and job satisfaction of health workers at the Institute for Treatment and Rehabilitation "Niška Banja". Methods. The General Nordic Questionnaire was translated into Serbian. It included 73 questions (5 answers by the Likert scale, which formed 24 scales. In May, 2012, 196 (82.3% health workers filled in the questionnaire. Results. A correlation of Ceronbach’s alpha values between the Scandinavian study results and the results of Serbian study was statistically significant (r = 0.424; p < 0.05. The lowest Cronbach’ alfa coefficient was for the scale “learning demand in job demands” (alpha 0.28. The other scale with no satisfactory reliability was “control of work pacing” (alpha 0.46. Intrinsic motivation positively correlated with all the scales of organizational module, apart from inequality. Within this module, the degree of extrinsic motivation correlated with the support from the superior and coworkers, with fair leadership and human resources primacy. A negative correlation appeared with inequality. Conclusion. The general Nordic Questionnaire can be applied to a great extent to the conditions in our country. Our study shows a low consistency of the scales learning job demands, control of decision, control of work pacing, so the questions in them should be adjusted to the conditions in our country. Extrinsic motivation resulted in higher values than the values of intrinsic motivation in our workers, which is opposite to the results of the original questionnaire.

  6. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Motivation and job satisfaction of deans of schools of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, M L

    1991-01-01

    Factors influencing the job satisfaction of deans of schools of nursing were analyzed using the motivational theory of expectancy. A questionnaire was sent to 595 deans/directors of baccalaureate and higher degree schools of nursing accredited by the National League for Nursing. The three part questionnaire consisted of (1) Demographic data, (2) Motivation and Reward Scales, and (3) The Job Description Index. Significant relationships were found within each job satisfaction variable (P less than or equal to .05). The most significant and numerous relationships were found within the variable of pay or salary. Deans who had long tenure in their administrative positions and were associated with large universities and schools of nursing were also found to be statistically significant (P less than or equal to .05). A direct relationship between the scores on the Motivation and Reward Scale and the scores on the Job Description Index was supported. The individual and collective facets of job satisfaction were positively and significantly correlated (P less than or equal to .05) with motivation, providing support for the theoretical framework that proposes an interdependent relationship. Additional findings from regression analyses suggested that motivation is a significant predictor of job satisfaction.

  8. Associations of students' self-reports of their teachers' verbal aggression, intrinsic motivation, and perceptions of reasons for discipline in Greek physical education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiari, Alexandra; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Sakellariou, Kimon

    2006-04-01

    In this study were examined associations among physical education teachers' verbal aggressiveness as perceived by students and students' intrinsic motivation and reasons for discipline. The sample consisted of 265 Greek adolescent students who completed four questionnaires, the Verbal Aggressiveness Scale, the Lesson Satisfaction Scale, the Reasons for Discipline Scale, and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory during physical education classes. Analysis indicated significant positive correlations among students' perceptions of teachers' verbal aggressiveness with pressure/ tension, external reasons, introjected reasons, no reasons, and self-responsibility. Significant negative correlations were noted for students' perceptions of teachers' verbal aggression with lesson satisfaction, enjoyment/interest, competence, effort/importance, intrinsic reasons, and caring. Differences between the two sexes were observed in their perceptions of teachers' verbal aggressiveness, intrinsic motivation, and reasons for discipline. Findings and implications for teachers' type of communication were also discussed and suggestions for research made.

  9. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  10. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  11. Predicting Satisfaction in Physical Education from Motivational Climate and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ortiz-Camacho, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine to what extent the motivational climate perceived by students in Physical Education (PE) classes predicts self-determined motivation, and satisfaction with physical education classes. Questionnaires were administered to 758 high school students aged 13-18 years. We used the Spanish versions of…

  12. Predicting Satisfaction in Physical Education from Motivational Climate and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Ortiz-Camacho, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine to what extent the motivational climate perceived by students in Physical Education (PE) classes predicts self-determined motivation, and satisfaction with physical education classes. Questionnaires were administered to 758 high school students aged 13-18 years. We used the Spanish versions of…

  13. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent’s environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  14. Changing the Environment Based on Empowerment as Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salge, Christoph; Glackin, Cornelius; Polani, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    One aspect of intelligence is the ability to restructure your own environment so that the world you live in becomes more beneficial to you. In this paper we investigate how the information-theoretic measure of agent empowerment can provide a task-independent, intrinsic motivation to restructure the world. We show how changes in embodiment and in the environment change the resulting behaviour of the agent and the artefacts left in the world. For this purpose, we introduce an approximation of the established empowerment formalism based on sparse sampling, which is simpler and significantly faster to compute for deterministic dynamics. Sparse sampling also introduces a degree of randomness into the decision making process, which turns out to beneficial for some cases. We then utilize the measure to generate agent behaviour for different agent embodiments in a Minecraft-inspired three dimensional block world. The paradigmatic results demonstrate that empowerment can be used as a suitable generic intrinsic motivation to not only generate actions in given static environments, as shown in the past, but also to modify existing environmental conditions. In doing so, the emerging strategies to modify an agent's environment turn out to be meaningful to the specific agent capabilities, i.e., de facto to its embodiment.

  15. Robust Active Binocular Vision through Intrinsically Motivated Learning

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    Luca eLonini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficient coding hypothesis posits that sensory systems of animals strive to encode sensory signals efficiently by taking into account the redundancies in them. This principle has been very successful in explaining response properties of visual sensory neurons as adaptations to the statistics of natural images. Recently, we have begun to extend the efficient coding hypothesis to active perception through a form of intrinsically motivated learning: a sensory model learns an efficient code for the sensory signals while a reinforcement learner generates movements of the sense organs to improve the encoding of the signals. To this end, it receives an intrinsically generated reinforcement signal indicating how well the sensory model encodes the data. This approach has been tested in the context of binocular vison, leading to the autonomous development of disparity tuning and vergence control. Here we systematically investigate the robustness of the new approach in the context of a binocular vision system implemented on a robot. Robustness is an important aspect that reflects the ability of the system to deal with unmodeled disturbances or events, such as an insult to the system that displace the stereo cameras. To demonstrate the robustness of our method and its ability to self-calibrate, we introduce various perturbations and test if and how the system recovers from them. We find that 1 the system can fully recover from a perturbation that can be compensated through the system's motor degrees of freedom, 2 performance degrades gracefully if the system cannot use its motor degrees of freedom to compensate for the perturbation, and 3 recovery from a perturbation is improved if both the sensory encoding and the behavior policy can adapt to the perturbation. Overall, this work demonstrates that our intrinsically motivated learning approach for efficient coding in active perception gives rise to a self-calibrating perceptual system of high robustness.

  16. Robust active binocular vision through intrinsically motivated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonini, Luca; Forestier, Sébastien; Teulière, Céline; Zhao, Yu; Shi, Bertram E; Triesch, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The efficient coding hypothesis posits that sensory systems of animals strive to encode sensory signals efficiently by taking into account the redundancies in them. This principle has been very successful in explaining response properties of visual sensory neurons as adaptations to the statistics of natural images. Recently, we have begun to extend the efficient coding hypothesis to active perception through a form of intrinsically motivated learning: a sensory model learns an efficient code for the sensory signals while a reinforcement learner generates movements of the sense organs to improve the encoding of the signals. To this end, it receives an intrinsically generated reinforcement signal indicating how well the sensory model encodes the data. This approach has been tested in the context of binocular vison, leading to the autonomous development of disparity tuning and vergence control. Here we systematically investigate the robustness of the new approach in the context of a binocular vision system implemented on a robot. Robustness is an important aspect that reflects the ability of the system to deal with unmodeled disturbances or events, such as insults to the system that displace the stereo cameras. To demonstrate the robustness of our method and its ability to self-calibrate, we introduce various perturbations and test if and how the system recovers from them. We find that (1) the system can fully recover from a perturbation that can be compensated through the system's motor degrees of freedom, (2) performance degrades gracefully if the system cannot use its motor degrees of freedom to compensate for the perturbation, and (3) recovery from a perturbation is improved if both the sensory encoding and the behavior policy can adapt to the perturbation. Overall, this work demonstrates that our intrinsically motivated learning approach for efficient coding in active perception gives rise to a self-calibrating perceptual system of high robustness.

  17. Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Catholic School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convey, John J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between Catholic school teachers' motivation and job satisfaction. The data are derived from a survey of 716 teachers in Catholic elementary and secondary schools in three dioceses in the US (Atlanta, GA; Biloxi, MS; and Cheyenne, WY). The school's academic philosophy and its environment were important…

  18. Teachers Job Satisfaction and Motivation for School Effectiveness: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince

    2006-01-01

    Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This study assessed the…

  19. The Emerging Neuroscience of Intrinsic Motivation: A New Frontier in Self-Determination Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Ryan, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation refers to people’s spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation. In the present article, we trace the history of intrinsic motivation research, compare and contrast intrinsic motivation to closely related topics (flow, curiosity, trait plasticity), link intrinsic motivation to key findings in the comparative affective neurosciences, and review burgeoning neuroscience research on intrinsic motivation. We review converging evidence suggesting that intrinsically motivated exploratory and mastery behaviors are phylogenetically ancient tendencies that are subserved by dopaminergic systems. Studies also suggest that intrinsic motivation is associated with patterns of activity across large-scale neural networks, namely, those that support salience detection, attentional control and self-referential cognition. We suggest novel research directions and offer recommendations for the application of neuroscience methods in the study of intrinsic motivation. PMID:28392765

  20. Intrinsic motivation and organizational identification among on-demand workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockmann, Kevin W; Ballinger, Gary A

    2017-09-01

    On-demand firms provide services for clients through a network of on-demand workers ready to complete specific tasks for a set contractual price. Given such on-demand work is defined by payment on short-term contracts with no obligation for continued employment, there is little reason to believe on-demand workers experience more than extrinsic motivation and a transactional relationship with the on-demand firm. However, using self-determination theory, we argue that to the degree that on-demand work fulfills innate psychological needs individual on-demand workers will develop intrinsic motivation, which further leads to organizational identification with the on-demand firm. Across 2 survey-based studies we find support for this path to organizational identification. This adds to the literature on motivation and identification by strengthening the link between individual needs and the individual-organizational relationship. Implications for theory and for the management of on-demand workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Motivation and satisfaction among community health workers in Morogoro Region, Tanzania: nuanced needs and varied ambitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpembeni, Rose N M; Bhatnagar, Aarushi; LeFevre, Amnesty; Chitama, Dereck; Urassa, David P; Kilewo, Charles; Mdee, Rebecca M; Semu, Helen; Winch, Peter J; Killewo, Japhet; Baqui, Abdullah H; George, Asha

    2015-06-05

    In 2012, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Tanzania, approved national guidelines and training materials for community health workers (CHWs) in integrated maternal, newborn and child health (Integrated MNCH), with CHWs trained and deployed across five districts of Morogoro Region soon after. To inform future scale up, this study assessed motivation and satisfaction among these CHWs. A survey of all CHWs trained by the Integrated MNCH Programme was conducted in the last quarter of 2013. Motivation and satisfaction were assessed using a five-point Likert scale with 29 and 27 items based on a literature review and discussions with CHW programme stakeholders. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify motivation and satisfaction determinants. Out of 238 eligible CHWs, 96 % were included in the study. Findings showed that respondents were motivated to become CHWs due to altruism (work on MNCH, desire to serve God, work hard) and intrinsic needs (help community, improve health, pride) than due to external stimuli (monetary incentives, skill utilization, community respect or hope for employment). CHWs were satisfied by relationships with health workers and communities, job aids and the capacity to provide services. CHWs were dissatisfied with the lack of transportation, communication devices and financial incentives for carrying out their tasks. Factors influencing motivation and satisfaction did not differ across CHW socio-demographic characteristics. Nonetheless, older and less educated CHWs were more likely to be motivated by altruism, intrinsic needs and skill utilization, community respect and hope for employment. Less educated CHWs were more satisfied with service and quality factors and more wealthy CHWs satisfied with job aids. A combination of financial and non-financial incentives is required to support motivation and satisfaction among CHWs. Although CHWs joined mainly due to their altruistic nature, they became discontented with

  2. Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a person-centered, longitudinal approach to identify and evaluate naturally occurring combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 490 third- through fifth-grade students. Cluster analysis revealed 3 groups, characterized by high levels of both motivations ("high quantity"): high intrinsic motivation but low…

  3. Intrinsic Motivation to Learn: The Nexus between Psychological Health and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily; Smith, Liana; Hirchert, Tyrell

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) to learn, if cultivated, can lead to many academic and social/emotional improvements among K-12 students. This article discusses intrinsic motivation to learn as it relates to Self Determination Theory and the trouble with relying solely on extrinsic motivators. The academic benefits of IM in the specific subject areas of…

  4. Longitudinal Pathways from Math Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement to Math Course Accomplishments and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2013-01-01

    Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  7. Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.

    2014-01-01

    The authors used a person-centered, longitudinal approach to identify and evaluate naturally occurring combinations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 490 third- through fifth-grade students. Cluster analysis revealed 3 groups, characterized by high levels of both motivations ("high quantity"): high intrinsic motivation but low…

  8. Intrinsic motivation as a predictor of work outcome after vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic motivation is a construct commonly used in explaining goal-directed behavior. In people with schizophrenia, intrinsic motivation is usually subsumed as a feature of negative symptoms or underlying neurocognitive dysfunction. A growing literature reflects an interest in defining and measuring motivational impairment in schizophrenia and in delineating the specific role of intrinsic motivation as both an independent predictor and a mediator of psychosocial functioning. This cross-sectional study examined intrinsic motivation as a predictor of vocational outcomes for 145 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder participating in a 6-month work rehabilitation trial. Correlation and mediation analyses examined baseline intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms in relation to work hours and work performance. Data support a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms and significant correlations with outcome variables, such that lower negative symptoms and greater intrinsic motivation were associated with better work functioning. Moreover, in this sample, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationships between negative symptoms, work productivity, and work performance. These results have significant implications on the design of work rehabilitation interventions for people with schizophrenia and support a role for targeting intrinsic motivation directly to influence vocational functioning. Future directions for research and intervention are discussed.

  9. The Relational-Behavior Model: The Relationship between Intrinsic Motivational Instruction and Extrinsic Motivation in Psychologically Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study examined the relational-behavior model (RBM) as a method of intrinsic motivational instruction in psychology courses. Among a sample of 33 college students enrolled in two undergraduate psychology courses, a Spearman rho analysis revealed a significant relationship between the intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. student/class…

  10. Relationship Between Intrinsic Motivation and Undergraduate Students' Depression and Stress: The Moderating Effect of Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Do points, levels and leaderboards harm intrinsic motivation? An empirical analysis of common gamification elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekler, Elisa D.; Brühlmann, Florian; Opwis, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements - points, leaderboard, levels - on users' performance, intrinsic...

  12. Exploring the Teaching Motivations, Satisfaction, and Challenges of Veterinary Preceptors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Cary T; Myhre, Douglas L; Hecker, Kent G; Bailey, Jeremy V; Lockyer, Jocelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Optimization of clinical veterinary education requires an understanding of what compels veterinary preceptors in their role as clinical educators, what satisfaction they receive from the teaching experience, and what struggles they encounter while supervising students in private practice. We explored veterinary preceptors' teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges by undertaking a thematic content analysis of 97 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. Preceptor motivations included intrinsic factors (obligation to the profession, maintenance of competence, satisfaction) and extrinsic factors (promotion of the veterinary field, recruitment). Veterinarians enjoyed observing the learner (motivation and enthusiasm, skill development) and engaging with the learner (sharing their passion for the profession, developing professional relationships). Challenges for veterinary preceptors included variability in learner interest and engagement, time management, and lack of guidance from the veterinary medicine program. We found dynamic interactions among the teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges for preceptors. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain the veterinary preceptor, there is a need to recognize the interplay between the incentives and disincentives for teaching, to foster the motivations and enjoyment for teaching, and to mitigate the challenges of teaching in community private practice.

  13. The Relationship Between Sex and Intrinsic Job Satisfaction of Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Nancy E.

    Relatively few studies of job satisfaction have dealt with sex as a significant variable. Recent studies have determined that Maslow's hierarchy of needs has particular application to the work situation and to an examination of sex differences in intrinsic job satisfaction. A questionnaire based on Maslow's hierarchy was sent to all of the 378…

  14. Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenemark, Marika; Vernby, Asa; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-04-01

    Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A stratified random sample of 450 parents were randomized into three incentive groups: (a) no incentive; (b) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply; (c) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply and an additional lottery ticket upon reply within 1 week. The overall response rate across the three groups was 65.3%. The response rate was highest in the no incentive group (69.3%) and lowest in the one plus one lottery ticket group (62.0%). In a survival analysis, the difference between the two response curves was significant by the log-rank test (P = 0.04), with the no incentive group having a shorter time to response than the incentive group. Our findings suggest that the use of lottery tickets as incentives to increase participation in a mail questionnaire among parents may be less valuable or even harmful. Incentives may undermine motivation in studies in which the intrinsic motivation of the respondents is already high.

  15. The Impact of Motivation on Employees� Performance and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-Eliza Micu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Impact of Motivation on Employees� Performance and Satisfaction Abstract:The employees� motivation in the workplace was and still is present for many specialists in from the organizational psychology which continues to explore how we relate to our work and what really motivates us. Although literature offers a wide range of definitions in the process of motivation in the end they all converge on the same content. In everyday language, by reasoning it is understood "the why" for which an action is performed. The cause is a compulsion, desire, energy, envy. Meeting the needs will be done in a certain priority, specific to each individual. To be motivated it must be: a goal to be achieved, a direction of action, an excitement state, feelings that will generate efforts to achieve the goal. The most plausible explanation regarding the motivation is given by Anthony Bagshawe said that "motivation is something that drives us to do what we do." Motivation has always been a complex and delicate issue of great subtlety. It consists in discovering and exploitation of the internal resources of people and identification ways to make them work better and to spend energy more efficiently.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations in the competitive context: an examination of person-situation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdeh, Sami; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2009-10-01

    The current study examined Intrinsic Motivation Orientation and Extrinsic Motivation Orientation (Work Preference Inventory; Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, & Tighe, 1994) as potential trait-level moderators of the way Internet chess players responded to the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of the chess games they played. On the basis of the defining characteristics of these 2 types of motivational orientations, we predicted that (a) Intrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a stronger curvilinear relationship between challenge and enjoyment and (b) Extrinsic Motivation Orientation would be associated with a heightened affective responsivity to competitive outcome (i.e., winning vs. losing). Results supported the predictions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Relationship between Motivation for Learning EFL and Intrinsic Motivation for Learning in General among Japanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Junko Matsuzaki

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated children's motivation for learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and intrinsic motivation for learning in general. The participants were 268 third-sixth graders in a public school in Japan. Data were collected using two questionnaires, one measuring motivation for learning EFL and the other investigating intrinsic…

  18. Relationship between Motivation for Learning EFL and Intrinsic Motivation for Learning in General among Japanese Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Junko Matsuzaki

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated children's motivation for learning English as a foreign language (EFL) and intrinsic motivation for learning in general. The participants were 268 third-sixth graders in a public school in Japan. Data were collected using two questionnaires, one measuring motivation for learning EFL and the other investigating intrinsic…

  19. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities. Cross-lagged models showed that achievement predicted intrinsic motivation from Grades 1 to 2, and from Grades 2 to 4. However, intrinsic motivation did not predict achievement at any time. This developmental pattern of association was gender invariant. Contrary to the hypothesis that motivation and achievement are reciprocally associated over time, our results point to a directional association from prior achievement to subsequent intrinsic motivation. Results are discussed in light of their theoretical and practical implications.

  20. The effect of professional culture on intrinsic motivation among physicians in an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Today, most healthcare organizations aim to manage professionals' motivation through monetary incentives, such as pay for performance. However, addressing motivation extrinsically can involve negative effects, such as disturbed teamwork, gaming the system, and crowd-out of intrinsic motivation. To offset these side effects, it is crucial to support professionals' intrinsic motivation actively, which is largely determined by enjoyment- and obligation-based social norms that derive from professionals' culture. For this study, a professional culture questionnaire was designed and validated, the results of which uncovered three factors: relationship to work, relationship to colleagues, and relationship to organization. These factors served as independent variables for regression analyses. Second, Amabile's validated work preference inventory was used to measure intrinsic motivation as a dependent variable. The regression analysis was controlled for sex, age, and experience. The study revealed that relationship to work had the strongest (and a positive) impact on intrinsic motivation in general and on Amabile's intrinsic subscales, enjoyment and challenge. Relationship to organization had a negative impact on intrinsic motivation and both subscales, and relationship to colleagues showed a low positive significance for the intrinsic scale only. Healthcare organizations have mostly focused on targeting professionals' extrinsic motivation. However, managing dimensions of professional culture can help support professionals' intrinsic motivation without incurring the side effects of monetary incentives.

  1. Managing employee motivation: Exploring the connections between managers' enforcement of command systems, employee perceptions, and employee intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2015-01-01

    ” enforcement of a command system (obligatory teacher-produced student plans) is associated with teacher intrinsic motivation. Results show that teachers experiencing a “hard” enforcement have lower intrinsic motivation than teachers experiencing a “soft” enforcement. As expected by motivation crowding theory......A number of studies show that the use of external interventions, such as command systems and economic incentives, can decrease employee intrinsic motivation. Our knowledge of why the size of “the hidden cost of rewards” differs between organizations is, however, still sparse. In this paper, we...... analyze whether local managers—the primary enforcers of external interventions—affect how employees perceive a command system and thereby affect employee intrinsic motivation. Using a multilevel dataset of 1,190 teachers and 32 school principals, we test whether principals’ use of “hard”, “mixed” or “soft...

  2. Intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia: relationships to cognitive function, depression, anxiety, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Yodkovik, Naomi; Sypher-Locke, Hannah; Hanewinkel, Melissa

    2008-11-01

    The goal of the current project was to assess subjective reports of intrinsic motivation and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational Trait Questionnaire to examine 3 components of intrinsic motivation (personal mastery, competitive excellence, motivation related to anxiety). They also examined fluid intelligence, context processing, and working memory, as well as self-reports of mood and personal traits related to motivation. Participants were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self-reports of personal mastery and competitive excellence did not differ between controls and individuals with schizophrenia, though patients did report significantly higher motivation related to anxiety. Among controls, but not patients, self-reports of intrinsic motivation were strongly related to cognitive performance. In contrast, both controls and patients showed similar strong relationships between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and related measures of mood and personality. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that motivational deficits in schizophrenia reflect impairments in intrinsic motivation. However, they do suggest that the normal relationship between self-reports of intrinsic motivation and cognitive function is disrupted in schizophrenia.

  3. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Reinforcement: The Role of Task Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLamarter, William A.; Krepps, Patrice E.

    Intrinsic motivation and self-reinforcement can be used identically to explain behavioral persistence in the absence of external reward. Yet the relationship between these concepts has not been adequately explored. Since intrinsic motivation appears to be dependent on an interesting task and self-reinforcement independent of task, it was…

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Evaluating Benefits and Drawbacks from College Instructors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature has been examined and discussed the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on student learning at the college level. Intrinsically motivated individuals have been able to develop high regards for learning various types of course information without the inclusion of external rewards or reinforcements. In…

  5. Competence Beliefs and Perceived Ability Evaluations: How Do They Contribute to Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Verena; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    To study the role of students' competence beliefs and their perceived teachers' ability evaluations for intrinsic motivation and achievement in math, 459 second graders from 27 German classrooms were examined. Students provided self-reports on their intrinsic motivation, competence beliefs and perceived teachers' ability evaluations in math.…

  6. The Roles of Competence Beliefs and Goal Orientations for Change in Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinath, Birgit; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated 3 theoretically plausible explanations for changes in school-related intrinsic motivation. A sample of 348 German 11th-grade students was followed for 1 year. At 2 measurement occasions, students completed self-reports regarding their school-related intrinsic motivation, goal orientations, and competence beliefs. In…

  7. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities.…

  8. Academic and Family Conditions Associated with Intrinsic Academic Motivation in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabea, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Intrinsic academic motivation is one of the most important psychological concepts in education, and it is related to academic outcomes in medical students. This study examined the relationships between academic and family conditions and intrinsic academic motivation. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of…

  9. A Descriptive Study of Intrinsic Motivation in Three California Accredited Model Continuation High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The first purpose of this study was to identify and describe teachers' perceptions of intrinsic motivation in classrooms among at-risk adolescent students in 3 model continuation high schools. The second purpose of this study was to identify and describe teacher practices that promote intrinsic motivation among at-risk adolescent students…

  10. Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics in Elementary School: A Longitudinal Investigation of Their Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Boivin, Michel; Guay, Frédéric; Kovas, Yulia; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Séguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between intrinsic motivation and achievement in mathematics in a sample of 1,478 Canadian school-age children followed from Grades 1 to 4 (ages 7-10). Children self-reported their intrinsic motivation toward mathematics, whereas achievement was measured through direct assessment of mathematics abilities.…

  11. Motivating Children to Learn Effectively: Exploring the Value of Intrinsic Integration in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habgood, M. P. Jacob; Ainsworth, Shaaron E.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "intrinsic motivation" lies at the heart of the user engagement created by digital games. Yet despite this, educational software has traditionally attempted to harness games as extrinsic motivation by using them as a sugar coating for learning content. This article tests the concept of "intrinsic integration" as…

  12. Intrinsic Motivation and Learning Performance: Implications for Individual Educational Programming for Learners with Mild Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzky, Harvey N.; Schultz, Geoffrey F.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of current theories of intrinsic motivation for educational practices for mildly handicapped learners are reviewed. The interaction of classroom demand environments, the effects of teacher reward and punishment, and individual differences in intrinsic motivation are discussed in relation to behavioral effectiveness and to academic…

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Evaluating Benefits and Drawbacks from College Instructors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of literature has been examined and discussed the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on student learning at the college level. Intrinsically motivated individuals have been able to develop high regards for learning various types of course information without the inclusion of external rewards or reinforcements. In…

  14. Effects of Success/Failure and Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation Using a Competitive Motor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Lindsay R.; McKinlay, Sue

    1981-01-01

    Female high school students participated in a motor task to assess the effects of success/failure feedback and extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. It was found that a significant change in intrinsic motivation was due to the effects of success/failure feedback, but not to the effect of a tangible reward. (Authors/FG)

  15. Effects of Success/Failure and Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation Using a Competitive Motor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Lindsay R.; McKinlay, Sue

    1981-01-01

    Female high school students participated in a motor task to assess the effects of success/failure feedback and extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. It was found that a significant change in intrinsic motivation was due to the effects of success/failure feedback, but not to the effect of a tangible reward. (Authors/FG)

  16. The relationship between employee motivation, job satisfaction and corporate culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Roos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, relationships between employee motivation, job satisfaction and corporate culture were hypothesised and investigated. The sample that was investigated consisted of the majority of the permanent-staff complement of a marketing research company in South Africa. Three instruments were used to measure the constructs concerned, namely the Motivation Questionnaire (MQ, the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances Questionnaire (WLO and the Corporate Culture Questionnaire (CCQ. Pearson product-moment coeffcients were then calculated and the linear relationships were further explored through canonical-correlation analysis. A possible moderator effect of employee motivation was also explored. The fndings provided support for the linear relationships and, more importantly, identifed the drivers of these relationships. The fndings did not support the moderator effect. Using these fndings, marketing research organisations, in particular, can be guided in terms of workplace attitudes under managerial infuence.

  17. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick; Kamran eShafi

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivati...

  18. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  19. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  20. Interaction of external, introjected, and identified regulation with intrinsic motivation in exercise: Relationships with exercise enjoyment

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, SP; Karageorghis, CI

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the way in which the exercise-related motives of external regulation, introjected regulation, and identified regulation interacted with intrinsic motivation to relate to exercise enjoyment. The study was conducted to test the "additive relationship hypothesis" emanating from Vallerand and Fortier's (1998) theoretical position regarding the interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in exercise. Exercise participants (N = 516) responded to a self-report que...

  1. A validity generalization procedure to test relations between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and influence tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E; Moss, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    The relations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with use of consultative, legitimating, and pressure influence tactics were examined using validity generalization procedures. 5 to 7 field studies with cumulative samples exceeding 800 were used to test each relationship. Significance was found for relation between agents' intrinsic motivation and their use of consultative influence tactics and agents' extrinsic motivation and their use of legitimating influence tactics.

  2. Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modeling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Lally, Phillippa

    2013-10-01

    Habit formation is thought to aid maintenance of physical activity, but little research is available into determinants of habit strength aside from repeated performance. Previous work has shown that intrinsically motivated physical activity, underpinned by inherent satisfaction derived from activity, is more likely to be sustained. We explored whether this might reflect a tendency for self-determined activity to become more strongly habitual. A sample of 192 adults aged 18-30 completed measures of motivational regulation, intention, behaviour, and habit strength. Results showed that self-determined regulation interacted with past behaviour in predicting habit strength: prior action was more predictive of habit strength among more autonomously motivated participants. There was an unexpected direct effect of self-determined regulation on habit strength, independently of past behaviour. Findings offer possible directions for future habit formation work.

  3. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development: friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Hawley, Patricia H; Little, Todd D

    2010-12-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and extrinsic friendship motivation on friendship selection and social influence by utilizing social network modeling. In addition, longitudinal relations among motivation and friendship quality were estimated with structural equation modeling. Extrinsic motivation predicted activity in making friendship nominations during the sixth grade and lower friendship quality across time. Intrinsic motivation predicted inactivity in making friendship nominations during the sixth, popularity as a friend across the transition to middle school, and higher friendship quality across time. Social influence effects were observed for both motives, but were more pronounced for intrinsic motivation.

  4. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for healthful dietary change in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satia, Jessie A; Galanko, Joseph A

    2007-01-01

    To describe associations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for dietary change with participant characteristics and current diet among African Americans. Cross-sectional survey of 658 African American adults in North Carolina provided information on intrinsic (self-image and health concerns) and extrinsic (social influence) motivation scales, participant characteristics, and diet. Most respondents considered it important to change their diet for health reasons; fewer were motivated by self-image or social influence. Motivation scales were significantly associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial characteristics and fat, but not fruit/vegetable consumption, after adjustment for covariates (Pintrinsic and extrinsic motives may improve the effectiveness of dietary interventions in African Americans.

  5. The Impact of Nonlinear Pedagogy on Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Brendan; Renshaw, Ian; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Providing motivationally supportive physical education experiences for learners is crucial, since empirical evidence in sport and physical education research has associated intrinsic motivation with positive educational outcomes. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a valuable framework for examining motivationally supportive…

  6. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in the Academic Pursuits of Nontraditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, Shani; Karlin, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role of intrinsic motivation in the academic pursuits of nontraditional students. The Academic Motivational Scale (AMS) was administered to 35 undergraduate students, 6 males and 29 females, aged 25 to 49 to explore their motivational orientations in choosing to attend college. The results of the study show that…

  7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  8. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  9. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Kathryn E.; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots. PMID:24198797

  10. A game theoretic framework for incentive-based models of intrinsic motivation in artificial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Kathryn E; Shafi, Kamran

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players' optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  11. A Game Theoretic Framework for Incentive-Based Models of Intrinsic Motivation in Artificial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Elizabeth Merrick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research is focusing on understanding and building artificial systems that can achieve open-ended development influenced by intrinsic motivations. In particular, research in robotics and machine learning is yielding systems and algorithms with increasing capacity for self-directed learning and autonomy. Traditional software architectures and algorithms are being augmented with intrinsic motivations to drive cumulative acquisition of knowledge and skills. Intrinsic motivations have recently been considered in reinforcement learning, active learning and supervised learning settings among others. This paper considers game theory as a novel setting for intrinsic motivation. A game theoretic framework for intrinsic motivation is formulated by introducing the concept of optimally motivating incentive as a lens through which players perceive a game. Transformations of four well-known mixed-motive games are presented to demonstrate the perceived games when players’ optimally motivating incentive falls in three cases corresponding to strong power, affiliation and achievement motivation. We use agent-based simulations to demonstrate that players with different optimally motivating incentive act differently as a result of their altered perception of the game. We discuss the implications of these results both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents or robots.

  12. Emotional labour strategies as mediators of the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction in Chinese teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjun; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' public service motivation (PSM) and their job satisfaction levels and to investigate the mediating effects of surface acting (SA) and deep acting (DA) on that relationship. The teacher PSM scale, as well as emotional labour strategies and intrinsic satisfaction (IS) and extrinsic satisfaction (ES) scales, were administered to 317 primary and middle school teachers. Results indicated that PSM among Chinese teachers was significantly and positively related to both IS and ES. Furthermore, structural equation modelling analysis showed that SA and DA played mediating roles in the PSM-IS and PSM-ES relationships, respectively. These findings provide a new perspective that explains the mechanism underlying the association between PSM among teachers and their job satisfaction levels. Finally, the possible explanations and implications are discussed.

  13. Transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation, and trust: a moderated-mediated model of workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchie, Stacey M

    2013-04-01

    Two studies examine the role of motivation and trust in the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and employees' safety behavior. Study 1 tested the prediction that intrinsic and identified regulation motivations mediate the relationship between safety-specific transformational leadership and employees' safety behaviors. Study 2 further explored this relationship by testing the prediction that the mediating role of intrinsic motivation is dependent on employees' level of trust in their leader. Survey data from the U.K. construction industry supported both predictions. However, the mediating role of intrinsic motivation was found only for challenge safety citizenship behaviors (i.e., voice) and not for affiliative safety citizenship behaviors (i.e., helping). These findings suggest that employees' intrinsic motivation is important to the effectiveness of leaders' efforts to promote some but not all forms of safety behavior.

  14. The interactive roles of mastery climate and performance climate in predicting intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, R; Nerstad, C G L; Säfvenbom, R

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the interplay between perceived mastery and performance climates in predicting increased intrinsic motivation. The results of a two-wave longitudinal study comprising of 141 individuals from three military academies revealed a positive relationship between a perceived mastery climate and increased intrinsic motivation only for individuals who perceived a low performance climate. This finding suggests a positive relationship between a perceived mastery climate and increased intrinsic motivation only when combined with low perceptions of a performance climate. Hence, introducing a performance climate in addition to a mastery climate can be an undermining motivational strategy, as it attenuates the positive relationship between a mastery climate and increased intrinsic motivation. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of Academic Performance, Academic Motivation, Hope for the Future and Life Satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of a Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaghan Eslami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to investigate the evaluation of academic achievement, academic motivation and hope for the future and life satisfaction of Pharmacy Students of the Medical Sciences University of Ahvaz and their relationship with the school years passed.Methods: The samples in this study were all pharmacy students studying in the College of Pharmacy, the Medical University of Ahvaz in the year 93-94. Moreover, standard questionnaires were used by this study for collecting data. In order to collect data with regard to hope, life satisfaction, motivation and academic satisfaction, the questionnaire of Snyder hope Scale (1991, Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire (SWLS, lepper motivation scale (2005 and Bahrani and Jokar questionnaire (1378 were used respectively.Moreover, data on Academic performance were acquired using the score of the students and the number of students dropping out in each entry and the data were analysed by using SPSS 20.Results: The results did not indicate any significant different in an investigation of five class of students and from four variables of hope, Academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction. But contrast test for combined group showed that academic motivation and academic performance in freshmen students are significantly higher than the other four inputs.Third-year students possess less Academic motivation than other students.Senior students' Academic performance was also significantly lower than of students from other school years.Conclusion: freshmen students face challenges of the new environment, and this affects their academic performance. Besides in the third year of pharmacy school curriculum, pharmacy students pass the basic exam and the main pharmaceutical courses start for them, this might be the reason that their intrinsic motivation increase.  

  16. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  17. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  18. Connection between Job Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Work Performance in Romanian Trade Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Maria LUT

    2012-01-01

    On defining the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and work performance is still not complete agreement among experts, given the complexity of the phenomena studied. Over time, the relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction has been addressed in many ways in the organizational psychology. The issue of the connection between job satisfaction and work performance is also at least as controversial as the issues mentioned above with r...

  19. Perceptions of motivational climate and teachers' strategies to sustain discipline as predictors of intrinsic motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Melchor; Ruiz, Luis-Miguel; López, Esther

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the relationship among pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate, pupils' perceptions of teachers' strategies to maintain discipline and pupils' intrinsic motivation in physical education. A sample of 2189 Spanish adolescents, ages 13 to 17 years, completed Spanish versions of the EPCM, SSDS, and IMI. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to confirm the factorial validity of the scales. Then, the relationship among the variables was explored through Structural Equation Modelling. The most important predictors of pupils' intrinsic motivation were the perceived mastery climate, and perceived teachers' emphasis on intrinsic reasons to maintain discipline. Perceived performance climate and perceived teachers' strategies to maintain discipline based on introjected reasons and indifference, predicted pupils' tension-pressure. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical propositions of self-determination theory and practical issues of enhancing adolescents' motivation in physical education.

  20. Managing employee motivation: Exploring the connections between managers' enforcement of command systems, employee perceptions, and employee intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria Falk; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies show that the use of external interventions, such as command systems and economic incentives, can decrease employee intrinsic motivation. Our knowledge of why the size of “the hidden cost of rewards” differs between organizations is, however, still sparse. In this paper, we...... analyze whether local managers—the primary enforcers of external interventions—affect how employees perceive a command system and thereby affect employee intrinsic motivation. Using a multilevel dataset of 1,190 teachers and 32 school principals, we test whether principals’ use of “hard”, “mixed” or “soft......, part of this association is mediated by teachers’ perceptions of the command. These findings support the motivation crowding argument that employee intrinsic motivation depend on the employees’ need for self-determination....

  1. On Organization Motivation Issues in Terms of Extrinsic Motivation and Intrinsic Motivation%内生和外生视角下组织激励问题的研究综述及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金辉; 吴洁; 尹洁

    2011-01-01

    Achievements have been made in the field of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. There are many differences between the two kinds of motivations in conception, essence and func- tions. Intrinsic motivation involves people doing an activity because they find it interesting and derive spontaneous satisfaction from the activity itself. Extrinsic motivation, in contrast, requires an instru- mentality between the activity and some separable consequences such as rewards. These two motiva- tion theories tend to parallel two managerial strategies: scientific management and participative man- agement. Some researchers find that extrinsic motivation may undermine or enhance intrinsic motiva- tion, and extrinsic motivation may be internalized into intrinsic motivation with the development of in- dividual's cognitive ability and self--efficacy. Future studies could focus on such topics: perceived feedback implied by the extrinsic motivation~ certain factors of social context and individual level which affect internalization of extrinsic motivation and empirical research on extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation.%当前,对外生和内生激励的研究已取得了一定的成果。外生激励与内生激励存在着概念、本质和功效上的差异。内生激励是指人们发现该行为本身有趣并且可以从行为中获得满足,而外生激励是指人们在行为发生之后,会从与行为本身无关的一些外界回报(如物质奖励)中获得满足,两种激励机制下的管理风格各不相同。外生激励对内生激励可能存在着“挤入”或“挤出”两种效应。随着个体对外部的认知能力提升以及自我的发展的需要,外生激励会逐步内化。未来应该在个体感知的外生激励信息反馈、外生激励内化的情景因素、外生激励内化的个体因素、外生激励与内生激励的组织实证研究这四个方向进一步加以研究。

  2. The Impact of Curiosity and External Regulation on Intrinsic Motivation: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon-keung, Yau; Man-shan, Kan; Lai-fong, Cheng Alison

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to identify: (1) the factors affecting the intrinsic motivation of university students in Hong Kong; and (2) gender differences in the perception of intrinsic motivation in Hong Kong higher education environment. The factors of curiosity and external regulation with intrinsic motivation are taken into investigation…

  3. Assessing the Factors Deemed to Support Individual Student Intrinsic Motivation in Technology Supported Online and Face-to-Face Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Vogel, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    Research has established that intrinsic motivation has a positive effect on learning and academic achievement. In order to investigate the phenomenon of intrinsic motivation in technology-supported learning environments, this paper investigates the factors deemed to support individual student intrinsic motivation in online discussions. A research…

  4. Social Cognitive and Demographic Factors Related to Adolescents' Intrinsic Satisfaction with School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Elena; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Based on social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study is to examine certain social cognitive and demographic factors involved in intrinsic satisfaction amongst secondary school students of different cultural backgrounds in a new migrant-receiving country. Given the role of schools in youth acculturation and adaptation, it is important to…

  5. Social Cognitive and Demographic Factors Related to Adolescents' Intrinsic Satisfaction with School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Elena; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Based on social cognitive theory, the purpose of this study is to examine certain social cognitive and demographic factors involved in intrinsic satisfaction amongst secondary school students of different cultural backgrounds in a new migrant-receiving country. Given the role of schools in youth acculturation and adaptation, it is important to…

  6. Intrinsic - external sport motivation as regards sex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mroczkowska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of the two dependencies. First of all, examining if the self-evaluation of athlete’s sport predisposition has some connection with an internal or external motivation. Secondly, checking if so called “male” motives oscillate around needs of winning and gaining some social position and “female” around an affiliation and personal development. The research was conducted on a group of fencers (W-29; M-41; aged from ~6 to ~18 years old using the self-evaluation scale (estimation of sport predisposition, effort and abilities and the 7 factors SRM scale (Sport Rivalry Motives. Generally, the research showed that interior motives of the sport practice are more important for athletes, regardless of the sex. However, this regularity characterized more girls who turned to be significantly stronger motivated by internal enforcements than boys. Motives of affiliation and self-development are valued equally high and motive of the financial gratification equally low by both sexes. The crucial differentiation of boys and girls was seen as considering the valuation of the possibility of the stress release and joy of motion (appreciated more by girls and the possibility of winning and gaining social appreciation (regarded higher by boys. Thus the expectation that higher self-esteem is connected with the exterior motivation did not confirm. Girls, despite of their significantly lower self-evaluation of the sport predisposition are more strongly motivated by the internal enforcements than boys are.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of intrinsic motivation and competence beliefs: is there a relation over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinath, Birgit; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored whether competence beliefs and intrinsic motivation for different school domains show reciprocal effects over time. A sample of 670 German elementary school pupils (M= 8.8 years, SD= 0.51) was followed over 1 year. At 4 measurement occasions, children completed self-reports on their intrinsic motivation and competence beliefs for math, German, and school in general. Latent growth models revealed that intrinsic motivation and competence beliefs decreased over time. Comparing correlational and cross-lagged structural equation models yielded only weak evidence for cross-lagged influences between the 2 constructs. Results suggest that the developmental curves of competence beliefs and intrinsic motivation might be less inextricably interwoven than frequently assumed.

  8. Relationships of Parental Behavior to "Disadvantaged" Children's Intrinsic-Extrinsic Motivation for Task Striving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; Houlihan, Kevin A.

    1972-01-01

    In this study, the relevance of striving situations to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was manipulated by varying the degree of involvement in the child's performance displayed by the experimenter. (Authors)

  9. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng-Wah Teo; Selina Khoo; Rebecca Wong; Eng-Hoe Wee; Boon-Hooi Lim; Shabesan Sit Rengasamy

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type...

  10. Constraining the Size Growth of the Task Space with Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation using Demonstrations

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Sao Mai; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for learning a highly redundant inverse model in continuous and non-preset environments. Our Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation by Demonstrations (SGIM-D) algorithm combines the advantages of both social learning and intrinsic motivation, to specialise in a wide range of skills, while lessening its dependence on the teacher. SGIM-D is evaluated on a fishing skill learning experiment.

  11. Math grades and intrinsic motivation in elementary school: A longitudinal investigation of their association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2017-06-01

    It is often argued that the negative development of intrinsic motivation in elementary school strongly depends on the presence of school grades because grades represent extrinsic consequences and achievement feedback that are supposed to influence intrinsically motivated behaviour. However, only a few studies have tested this hypothesis. Therefore, we investigated the role of school grades in inter- and intra-individual changes in elementary school students' intrinsic motivation from when grades were first introduced until the end of elementary school, when students in Germany receive recommendations for a secondary school type on the basis of their prior performance in school. A sample of 542 German elementary school students (t1 : M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.57) was followed for 2 years from the end of Grade 2 to the end of Grade 4. At seven measurement occasions, children's math grades and their domain-specific intrinsic motivation were assessed. Latent growth curve models showed differences in trajectories of intrinsic motivation across students rather than uniform development. Moreover, students' trajectories of grades and intrinsic motivation were only weakly associated. A latent cross-lagged model revealed that reciprocal effects between the two constructs over time were small at best. Contrary to theoretical considerations, our results indicate that negative performance feedback in the form of grades does not necessarily lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. This calls into question the common opinion that a perception of being less competent, as reflected by poor grades, is responsible for weakening students' intrinsic motivation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation among engineering students: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahcene, Abderrahim; Lashari, Sana Anwar; Lashari, Tahira Anwar

    2017-08-01

    An aspect that has been exhaustively researched in the motivation of the higher education discipline is the engineering students’ process of goal-orientation, epistemological beliefs towards intrinsic motivation. However, the focus of those researchers as commonly the influence of goal orientations and epistemological beliefs on intrinsic motivation; they have not combined the two factors and examined relationships among goal orientation, epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, although there is a plethora of research on the matter in related disciplines, the researchers commonly do not have consensus on a term that could be used to discuss how engineering students are motivation. This paper identifies literature whose characteristics have focused on the concept of motivation. Attempts were made to retrieve related lietarure empirically examined motivation, extrinsic motivation, Goal orientation, Epistemological beliefs, and intrinsic motivation to gain insight information. It is believed that the present study may help educators in organizing content, preparing curriculum, and evaluate student tasks, so that students can begin to develop more mature and effective epistemological beliefs and design their proper goals for their learning process.

  13. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  14. Teacher Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Positive Psychological Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…

  15. Teacher Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Positive Psychological Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…

  16. How to encourage intrinsic motivation in the clinical teaching environment?: a systematic review from the self-determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Orsini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Internalization of students’ motivation towards an intrinsic form is associated with increased interest, commitment, learning, and satisfaction with education. Self-Determination theory postulates that intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of self-regulation are the desired type of motivation; as they have been associated with deep learning, better performance and well-being. It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment. Methods: Electronic searches were performed across four databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and ERIC, relevant journals, and retrieved bibliography of selected articles. In total, searches produced 4,869 references, from which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results: Main themes were coded in three categories: The support of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The research-based evidence appears to be of reasonable quality, and indicates that teachers should work to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs to foster internalization of self-regulation. Our findings suggest that teachers should interact with students in a more ‘human centred’ teaching style, as these actions predict motivational internalization. Several themes emerged from different contexts and further investigation should expand them. Conclusion: This review identified actions that clinical teachers could implement in their daily work to support students’ self-determination. Autonomy supportive teaching in health professions educations would benefit students and may actually result in more effective health care delivery.

  17. Intrinsic Motivation and Environmental Factors Affecting Research of Social Work Faculty on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Janice G.; Short, Glenda F. Lester

    2010-01-01

    Within the context of Self-determination Theory, this research identifies intrinsic motivation and environmental factors that support social-work-faculty research in aging. Intrinsic factors include faculty's interest in gerontology as a field of practice, the desire to advance knowledge in the field of gerontology, including producing…

  18. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  19. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  20. Relationships among satisfaction, treatment motivation, and expectations in orthodontic patients: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Weihong Li, Shimei Wang, Yanzhen Zhang The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Few research projects have looked at patient satisfaction with treatment outcome and factors contributing to satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine treatment motivation and expectation associated with treatment-outcome satisfaction in a group of adolescent nonextraction orthodontic patients. We hypothesized that there would be significant correlations among treatment-outcome satisfaction, motivation, and expectations.Subjects and methods: A sample of 120 patients who received orthodontic treatment at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine completed two questionnaires. Before treatment, questionnaire 1 was given to patients to assess treatment motivation and expectations. When treatment had been completed, questionnaire 2, concerning treatment satisfaction, was assessed. Spearman’s rank correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationships among treatment satisfaction, expectations, and motivation.Results: A total of 110 patients completed the two questionnaires. There was a tendency toward significant correlations between treatment motivation and overall satisfaction with treatment (β-coefficient –0.264, 95% confidence interval –0.456 to 2.314; P<0.001. However, correlations among treatment motivation and satisfaction with changes made and satisfaction with one’s appearance posttreatment were more fragmented. No relationship between treatment expectation and satisfaction was found (β-coefficient –0.126; 95% confidence interval –0.024 to 0.524; P>0.05.Conclusion: Motivation was correlated with satisfaction with treatment outcome. Patients’ expectations had no correlation with treatment satisfaction. Keywords: motivation, orthodontic treatment, expectation, treatment-outcome satisfaction

  1. Is the intrinsic motivation of career choice important for the later professional development of teachers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of teachers’ professional choice motivation has been proved important for the later professional development. The goal of the present research was to determine the role of the intrinsic motivation in the participants’ decision to become teachers, as well as to establish the importance of intrinsic motivation for their later professional development. We have conducted a quantitative research, within a sample consisted of 118 secondary school teachers, by application of survey method (instrument– questionnaire in the form of Likert-type scale. Statistical analysis has consisted of: hierarchical cluster analysis, descriptive statistics, factor analysis and rank correlation. It was established that the intrinsic motivation takes precedence over the extrinsic motivation in the process of professional choice determination. We have also confirmed the hypothesis claiming that the level of intrinsic motivation correlates with the indicators of professional behavior. Besides, the level of intrinsic motivation is better predictor of the enthusiasm and growth then of the career frustration (Fessler, 1995. Our results are in favor of the teacher education system, where the candidates apply and prepare for the teacher profession from the beginning of the initial education.

  2. A Survey of Bahamian and Jamaican Teachers' Level of Motivation and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, David K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in the Bahamas and Jamaica. A total of 168 Bahamian (n = 75) and Jamaican (n = 93) teachers completed the Teacher Motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey. Overall results indicate that teachers in the Bahamas reported higher levels…

  3. Motivation, Satisfaction, and Perceived Freedom: A Tri-Dimensional Model of Leisure among Young Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchua, Michelle M.; Lesage, Deanna M.; Reddon, John R.; Badham, Tania D.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 84 male young offenders, admitted for inpatient treatment in a psychiatric hospital, was used to examine the relationship between leisure motivation, leisure satisfaction, and perceived freedom in leisure using the Leisure Motivation Scale (LMS), the Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS), and the Perceived Freedom in Leisure Scale-Short…

  4. Contribution to Cultural Organization, Working Motivation and Job Satisfaction on the Performance of Primary School Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtedjo; Suharningsih

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are: (1) describes the performance of the teacher, organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction; (2) determine whether there is a significant direct relationship between organizational culture, work motivation and job satisfaction on the performance of primary school teachers. Through the study of the…

  5. Assessing Learner Satisfaction by Simultaneously Measuring Learner Attitude, Motivation, Loyalty and Service Quality in English Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi; Casadesus, Marti; Marimon, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are threefold in their approach to English academy teaching: (i) to assess learner satisfaction, (ii) to assess the impact of satisfaction on loyalty and (iii) to assess the three constructs that we considered to be the antecedents of learner satisfaction: learner motivation, learner attitude and service quality. To collect…

  6. A preliminary study of job satisfaction and motivation among the Malaysian primary healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to examine the relationship between personal or work-based characteristics and job satisfaction and motivation in Malaysian primary healthcare professionals.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted  during the 15th Family Medicine Scientific Conference in June 2011 using the Warr-Cook-Wall scales. The questionnaires included demography and work-related items and were self-distributed and returned at the end of the conference. Independent risk factors were identified using multiple linear regressions.Results: A total of 149 conference participants completed the survey, with a response rate of 33.1%. They were mainly females (85.2%, Malay (83.2%, and married (83.9% in almost equal proportions of practice location (urban 57.8% and rural 42.2%. Majority of them were working at community-based health clinics (74.0% and in public sectors (94.4%. The respondents were mainly doctors (91.4%. The mean age of the participants was 39.1 years (SD 8.0, with a mean duration of service of 9 years (SD 6.9. Family medicine specialty (FMSt residents had lower job satisfaction (B = -8.0, 95% CI -14.61 to -1.40, p = 0.02. Family medicine specialists (FMSs had higher satisfaction with working conditions (B = 1.95, 95% CI 0.50 to 3.41, p = 0.01. A male worker had on average 2.8 (95% CI -4.7 to -0.9, p = 0.005 lower points in the total intrinsic job motivation scale. There was a positive relationship between the duration of working and job motivation (B = 0.10, 95% CI 0.004 to 0.2, p = 0.04.Conclusion: FMSt residents might have the least job satisfaction, but FMSs were generally satisfied with their working conditions regardless of the location of their clinics. Men and those who were novice in primary healthcare may need more support for motivation.

  7. The Opposite of Control: A Deweyan Perspective on Intrinsic Motivation in "After 3" Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Packard, B.; Girod, M.; Pugh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses intrinsic motivation and John Dewey's perspectives on aesthetic experiences in relation to "After 3" technology programs, based on experiences with KLICK (Kids Learning in Computer Klubhouses). Highlights include control and theories of motivation and learning; and Dewey's perspectives on the opposite of control in…

  8. Within-Year Changes in Chinese Secondary School Students' Perceived Reading Instruction and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to expand on existing research about motivational change by investigating within-year changes of adolescents' intrinsic reading motivation and perceived reading instruction among students from different grades and achievement levels. Six hundred and ninety five students from 10 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily completed…

  9. Intrinsic Motivation, Perceived Competence and Classroom Engagement as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescent Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Oros, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, classroom engagement and extrinsic motivation on reading development among youth. Using a nationally representative sample of students in the US, the researchers followed students longitudinally from fifth to eighth grade. Reading achievement was measured using…

  10. The Effects of Parental Involvement on Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, Engagement and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether various dimensions of parental involvement predicted 10th-grade students' motivation (engagement, self-efficacy towards maths and English, intrinsic motivation towards maths and English) using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS 2002). Results showed that both parents' educational aspiration for…

  11. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  12. Identification with Academics, Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation, and Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Cognitive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher O.; Greene, Barbara A.; Mansell, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Examined were several theoretically important relations among motivational characteristics of students that are malleable, or changeable with intervention. The motivational construct identification with academics, which includes perceptions of belonging and valuing within an academic context, was investigated along with intrinsic/extrinsic…

  13. Within-Year Changes in Chinese Secondary School Students' Perceived Reading Instruction and Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to expand on existing research about motivational change by investigating within-year changes of adolescents' intrinsic reading motivation and perceived reading instruction among students from different grades and achievement levels. Six hundred and ninety five students from 10 secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily completed…

  14. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  15. Increasing Elementary and High School Student Motivation through the Use of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Joey; Kuespert, Sarah; Madecky, Dani; Nor, Abbey

    2008-01-01

    This action research project report examined strategies to motivate students from extrinsically rewarding behaviors to intrinsically motivating behaviors. The action research was conducted in two different schools by four different teacher researchers within the same district. Three teachers in an elementary building (Site A) and one teacher in a…

  16. Public Service Motivation, User Orientation and Job Satisfaction: A Question of Employment Sector?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    Public service motivation (PSM) has been shown to be positively related to job satisfaction in the public sector, but there are two gaps in the literature. First, not only PSM but also pro-social motivation directed towards helping specific others (called user orientation) may affect job...... satisfaction. Second, the relationship between job satisfaction and these two types of pro-social motivation, PSM and user orientation, may also be found in the private sector. This study tests whether job satisfaction is associated with PSM and user orientation, and whether these associations differ between...... public and private employees. Using data from a survey of Danish employees (n=2,811), we generally find positive relationships between the two types of pro-social motivation and job satisfaction, but the strength of the associations vary between occupations. The PSM/job satisfaction association does...

  17. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE APPLICATION OF WPI SCALE IN THE CONTEXT OF PORTUGUESE PUBLIC SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Lira; Victor Paulo Gomes da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature focusing on the construct of ‘motivation’ in the public sector feeds the idea that organisational peculiarities of this sector and the individual circumstances of its employees translate into a prevalence of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. However, this assumption has never been scrutinised within the Portuguese public sector; hence, the central goal of this work is, precisely, to offer a contribution to overcome this gap, ...

  18. Examining the relationship between recreational sport participation and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and amotivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos; Zahariadis, Panagiotis; Grouios, George

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of motivational dimensions proposed by Pelletier, et al. in 1995, both on sport participation levels and on intention for continuing participation among adult recreational sport participants. Two hundred and fifty-seven adult individuals, who reported participation in some type of sport and physical activity, completed the Sport Motivation Scale and a scale measuring intention. The study provided evidence to suggest that increased motivation leads to increased participation. Amotivation significantly decreased from the least to the most frequent participant groups, while both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation followed the reverse pattern. The results also indicated that increased intrinsic motivation to gain knowledge and accomplishment and extrinsic motivation (introjected regulation) are positively correlated with individuals' intentions to continue participation, while amotivation is negatively related. These results provide limited support for the self-determination theory. Implications for sport participation promotion are discussed.

  19. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  20. Substance use by college students: the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for athletic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Bradley D; Saules, Karen K

    2006-09-01

    Certain types of athletic involvement may confer risk for substance use by college students. This study investigated whether motivational factors play a role in the relationship between athletic involvement and substance use. Intercollegiate athletes (n=98) and exercisers (n=120) were surveyed about substance use and motivation for athletic involvement. Athletes and exercisers who were extrinsically motivated had significantly higher rates of alcohol use than their intrinsically motivated counterparts. Results suggest that college students who are extrinsically motivated for involvement in physical activity/athletics--particularly those involved in team sports--may be in need of targeted prevention efforts. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gameplay as a Source of Intrinsic Motivation for Individuals in Need of Ankle Training or Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    to alleviate this problem by leveraging games’ potential as a source of intrinsic motivation. More specifically, the prototype enables users to control a game by means of a wobble board, thus allowing them to perform the necessary exercises while playing. An expert on ankle rehabilitation assessed the efficacy...... and the act of playing was experienced as intrinsically motivating by the majority of the test participants....... or as part of the rehabilitation process once the damage has been done. However, individuals in need of such training frequently lack the motivation necessary in order to successfully complete the training or rehabilitation process. This paper details the design and implementation of a prototype intended...

  2. Increasing Intrinsic Motivation to Learn in Organizational Behavior Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes my experiences redesigning a masters-level organizational behavior (OB) course. The course was delivered to two different audiences--MBA and MS-HR students--two different times. The redesign employed several unique features designed to increase and enhance student intrinsic interest in the subject matter. Two measures of…

  3. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  4. Physicians' job satisfaction and motivation in a public academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho, Paulo; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon; D'Ávila Viana, Ana Luiza

    2016-12-07

    Physician shortage is a global issue that concerns Brazil's authorities. The organizational structure and the environment of a medical institution can hide a low-quality life of a physician. This study examines the relationship between the hospital work environment and physicians' job satisfaction and motivation when working in a large public academic hospital. The study was restricted to one large, multispecialty Brazil's hospital. Six hundred hospital physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. A short version of the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) was used to measure working satisfaction. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic information, medical specialty, and the intention to continue working in the hospital. Data from 141 questionnaires were included in the analyses. Forty-five physicians graduated from the hospital's university, and they did not intend to leave the hospital under any circumstance (affective bond). The motivating factor for beginning the career at the hospital and to continue working there were the connection to the medical school and the hospital status as a "prestigious academic hospital"; the physicians were more satisfied with the career than the specialty. Only 30% completely agreed with the statement "If I had to start my career over again, I would choose my current specialty," while 45% completely agreed with the statement "I am not well compensated given my training and experience." The greater point of satisfaction was the relationship with physician colleagues. They are annoyed about the amount of calls they are requested to take and about how work encroaches on their personal time. No significant differences between medical specialties were found in the analysis. The participants were satisfied with their profession. The fact that they remained at the hospital was related to the academic environment, the relationship with colleagues, and the high prestige in which society holds the institution. The points of

  5. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  6. Autonomy, Competence, and Intrinsic Motivation in Science Education: A Self- Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jason

    The purpose of this study was to examine a proposed motivational model of science achievement based on self-determination theory. The study relied on U.S. eighth-grade science data from the 2007 Third International Mathematics and Science Study to examine a structural model that hypothesized how perceived autonomy support, perceived competence in science, intrinsic motivation, and science achievement related to each other. Mother's education and student gender were used as controls. Findings showed that the hypothesized model provided a good fit to the data. The strongest direct effect on science achievement was students' perceived competence in science. Student intrinsic motivation was shown to have a surprisingly negative effect on science achievement. Autonomy support had positive direct effects on students' perceived competence in science and intrinsic motivation and had indirect positive effects to science achievement. Results and implications for science education are discussed.

  7. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  8. Predictors of employment in schizophrenia: The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, L Felice; Llerena, Katiah; Kern, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. A contributing factor that may be relevant but has received little attention in the work rehabilitation literature is motivation. People with schizophrenia show marked deficits in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation but these deficits have not been directly examined in relation to work outcomes. The present study sought to examine the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and work outcome among a sample of 65 adults with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. One-third of the participants in the study obtained work. Intrinsic motivation related to valuing and feeling useful in a work role significantly predicted who would obtain employment. Extrinsic motivation related to gaining rewards and avoiding obstacles showed a non-significant trend-level relationship such that workers had higher extrinsic motivation than nonworkers. These findings highlight the importance of considering both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in work-related interventions and supported employment for individuals with schizophrenia. The results are discussed in terms of clinical implications for improving rehabilitation and occupational outcomes in schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The association between sexual motives and sexual satisfaction: gender differences and categorical comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Ahrold, Tierney K; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-06-01

    Past research suggests that sexual satisfaction may be partially dependent on sexual motives (the reasons people have sex). The primary goal of this study was to determine which of a wide range of empirically derived sexual motives were related to sexual satisfaction, and whether gender differences existed in these relationships. Examining data from 544 undergraduate participants (93 men, 451 women), we found that certain types of motives predicted levels of sexual satisfaction for both genders. However, a greater number of motive categories were related to satisfaction for women than for men, and sexual motives were a more consistent predictor of satisfaction in general for women than for men. We also found that empirical categories of motives predicted more variance in satisfaction ratings than did previously used theoretical categories. These findings suggest that a wide range of sexual motives are related to sexual satisfaction, that these connections may be moderated by gender, and that empirically-constructed categories of motives may be the most effective tool for studying this link.

  10. The impact of motivation on job satisfaction amongst employees of a national broadcaster.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of motivation on job satisfaction (dissatisfaction) of journalistic employees employed by the national public broadcaster. The idea was to profile factors causing high motivation and job satisfaction and also to profile those factors that contribute low motivation and dissatisfaction at work. The rationale for the study was simply an observation that some employees seem better adjusted and happy at work and are able to cope well with the...

  11. Feedback after Good versus Poor Trials Affects Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Participation in sports can play many educational roles in students' personal development. However, studies have reported that interest and participation in physical education gradually declines with age (Papaioannou, 1997). Therefore, it is important to examine factors that affect students' motivation for participation in sports and physical…

  12. Feedback after Good versus Poor Trials Affects Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Participation in sports can play many educational roles in students' personal development. However, studies have reported that interest and participation in physical education gradually declines with age (Papaioannou, 1997). Therefore, it is important to examine factors that affect students' motivation for participation in sports and physical…

  13. Intrinsic Motivation versus Signaling in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J; Schrettl, W; Schröder, P

    This papers sheds light on the puzzling fact that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young, motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that when OSS development is understood as the private provision of a public...

  14. Strategies on Enhancing Learners Intrinsic Motivation in Foreign Language Learning in the Context of China’s University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何啟滨

    2010-01-01

    <正>The paper aims to discuss the English learning situation of Chinese university students in the domain of motivation theory.With specific focus on enhancing learners’ intrinsic motivation, the paper analyzes the motivation orientation of Chinese university students and suggests four motivating strategies to promote students to become self - motivated learners.

  15. Intrinsic motivation as a mediator between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Rand, Kevin L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-09-01

    Poor functioning has long been observed in individuals with psychosis. Recent studies have identified metacognition - one's ability to form complex ideas about oneself and others and to use that information to respond to psychological and social challenges-as being an important determinant of functioning. However, the exact process by which deficits in metacognition lead to impaired functioning remains unclear. This study first examined whether low intrinsic motivation, or the tendency to pursue novel experiences and to engage in self-improvement, mediates the relationship between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning. We then examined whether intrinsic motivation significantly mediated the relationship when controlling for age, education, symptoms, executive functioning, and social cognition. Mediation models were examined in a cross-sectional data set. One hundred and seventy-five individuals with a psychotic disorder completed interview-based measures of metacognition, intrinsic motivation, symptoms, and functioning and performance-based measures of executive functioning and social cognition. Analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning (95% CI of indirect effect [0.12-0.43]), even after controlling for the aforesaid variables (95% CI of indirect effect [0.04-0.29]). Results suggest that intrinsic motivation may be a mechanism that underlies the link between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning and indicate that metacognition and intrinsic motivation may be important treatment targets to improve functioning in individuals with psychosis. The findings of this study suggest that deficits in metacognition may indirectly lead to impaired functioning through their effect on intrinsic motivation in individuals with psychosis. Psychological treatments that target deficits in both metacognition and intrinsic motivation may help to alleviate impaired functioning in

  16. Neural Basis of Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human intrinsic motivation is of great importance in human behavior. However, although researchers have focused on this topic for decades, its neural basis was still unclear. The current study employed event-related potentials to investigate the neural disparity between an interesting stop-watch (SW task and a boring watch-stop task (WS to understand the neural mechanisms of intrinsic motivation. Our data showed that, in the cue priming stage, the cue of the SW task elicited smaller N2 amplitude than that of the WS task. Furthermore, in the outcome feedback stage, the outcome of the SW task induced smaller FRN amplitude and larger P300 amplitude than that of the WS task. These results suggested that human intrinsic motivation did exist and that it can be detected at the neural level. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation could be quantitatively indexed by the amplitude of ERP components, such as N2, FRN, and P300, in the cue priming stage or feedback stage. Quantitative measurements would also be convenient for intrinsic motivation to be added as a candidate social factor in the construction of a machine learning model.

  17. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  18. Neural Basis of Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia; Yu, Liping; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Human intrinsic motivation is of great importance in human behavior. However, although researchers have focused on this topic for decades, its neural basis was still unclear. The current study employed event-related potentials to investigate the neural disparity between an interesting stop-watch (SW) task and a boring watch-stop task (WS) to understand the neural mechanisms of intrinsic motivation. Our data showed that, in the cue priming stage, the cue of the SW task elicited smaller N2 amplitude than that of the WS task. Furthermore, in the outcome feedback stage, the outcome of the SW task induced smaller FRN amplitude and larger P300 amplitude than that of the WS task. These results suggested that human intrinsic motivation did exist and that it can be detected at the neural level. Furthermore, intrinsic motivation could be quantitatively indexed by the amplitude of ERP components, such as N2, FRN, and P300, in the cue priming stage or feedback stage. Quantitative measurements would also be convenient for intrinsic motivation to be added as a candidate social factor in the construction of a machine learning model.

  19. [Job satisfaction of sales people: a covariance structure analysis of the motivational process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, T

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among job satisfaction, job involvement, and work motivation. Two hundred thirty-nine sales people completed a questionnaire of job satisfaction (pay, interpersonal relationship, work environment, and job content), job involvement, and work motivation. The data were analyzed with covariance structure analysis, and the model, which was constructed beforehand, fitted well with relatively high GFI and AGFI. Results of the analysis showed that job satisfaction, in terms of pay and interpersonal relationship, influenced job content satisfaction, which in turn indirectly influenced work motivation, mediated through job involvement. In addition, the data indicated that satisfaction with customer relationship was strongly related to job content satisfaction in the sample of sales people.

  20. Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity Related to Product: A Meta-Analysis of the Studies Published between 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Saul Neves; Rus, Claudia Lenuta; Lens, Willy; Imaginário, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Although the relationship between motivation (especially intrinsic motivation) and creativity (especially as a product), no meta-analyses have been conducted on the relationship between these 2 concepts. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between intrinsic motivation and creativity related to product (i.e., creative outcomes) through…

  1. Connection between Job Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Work Performance in Romanian Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Maria LUT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On defining the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction and between job satisfaction and work performance is still not complete agreement among experts, given the complexity of the phenomena studied. Over time, the relationship between job motivation and job satisfaction has been addressed in many ways in the organizational psychology. The issue of the connection between job satisfaction and work performance is also at least as controversial as the issues mentioned above with respect to these phenomena. Related to this connection, in the literature existed, over time, at least three points of view which held that: job satisfaction leads to work performance; work performance leads to job satisfaction; rewards are involved between job satisfaction and work performance. The paper aim is to present some aspects related to the connection between job motivation, job satisfaction and work performance. The issues presented in this paper lead to the conclusion that in the work process, the connection between job satisfaction and work performance or the connection between job motivation and job satisfaction are not constant or linear connection. These connections should be nuanced interpreted, depending on the conditions of occurrence. These conclusions are based on the results of a survey conducted among enterprises dealing mostly in trade sector, in Romanian Western Region.

  2. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  3. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  4. The Moderating Effect of Job Satisfaction on Physicians' Motivation to Adhere to Financially Incentivized Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddimba, Anthony C; Beckman, Howard B; Mahoney, Thomas L; Burgess, James F

    2016-02-09

    We examined moderating effects of professional satisfaction on physicians' motivation to adhere to diabetes guidelines associated with pay-for-performance incentives. We merged cross-sectional survey data on attitudes, from 156 primary physicians, with prospective medical record-sourced data on guideline adherence and census data on ambulatory-care population characteristics. We examined moderating effects by testing theory-driven models for satisfied versus discontented physicians, using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results show that attitudes motivated, while norms suppressed, adherence to guidelines among discontented physicians. Separate models for satisfied versus discontented physicians revealed motivational differences. Satisfied physicians disregarded intrinsic and extrinsic influences and biases. Discontented physicians, alienated by social pressure, favored personal inclinations. To improve adherence to guidelines among discontented physicians, incentives should align with personal attitudes and incorporate promotional campaigns countering resentment of peer and organizational pressure. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION VS. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: THE APPLICATION OF WPI SCALE IN THE CONTEXT OF PORTUGUESE PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the literature focusing on the construct of ‘motivation’ in the public sector feeds the idea that organisational peculiarities of this sector and the individual circumstances of its employees translate into a prevalence of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. However, this assumption has never been scrutinised within the Portuguese public sector; hence, the central goal of this work is, precisely, to offer a contribution to overcome this gap, that is, to provide an answer to the following question: ‘in general terms, what is the predominant type of motivation among Portuguese civil servants: intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation?’. So as to achieve this goal, we have carried out an empirical study based on the scale ‘The work preference inventory’, developed by Amabile, Hill, Hennessey and Tighe (1994. This study involved the survey, through a questionnaire, applied to the non-teaching staff of three public higher education institutions. Although the study, by its nature, is not be generalizable to all Portuguese civil servants, it clearly indicates the prevalence, among these, of intrinsic motivation and, as a consequence, of the value of intrinsic rewards. Yet, not negligible levels of appreciation of extrinsic rewards should be emphasised. This indication has led to a goal of a peripheral nature for the present study: to alert for the possible inadequacy of the performance appraisal system of most Portuguese civil servants, given that this system, in exchange for the performance, only offers extrinsic rewards.

  6. [Intrinsic motivation: a new direction of understanding and treatment of schizophrenia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Maayan; Grunhaus, Leon; Israeli, David

    2013-09-01

    While diagnosing schizophrenia, clinicians focus on feeling the quality and nature of the internal motivation of patients. This motivational quality was theoretically conceptualized by Self Determination Theory (SDT). In this article we will review some of the basics of this theory, which focuses on motivational variables assessing behavior on an internal-external axis. Then, we will review prominent findings in the topic of using SDT concepts for the treatment of schizophrenia. The next stage will include a discussion as to the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivators as well as possible neuroanatomy of these behavioral variables. Finally, directions for research will be offered in the field of schizophrenia diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Intrinsic motivation towards sports in Singaporean students: the role of sport ability beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C K John; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated determinants of active lifestyles in Singaporean university students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a measure of lay beliefs concerning athletic ability was confirmed. Other results confirmed hypotheses that beliefs reflecting that athletic ability can be developed over time (incremental beliefs) predict an achievement task (self-referenced) orientation, while beliefs reflecting that athletic ability is relatively stable (entity beliefs) predict an ego (other-person, comparative) orientation. Goal orientations directly affect perceived competence which, in turn, influence intrinsic motivation to be physically active. A task orientation had a direct link to intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that intrinsic motivation towards sport and physical activity might be enhanced through interventions that focus on self-referenced and self-improvement notions of ability as well as perceived competence.

  8. Relations of perception of responsibility to intrinsic motivation and physical activity among Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Oung Jun

    2012-12-01

    To validate the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire, the relations between perceived responsibility and intrinsic motivation were examined among Korean middle school students. The relations of change in stages of physical activity and students' perceived responsibility were also examined. Participants were 357 middle school students (160 boys, 197 girls) from three schools in the Seoul metropolitan area. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure with effort and self-direction merged into one factor and the responsibilities of respect and caring for others constituted separate factors. Pearson correlations among factors showed perceptions of personal responsibility were associated with more intrinsic motivation toward physical education and a higher stage of physical activity. A moderate or low association between perceived social responsibility and intrinsic motivation implied a need to develop strategies for Korean students to use social responsibility for promoting physical activity.

  9. Intrinsically motivated oculomotor exploration guided by uncertainty reduction and conditioned reinforcement in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddaoua, Nabil; Lopes, Manuel; Gottlieb, Jacqueline

    2016-02-03

    Intelligent animals have a high degree of curiosity--the intrinsic desire to know--but the mechanisms of curiosity are poorly understood. A key open question pertains to the internal valuation systems that drive curiosity. What are the cognitive and emotional factors that motivate animals to seek information when this is not reinforced by instrumental rewards? Using a novel oculomotor paradigm, combined with reinforcement learning (RL) simulations, we show that monkeys are intrinsically motivated to search for and look at reward-predictive cues, and that their intrinsic motivation is shaped by a desire to reduce uncertainty, a desire to obtain conditioned reinforcement from positive cues, and individual variations in decision strategy and the cognitive costs of acquiring information. The results suggest that free-viewing oculomotor behavior reveals cognitive and emotional factors underlying the curiosity driven sampling of information.

  10. Intrinsic reading motivation of Chinese preschoolers and its relationships with home literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Salili, Farideh

    2008-10-01

    The relationship between intrinsic motivation and home literacy of preschoolers was explored. One hundred and seventy-seven preschool children (3.8 to 6.6 years old) in Mainland China and one of the parents who primarily took care of each child participated in the study. Six indicators were considered as a measure of home literacy. Results showed that after controlling for parents' education level and children's age, three home literacy indicators-parental model of reading behaviour, number of books, and years of character teaching-could explain children's intrinsic reading motivation. Contrary to previous Western studies, Chinese children's freedom of book choice was not related to their intrinsic reading motivation. Results are discussed in the context of culture differences.

  11. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Gottschall, Jinger S.; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to com...

  12. University students’ satisfaction with their academic studies: personality and motivation matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.-Sophie eWach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there is consensus about the importance of students’ satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement, as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress assessed approximately two years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; Mage = 20.77; SDage = 3.22 using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level.

  13. University Students' Satisfaction with their Academic Studies: Personality and Motivation Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach, F-Sophie; Karbach, Julia; Ruffing, Stephanie; Brünken, Roland; Spinath, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is consensus about the importance of students' satisfaction with their academic studies as one facet of academic success, little is known about the determinants of this significant outcome variable. Past research rarely investigated the predictive power of multiple predictors simultaneously. Hence, we examined how demographic variables, personality, cognitive and achievement-related variables (intelligence, academic achievement), as well as various motivational constructs were associated with three different dimensions of satisfaction (satisfaction with study content, satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program, satisfaction with the ability to cope with academic stress) assessed approximately 2 years apart. Analyzing data of a sample of university students (N = 620; M age = 20.77; SD age = 3.22) using structural equation modeling, our results underline the significance of personality and motivational variables: Neuroticism predicted satisfaction with academic studies, but its relevance varied between outcome dimensions. Regarding the predictive validity of motivational variables, the initial motivation for enrolling in a particular major was correlated with two dimensions of subsequent satisfaction with academic studies. In contrast, the predictive value of cognitive and achievement-related variables was relatively low, with academic achievement only related to satisfaction with the conditions of the academic program after controlling for the prior satisfaction level.

  14. The Assessment of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Amotivation: Validity and Reliability of the Greek Version of the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George; Sideridis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination theory provides an integrated conception of school- and academic motivation. The theory proposes a continuum comprising three types of motivation: intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM), characterised by seven dimensions (IM = to know, to accomplish and to experience stimulation, EM = external…

  15. The Assessment of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Amotivation: Validity and Reliability of the Greek Version of the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George; Sideridis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination theory provides an integrated conception of school- and academic motivation. The theory proposes a continuum comprising three types of motivation: intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM), characterised by seven dimensions (IM = to know, to accomplish and to experience stimulation, EM = external…

  16. Improving Intrinsic Motivation among Sophomore Electrical Engineering Students by an Introductory Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Gero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology decided to open a new elective course designed for sophomore electrical engineering students. The course was devised to expose students to the discipline of electrical engineering and improve their motivation. The core of the course was a team-based design project of a window cleaning robot. The present mixed-method study indicates a significant improvement in intrinsic motivation of the students who took the course.

  17. EFFECT OF MUSIC THERAPY ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION, PHYSICAL SELF EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Sharma; Gagandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is increasingly used in sports for enhancing sport performance. It provides a mean of improving mental strength among sportspersons. The purpose of this study is to enhance intrinsic motivation, physical self-efficacy and performance of female football players through music therapy. For this purpose, twenty two female football players, in the age group of 21-26 were screened on the basis of their scores on Sport Motivation Scale and Physical Self-Efficacy Scale. Then, they were ...

  18. An investigation of the motivation, collaboration and satisfaction levels related to teamwork of Turkish football referees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehmet Cem Satman

    2016-01-01

    ...; cooperation is now essential for successful football refereeing. This study examines the attitudes of football referees towards teamwork, their levels of motivation and their job satisfaction according to their level of refereeing, age and experience...

  19. A STUDY ON IMPACT OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON JOB SATISFACTION IN CONSTRUCTION COMPANY AT CHENNAI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Nandhini

    2017-01-01

      This study is based on descriptive research it has been undertaken in Construction Company in Chennai city, Tamilnadu with the objectives of examining the impact of motivational factors on job satisfaction...

  20. Analysis of motivational profiles of satisfaction and importance of physical education in high school adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Pérez-Quero, Francisco J; Ortiz-Camacho, Maria M; Bracho-Amador, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational profiles of satisfaction with and importance of physical education in high school students and its relation with gender and the practice of sport...

  1. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grujicic, Maja; Jovicic-Bata, Jelena; Radjen, Slavica; Novakovic, Budimka; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods...

  2. Career choice in engineering students: its relationship with motivation, satisfaction and the development of professional plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iciar Pablo-Lerchundi; María-Cristina Núñez-del-Río

    2015-01-01

    .... This study was designed to explore the students' choice for technical degrees. It is centered on the relationship between the quality of their choice and their motivation, satisfaction and development of professional plans...

  3. The Role Of LMX In Employees Job Motivation, Satisfaction, Empowerment, Stress And Turnover: Cross Country Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Malik; Difang Wan; Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad; Muhammad Akram Naseem; Ramiz ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

      We investigated the effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) quality relationship on employee motivation, stress, turnover, satisfaction and Psychological Empowerment with a sample of 1500 employees across four countries...

  4. Intrinsic motivations drive learning of eye movements: an experiment with human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Mustile, Magda; Cipriani, Daniele; Redgrave, Peter; Triesch, Jochen; De Marsico, Maria; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivations drive the acquisition of knowledge and skills on the basis of novel or surprising stimuli or the pleasure to learn new skills. In so doing, they are different from extrinsic motivations that are mainly linked to drives that promote survival and reproduction. Intrinsic motivations have been implicitly exploited in several psychological experiments but, due to the lack of proper paradigms, they are rarely a direct subject of investigation. This article investigates how different intrinsic motivation mechanisms can support the learning of visual skills, such as "foveate a particular object in space", using a gaze contingency paradigm. In the experiment participants could freely foveate objects shown in a computer screen. Foveating each of two "button" pictures caused different effects: one caused the appearance of a simple image (blue rectangle) in unexpected positions, while the other evoked the appearance of an always-novel picture (objects or animals). The experiment studied how two possible intrinsic motivation mechanisms might guide learning to foveate one or the other button picture. One mechanism is based on the sudden, surprising appearance of a familiar image at unpredicted locations, and a second one is based on the content novelty of the images. The results show the comparative effectiveness of the mechanism based on image novelty, whereas they do not support the operation of the mechanism based on the surprising location of the image appearance. Interestingly, these results were also obtained with participants that, according to a post experiment questionnaire, had not understood the functions of the different buttons suggesting that novelty-based intrinsic motivation mechanisms might operate even at an unconscious level.

  5. Measuring Adjunct Instructor Job Satisfaction by Using Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Durrell

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to use Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory to investigate the different levels of job satisfaction among adjunct college instructors at eight institutions of higher education located in southeast Texas. Differences in job satisfaction were measured by instructor gender, ethnicity, age, teaching experience, type of course…

  6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teo Eng-Wah; Khoo Selina; Wong Rebecca; Wee Eng-Hoe; Lim Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy Shabesan Sit

    2015-01-01

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 ye...

  7. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Among Adolescent Ten-Pin Bowlers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teo Eng-Wah; Khoo Selina; Wong Rebecca; Wee Eng-Hoe; Lim Boon-Hooi; Rengasamy Shabesan Sit

    2015-01-01

    Motivation has long been associated with sports engagement. However, to date no research has been performed to understand the domain of motivation among ten-pin bowlers. The purpose of this study was to investigate different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic vs. extrinsic) based on self-determination theory from the perspective of gender and the bowler type (competitive vs. casual). A total of 240 bowlers (104 male, 136 female; 152 competitive, 88 casual) with a mean age of 16.61 ± 0.78 ye...

  8. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  9. The Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: Response to Cameron (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.; Koestner, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Replies to commentary by J. Cameron asserting that the negative results of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation are limited and avoidable. Suggests that the most recent meta analysis by Cameron and others shares methodological weaknesses with an earlier analysis, lacking ecological validity. (SLD)

  10. Promoting Career Preparedness and Intrinsic Work-Goal Motivation: RCT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Mutanen, Pertti; Vuori, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of an in-company training program aimed at enhancing employees' intrinsic work-goal motivation by increasing their career preparedness in a randomized field experimental study. The program activities were implemented using an organization-level two-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and…

  11. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  12. Explaining Teacher Turnover: School Cohesion and Intrinsic Motivation in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Waite, Anisah; Irribarra, David Torres

    2016-01-01

    Lifting achievement in many schools depends on reducing the exit of effective teachers. We examine the extent to which teacher perceptions of school cohesion and intrinsic motivators stemming from two theoretical traditions contribute to the intent to leave one's school. We find that elementary teachers report higher levels of organizational…

  13. Supporting Intrinsic Motivation for Special Education Students to Meet Graduation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Robert Sipplin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how teachers use instructional practices and family reinforcement interventions to support intrinsic motivation for special education students as a means to meet graduation requirements. Purposeful sampling of highly qualified special education teachers certified in language arts was used in this study. The data…

  14. Students' Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Level and Its Relationship with Their Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar Güvendir, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…

  15. Stimulating Students' Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Chemistry through the Use of Context-Based Learning Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a research project in which five chemistry teachers, working in cooperation with university researchers, implemented a new teaching approach using context-based modules specially designed to stimulate the intrinsic motivation of students. The intention was to induce change in chemistry teachers' teaching approach from more…

  16. Academic Intrinsic Motivation and Perceived Academic Competence in Greek Elementary Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Galanaki, Evangelia P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence as well as in their association between 5th- and 6th-grade students with learning disabilities (LD) (n = 40) and their typically achieving peers. Participants were 980 Greek elementary students from the metropolitan area of Athens. As…

  17. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  18. Effects of Different Ways of Introducing a Reading Task on Intrinsic Motivation and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Johansen, Roy-Petter; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two brief prereading instructional practices--hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation--on sixth-graders' intrinsic motivation for reading a text and reading comprehension. Both hands-on activities and prior knowledge activation substantially improved reading comprehension relative to a control…

  19. The Relationship between Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement for First Generation Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Naomi Noel; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic students are pursuing higher education more than in previous years and they often represent their family as the first member to attend college (Strage in "Coll Stud J" 33:198-205, 1999). Past educational research has studied the influence of intrinsic motivation on academic achievement in various ethnically diverse elementary,…

  20. Explaining Teacher Turnover: School Cohesion and Intrinsic Motivation in Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Waite, Anisah; Irribarra, David Torres

    2016-01-01

    Lifting achievement in many schools depends on reducing the exit of effective teachers. We examine the extent to which teacher perceptions of school cohesion and intrinsic motivators stemming from two theoretical traditions contribute to the intent to leave one's school. We find that elementary teachers report higher levels of organizational…

  1. Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Tops, Mattie; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Koole, Sander L

    2016-03-23

    The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a negative event-related brain potential that peaks about 20-100 ms after people perform an incorrect response in choice reaction time tasks. Prior research has shown that the ERN may be enhanced by situational and dispositional factors that promote intrinsic motivation. Building on and extending this work the authors hypothesized that simulated interpersonal touch may increase task engagement and thereby increase ERN amplitude. To test this notion, 20 participants performed a Go/No-Go task while holding a teddy bear or a same-sized cardboard box. As expected, the ERN was significantly larger when participants held a teddy bear rather than a cardboard box. This effect was most pronounced for people high (rather than low) in trait intrinsic motivation, who may depend more on intrinsically motivating task cues to maintain task engagement. These findings highlight the potential benefits of simulated interpersonal touch in stimulating attention to errors, especially among people who are intrinsically motivated.

  2. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  3. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Intrinsically Motivated Elementary School Children of a Collectivist Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Sherry R.

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in June 2014 in Kampala, Uganda, is a follow-up to a similar study conducted in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 2008. The basic research question addressed is: "What are the experiences in the lives of upper elementary-aged Ugandan children that foster an intrinsic motivation to seek information?" A secondary…

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  5. Employees facing high job demands: How to keep them fit, satisfied, and intrinsically motivated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Nagao, DH

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to determine why some employees faced with high job demands feel fatigued, dissatisfied, and unmotivated, whereas others feel fatigued but satisfied and intrinsically motivated. It is argued and demonstrated that two job conditions, namely job control and job

  6. A Latent Transition Analysis of Academic Intrinsic Motivation from Childhood through Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal modeling approach was utilized to determine the existence of latent classes with regard to academic intrinsic motivation and the points of stability and transition of individuals between and within classes. A special type of latent Markov Chain model using "Mplus" was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, with…

  7. Promoting Career Preparedness and Intrinsic Work-Goal Motivation: RCT Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Mutanen, Pertti; Vuori, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of an in-company training program aimed at enhancing employees' intrinsic work-goal motivation by increasing their career preparedness in a randomized field experimental study. The program activities were implemented using an organization-level two-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and…

  8. The dark side of monetary incentive: how does extrinsic reward crowd out intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Jin, Jia; Meng, Liang; Shen, Qiang

    2014-02-12

    It was widely believed that incentives could effectively enhance the motivation of both students and employees. However, psychologists reported that extrinsic reward actually could undermine individuals' intrinsic motivation to a given interesting task, which challenged viewpoints from traditional incentive theories. Numerous studies have been carried out to test and explain the undermining effect; however, the neural basis of this effect is still elusive. Here, we carried out an electrophysiological study with a simple but interesting stopwatch task to explore to what extent the performance-based monetary reward undermines individuals' intrinsic motivation toward the task. The electrophysiological data showed that the differentiated feedback-related negativity amplitude toward intrinsic success failure divergence was prominently reduced once the extrinsic reward was imposed beforehand. However, such a difference was not observed in the control group, in which no extrinsic reward was provided throughout the experiment. Furthermore, such a pattern was not observed for P300 amplitude. Therefore, the current results indicate that extrinsic reward demotivates the intrinsic response of individuals toward success-failure outcome, which was reflected in the corresponding reduced motivational-related differentiated feedback-related negativity, but not in amplitude of P300.

  9. Students' Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Level and Its Relationship with Their Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar Güvendir, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation levels of eighth grade students and its relationship with their mathematical achievement. The participants of the study included 6,829 students who took TIMSS in 2011 and 239 mathematics teachers. The data obtained from the student and teacher questionnaires that are included in the…

  10. Promoting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Chemistry Students Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambari, Isiaka A.; Gbodi, Bimpe E.; Olakanmi, Eyitao U.; Abalaka, Eneojo N.

    2016-01-01

    The role of computer-assisted instruction in promoting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among Nigerian secondary school chemistry students was investigated in this study. The study employed two modes of computer-assisted instruction (computer simulation instruction and computer tutorial instructional packages) and two levels of gender (male and…

  11. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  12. The Pervasive Negative Effects of Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation: Response to Cameron (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M.; Koestner, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Replies to commentary by J. Cameron asserting that the negative results of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation are limited and avoidable. Suggests that the most recent meta analysis by Cameron and others shares methodological weaknesses with an earlier analysis, lacking ecological validity. (SLD)

  13. Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Rewards: A Commentary on Cameron and Pierce's Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Mark R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a critical analysis of the meta-analysis of J. Cameron and W. D. Pierce (1994) of the experimental literature on the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Their overly simplistic conclusion has little theoretical or practical value and results from misuse of meta-analytic procedures. (SLD)

  14. Attachment, Career-Choice Pessimism, and Intrinsic Motivation as Predictors of College Students' Career Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the effects of attachment, career-choice pessimism, and intrinsic motivation on career adaptability (CA) in American (n = 198) and Korean (n = 294) college students. We hypothesized that the association between attachment and CA is sequentially mediated by career-choice…

  15. Intrinsic motivation in two exercise interventions: Associations with fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Shepherd, Sam O; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    To examine the motivational process through which increases in aerobic capacity and decreases in total body fat are achieved during high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions. Eighty-seven physically inactive adults (65% women, age = 42 ± 12, BMI = 27.67 ± 4.99 kg/m²) took part in a 10-week randomized intervention testing group-based HIT, operationalized as repeated sprints of 15-60 s interspersed with periods of recovery cycling ≤ 25 min/session, 3 sessions/wk⁻¹, or MICT, operationalized as cycling at constant workload of ∼65% maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max, 30-45 min/session⁻¹, 5 sessions/wk⁻¹. Assessments of VO2max and total body fat were made pre- and postintervention. Motivation variables were assessed midintervention and class attendance was monitored throughout. Path analysis was employed, controlling for treatment arm and baseline values of VO2max and total body fat. The 2 groups differed in adherence only, favoring HIT. Baseline VO2max predicted intrinsic motivation midintervention. Intrinsic motivation predicted program adherence, which in turn predicted increases in VO2max and decreases in total body fat by the end of the study. Intrinsic motivation in HIT and MICT is positively linked to adherence to these programs, which can facilitate improvements in fitness and body composition. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The brain correlates of the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn.

  17. THE BRAIN CORRELATES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONETARY AND VERBAL REWARDS ON INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze eAlbrecht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: We do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: While performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one’s competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: After verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn.

  18. Changes in At-Risk Boys' Intrinsic Motivation toward Physical Activity: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…

  19. Assessing Online Textual Feedback to Support Student Intrinsic Motivation Using a Collaborative Text-Based Dialogue System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Ronnie H.; Deneen, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses textual feedback to support student intrinsic motivation using a collaborative text-based dialogue system. A research model is presented based on research into intrinsic motivation, and the specific construct of feedback provides a framework for the model. A qualitative research methodology is used to validate the model.…

  20. Changes in At-Risk Boys' Intrinsic Motivation toward Physical Activity: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…

  1. Registered Dietitians in School Nutrition Leadership: Motivational Aspects of Job Selection and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Linette J.; Arendt, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study examined motivational aspects related to selecting school nutrition leadership as a career by registered dietitians (RDs). Motivational aspects were defined as valued characteristics which influence individuals' desires for specific work environments. Aspects of job satisfaction were also explored. Methods: An online…

  2. Motivation and satisfaction among polyclinic volunteers at the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J; Berg, R; Rhea, D; Willick, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Olympic and Paralympic Games rely heavily on volunteers to provide many essential services, including medical care of athletes. Objective: This preliminary investigation sought to characterise the motivational influences and factors responsible for the satisfaction of Olympic and Paralympic healthcare volunteers. Methods: The 2002 Winter Games polyclinic healthcare volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their motives for volunteering and the factors that contributed to their satisfaction with their volunteer experience. Results: There was no significant difference in the motivation or satisfaction summary scores based on event worked. There was a strong positive correlation between motivation and satisfaction. Physician respondents had a lower mean motivation score than did non-physician volunteers. Conclusions: There were no significant motivational differences between Olympic and Paralympic volunteers, but there were several differences noted between physician and non-physician volunteers. The 2002 polyclinic volunteers appear to have been motivated by a complex process best described as "enlightened self interest," and all were generally well satisfied with their experience. These results may assist organisers of future Games in selecting appropriately motivated volunteer personnel and creating rewarding work environments for them. PMID:15793078

  3. The Relationship Between Demographics Variables, Emotional Intelligence, Communication Effectiveness, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Jorfi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available What seems to still be the main concern for managers and employees in the organization world across the globe is communication effectiveness. The problem to be addressed in this study was the lack of motivation and job satisfaction in educational administrations of Iran. Upon reviewing various literatures on this subject, it was found that emotional intelligence is one of the most vital factors that help sustain communication effectiveness and job satisfaction. The researcher upon having a detailed discussion on the possible areas associated with the present body of knowledge has discovered gaps in the studies that have been undertaken on emotional intelligence and communication effectiveness. This is because motivation in relation to emotional intelligence, communication effectiveness, and job satisfaction has been ignored in the previous studies. As a result, this research proposes a relationshipbetween demographic variables, emotional intelligence (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, general mood, and stress management, Communication Effectiveness, Job Satisfaction, and Motivation.

  4. A Christian educational perspective on the process oriented approach to intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechaéla Scott

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the classroom context, albeit school or university, intrinsic motivation can effectively be described and changed if a process-oriented approach is employed. The question is posed whether a process-oriented approach to motivation is acceptable to Christian education. To answer this question, intrinsic motivation and the process-oriented approach to motivation are described. A Christian view of self-knowledge and control, which are the main components of a process-oricnted approach to motivation, is subsequently given and the process-oriented approach to motivation is subjected to a Christian evaluation. The conclusions are drawn that this approach can fruitfully be used in Christian education, given that self-knowledge and control arc interpreted within the context of the concept of the student as God’s representative on earth and the fact that God equipped him adequately with cognitive, affective and conative abilities to respond to His call to discover, develop and rule the earth actively.

  5. Job Performance, Job Satisfaction and Motivation: A Critical Review of Their Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revenio Jalagat Jr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between these three variables namely: Job performance, job satisfaction and motivation with the help of theoretical models and literatures. Although many studies had already been conducted on job satisfaction and job performance, its relationship is still subject to much hated debates to specifically determine the extent of its relationship. With regards to motivation, results showed that, monetary consideration is by far more important than other motivation strategies which emphasized the aspect of addressing the economic needs of the individuals. However motivation like that of Herzberg had proven that pay is not the sole indicator of employee motivation. Furthermore, it was also proven that job satisfaction, job performance and motivation interact with each other and functioned interdependently such that the process is circular rather than linear. When job satisfaction and performance is linked with group performance, the outcome revealed that higher job satisfaction leads to higher performance although it is not always the case. Working together is the key to achieve desirable outcomes which means that employees should not be kept in isolation but should be encouraged to work together to effectively achieve the goals and success whether in group or the organization as a whole.

  6. When health care workers perceive high-commitment HRM will they be motivated to continue working in health care? It may depend on their supervisor and intrinsic motivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopman, L.M.; Kalshoven, K.; Boon, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this health care field study, we examined the link between human resource management (HRM), transformational leadership, intrinsic motivation and motivation to continue to work. Based on the social exchange theory, we proposed a mediation model linking HRM to motivation to continue to work in

  7. [Relationship between nurses' learning motivation inside/outside the workplace and job/ life satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Emi

    2009-12-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the relationship between job, life-satisfaction and motivation for learning of nurses, a questionnaire survey by mailing method was conducted for 123 nurses (52.6% response rate) within the Kyushu area. The analysis was performed by comparing the mean value of scores for each satisfaction category and that of comprehensive satisfaction (hereafter refered to as satisfaction level) which were extracted by principal component analysis. It has been proved that the higher was the motivation for learning, the greater was the job satisfaction level (0.16 +/- 0.95 in H group; -0.56 +/- 0.99 in L group, P = 0.001) in the case of learning in the workplace, and that motivation for learning was decreased by their sentiment that their job and learning weren't evaluated properly or by their discontent they felt in participating in learning on a day-off and during off-hours. It has also been proved in the case of off-the-job learning that the higher was the motivation for learning, the greater was the job satisfaction level (0.10 +/- 1.01 in H group; -0.35 +/- 0.90 in L group, P = 0.040), and that their motivation for learning was decreased by feeling that their job and learning weren't evaluated properly or that they weren't satisfied with their physical and mental health. Also in other learnings, the higher was the motivation for learning, the greater was the job satisfaction level (0.08 +/-0.96 in H group; -0.27 +/- 1.11 in L group, P = 0.034), and the motivation for learning was decreased depending on the type of work, work-hours, and on the strain felt to be time-consuming.

  8. Neural basis of the undermining effect of monetary reward on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Matsumoto, Madoka; Izuma, Keise; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2010-12-07

    Contrary to the widespread belief that people are positively motivated by reward incentives, some studies have shown that performance-based extrinsic reward can actually undermine a person's intrinsic motivation to engage in a task. This "undermining effect" has timely practical implications, given the burgeoning of performance-based incentive systems in contemporary society. It also presents a theoretical challenge for economic and reinforcement learning theories, which tend to assume that monetary incentives monotonically increase motivation. Despite the practical and theoretical importance of this provocative phenomenon, however, little is known about its neural basis. Herein we induced the behavioral undermining effect using a newly developed task, and we tracked its neural correlates using functional MRI. Our results show that performance-based monetary reward indeed undermines intrinsic motivation, as assessed by the number of voluntary engagements in the task. We found that activity in the anterior striatum and the prefrontal areas decreased along with this behavioral undermining effect. These findings suggest that the corticobasal ganglia valuation system underlies the undermining effect through the integration of extrinsic reward value and intrinsic task value.

  9. Intrinsic or Extrinsic? Using Videogames to Motivate Stroke Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, LaTasha R; Whittinghill, David M

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore, via a systematic review of available literature, the effectiveness of videogame-based rehabilitation interventions on the motivation and health outcomes of stroke patients. Using a systematic literature review of 18 articles, we sought to address three key research questions: (1) Do videogames improve function or health outcomes among stroke survivors? (2) Do videogames increase stroke patients' motivation to engage in rehabilitation exercise and activities? (3) Which motivational techniques, principles, and theoretical frameworks have been applied in the reviewed studies? A key word search was conducted, and articles were coded for inclusion of motivational theories or principles, intervention effectiveness, and participants' motivation to perform tasks. Three motivational frameworks and principles were used (self-determination theory [SDT], flow theory, and operant conditioning) to investigate intrinsic and extrinsic approaches. Past research suggests videogame-based interventions are effective at improving and increasing a variety of health-related outcomes, including motor functioning, energy expenditure, muscle strength, and recovery times in stroke patients. Past evidence shows videogame-based interventions are a promising tool to motivate stroke patients' engagement in effective rehabilitation activities. This study also identifies an opportunity for future research to apply motivational theories from SDT to studies on stroke rehabilitation and videogames.

  10. Getting it on versus getting it over with: sexual motivation, desire, and satisfaction in intimate bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muise, Amy; Impett, Emily A; Desmarais, Serge

    2013-10-01

    Across three studies, we demonstrate that pursuing sex for approach goals, such as to enhance intimacy, fuels satisfaction and pursuing sex for avoidance goals, such as to avoid disappointing a partner, detracts from satisfaction. In Study 1, we use hypothetical scenarios to provide experimental support for the associations between sexual goals and sexual and relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, a dyadic daily experience study of dating couples, we demonstrate that daily sexual goals are associated with both partners' daily relationship and sexual satisfaction. In Study 3, a dyadic daily experience study, we replicate the daily associations between sexual goals and satisfaction in a sample of long-term couples, and demonstrate that sexual goals impact partner's relationship and sexual quality 4 months later. In all studies, the associations between sexual goals and enhanced satisfaction as reported by both partners were mediated by sexual desire. Implications for research on sexual motivation and close relationships are discussed.

  11. An investigation into the impact of reflective teaching on EFL learners autonomy and intrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Fallah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has sought to explore the effect of reflective teaching on learner autonomy and the intrinsic motivation of Iranian upper-intermediate female learners. The subjects included 60 adult upper-intermediate EFL learners chosen out of ninety, based on the scores obtained through administration of the TOEFL exam. They were randomly assigned to two groups: a the experimental group - taught by a reflective teacher - and b the control group instructed by an unreflective teacher. The motivation questionnaire and the autonomy questionnaire were administered to both groups to make sure that the two groups were not significantly different in terms of the level of motivation and autonomy. The experimental group was then taught by the reflective teacher and the control group was taught by the unreflective teacher who adopted no tangible reflective actions. Finally, both groups sat for motivation and autonomy questionnaires. The results indicate that reflective teaching leads to the enhancement of both learners’ autonomy and the intrinsic motivation level.

  12. The relationship between core self-evaluations, views of god, and intrinsic/extrinsic religious motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, James W; Walker, Alan G

    2015-04-01

    Core self-evaluations refer to a higher-order construct that subsumes four well-established traits in the personality literature: self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, (low) neuroticism, and (internal) locus of control. Studies that have examined the relationship between various measures of religiosity and individual components of core self-evaluations show no clear pattern of relationships. The absence of a clear pattern may be due to the failure of most previous studies in this area to use theory to guide research. Therefore, theories related to core self-evaluations, religious motivation, and views of God were used to develop and test four hypotheses. 220 adults completed measures of four religious attitudes (intrinsic religious motivation, extrinsic religious motivation, viewing God as loving, and viewing God as punitive), general religiosity, and core self-evaluations, separated by 6 weeks (with the order of measures counterbalanced). Multivariate multiple regression, controlling for general religiosity, showed that core self-evaluations were positively related to viewing God as loving, negatively related to viewing God as punitive, and negatively related to extrinsic religious motivation. The hypothesis that core self-evaluations would be positively related to intrinsic religious motivation was not supported.

  13. Exploring Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations to Participate in a Crowdsourcing Project to Support Blind and Partially Sighted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layas, Fatma; Petrie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    There have been a number of crowdsourcing projects to support people with disabilities. However, there is little exploration of what motivates people to participate in such crowdsourcing projects. In this study we investigated how different motivational factors can affect the participation of people in a crowdsourcing project to support visually disabled students. We are developing "DescribeIT", a crowdsourcing project to support blind and partially students by having sighted people describe images in digital learning resources. We investigated participants' behavior of the DescribeIT project using three conditions: one intrinsic motivation condition and two extrinsic motivation conditions. The results showed that participants were significantly intrinsically motivated to participate in the DescribeIT project. In addition, participants' intrinsic motivation dominated the effect of the two extrinsic motivational factors in the extrinsic conditions.

  14. Exploring the Intrinsic Motivation of Hedonic Information Systems Acceptance: Integrating Hedonic Theory and Flow with TAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihuan

    Research on Information Systems (IS) acceptance is substantially focused on extrinsic motivation in workplaces, little is known about the underlying intrinsic motivations of Hedonic IS (HIS) acceptance. This paper proposes a hybrid HIS acceptance model which takes the unique characteristics of HIS and multiple identities of a HIS user into consideration by interacting Hedonic theory, Flow theory with Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The model was empirically tested by a field survey. The result indicates that emotional responses, imaginal responses, and flow experience are three main contributions of HIS acceptance.

  15. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana : a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened ‘decision space’ that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover inte...

  17. BRIDGE21--Exploring the Potential to Foster Intrinsic Student Motivation through a Team-Based, Technology-Mediated Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John; Marshall, Kevin; Tangney, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that intrinsic student motivation is a critical requirement for effective learning but formal learning in school places a huge reliance on extrinsic motivation to focus the learner. This reliance on extrinsic motivation is driven by the pressure on formal schooling to "deliver to the test." The experience of the…

  18. A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Koestner, R; Ryan, R M

    1999-11-01

    A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATION, EXPECTATIONS ATTAINMENT AND SATISFACTION OF GRADUATE STUDENTS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Santos Arini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aspects such as motivation, attainment of the expectations and satisfaction of students have been the target of studies aimed at improving teaching. Investigate the perception of graduate students and their experiences, as they progress in educational programs, provides data that can help improve these programs and support services. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at analyzing the motivation, attainment of the expectations and satisfaction of graduate students in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of São Paulo regarding their own training as scientists and/or teachers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected on October and November 2015, through the application of a questionnaire composed of three major categories: motivation, attainment of the expectations and satisfaction, and twelve subcategories: extrinsic, intrinsic and influenced by the environment motivation; attainment of expectations; satisfaction with the project; courses; scholarship; supervision; work environment; workload; deadlines; formation. The results were validated through Cronbach's Alpha (greater than 0,7 and the item-total correlation index, larger than 0.2 in all items of the questionnaire. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: Extrinsic motivation of students is strongly influenced by the perspective of progress in career (more than 65%. Intrinsic motivation is influenced by the aspiration to become scientists (85.4%, learn more about their work (94.3% and contribute to the construction of Science (83.1%. The motivation influenced by the environment affects these students for the high productivity of the program (69.7%, the solid education it offers (84.3% and its reputation (74.1%. The program has met the students’ expectations (72%; they are satisfied with their project (77.6%, with the courses (62.5%, and the supervision received (76.4%, with the work environment (83.2% intralaboratory; 64.1% extralaboratory, with the deadlines (over 61% and formation

  20. A qualitative study of the intrinsic motivation of physicians and other health professionals to teach

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the intrinsic motivation of physicians and other health professionals to teach. Methods: Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were thematically analysed. A purposive opportunity sample of eight physicians and other healthcare professionals employed by our institution to teach Bachelor-level courses in health care participated in the study. Results: Four themes that suggested an internal desire to teach were identified: 1. Interest in the subject matter; 2. Interest...

  1. A Relationship between Parental Involvement and Intrinsic Motivation on Learning Islamic Education

    OpenAIRE

    Adamu Zakiyu Ubale; Abdul Hakim Abdullah; Tahir Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is ann important element influencing learning and achievement. It is believed to affect human behaviour in a various situation like; learning, thinking, perceptions, creativity, and feelings. Many students cannot learn effectively as a result of not been stimulated. The present study aimed to identify a relationship between parental involvement (parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making and collaboration with the community) and students’ intrinsic mo...

  2. Is it promoted or endorsed achievement goals and underlying reasons that predict students’ intrinsic motivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaş, Özge N.

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-60). The aim of this research was to investigate (a) the effects of mastery-approach (MAp) and performance-approach (PAp) goals induced in an autonomous or a controlling condition to students’ intrinsic motivation through an experiment (Study 1), and (b) the relation of an endorsed...

  3. Promotion of Intrinsic Motivation of New Generation Learners for Learning Physics by Digital Physics Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Peciuliauskiene, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the role of digital Physics experiments in the promotion of intrinsic motivation of secondary school age learners for learning Physics. The methodological basis of research is inquiry-based learning. The article focuses on the second level of inquiry-based learning referred to as structured inquiry. The study is based on the sociological approach, with the emphasis on the new generation (Generation Z) and their exclusive relationship to technology. The research problem ...

  4. Intrinsic motivation, curiosity and learning: theory and applications in educational technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Lopes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article studies the bi-directional causal interactions between curiosity and learning, and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, study...

  5. Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An "Interpretive" Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kenneth W.; Velthouse, Betty A.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a cognitive model of empowerment. Here, empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation, and our subsequent model identifies four cognitions (task assessments) as the basis for worker empowerment: sense of impact, competence, meaningfulness, and choice. Adopting an interpretive perspective, we have used the model also to describe cognitive processes through which workers reach these conclusions. Central to the processes we describe are ...

  6. Imitation learning based on an intrinsic motivation mechanism for efficient coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triesch, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis regarding the development of imitation learning is presented that is rooted in intrinsic motivations. It is derived from a recently proposed form of intrinsically motivated learning (IML) for efficient coding in active perception, wherein an agent learns to perform actions with its sense organs to facilitate efficient encoding of the sensory data. To this end, actions of the sense organs that improve the encoding of the sensory data trigger an internally generated reinforcement signal. Here it is argued that the same IML mechanism might also support the development of imitation when general actions beyond those of the sense organs are considered: The learner first observes a tutor performing a behavior and learns a model of the the behavior's sensory consequences. The learner then acts itself and receives an internally generated reinforcement signal reflecting how well the sensory consequences of its own behavior are encoded by the sensory model. Actions that are more similar to those of the tutor will lead to sensory signals that are easier to encode and produce a higher reinforcement signal. Through this, the learner's behavior is progressively tuned to make the sensory consequences of its actions match the learned sensory model. I discuss this mechanism in the context of human language acquisition and bird song learning where similar ideas have been proposed. The suggested mechanism also offers an account for the development of mirror neurons and makes a number of predictions. Overall, it establishes a connection between principles of efficient coding, intrinsic motivations and imitation.

  7. Imitation Learning Based on an Intrinsic Motivation Mechanism for Efficient Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eTriesch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis regarding the development of imitation learning is presented that is rooted in intrinsic motivations. It is derived from a recently proposed form of intrinsically motivated learning (IML for efficient coding in active perception, wherein an agent learns to perform actions with its sense organs to facilitate efficient encoding of the sensory data. To this end, actions of the sense organs that improve the encoding of the sensory data trigger an internally generated reinforcement signal. Here it is argued that the same IML mechanism might also support the development of imitation when general actions beyond those of the sense organs are considered: The learner first observes a tutor performing a behavior and learns a model of the the behavior's sensory consequences. The learner then acts itself and receives an internally generated reinforcement signal reflecting how well the sensory consequences of its own behavior are encoded by the sensory model. Actions that are more similar to those of the tutor will lead to sensory signals that are easier to encode and produce a higher reinforcement signal. Through this, the learner's behavior is progressively tuned to make the sensory consequences of its actions match the learned sensory model. I discuss this mechanism in the context of human language acquisition and bird song learning where similar ideas have been proposed. The suggested mechanism also offers an account for the development of mirror neurons and makes a number of predictions. Overall, it establishes a connection between principles of efficient coding, intrinsic motivations and imitation.

  8. Self-Organization of Early Vocal Development in Infants and Machines: The Role of Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eMoulin-Frier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We bridge the gap between two issues in infant development: vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation.

  9. Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: Psychometric Properties in the Context of First Language and Mathematics Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Monteiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI is a multidimensional measurement grounded on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT used in assessing the subjective experiences of participants when developing an activity. The aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of IMI among Portuguese students, testing four organizational models (unidimensional, multidimensional, hierarchical and bi-factor. A total of 3685 students from the 5th to the 12th grades (50.4% boys participated in the study (M = 13.67, SD = 2.26. Two versions of IMI were used (First Language and Mathematics with twenty-one items distributed over five subscales: Enjoyment, Perceived Competence, Pressure/Tension, Perceived Choice and Value/Utility. The confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the multidimensionality of intrinsic motivation, and that the bi-factor model presented the best fit indexes. This model showed the existence of one general factor, resulting from the contribution of all individual dimensions and the particularities of most of them. Furthermore, results also highlighted satisfactory reliability scores both through Cronbach's alpha scores and Composite reliability scores. These results indicate that this scale is appropriate to evaluate the underlying constructs of the theoretical model of SDT and allows for the calculation of a global measure of intrinsic motivation, as well as specific measures for their predictors.

  10. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieri Giuliano Santucci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e. motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a cinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show a that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and b that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance.

  11. Use of the maximal-operant principle to motivate children's intrinsic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, A K; Barrett, M; Weiher, A W; McClelland, G H; Lusk, C M

    1987-11-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that in contrast to theory and research indicating that tangible reward decreases subsequent interest in enjoyable academic activities, rewards are perceived by adults as effective techniques to maximize long- and short-term subsequent interest for academic tasks of both high and low initial interest level. The results of our first three studies demonstrated that college students and parents view tangible reward as more effective than other less controlling techniques to enhance intrinsic motivation and value rewards more for intrinsically interesting academic behaviors in comparison with others (e.g., prosocial behaviors). Our fourth study supported the hypothesis that adults do not subscribe to the minimal-sufficiency analysis of increasing intrinsic motivation but prefer a maximal-operant principle in which the likelihood of producing long-term interest in academic tasks is assumed to vary positively with the size of a reward. Our fifth and sixth studies investigated illusory correlation as one mechanism that may perpetuate beliefs about the assumed positive relation between tangible reward and intrinsic interest in academic tasks.

  12. Encouraging intrinsic motivation in the clinical setting: teachers' perspectives from the self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, C; Evans, P; Binnie, V; Ledezma, P; Fuentes, F

    2016-05-01

    Self-determination theory postulates that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness have to be satisfied for students to achieve intrinsic motivation and internalisation of autonomous self-regulation towards academic activities. Consequently, the influence of the clinical teaching environment becomes crucial when satisfying these needs, particularly when promoting or diminishing students' intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to describe and understand how clinical teachers encourage intrinsic motivation in undergraduate dental students based on the three basic psychological needs described by the self-determination theory. A qualitative case study approach was adopted, and data were collected through semistructured interviews with nine experienced undergraduate clinical teachers of one dental school in Santiago, Chile. Interview transcripts were analysed by two independent reviewers using a general inductive approach. Several themes emerged outlining teaching strategies and behaviours. These themes included the control of external motivators; gradual transference of responsibility; identification and encouragement of personal interests; timely and constructive feedback; delivery of a vicarious learning experience; teamwork, team discussion, and presence of a safe environment, amongst others. Overall, teachers stressed the relevance of empowering, supporting and building a horizontal relationship with students. Our findings regarding dental education expand on the research outcomes from other health professions about how teachers may support students to internalise behaviours. An autonomy-supportive environment may lead students to value and engage in academic activities and eventually foster the use of an autonomy-supportive style to motivate their patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Intrinsic motivation, performance, and the mediating role of mastery goal orientation: a test of self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Ford, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Although intrinsic motivation has been linked repeatedly to performance and outcomes, the causal relationship between the two has remained unclear. To explain the link, this study considered the focusing influence of mastery goals. Using a three-wave panel study and hypotheses drawn from self-determination theory and achievement goal theory, the current study sought to clarify the relationships between intrinsic motivation, mastery goal orientation, and performance. Specifically, the current study hypothesized and found that mastery goals mediated (explained) the relationship between intrinsic motivation and performance.

  14. The Relationship Between Demographics Variables, Emotional Intelligence, Communication Effectiveness, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    What seems to still be the main concern for managers and employees in the organization world across the globe is communication effectiveness. The problem to be addressed in this study was the lack of motivation and job satisfaction in educational administrations of Iran. Upon reviewing various literatures on this subject, it was found that emotional intelligence is one of the most vital factors that help sustain communication effectiveness and job satisfaction. The researcher upon having a de...

  15. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended.

  16. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  18. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in the Pursuit of Health Science-Related Careers among Youth from Underrepresented Low Socioeconomic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O; Jones, Chandria; Bhagat, Krishna; Siddiqui, Junaed; Wang, Min Qi

    2015-10-01

    A more diverse health science-related workforce including more underrepresented race/ethnic minorities, especially from low socioeconomic backgrounds, is needed to address health disparities in the USA. To increase such diversity, programs must facilitate youth interest in pursuing a health science-related career (HSRC). Minority youth from low socioeconomic families may focus on the secondary gains of careers, such as high income and status, given their low socioeconomic backgrounds. On the other hand, self-determination theory suggests that it is the intrinsic characteristics of careers which are most likely to sustain pursuit of an HSRC and lead to job satisfaction. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for pursuing an HSRC (defined in this study as health professional, health scientist, and medical doctor) was examined in a cohort of youth from the 10th to 12th grade from 2011 to 2013. The sample was from low-income area high schools, had a B- or above grade point average at baseline, and was predominantly: African American (65.7 %) or Hispanic (22.9 %), female (70.1 %), and children of foreign-born parents (64.7 %). In longitudinal general estimating equations, intrinsic motivation (but not extrinsic motivation) consistently predicted intention to pursue an HSRC. This finding provides guidance as to which youth and which qualities of HSRCs might deserve particular attention in efforts to increase diversity in the health science-related workforce.

  19. Measuring Motivation, Morale and Job Satisfaction in Army Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-30

    attitudes. Process theories of motivation. The two major types of orocess theories of motivation are expectancy theories and equity theories... Expectancy theories maintain that behavior is determined in part by a person’s beliefs about the likelihood of behavior leading to various desirable or...undesirable conse- quences. Equity theories differ from expectancy theories in that they emphasize not beliefs about relationships between behavior and

  20. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  1. Work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujičić Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Motivated and job satisfied health professionals represent a basis of success of modern health institutions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference in work motivation and job satisfaction between health workers in urban and rural areas in the region of Central Serbia. Methods. The study included 396 health professionals from urban setting, and 436 from a rural area, employed in four randomly selected health facilities. An anonymous questionnaire was used for data gathering. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2, Student t-test, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results. Urban health professionals were significantly more motivated and job satisfied than respondents from rural area. In relation to work motivation factors and job satisfaction of health professionals in urban and rural areas, there were no significant differences in working conditions and current equipment, and in terms of job satisfaction there were no significant differences in relation to income either. Conclusion. In order to increase the level of work motivation and job satisfaction of health workers in rural areas, apart from better income, they should get more assistance and support from their supervisors, and awards for good job performance; interpersonal relationships, promotion and advancement opportunities, managerial performance and cooperation at work should be improved; employment security should be provided, as well as more independence at work, with professional supervision of health workers.

  2. Impact Of Employee Motivation On Customer Satisfaction: Study Of Airline Industry In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal; Wasey, Ejaz; Jhanndir, Saif Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Employees are the most important factor in the success and failure of any organization. The airline industry is a service industry that sells seats to its passengers therefore employees motivation towards their job plays a very important role in serving the customer’s needs. This study focuses on the impact of employee motivation and its components e.g. work environment, pay and benefits, management systems and organizational vision on customer satisfaction in the airline industry of Pakistan...

  3. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan Yang; Li Cao

    2013-01-01

    ...’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93...

  4. Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox Rand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation 1, which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487 and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week and abstinence (never. Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant.

  5. The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the Organizational Commitment in Extraordinary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentama, Fatwa; Pranungsari, Dessy

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction are the factors influencing the organizational commitment. This research is aimed to empirically examine the roles of teachers' work motivation and teachers' job satisfaction in the commitment of the organization in extraordinary schools. The subjects of the research are the teachers in…

  6. Bridging the gap between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in the cognitive remediation of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M

    2010-09-01

    An important development in cognitive remediation of schizophrenia is a focus on motivation. However, following a distinction between the concepts of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation, discussions of IM-based methods have downplayed or misrepresented the role that extrinsic rewards can, and actually do, serve to promote positive treatment outcomes in cognitive remediation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to explore the rationale for using techniques incorporating extrinsic rewards into cognitive treatment of people with schizophrenia. To do this, evidence is presented on each of the following points: (1) there is a long history of research demonstrating that delivery of extrinsic reward is associated with positive outcomes in both behavioral and cognitive rehabilitation; (2) basic human brain systems respond strongly to tangible rewards, and this can directly enhance attention, working memory, and other cognitive functions; (3) nearly all data on the negative effects of extrinsic reward on IM have come from studies of healthy children and adults in school or work settings who have adequate IM for target tasks; these findings do not generalize well to cognitive remediation settings for people with schizophrenia, who often have abnormally low levels of IM and low base rates of attentive behaviors; and (4) in real-world situations, cognitive remediation interventions already utilize a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcers. Future studies are needed to clarify state and trait factors responsible for individual differences in the extent to which extrinsic rewards are necessary to set the conditions under which IM can develop.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in primary care: an explanatory study among French general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Le Vaillant, Marc; Franc, Carine

    2012-12-01

    Like many other OECD nations, France has implemented a pay-for-performance (P4P) model in primary care. However, the benefits have been debated, particularly regarding the possibly undesirable effects of extrinsic motivation (EM) on intrinsic motivation (IM). To examine the relationship between French GPs' IM and EM based on an intrinsic motivation composite score (IMCS) developed for this purpose. If a negative relationship is found, P4P schemes could have side effects on GPs' IM that is a key determinant of quality of care. From data on 423 GPs practicing in a region of France, IM indicators are selected using a multiple correspondence analysis and aggregated from a multilevel model. Several doctors' characteristics have significant impacts on IMCS variability, especially group practice and salaried practice. Qualitative EM variables are negatively correlated with the IMCS: GPs who report not being satisfied with their income or feeling "often" constrained by patients' requests in terms of consultations length and office appointments obtain a lower mean IMCS than other GPs. Our results provide a cautionary message to regulators who should take into account the potential side effects of increasing EM through policies such as P4P. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Employees’ Performance Appraisal Procedure on their Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaemi Barzoki Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid change and developments as well as increasing communications and dramatic developments in knowledge management, have made the existence of effective organizational performance evaluation system for the organizations inevitable. Various models have been provided by the management experts for the performance evaluation so that organizations use them according to their type of organization, mission, structure and manpower. One function of performance appraisal systems is to arouse motivation in the employees, which is addressed in this study. The present study is a descriptive-survey study. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of employees’ performance evaluation process on their intrinsic motivation. Statistical population of this study is 80 employees of transportation organization in the Esfahan province. Research data has been collected via standard questionnaire, and SPSS software applied for the analysis. The results indicate that the process of evaluating employees’ performance affected on their intrinsic motivation (P-Value <0.05 and the effectiveness is positive, equals to 0.414.

  9. Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Teacher Change among Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brigid Daly; French, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the explanatory power of Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory as a framework for describing how interactions between early childhood teachers and the systems within which their work is embedded influence motivation for professional growth and change in teaching practice. Fifty-four early childhood teachers and teacher…

  10. Learning Conditions, Members' Motivation and Satisfaction: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Isabel Dórdio; Rebelo, Teresa; Lourenço, Paulo Renato

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to contribute to the clarification of the conditions under which teams can be successful, especially those related to team learning. To attain this goal, in the present study, the mediating role played by team members' motivation on the relationship between team learning conditions (shared learning beliefs…

  11. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  12. Satisfaction of Hygiene and Motivation Needs of Teachers Who Resigned from Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frataccia, Enrico V.; Hennington, Iris

    The growing incidence of teacher burnout suggests that many teachers have difficulty in satisfying their needs and in deriving satisfaction from teaching. This study examined the needs that teachers appear to have difficulty in satisfying. The study is based on Herzberg's Hygiene-Motivation Theory. This theory, related to Maslow's Hierarchy of…

  13. Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and College Professors: Implications for Job Satisfaction and Person-Job Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Jon C.; Winston, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    This study builds on earlier work by DellaVecchio and Winston (2004) and McPherson (2008). They addressed the seven motivational gifts Paul wrote about in Romans 12:3-8 as a means for addressing job satisfaction and person-job fit among college professors. Using a snowball sampling method, 89 college professors completed the online survey…

  14. Relationships among Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Students' Motivation, Atmosphere, and Satisfaction in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the relationships among teachers' self-efficacy, and students' learning motivation, learning atmosphere, and learning satisfaction in senior high school physical education (PE). A sample of 462 PE teachers and 2681 students was drawn using stratified random sampling and cluster sampling from high schools in…

  15. The Role of Positive Psychology in Enhancing Satisfaction, Motivation, and Productivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology offers scope for enhancing satisfaction, motivation, and productivity in the workplace. Wiegand and Geller (2004, this issue) point to a number of strategies to enhance individuals' success orientation and conclude their discussion with the actively caring model which appears to be a useful means of representing pivotal facets…

  16. Satisfaction of Hygiene and Motivation Needs of Teachers Who Resigned from Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frataccia, Enrico V.; Hennington, Iris

    The growing incidence of teacher burnout suggests that many teachers have difficulty in satisfying their needs and in deriving satisfaction from teaching. This study examined the needs that teachers appear to have difficulty in satisfying. The study is based on Herzberg's Hygiene-Motivation Theory. This theory, related to Maslow's Hierarchy of…

  17. Effect of Job Satisfaction and Motivation towards Employee's Performance in XYZ Shipping Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviannand, Ramona; Pandjaitan, Nurmala K.; Kuswanto, Sadikin

    2017-01-01

    In the digital and globalization era which are demanding for tech progress. Human resources need to work more closely and concentration. Small errors can lead to fatal errors that result in high costs for the company. The loss of motivation at work influences employee satisfaction and have a negative impact on employee performance. Research was…

  18. Effect of Time Management on the Job Satisfaction and Motivation of Teacher Educators: A Narrative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Zafarullah; Vaisanen, Pertti

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between time management, job satisfaction and motivation among teacher educators in university departments, institutes and faculties of education in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Using an interview approach, the researchers recorded the professional stories of 40 teacher educators.…

  19. The Effects of Social Capital Elements on Job Satisfaction and Motivation Levels of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydak Özan, Mukadder; Yavuz Özdemir, Tuncay; Yaras, Zübeyde

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of social capital elements' on job satisfaction and motivation levels of teachers. The mixed method was used in the study. The quantitative data were analyzed through Correlation and Multiple Regression analyses. An interview form developed by the researchers was used for analyzing the…

  20. Effects of Spectrum Teaching Styles on College Students' Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…

  1. Effects of Asynchronous Music on Students' Lesson Satisfaction and Motivation at the Situational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M [subscript…

  2. The Role of Positive Psychology in Enhancing Satisfaction, Motivation, and Productivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology offers scope for enhancing satisfaction, motivation, and productivity in the workplace. Wiegand and Geller (2004, this issue) point to a number of strategies to enhance individuals' success orientation and conclude their discussion with the actively caring model which appears to be a useful means of representing pivotal facets…

  3. Principal Self-Efficacy: Relations with Burnout, Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relations between principals' self-efficacy, burnout, job satisfaction and principals' motivation to quit. Principal self-efficacy was measured by a recently developed multidimensional scale called the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Burnout was measured by a modified version of the Maslach Burnout…

  4. Effects of Asynchronous Music on Students' Lesson Satisfaction and Motivation at the Situational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digelidis, Nikolaos; Karageorghis, Costas I.; Papapavlou, Anastasia; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of asynchronous (background) music on senior students' motivation and lesson satisfaction at the situational level. A counterbalanced mixed-model design was employed with two factors comprising condition (three levels) and gender (two levels). Two hundred students (82 boys, 118 girls; M [subscript…

  5. Effects of Spectrum Teaching Styles on College Students' Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…

  6. The Relation between Balanced Need Satisfaction and Adolescents' Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Tsorbatzoudis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Self-determination theory posits that satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness represents the basic nutriments for humans' optimal functioning. It also postulates that with greater the degree to which these three needs are equally satisfied, the quality of motivation is further enhanced. Yet, this premise has remained…

  7. The Relation between Balanced Need Satisfaction and Adolescents' Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Tsorbatzoudis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    Self-determination theory posits that satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness represents the basic nutriments for humans' optimal functioning. It also postulates that with greater the degree to which these three needs are equally satisfied, the quality of motivation is further enhanced. Yet, this premise has remained…

  8. The Influence of Competence, Motivation, and Organisational Culture to High School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, H. Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to find out and analyze the influence of competence, motivation, and organizational competence to high school teacher job satisfaction and performance in Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia. The study was conducted on 117 respondents of 346 teachers by means of questionnaire. Data is analyzed by SEM analysis method in AMOS program.…

  9. Expectancy Work Motivation, Central Life Interests, Voluntarism, Organizational Situation, Job Satisfaction, and Perceived Teaching Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    This study tested the hypotheses that expectancy work motivation, individual attitudes toward work, and structural and environmental components are predictions of teacher job satisfaction and effectiveness. Samples were selected from junior high school and higher education faculties. Subjects responded to open-ended questionnaires, and results…

  10. Relationship between Service Quality, Satisfaction, Motivation and Loyalty: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Annamdevula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify and test four competing models with the interrelationships between students' perceived service quality, students' satisfaction, loyalty and motivation using structural equation modeling (SEM), and to select the best model using chi-square difference (??2) statistic test. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  11. Work motivation, task delegation and job satisfaction of general practice staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgaard, Helle; Søndergaard, Jens; Munch, Maria; Le, Jette V; Ledderer, Loni; Pedersen, Line B; Nexøe, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the practise staff's overall job satisfaction, and this association is important to explore since job satisfaction is related to medical as well as patient-perceived quality of care. This study aimed: (1) to investigate associations between degrees of task delegation in the management of chronic disease in general practice, with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a case and the staff's work motivation, (2) to investigate associations between the work motivation of the staff and their job satisfaction. The study was based on a questionnaire to which 621 members of the practice staff responded. The questionnaire consisted of a part concerning degree of task delegation in the management of COPD in their respective practice and another part being about their job satisfaction and motivation to work. In the first analysis, we found that 'maximal degree' of task delegation was significantly associated with the staff perceiving themselves to have a large degree of variation in tasks, odds ratio (OR) = 4.26, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09, 16.62. In the second analysis, we found that this perceived large degree of variation in tasks was significantly associated with their overall job satisfaction, OR = 2.81, confidence interval = 1.71, 4.61. The results suggest that general practitioners could delegate highly complex tasks in the management of COPD to their staff without influencing the staff's work motivation, and thereby their job satisfaction, negatively, as long as they ensure sufficient variation in the tasks.

  12. The Effect of Intrinsic Motivation on the Affect and Evaluation of the Creative Process among Fine Arts Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko-Kaczmarek, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the effect of intrinsic motivation on affect, subjective evaluation, and the creative process of young artists. Relations between motivation, affect, and evaluation were treated as a dynamic process and measured several times. The unique contribution of this study is that it…

  13. The Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation to the Development of Reading Competence over Summer Vacation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the role of reading motivation as a potential determinant of losses or gains in reading competence over six weeks of summer vacation (SV). Based on a sample of 223 third-grade elementary students, structural equation analyses showed that intrinsic reading motivation before SV contributed positively to both word and sentence…

  14. The Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation to the Development of Reading Competence over Summer Vacation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the role of reading motivation as a potential determinant of losses or gains in reading competence over six weeks of summer vacation (SV). Based on a sample of 223 third-grade elementary students, structural equation analyses showed that intrinsic reading motivation before SV contributed positively to both word and sentence…

  15. From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behavior: testing a motivational sequence in two behavioral contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Harris, Jemma

    2006-02-01

    The present study tested a motivational sequence in which global-level psychological need satisfaction from self-determination theory influenced intentions and behavior directly and indirectly through contextual-level motivation and situational-level decision-making constructs from the theory of planned behavior. Two samples of university students (N = 511) completed measures of global-level psychological need satisfaction, contextual-level autonomous motivation, and situational-level attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior in two behavioral contexts: exercise and dieting. A structural equation model supported the proposed sequence in both samples. The indirect effect was present for exercise behavior, whereas both direct and indirect effects were found for dieting behavior. Findings independently supported the component theories and provided a comprehensive integrated explanation of volitional behavior.

  16. An Analysis of volunteer motivation in HIV/AIDS community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... engage in volunteering and factors that maintain volunteer motivation. ... Volunteers were intrinsically motivated and inspired by their religious beliefs ... Volunteers reported drawing satisfaction from the positive impact on the recipient's life.

  17. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards.

  18. Is Materialism All That Bad? Effects on Satisfaction with Material Life, Life Satisfaction, and Economic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Gurel-Atay, Eda; Webb, Dave; Cicic, Muris; Husic-Mehmedovic, Melika; Ekici, Ahmet; Herrmann, Andreas; Hegazy, Ibrahim; Lee, Dong-Jin; Johar, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The literature in economic psychology and quality-of-life studies alludes to a negative relationship between materialism and life satisfaction. In contrast, the macroeconomic literature implies a positive relationship between material consumption and economic growth. That is, materialism may be both good and bad. We develop a model that reconciles…

  19. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization.

  20. The impact of incentives on intrinsic and extrinsic motives for fitness-center attendance in college first-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Harvey, Jean

    2015-01-01

    A criticism of incentives for health behaviors is that incentives undermine intrinsic motivation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of monetary incentive provision on participation motives for exercise in first-year college students at a northeastern public university. Randomized-controlled trial. Public university in the Northeastern United States. One hundred seventeen first-year college students. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions: a control condition receiving no incentives for meeting fitness-center attendance goals; a discontinued-incentive condition receiving weekly incentives during fall semester 2011, and no incentives during spring semester 2012; or a continued-incentive condition receiving weekly incentives during fall semester, and incentives on a variable-interval schedule during spring semester. The Exercise Motivation Inventory 2 measured exercise participation motives at baseline, end of fall semester, and end of spring semester. Fitness-center attendance was monitored by using ID-card check-in/check-out records. Repeated-measures analyses using linear mixed models with first-order autoregressive covariance structures were run to compare motive changes in the three conditions. Participation motives of Enjoyment and Revitalization associated with intrinsic motivation did not decrease significantly over time in any of the conditions, F(4, 218) = 2.25, p = .065 and F(4, 220) = 1.67, p = .16, respectively. Intrinsically associated participation motives for exercise did not decrease with incentive provision. Therefore, incentives may encourage fitness-center attendance without negatively impacting participation motives for exercise.

  1. Motivation and Job Satisfaction for Middle Level Career Army Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    Vroom , Victor H , Work and Motivation. New York; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 196A. Whyte, William F. Man...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entire,!) _ , .^^^^M^mä«mmMiimMMii^ h ^.itiiaaäijmiä^.^. : - - rAfAiiamiitiMiiiiiMT^ — " ?¥E^TC v...satisfied in this setting. See figure one a for schematic of Q their model. li M ■^ ^5 CO 01 a • H u • H 4 rH H Tl H 41 < a o •rl U (9 > • H

  2. Perceptions of teachers' general and informational feedback and intrinsic motivation in physical education: two-year effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre; Hein, Vello

    2006-10-01

    Relative change or stability of perceived positive general feedback and perceived informational feedback and their influence on students' intrinsic motivation in physical education over two years were examined. 302 students, ages 11 to 15 years, responded to the Perception of Teacher's Feedback questionnaire. Two years later, these students filled out the questionnaire again, along with a modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Analysis showed that both types of perceived feedback exhibited moderate stability over the two years. Perceived positive general feedback demonstrated a significant direct effect on students' intrinsic motivation measured concurrently in physical education. Further, fixing to zero the effect of perceived positive general feedback on intrinsic motivation measured concurrently, an effect emerged over the two years.

  3. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared.

  4. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  5. Twelve tips to stimulate intrinsic motivation in students through autonomy-supportive classroom teaching derived from self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, R A; Croiset, G; Ten Cate, Th J

    2011-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) of motivations distinguishes between intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Intrinsic motivation is observed when one engages in an activity out of genuine interest and is truly self-determined. Intrinsic motivation is the desired type of motivation for study as it is associated with deep learning, better performance and positive well-being in comparison to extrinsic motivation. It is dependent on the fulfilment of three basic psychological needs described by SDT. These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. According to SDT, autonomy-supportive teaching is important, because it makes students feel autonomous and competent in their learning and also supported (relatedness) by their teachers. The concept of autonomy-supportive teaching is relevant to medical education, but less known. Through this article, we aim to make this concept understood and practically used by medical teachers. We used SDT literature as a basis to formulate these 12 tips. We present 12 practical tips derived from SDT, for teachers in health professions, on how to engage in autonomy-supportive teaching behaviours in order to stimulate intrinsic motivation in their students. These tips demonstrate that it is not difficult to engage in autonomy-supportive teaching behaviour. It can be learned through practice and self-reflection on teaching practices.

  6. A Study on Motivation and Satisfaction of employees in Corporate Hospitals in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratyay Pratim Datta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivation and satisfaction of employees are the two key factors for the proper and adequate productivity of any organization. If these two factors are properly met then the employee can perform well. The present study was carried out to find out the motivational status of employees working in corporate hospitals in Kolkata; to determine the many drivers of motivations and to identify the level of satisfaction of employees. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out in four corporate hospitals selected by simple random sampling technique. Total 100 technicians and 100 front office staffs were interviewed about their satisfaction level and status of motivation using pre-designed, pre-tested, closed ended schedule. After collection of data it was compiled, tabulated and analyzed using SPSS (16.0. Results: A significant higher proportion of front office staffs as compared to the technicians were overall satisfied as an employee in the organizations and satisfied with departmental technical tools also. Higher proportion of front office staffs as compared to technicians agreed that increments and incentives provided by the organizations, accidental compensation and medical benefit provided by the organization were sufficient and this difference of perception was also significant. Conclusion: Overall the front office staffs were more satisfied as employees in the organizations. The management authority should pay sufficient attention to improve the productivity of the organizations by arranging regular meeting with the employees and fulfilling their needs. [Natl J of Med Res 2013; 3(1.000: 56-59

  7. Clima motivacional percibido, necesidades psicológicas y motivación intrínseca como predictores del compromiso deportivo en adolescentes. (Perceived motivational climate, psychological needs and intrinsic motivation as predictors of sport commitment in adolescent athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé J. Almagro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl estudio analizó la predicción del clima motivacional percibido, la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas y la motivación intrínseca sobre la adherencia a la práctica deportiva. Se utilizó una muestra de 580 deportistas con una edad media de 14.46 años. Se emplearon el Cuestionario del Clima Motivacional Percibido en el Deporte-2, la Escala de las Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas en el Ejercicio, el factor motivación intrínseca de la Escala de Motivación Deportiva y la Medida de la Intencionalidad para ser Físicamente Activo. Los resultados del modelo de ecuaciones estructurales mostraron que el clima motivacional que implica a la tarea predecía las tres necesidades psicológicas básicas y la intención de seguir siendo físicamente activo. Por otro lado, el clima motivacional que implica al ego predecía la necesidades de autonomía y de competencia, aunque con un peso de regresión en ambos casos mucho menor que como lo hacía el clima tarea. La satisfacción de las tres necesidades psicológicas básicas predijo positivamente la motivación intrínseca. Por su parte, la motivación intrínseca predijo la intención de ser físicamente activo en el futuro. Se discuten los resultados en relación a la importancia de fomentar un clima motivacional tarea en los practicantes para incrementar la adherencia a la práctica deportiva.AbstractThe study analyzed the prediction of perceived motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation on adherence to sports. A sample of 580 athletes with a mean age of 14.46 years, participated in the study. The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale, the intrinsic motivation factor of the Sport Motivation Scale and Intention of Being Physically Active were used. Structural equation modeling results showed that the task-involving motivational climate positively predicted the

  8. Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Effective motor performance is important for surviving and thriving, and skilled movement is critical in many activities. Much theorizing over the past few decades has focused on how certain practice conditions affect the processing of task-related information to affect learning. Yet, existing theoretical perspectives do not accommodate significant recent lines of evidence demonstrating motivational and attentional effects on performance and learning. These include research on (a) conditions that enhance expectancies for future performance, (b) variables that influence learners' autonomy, and (c) an external focus of attention on the intended movement effect. We propose the OPTIMAL (Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning) theory of motor learning. We suggest that motivational and attentional factors contribute to performance and learning by strengthening the coupling of goals to actions. We provide explanations for the performance and learning advantages of these variables on psychological and neuroscientific grounds. We describe a plausible mechanism for expectancy effects rooted in responses of dopamine to the anticipation of positive experience and temporally associated with skill practice. Learner autonomy acts perhaps largely through an enhanced expectancy pathway. Furthermore, we consider the influence of an external focus for the establishment of efficient functional connections across brain networks that subserve skilled movement. We speculate that enhanced expectancies and an external focus propel performers' cognitive and motor systems in productive "forward" directions and prevent "backsliding" into self- and non-task focused states. Expected success presumably breeds further success and helps consolidate memories. We discuss practical implications and future research directions.

  9. Inverted U-Shaped Curvilinear Relationship between Challenge and One's Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Meng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    The balance between task demand and one's competence is critical for the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. According to Flow theory and Self-determination theory, optimal challenge gives rise to the maximum intrinsic motivation, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation is suggested. In order to provide direct experimental evidences for predictions of these theories, in this study, we employed the two-player StopWatch game that we previously designed, which made references to the game format of a badminton tournament. According to our manipulation, a male participant was defeated by the same-sex player paired with him (played by a well-trained confederate of the experimenter) in two matches, one with a wide margin (the complete defeat condition) and another with a narrow one (the near miss condition). Participants performed better and reported to enjoy the near miss match to a greater extent. Besides, an enlarged Stimulus-preceding negativity was elicited when participants were actively anticipating outcomes in the near miss condition, suggesting greater anticipatory attention toward the outcome and an enhanced intrinsic motivation to win. Thus, converging electrophysiological evidences from this study and our former study confirmed the inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation.

  10. Inverted U-Shaped Curvilinear Relationship between Challenge and One's Intrinsic Motivation: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Meng, Liang

    2017-01-01

    The balance between task demand and one's competence is critical for the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. According to Flow theory and Self-determination theory, optimal challenge gives rise to the maximum intrinsic motivation, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation is suggested. In order to provide direct experimental evidences for predictions of these theories, in this study, we employed the two-player StopWatch game that we previously designed, which made references to the game format of a badminton tournament. According to our manipulation, a male participant was defeated by the same-sex player paired with him (played by a well-trained confederate of the experimenter) in two matches, one with a wide margin (the complete defeat condition) and another with a narrow one (the near miss condition). Participants performed better and reported to enjoy the near miss match to a greater extent. Besides, an enlarged Stimulus-preceding negativity was elicited when participants were actively anticipating outcomes in the near miss condition, suggesting greater anticipatory attention toward the outcome and an enhanced intrinsic motivation to win. Thus, converging electrophysiological evidences from this study and our former study confirmed the inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation. PMID:28400712

  11. Intrinsic Satisfactions from Academic Versus Other Professional Work: A Comparative Analysis. ASHE Annual Meeting 1981 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, James L.

    Recent theories of professional work satisfaction are reviewed and applied to the college or university professor. Additionally, the professional satisfactions available to the academic person are compared with those of professionals in other occupations. The following theories of job satisfaction are examined: job facets theory, expectancy…

  12. ANALYSIS OF MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES OF SATISFACTION AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN HIGH SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Granero-Gallegos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available he purpose of this study was to analyze the motivational profiles of satisfaction with and importance of physical education in high school students and its relation with gender and the practice of sport. The sample comprised 2002 students aged from 12 to 19 who completed the Sport Motivation Scale (Núñez et al., 2006, the Perception of Success Scale (Martínez et al., 2006, the Sport Satisfaction Instrument (Baena-Extremera et al., 2012 and the Importance of Physical Education Scale (Moreno et al., 2009. Descriptive analyzes, correlations between the scales, a cluster analysis for profiles, and a MANOVA were conducted to examine differences by gender. Three clusters (profiles were identified. The first profile identified was "moderate" motivation (n = 463 and was associated with boys who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. The second profile identified was "low" motivation (n = 545 and was associated mainly with girls who practice physical activity for less than 3 hours per week. And lastly the third profile identified was "high" motivation (n = 910, which was found to be greater in boys who practiced physical exercise for more than 3 hours a week

  13. Examining the Roles of Work Autonomous and Controlled Motivations on Satisfaction and Anxiety as a Function of Role Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Huyghebaert, Tiphaine

    2016-07-03

    Past research in the self-determination theory has shown that autonomous motivation is associated with positive outcomes (e.g., work satisfaction), whereas controlled motivation is related to negative outcomes (e.g., anxiety). The purpose of the present research was to examine the moderating function of role ambiguity on the relationships between work autonomous and controlled motivations on the one hand, and work satisfaction and anxiety on the other. Six hundred and ninety-eight workers (449 men and 249 women) participated in this study. Results revealed that autonomous motivation was most strongly related to satisfaction when ambiguity was low. In addition, controlled motivation was most strongly related to anxiety when ambiguity was high. In other words, the present findings suggest that the outcomes associated with each form of motivation may vary as a function of role ambiguity. The present study thus offers meaningful insights for organizations, managers, and employees.

  14. 内外在薪酬组合激励模型研究%The Research of a Composite Motivation Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺伟; 龙立荣

    2011-01-01

    在组织经营管理实践中,如何通过行之有效的激励措施提升员工的绩效是人力资源管理中的持久性难题。本文在回顾和分析内外在薪酬激励相关研究基础上,借鉴"内外结合,刚柔相济"的思想,构建了旨在提升组织人力资源长久动力的内外在薪酬组合激励模型,特别是提出的推动式、牵引式和权变式三种具体激励策略,为组织人力资源管理中的员工激励实践提供了有益的启示和帮助,并为今后有关激励与薪酬的理论研究提供了新的思路与方向。%In the practice of business management in organization,how to increase employees' performance by motivating them effectively is a long haul problem.In this paper,we first review the existing theories about extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation,summarize the relationship and explain the latent mechanism between them using cognitive evaluation theory and self-determination theory,and point out their effects on employees' performance,job satisfaction,and other organizational outcomes.Then we establish the composite motivation model of intrinsic and extrinsic compensation,including specific motivation strategies of such three types as push,pull and contingence to maximize the motivation effects on employees.Lastly,we make some practical suggestions for organizations in employee motivation based on the three specific motivation strategies,and also provide a new research direction in the area of motivation and compensation in the future.

  15. Career choice in engineering students: its relationship with motivation, satisfaction and the development of professional plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iciar Pablo-Lerchundi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a university degree is a relevant process for the personal, social and economic development. This study was designed to explore the students' choice for technical degrees. It is centered on the relationship between the quality of their choice and their motivation, satisfaction and development of professional plans. The inquiry involved an incidental sample of 89 students from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM in Architecture, Computer Sciences and Forestry Engineering. After the analysis of the ad hoc adapted inventory, descriptive data and the results concerning dependence between the variables considered (analyzed with Pearson's chi-squared test are presented. Non-parametric tests were used to asses differences on satisfaction by gender and degree studied. Results show dependence between the students' motivation and satisfaction, and the later and their professional plans' content. Gender and degree are also dependent with professional plans' temporality, as well as degree with their structure. No significant differences were found for the means in satisfaction.

  16. Identification, Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Tutors at the Open University of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Beyth-Marom

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tutors working for The Open University of Israel (OUI, a distance learning institution, are often the only academic staff who have direct contact with students. Their performance is therefore crucial for the university. The nature of their job, however, might hinder optimal performance: they are temporary and part time employees, and thus have low job security. Their academic freedom is limited and, in most OUI learning centers, they are professionally isolated. These factors can negatively affect tutors' organizational identification, job satisfaction, and motivation. This study is focused on two sets of variables that serve as possible predictors of identification, satisfaction, and motivation: (1 role perceptions (job importance and job richness; and (2 organizational attachment (relations with the university, attentiveness of the university and the university's appreciation of their work. Seventy-one (n = 71 tutors completed a general survey. Regression analysis and path analysis revealed that identification and job satisfaction were well predicted by job importance and organizational attachment, while work motivation was not. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. Learning and Motivation to Transfer after an E-Learning Programme: Impact of Trainees' Motivation to Train, Personal Interaction and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephanie; Barbier, Marie; Faulx, Daniel; Hansez, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    While e-learning appears to be increasingly present in training and education, the systematic evaluation of its effectiveness remains understudied. In this paper, we determine the mediating role of satisfaction between motivation to train and personal interaction, on the one hand, and learning and motivation to transfer, on the other hand. A…

  18. Intrinsic motivation and attentional capture from gamelike features in a visual search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrew T; Palmer, Evan M

    2014-03-01

    In psychology research studies, the goals of the experimenter and the goals of the participants often do not align. Researchers are interested in having participants who take the experimental task seriously, whereas participants are interested in earning their incentive (e.g., money or course credit) as quickly as possible. Creating experimental methods that are pleasant for participants and that reward them for effortful and accurate data generation, while not compromising the scientific integrity of the experiment, would benefit both experimenters and participants alike. Here, we explored a gamelike system of points and sound effects that rewarded participants for fast and accurate responses. We measured participant engagement at both cognitive and perceptual levels and found that the point system (which invoked subtle, anonymous social competition between participants) led to positive intrinsic motivation, while the sound effects (which were pleasant and arousing) led to attentional capture for rewarded colors. In a visual search task, points were awarded after each trial for fast and accurate responses, accompanied by short, pleasant sound effects. We adapted a paradigm from Anderson, Laurent, and Yantis (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(25):10367-10371, 2011b), in which participants completed a training phase during which red and green targets were probabilistically associated with reward (a point bonus multiplier). During a test phase, no points or sounds were delivered, color was irrelevant to the task, and previously rewarded targets were sometimes presented as distractors. Significantly longer response times on trials in which previously rewarded colors were present demonstrated attentional capture, and positive responses to a five-question intrinsic-motivation scale demonstrated participant engagement.

  19. Associations among teacher-student interpersonal relationships and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and academic achievement: A cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored associations among teacher-student relationship, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and students’ academic achievement in grade 5 and 6 students from Vancouver, Canada (n = 102) and Hong Kong, China (n = 207). Hong Kong students perceived their teachers to be more dissatisfied, strict, admonishing, and uncertain, while Vancouver students perceived their teachers to be more helpful and friendly. Students’ levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivatio...

  20. Associations among teacher-student interpersonal relationships and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and academic achievement: A cross cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored associations among teacher-student relationship, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and students’ academic achievement in grade 5 and 6 students from Vancouver, Canada (n = 102) and Hong Kong, China (n = 207). Hong Kong students perceived their teachers to be more dissatisfied, strict, admonishing, and uncertain, while Vancouver students perceived their teachers to be more helpful and friendly. Students’ levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivatio...

  1. Intrinsic motivation, curiosity, and learning: Theory and applications in educational technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudeyer, P-Y; Gottlieb, J; Lopes, M

    2016-01-01

    This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information. We explain how the framework of computational reinforcement learning can be used to model such mechanisms of curiosity. Then, we discuss the learning progress (LP) hypothesis, which posits a positive feedback loop between curiosity and learning. We outline experiments with robots that show how LP-driven attention and exploration can self-organize a developmental learning curriculum scaffolding efficient acquisition of multiple skills/tasks. Finally, we discuss recent work exploiting these conceptual and computational models in educational technologies, showing in particular how intelligent tutoring systems can be designed to foster curiosity and learning. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher levels of intrinsic motivation are related to higher levels of class performance for male but not female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N; Lujan, Heidi L; Blumberg, Amanda J; Cox, Julie H; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2013-09-01

    Our students are naturally curious, with powerful intrinsic motives to understand their world. Accordingly, we, as teachers, must capitalize on this inherently active and curious nature so that learning becomes a lifelong activity where students take initiative for learning, are skilled in learning, and want to learn new things. Achieving this goal requires an understanding of student attitudes, beliefs, characteristics, and motivations. To achieve this goal, we administered the intrinsic motivation inventory (IMI) to assess our students' interest and enjoyment, perceived choice, and perceived competence while taking our undergraduate exercise physiology class (46 students; 20 female students and 26 male students). The interest and enjoyment subscale is considered the self-reported measure of intrinsic motivation. The perceived choice and perceived competence concepts are theorized to be positive predictors of both self-reported and behavioral measures of intrinsic motivation. Our results documented a significant increase in course grade with an increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI when female and male students were combined. Specifically, each increase in survey score for the interest and enjoyment subscale of the IMI was associated with a significant (P classroom practice and educational reform policies.

  3. Corporate Fitness Members' Perceptions of the Environment and Their Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Huddleston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre las percepciones de los empleados sobre el clima motivacional de su Centro de Fitness Corporativo, con su motivación intrínseca hacia la práctica física, así como sus percepciones acerca de la preocupación de los empleadores sobre sus comportamientos saludables. Participaron en el estudio 143 miembros de Centros Corporativos de Fitness del medio sur de los estados Unidos de América, a los que se les administraron los siguientes cuestionarios: 1 el Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (con escalas de orientación a metas de ego y tarea; 2 Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (con cuatro subscalas, y 3 la Valued by Employer Scale. Los análisis de regresión revelaron que las percepciones del clima motivacional de ego/tarea estaban positivamente relacionadas con el interés/diversión de los empleados, consu competencia percibida, con el esfuerzo/importancia atribuidas al ejercicio, y con su percepción de ser valorados por sus empleadores. Por lo tanto, el PMCEQ se muestra como una herramienta relevante en los estudios de psicología del ejercicio para medir las percepciones de los empleados acerca del ambiente existente en su Centro de Fitness.

  4. The development of motivation of professional activity of managers of preschool as a factor in job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Сергіївна Кравчинська

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article satisfaction of leaders of preschool educational establishments is analysed by the profession and various aspects of professional activity.The results of empiric research are presented in relation to the degree of satisfaction of leaders of preschool educational establishments by the profession and various aspects of professional activity: work with teachers, parents and the material component. It is proven the influence of job satisfaction at the development of motivation of professional activity

  5. An Investigation of the Relationship between Work Motivation (Intrinsic & Extrinsic) and Employee Engagement : A Study on Allied Bank of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Waseem; Iqbal, Yawar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Work motivation (intrinsic & extrinsic) and employee engagement is the hot issues for today’s management. Employee’s motivation has been in discussion for years, different compensation plans and strategies were adopted over years to make employees more productive. Recently, the introduction of employee engagement as a new construct to business, management, and human resource management fields make it an imperative to adopt in organizational settings. Many studies made indire...

  6. The relationship of baby boomers' participation motivation in leisure sports with recovery resilience and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to provide basic materials for resolving the problems of baby boomers, emerging as a social issue by identifying the effect of baby boomers' participation motivation in leisure sports activities on recovery resilience and life satisfaction empirically. Using the convenience sampling method, the subjects were conducted by baby boomer's 323 person lived in Seoul and Gyeong-in, 2012, excluding the missing question paper of 27 person. For accomplishing this purpose of the study, the survey questionnaires were used to collect data. Collected data was processed by factor analysis, reliability analysis, multiple regression, SPSS for Win V 18.0 program. From the analysis of this study, the following conclusion were obtained: First, among participation motivation factors of baby boomers in leisure sports activities, psychological stability and health pursuit had a significant effect on all factors of recovery resilience, while among motivation of personal relationships had a significant effect on the sub-factors of recovery resilience; empathy, optimism, and self-efficacy. Second, among participation motivation factors of baby boomers in leisure sports activities, psychological stability, personal relationships, and health pursuit had a significant effect on life satisfaction.

  7. Job Satisfaction, Quality of Work Life and Work Motivation in Employees with Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocman, Andreas; Weber, Germain

    2016-12-21

    Current research on employment options for people with Intellectual Disability emphasizes the importance of employee needs and satisfaction. The study aims at systematically reviewing the literature on job satisfaction and related constructs. A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies were included if (i) they are specific to effects of work, (ii) assessed variables are related to job satisfaction, QoWL, attitudes towards work or work motivation and if (iii) studies reported intellectual disability-specific results. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings were classified according to the socio-cognitive model of job satisfaction. Current literature suggests high job satisfaction in people with intellectual disability. Predictors of job satisfaction are similar to people without disabilities, albeit the importance of factors differs. Stronger consideration of well-established theories and measures from organizational psychology would enhance future research. Findings indicate that high satisfaction ratings might result from lack of control over vocational decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witman, Y.; Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Braat, D.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessi

  9. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Personal and Social Responsibility and the Relationship to Intrinsic Motivation in Urban Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Wright, Paul M.; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Pickering, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the validity and reliability of a two-factor model of the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) and examine the relationships between perceptions of personal and social responsibility and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Participants were 253 middle school students who…

  10. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1) j

  11. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  12. The Mediation Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in the Relationship between Creative Educational Environment and Metacognitive Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Farnaz Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mediation role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the relationship between creative educational environment and metacognitive self-regulation. Participants were 300 girls, selected randomly from the girl hostel in university of Tehran. Participants completed Akoal's creative educational environment questionnaire,…

  13. Higher Levels of Intrinsic Motivation Are Related to Higher Levels of Class Performance for Male but Not Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Blumberg, Amanda J.; Cox, Julie H.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Our students are naturally curious, with powerful intrinsic motives to understand their world. Accordingly, we, as teachers, must capitalize on this inherently active and curious nature so that learning becomes a lifelong activity where students take initiative for learning, are skilled in learning, and want to learn new things. Achieving this…

  14. Self-controlled learning benefits: exploring contributions of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation via path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.

  15. Intellectual Development Is Positively Related to Intrinsic Motivation and Course Grades for Female but Not Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; Cortright, Maria A.; Langworthy, Brandon M.; Petta, Lorene M.; Tanner, Charles J.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the intellectual development of students, i.e., their beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, affects their intrinsic motivation and class performance. Specifically, we hypothesized that students with low intellectual development (i.e., the naive beliefs that knowledge is simple, absolute, and certain) have low…

  16. The Effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on the Intrinsic Motivation of Third Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…

  17. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An Empirical Study of Their Effects on Intrinsic Motivation and Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Matthias; Hubmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question…

  18. Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on employees' perceptions of their in-role job performance, based on a cross-sectional survey of 283 employees in a Fortune Global 100 company in Korea. The results suggest that employees perceived higher in-role job performance when they had…

  19. Intellectual Development Is Positively Related to Intrinsic Motivation and Course Grades for Female but Not Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Ronald N.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cox, Julie H.; Cortright, Maria A.; Langworthy, Brandon M.; Petta, Lorene M.; Tanner, Charles J.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the intellectual development of students, i.e., their beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, affects their intrinsic motivation and class performance. Specifically, we hypothesized that students with low intellectual development (i.e., the naive beliefs that knowledge is simple, absolute, and certain) have low…

  20. Supervisory Styles and Graduate Student Creativity: The Mediating Roles of Creative Self-Efficacy and Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jibao; He, Changqing; Liu, Hefu

    2017-01-01

    Based on social cognitive theory and leadership theory, the current study tests a theoretical model linking supervisory styles (i.e. supportive and directive) with graduate student creativity via psychological cognitive factors (specifically, creative self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation). Results from a sample of 216 graduate students of 1…

  1. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  2. Measuring Students' Perceptions of Personal and Social Responsibility and the Relationship to Intrinsic Motivation in Urban Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Wright, Paul M.; Rukavina, Paul Bernard; Pickering, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the validity and reliability of a two-factor model of the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) and examine the relationships between perceptions of personal and social responsibility and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Participants were 253 middle school students who…

  3. Lost in translation : congruency of teacher and student perceptions of assessment as a predictor of intrinsic motivation in ethnodiverse classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pat El, Ron Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Students' and teachers' perceptions of the level to which Assesment for Learning (AfL) is practiced in classrooms are largely incongruent. Teachers perceived more practice of AfL than students. Congruency in perceptions of AfL predicted higher student intrinsic motivation. In accordance with Self-De

  4. Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and job social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Hagedoorn, M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether job control and job social support reduce signs of fatigue and enhance intrinsic motivation among employees facing high job demands. 555 nurses (mean age 35.5 yrs) working at specialized units for patients with different levels of mental deficiency completed surveys regarding: (1)

  5. Negative Effects of Reward on Intrinsic Motivation--A Limited Phenomenon: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Prior meta analyses by J. Cameron and other researchers suggested that the negative effects of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation were limited and avoidable. E. Deci and others (2001) suggested that the analyses were flawed. This commentary makes the case that there is no inherent negative property of reward. (SLD)

  6. Negative Effects of Reward on Intrinsic Motivation--A Limited Phenomenon: Comment on Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Prior meta analyses by J. Cameron and other researchers suggested that the negative effects of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation were limited and avoidable. E. Deci and others (2001) suggested that the analyses were flawed. This commentary makes the case that there is no inherent negative property of reward. (SLD)

  7. Optimizing job satisfaction through motivation in the face of Economic crisis among Nigeria's University staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde B.O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined job satisfaction through motivation in the face of economic crisis among universities staff in Nigeria with reference to the University of Ado Ekiti and Olabisi Onabanjo University Ogun State Nigeria. This study adopted the descriptive survey research design. A total of 100 respondents were selected for the study using stratified sampling technique. Two sets of questionnaire were used for data collection. chis - square model was used to test the hypothesized research questions generated for the study. The finding revealed that effective application of motivational strategies in the university will definitely improve the level of their job satisfaction in most of the institution especially in Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the Irregularities in promotion have to be looked into and corrective measure has to put in place to ensure free passage of staff from one level to the order as at when due. Conducive working environment has to be created to enhance job satisfaction of the staff.Training, workshop, seminars and conference programme has to be usually organized for the workers to update their working knowledge and skill in their respective area.There should be a cordial relationship between staff union and the management of the University and if any mater arises it must be settled amicably.

  8. The Extent of Satisfaction on the Key Factors that Affect Learner Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambreen Shahriar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a small-scale research conducted at the Institute of English, University of Sindh, Pakistan. The research participants include the students of B.A. (Hons. Part- II, whohad studied English language as a subject during B.A. (Hons. Part- I as well. The data was collected through questionnaires, which asked questions related to English language learners’ satisfaction on their language teacher, teaching learning environment, syllabus, and testing and assessment system, which are considered as the most factors that can affect and enhance learner motivation. The extent of their satisfaction, that they showed, in turn explains their motivation towards learning English language. The findings of the research include learning of English for both integrative and instrumental reasons with for getting importance as the most commonly chosen reason. 100% students showed willingness to attend the language class, yet a number of them find it boring and gave suggestions related to improvement. Students showed a lot less satisfaction towards their teacher and the teaching method and suggested proper teacher training along with some other things.Suggestions are also given on the improvement of the content of syllabus, yet it needs further investigation. The most dissatisfying factor brought forward by this research is the assessment system, so the research definitely calls for the introduction of a proper improved assessment system. This research paves way for future research as it raises a number of issues and questions for researchers to address.

  9. Why Work for Extension? An Examination of Job Satisfaction and Motivation in a Statewide Employee Retention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Goodwin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Understanding motivation and job satisfaction is important for increasing rates of employee retention within Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore factors positively affecting the motivation of Extension professionals in their careers. An online survey of Extension professionals in Colorado was conducted. Factors such as…

  10. Why Work for Extension? An Examination of Job Satisfaction and Motivation in a Statewide Employee Retention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Goodwin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Understanding motivation and job satisfaction is important for increasing rates of employee retention within Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore factors positively affecting the motivation of Extension professionals in their careers. An online survey of Extension professionals in Colorado was conducted. Factors such as…

  11. The Analysis of Factors and Levels Associated with Lecturers' Motivation and Job Satisfaction in University of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyengabe, Sylvestre; He, Haiyan; Yiyi, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to expect good performance of students in universities without having a motivated lecturing staff. The study aimed to correlate the levels of lecturers' motivation and job satisfaction and find out factors associated with. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and April 2016. Structured online questionnaires of the…

  12. Gameplay as a source of intrinsic motivation in a randomized controlled trial of auditory training for tinnitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available Previous studies of frequency discrimination training (FDT for tinnitus used repetitive task-based training programmes relying on extrinsic factors to motivate participation. Studies reported limited improvement in tinnitus symptoms.To evaluate FDT exploiting intrinsic motivations by integrating training with computer-gameplay.Sixty participants were randomly assigned to train on either a conventional task-based training, or one of two interactive game-based training platforms over six weeks. Outcomes included assessment of motivation, tinnitus handicap, and performance on tests of attention.Participants reported greater intrinsic motivation to train on the interactive game-based platforms, yet compliance of all three groups was similar (∼ 70% and changes in self-reported tinnitus severity were not significant. There was no difference between groups in terms of change in tinnitus severity or performance on measures of attention.FDT can be integrated within an intrinsically motivating game. Whilst this may improve participant experience, in this instance it did not translate to additional compliance or therapeutic benefit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02095262.

  13. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  14. Effects of organizational change on work-related empowerment, employee satisfaction, and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Härkönen, Eeva; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Doran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a longitudinal quantitative study on nurses' views on factors promoting and impeding empowerment and examines the relationship between work-related empowerment and background variables in one hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed statistically. Nurses gave lowest assessments of promoting factors on the second measurement occasion, a time when the organization was going through major changes. Both job satisfaction and motivation showed a positive relationship with factors promoting empowerment. Organizational changes have a direct effect on the work environment in terms of empowerment and job satisfaction. To cope successfully with changes, special attention must be paid to personnel management. It seems that factors promoting and impeding empowerment can be used to measure effects of organizational changes as well.

  15. Increasing job satisfaction and motivation while reducing nursing turnover through the implementation of shared governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relf, M

    1995-11-01

    In today's cost-conscious, changing health care environment, health care agencies must identify and implement strategies to promote fiscal responsibility while maintaining employee satisfaction and retention. The cost to recruit professional nurses is high. Therefore, the business objective is to retain the productive employee. Through the implementation of shared governance, employees find the workplace rewarding and stimulating--motivating factors as described by Herzberg. The Secretary's Commission on Nursing identified 16 strategies for the reduction of the nursing shortage and retention of professional nurses. One recommendation reinforces a report by the American Academy of Nursing that states work satisfaction among nurses in higher and turnover rates lower when organizational climates provide for nursing's involvement in decision making relating not only to nursing practice and unit management but also patient care. Through shared governance, staff nurse involvement in nursing and patient care policy is advanced.

  16. Destination Culture and Its Influence on Tourist Motivation and Tourist Satisfaction of Homestay Visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang VINH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advantage of culture and historical tourism resource, Hanoi has to finalize its tourism development strategy for the long term. This study aims to help tourism planners and marketers to get an understanding that may provide a foundation for their strategic marketing decision in homestay tourism service. The empirical analysis used data from 150 international visitors who have experience in using homestay service in Duonglam old village. To test the hypotheses among tourist motivation, satisfaction with destination loyalty, regression is adopted. This study result show that climate conditions, the destination can be easily reached, the quality of the accommodation, beauty of the scenery and cleanliness are ranked most important attribute for tourist satisfaction with Duonglam village. Another hand the result also indicates negative image about tourist service and culture events of Duonglam old village. Implications of the findings for tourism marketers and research limitation are also discussed.

  17. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  18. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Orientation and Achievements in L2 of Arab Learners of English, French and German: A Study from Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreishan, Lana J.; Al-Dhaimat, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore Jordanian undergraduate students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and instrumental and integrative orientations toward learning English, French, and German as foreign languages. The paper also reflects on how subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations relate to orientations and examines possible…

  19. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

  20. The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonenberger, Marc; Aikins, Moses; Akweongo, Patricia; Wyss, Kaspar

    2014-08-09

    Motivation and job satisfaction have been identified as key factors for health worker retention and turnover in low- and middle-income countries. District health managers in decentralized health systems usually have a broadened 'decision space' that enables them to positively influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, which in turn impacts on retention and performance at district-level. The study explored the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention and how motivation and satisfaction can be improved by district health managers in order to increase retention of health workers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three districts of the Eastern Region in Ghana and interviewed 256 health workers from several staff categories (doctors, nursing professionals, allied health workers and pharmacists) on their intentions to leave their current health facilities as well as their perceptions on various aspects of motivation and job satisfaction. The effects of motivation and job satisfaction on turnover intention were explored through logistic regression analysis. Overall, 69% of the respondents reported to have turnover intentions. Motivation (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.92) and job satisfaction (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.96) were significantly associated with turnover intention and higher levels of both reduced the risk of health workers having this intention. The dimensions of motivation and job satisfaction significantly associated with turnover intention included career development (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.86), workload (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.99), management (OR = 0.51. 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.84), organizational commitment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66), and burnout (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.91). Our findings indicate that effective human resource management practices at district level influence health worker motivation and job satisfaction, thereby reducing the likelihood for

  1. Impact of Reminders on Children's Cognitive Flexibility, Intrinsic Motivation, and Mood Depends on Who Provides the Reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Ong, Jing Y

    2015-01-01

    Reminding children to think about alternatives is a strategy adults often use to promote children's cognitive flexibility, as well as children's engagement in and enjoyment of the task. The current study investigated whether the impacts of reminders on kindergarten children's cognitive flexibility, intrinsic motivation, and mood are moderated by who provides the reminders. Eighty-three healthy 5-year-old kindergarten children were randomly assigned to 2 (Reminder: no reminders vs. Reminders) × 2 (Agent: Tester vs. Partner) conditions. Children's cognitive flexibility was measured via the Block Sorting Task (Garton and Pratt, 2001; Fawcett and Garton, 2005). Children reported their motivation and mood before Block Sorting, after practicing for Block Sorting, and after the actual Block Sorting. Children's intrinsic motivation was measured by evaluating children's choices during a period of free play after Block Sorting. The results revealed that, depending on who provides the reminders, reminding children of alternatives can influence kindergarten children's performance on Block Sorting, children's intrinsic motivation, and children's self-reported mood.

  2. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program. Training, Motivation and Intrinsic Task Value. Essential Elements of Excellence (Readiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-04

    positive self-reaction to his own performance in accordance with social learning theory , humans routinely persist in behavior for which there is no...Y and equity theory. The second category includes expectancy/valance theory; motivation, performance, and satisfaction theory; and social learning theory . This...play a dominant role in determining performance. As discussed in expectancy/valance theory, and to be developed in social learning theory below, the

  3. Teacher's motivational style and students' intrinsic motivation: the self-determination perspective / O estilo motivacional do professor e a motivação intrínseca dos estudantes: uma perspectiva da Teoria da Autodeterminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Édi Rufini Guimarães

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Self-determination Theory has the purpose of understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic components of motivation, and the factors that contribute for its promotion. In this perspective personality and human motivation are considered in terms of developmental tendencies, innate psychological needs and contextual variables which favour motivation, social functioning and personal well-being. In the context of educational research, intrinsic motivation has been characterized by students' involvement in learning tasks due to their preference for challenges, persistence, effort, as well as by their use of learning strategies. In line with that, the objectives of this paper are not only present and analyze the concepts related to intrinsic motivation according to the Self-determination Theory, but also reflect upon the teacher's role and style in the promotion of students' intrinsic motivation. Educational implications are also discussed.

  4. Impact of Reminders on Children’s Cognitive Flexibility, Intrinsic Motivation, and Mood Depends on Who Provides the Reminders

    OpenAIRE

    Li eQu; Jing Yi Ong

    2016-01-01

    Reminding children to think about alternatives is a strategy adults often use to promote children’s cognitive flexibility, as well as children’s engagement in and enjoyment of the task. The current study investigated whether the impacts of reminders on kindergarten children’s cognitive flexibility, intrinsic motivation, and mood are moderated by who provides the reminders. Eighty-three healthy 5-year-old kindergarten children were randomly assigned to 2 (Reminder: no reminders vs. Reminders) ...

  5. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  6. Gender in relation to work motivation, satisfaction and use of day center services among people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Eklund, Lisa

    2017-05-01

    Day centres can prepare for open-market employment, and attendees' work motivation is key in this. Adopting a gender perspective, this study investigated (1) motivation for day centre attendance, satisfaction with the day centre services, number of hours spent there, and number and type of occupations performed; and (2) whether those factors were related with motivation for open-market employment. Women (n = 164) and men (n = 160) with psychiatric disabilities completed self-report questionnaires. There were no gender differences regarding satisfaction with the day centre services or number of hours spent there, but women engaged in more occupations. More women than men performed externally-oriented services and textile work, while men were in the majority in workshops. Externally oriented services, working in workshops, and low satisfaction with the day centre services were associated with higher motivation for employment. Women and men were equally motivated for employment. Women scored higher on motivation for attending the day centre, something that may deter transition into open-market employment. For men, less motivation for attending day centres may reduce their possibilities of gaining skills that can facilitate transitioning to open-market employment. Thus, the possibility for transitioning from day centre activities to open-market employment may be gendered.

  7. The Effect of Manager s’ Ethical Behavior on Boundary Spanning Role Employees’ Motivation and Job Satisfaction: A Research in Adana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptekin Sökmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like manufacturing companies, hotels implement several strategies in order to satisfy consumers’ needs and wants. These strategies play critical roles in the context of unique characteristics of hotel services and interaction between boundary spanning role employee and consumer, when they are examined from the service firms’ perspectives. Having outlined this basic information, managerial ethical behaviors are assumed to depict relationships with frontline employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. In light of the aforementioned information, this study aims to make boundary spanning role employees assess the managerial ethical behaviors. Therefore, Managerial Ethical Behavior and Job Satisfaction Survey was conducted with 836 frontline employees in four and five star hotels in Adana. The reliability and validity dimensions of the scale were taken into consideration so as to be capable of obtaining reasonable results and making contribution to the related literature. Frequency tests and means were employed, and regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of managerial ethical behavior on employees’ motivation and job satisfaction. Managerial ethical behavior has positive effects on both employees' motivation and their job satisfaction. And as expected, employees motivation has positive and moderate effect on their job satisfaction in the subject 4 and 5 Star hotel companies

  8. Reciprocal Relations between Work-Related Authenticity and Intrinsic Motivation, Work Ability and Depressivity: A Two-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Astrid I; Rigotti, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work ability and depressivity, but not intrinsic motivation at T2, about 6 months later. Work-related authenticity at T2 was predicted by intrinsic motivation and depressivity, but not by work ability at T1. We conclude that work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are positively reinforcing each other. Thus, enabling employees to be authentic supposedly increases their well-being and is a pivotal opportunity for organizations to foster health and performance-related indicators like work ability and prevent negative health indicators like depressivity. At the same time, authenticity of employees can be fostered through workplace health promotion.

  9. The Mediating Effect of Intrinsic Motivation to Learn on the Relationship between Student´s Autonomy Support and Vitality and Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; León, Jaime

    2016-07-18

    Self-determination theory has shown that autonomy support in the classroom is associated with an increase of students' intrinsic motivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation is related with positive outcomes. This study examines the relationships between autonomy support, intrinsic motivation to learn and two motivational consequences, deep learning and vitality. Specifically, the hypotheses were that autonomy support predicts the two types of consequences, and that autonomy support directly and indirectly predicts the vitality and the deep learning through intrinsic motivation to learn. Participants were 276 undergraduate students. The mean age was 21.80 years (SD = 2.94). Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between variables and delta method was used to analyze the mediating effect of intrinsic motivation to learn. Results indicated that student perception of autonomy support had a positive effect on deep learning and vitality (p motivation to learn. These findings suggest that teachers are key elements in generating of autonomy support environment to promote intrinsic motivation, deep learning, and vitality in classroom. Educational implications are discussed.

  10. 考虑内在动机的工作设计与激励的模型分析%The Analysis of Job Design and Incentives Including Intrinsic Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳梅; 赵希男

    2011-01-01

    An effective job design can help coordinate incentives and manage employee' s behaviors. Appropriate job design can coordinate incentive, manage employee' s behavior, motivate employee, and obtain more benefits. There are two kinds of job design; job specialization and job enlargement. Job specialization can enhance efficiency, but may lower satisfaction and increase turnover. On the contrary, job enlargement has no efficiency advantages, but can indirectly increase an employee' s intrinsic motivation and performance. An enterprise needs to make a trade-off between job specialization and job enlargement.This paper studies optimal job designs considering intrinsic motivation based on the principal-agent theory. The paper establishes two incentive models; basic models without intrinsic motivation, and advanced model including intrinsic motivation.The equilibrium outcomes of our research model show that the optimal way of job design is specialization when employees do not have intrinsic motivation. On the contrary, the intensity of an agent' intrinsic motivation, the disparity of task monitoring difficulty and the risk costs of agents can affect the optimization of job design. Moreover, job enlargement is better than job specialization depending on risk costs. When the optimization of job enlargement is permanently achieved, the disparity of task monitoring difficulty can be reduced.%考虑工作设计的两种形式:工作专业化与工作扩大化.运用委托代理理论,研究考虑内在动机的企业最佳工作设计的选择问题.模型给出了不同情况下的均衡结果,根据均衡结果做进一步分析,得出结论:当员工不具备内在动机时,企业应该选择工作专业化;当员工具备内在动机时,工作设计的曩优选择同时受代理人的内在动机强度、工作间监督难度的差异程度以及风险成本影响,并且随着工作间监督难度差距的编小,工作扩大化由依赖于风险成本有条件的优于

  11. Intrinsic, Identified, and Controlled Types of Motivation for School Subjects in Young Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frederic; Chanal, Julien; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Larose, Simon; Boivin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are two approaches to the differential examination of school motivation. The first is to examine motivation towards specific school subjects (between school subject differentiation). The second is to examine school motivation as a multidimensional concept that varies in terms of not only intensity but also quality (within school…

  12. The Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators on Employee Engagement in Information Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Understanding motivation in the workforce is a crucial step toward creating a dynamic work environment that enriches and fulfills workers. This research stems from LIS management class discussions on the topic of motivation and highlights the need for radical shifts in management approaches to motivation in information organizations. Our analysis…

  13. The Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivators on Employee Engagement in Information Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Understanding motivation in the workforce is a crucial step toward creating a dynamic work environment that enriches and fulfills workers. This research stems from LIS management class discussions on the topic of motivation and highlights the need for radical shifts in management approaches to motivation in information organizations. Our analysis…

  14. The relationship of learning motivation, achievement and satisfaction for nurses learning simple excel VBA information systems programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying Li; Chien, Tsai Feng; Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand the relationship between participating nurses' motivation, achievement and satisfaction before and after they learned to program in Excel Visual Basic for Applications (Excel VBA). We held a workshop to train nurses in developing simple Excel VBA information systems to support their clinical or administrative practices. Before and after the workshop, the participants were evaluated on their knowledge of Excel VBA, and a questionnaire was given to survey their learning motivation and satisfaction. Statistics softwares Winsteps and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that the participants are more knowledgeable about VBA as well as more motivated in learning VBA after the workshop. Participants were highly satisfied with the overall arrangement of the workshop and instructors, but didn't have enough confidence in promoting the application of Excel VBA themselves. In addition, we were unable to predict the participants' achievement by their demographic characteristics or pre-test motivation level.

  15. Investigating the Linkage between Intrinsic Motivation and Project Team Satisfaction in Undergraduate Agricultural Leadership Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Carter, Hannah S.; Melendez, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations have increased the amount of work that is completed by project teams over the past several decades. This trend is projected to continue into the foreseeable future. In response to this trend, the academic community has increased the number of project team based learning experiences for students in classes. The challenge has been that…

  16. The Benefits of Mouse Keeping—an Empirical Study on Students' Flow and Intrinsic Motivation in Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Annika; Klingenberg, Konstantin; Wilde, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Contact with living animals is an exceptional possibility within biology education to facilitate an intense immersion into the study topic and even allow for a flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Further, it might affect the perceptions of the students' basic needs for autonomy and competence and thereby their quality of motivation (Deci and Ryan 1985, 2002). Still, there is little empirical evidence about the duration of the exposure with living animals that is required. We investigated the students' flow experience, and the students' motivation, reported retrospectively in three different treatments: lessons involving short-term or long-term contact with living harvest mice and a control group without living animals. Our sample consisted of 156 fifth graders (10.76 years, SD = 0.513). The test instruments were adapted versions of the Flow Short Scale (FSS, Rheinberg et al. 2003) and of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI, Ryan 1982). As expected, the control group produced significantly lower scores for both FSS and IMI. In addition, we found a significant difference between students with short-term versus long-term contact. Whereas the flow experience was indistinguishable for all pupils who had contact with living animals, those with long-term experience reported significantly higher intrinsic motivation.

  17. Successful language learning in a corporate setting: The role of attribution theory and its relation to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution theory (Weiner, 1985 and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985 have been explored as contributors to L2 motivation (cf. Dörnyei, 2001 but have never been studied quantitatively in concert. In addition, students’ attributions for success in learning a foreign language have never been measured through the use of a questionnaire. The aim of this paper is therefore (a to develop a questionnaire with reliable constructs that allows to measure adult learners’ attributions for their success in learning English in a corporate setting, (b to investigate these learners’ attributions, and (c to investigate the relationship between students’ attributions and the constructs of Intrinsic and Extrinsic motivation central to self-determination theory. Our main results show that among the attributions measured, interest, effort and corporate culture seemed to be the main causes that students recognised as directly involved in their success in learning English. Of all the attributional scales, interest and ability appeared to importantly contribute to intrinsic motivation, while corporate culture, encounters with foreign professionals and ability contributed to a lower extent to extrinsic motivation. It must be noted, however, that attributions for success to teacher and task were so consistently high that they could not be reliably measured with the questionnaire.

  18. Health worker (internal customer) satisfaction and motivation in the public sector in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyepong, Irene Akua; Anafi, Patricia; Asiamah, Ebenezer; Ansah, Evelyn K; Ashon, Daniel A; Narh-Dometey, Christiana

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes factors affecting health worker motivation and satisfaction in the public sector in Ghana. The data are from a survey of public sector health care providers carried out in January 2002 and repeated in August 2003 using an interviewer administered structured questionnaire. It is part of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in the health sector in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Workplace obstacles identified that caused dissatisfaction and de-motivated staff in order of the most frequently mentioned were low salaries such that obtaining basic necessities of daily living becomes a problem; lack of essential equipment, tools and supplies to work with; delayed promotions; difficulties and inconveniences with transportation to work; staff shortages; housing, additional duty allowances and in-service (continuous) training. Others included children's education, vehicles to work with such as ambulances and pickups, staff transfer procedures, staff pre-service education inadequate for job requirements, and the effect of the job on family and other social factors. There were some differences in the percentages of staff selecting a given workplace obstacle between the purely rural districts, the highly urbanized Accra metropolis and the districts that were a mixture of urbanized and rural. It is unlikely that the Ghana Health Service can provide high quality of care to its end users (external customers) if workplace obstacles that de-motivate staff (internal customers) and negatively influence their performance are not properly recognized and addressed as a complex of inter-related problems producing a common result--dissatisfied poorly motivated staff and resulting poor quality services.

  19. Motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP trainees and newly qualified GPs across Europe: a seven countries cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.; Watson, J.; Wensing, M.; Peters-Klimm, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment to general practice is a major concern in many countries. Cross-national exploration of motivation for career choice and career satisfaction could help inform workforce planning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to explore motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP traine

  20. Motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP trainees and newly qualified GPs across Europe: a seven countries cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, M.; Watson, J.; Wensing, M.; Peters-Klimm, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recruitment to general practice is a major concern in many countries. Cross-national exploration of motivation for career choice and career satisfaction could help inform workforce planning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to explore motivation for career choice and job satisfaction of GP traine