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Sample records for satin bowerbirds ptilonorhynchus

  1. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  2. Multiple male traits interact: attractive bower decorations facilitate attractive behavioural displays in satin bowerbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Gail L; Uy, J Albert C; Borgia, Gerald

    2003-11-22

    Sexually selected male courtship displays often involve multiple behavioural and physical traits, but little is known about the function of different traits in mate choice. Here, we examine female courtship behaviours to learn how male traits interact to influence female mating decisions. In satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus), successful males give highly aggressive, intense behavioural displays without startling females. Males do this by modulating their displays in response to female crouching, which signals the display intensity that females will tolerate without being startled. Females typically visit multiple males for multiple courtships before choosing a mate, and females show differing tolerance for intense displays during their first courtship with each male. We test three hypotheses that may explain this: (i) familiarity with the courting male; (ii) the order of the courtship in mate-searching; and (iii) the attractiveness of the courting male. We found that females are more tolerant of intense displays during first courtships with attractive males; this increased female tolerance may allow attractive males to give higher intensity courtship displays that further enhance their attractiveness. We then examined why this is so, finding evidence that females are less likely to be startled by males with better physical displays (bower decorations), and this reduced startling then contributes to male courtship success. This role of physical displays in facilitating behavioural displays suggests a novel mechanism by which multiple physical and behavioural traits may influence female choice.

  3. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  4. Satin and their crossbred rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit productivity in intensive management to be evaluated considering development in the rabbit farming were rapidly increased. Rex, Satin and their crossbred (Reza rabbits have been developed in Research Institute for Animal Production and productivity information of each breed can be used as basis for policy or model of cultivation and breeding in the community. Research conducted by evaluating the productivity of growth, carcass and the carcass proportion of the three strains of rabbit. Rex and satin growth were no different, and Reza was higher at 12-14 weeks of age. Carcass production comes from cutting the rabbit at the age of six months, this trait is strongly influenced by the weight of rabbits, and Reza gives the lowest performance compared to Rex and Satin. Rex, Satin and Reza were medium type rabbits with dual-purpose product (fur and meat. These rabbits showed the child's growth is good enough, to adapt the environment temperature and high food and have adequate carcass production.

  5. Improving productivity of Rex, Satin and Reza rabbits through selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection based on weaning weight in Rex, Satin rabbits and their crosses was done to improve its productivity. Data from the base population (P0, selected population (G0 and an offspring of selected population (F1 were used to estimate heritability using nested analysis method (nested and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The value of heritability estimated of birth weight, weaning weight, 12 weeks body weight and 16 weeks body weight of Rex were 0.74±0.09, 0.93±0.05, 0.81±0.09 and 0.89±0.06, Satin were 0.96, 0.82±0.22, 0.93±0.40 and 0.97 and Reza were 0.96±0.27, 0.98, 0.86±0.40 dan 0.78, respectively. Increase in weaning weight on selected Rex, Satin rabbits and their corsses were 22.77 g (3.66%, 6.83 g (1.11% and 65.29 g (10.67%.

  6. La cène d’ouverture du Soulier de satin (I, 1

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    James Dauphiné

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La critique claudélienne, de façon récurrente, au fil des générations, a multiplié commentaires et remarques touchant les aspects religieux du théâtre de Claudel, avec une prédilection logique pour son opus majeur, Le Soulier de satin. Toutefois, cette production critique semble fournir davantage de perspectives à portée générale que des explications précises et déterminantes. Il conviendrait en somme de recourir à un point de vue résolument théologique. Maintes fois, Claudel a d’ailleurs pri...

  7. Case Report of a Satin Guinea Pig with Fibrous Osteodystrophy That Resembles Human Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 2-year-old female satin guinea pig with a history of dental overgrowth and lameness and radiological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy is presented. The most relevant clinical findings were bone demineralization, high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH, normophosphatemia, normal ionized calcium, and low total thyroxine (tT4 with a normal renal function. Long-term treatment was based on teeth coronal reduction and maintaining a balanced diet. PTH measurement was performed with a kit suitable for rats to test 4 different paired samples of guinea pigs and resulted in similar results for each pair of measurements. Two kits routinely employed in dogs and cats failed in measuring PTH in guinea pig serum samples. The ionized calcium, PTH, and tT4 values, not previously reported in similar cases, were obtained. The determination of tT4 could be useful in the diagnosis of fibrous osteodystrophy in guinea pigs. The observed findings show similarity with human pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, a disease caused by an inactivating heterozygous mutation of the stimulatory G protein α subunit from the maternal genome that induces multiple hormone resistance and that courses with a syndrome called Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Naturally occurring pseudohypoparathyroidism in animals has been reported previously only in a ferret.

  8. Pendugaan Jarak Genetik Kelinci (Hyla, Hycole, Hycolex NZW, Rex, dan Satin Melalui Analisis Morfometrik (ESTIMATION OF RABBIT GENETIC DISTANCE (HYLA, HYCOLE, HYCOLEXNZW, NZW, REX AND SATIN THROUGH MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The observation on morphological body conformation of Hyla (CC, Hycole (FF, HycolexNZW (FN,New Zealand White (NN, Rex (RR, and Satin (SS were carried out to determine estimation of mahalanobisgenetic distance. This research was held in Ciawi Bogor Livestock Research Institute (Balai PenelitianTernak Ciawi, Bogor which 95 head of male rabbits were used. Fourteen different body parts measuredwere head (length, width, and height, ear (length and width, chest (depth, girth, and width, scapulalength, ulna length, femur length, tibia length, body length, and hips wide. CC, FF, FN, and NN rabbits hadbigger morphological size than RR and SS rabbits. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that geneticdistance of FF and SS rabbits was the biggest (4.36. Result of canonical analysis showed that the mostdiscriminate variables were obtained by head width, ear length, ulna length, tibia length, body length, andhips wide for first canonical. The conclusion of this study that Rex and Satin rabbits were have differentgenetic distance with Hyla, Hycole, HycolexNZW and NZW rabbits.

  9. Growth rate of rex, satin rabbits and their cross fed with lactosym@ in an intensive raising system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamura Aritonang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of breed, level of lactosym and their interaction on the growth performance of three breeds of rabbit, i.e.: Rex, Satin and their Cross. Thirty three-six week old (weaning rabbits were contribute in a 3 x 3 factorial used of completely randomized design having 3-5 individual replication and fed one out of three levels of lactosym (0, 0.25 and 0.50 ml/head/week. The two factors were: breed and level of lactosym. Result showed that there were no significant differences between breed (P>0,05 for body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Body weight was affected by the level of lactosym (P0,05. Interaction between breed and level of lactosym did not affect body weight gain and feed conversion (P>0,05, but affected feed intake (P<0,05.

  10. Black Humour Spaces in Cinema and Literature: Yorgos Lanthimos' The Lobster and Tom McCarthy's Satin Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Maggitti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio ruota intorno a due diverse forme di umorismo nero nella cinematografia e nella letteratura contemporanee. Partendo da una recente riflessione sull’intervento di Jonathan Coe su cosa ne sia oggi dell’umorismo, vengono discusse due opere – il film The Lobster  e il romanzo Satin Island – che rileggono il mondo attuale attraverso la lente umoristica, nell’accezione più scura e corrosiva di atteggiamenti ecologicamente corretti. Il film di Lanthimos ripristina la caccia come modalità universale di rapporto uomo-animale, mentre il romanzo di Tom McCarthy ribalta la responsabilità del danno ambientale in meritevole atto ecologico. Nella chiave di lettura dell’autore del saggio l’umorismo riprende la svolta antropologica che ne caratterizza la funzione più straniante.

  11. 木代尔缎纹牛仔面料的开发实践%The Practice of Developing Modal Satin Weave Denim Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉升

    2015-01-01

    分析了原料、织物组织、竹节细度等对木代尔缎纹牛仔布面的影响,充分注意缎纹品种在生产中存在的问题,通过试验找出了适用于大货生产的合理可行的生产路线。%In this article, the inlfuence of raw material, fabric weave, linear density of slub yarn on Modal satin weave denim fabric were analyzed, the problems in satin fabric production were also focused on, ifnally the reasonable and feasible processes route for bulk production were found by experiment.

  12. 移植肾破裂肾包膜切开止血法%Treatment of renal allograft rupture: renal capsulotomy and hemostatic satin hemostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江华; 王逸民; 寿张飞; 吴建永; 朱琮

    1998-01-01

    Renal allograft spontaneous rupture is a dangerous complication after cadaveric kidney transplantation at early stage. Six cases of critical renal allograft rupture with acute renal failure within 8-12 postoperative days were subjected to multipoint renal capsulotomy and hemostatic satin-sticky glue hemostasis in combination with double filtration plasmapheresis and antithymocyte globulin. The hemostatic effective rate was 100%. Renal allograft function in 4 patients were recovered. The remaining 2 cases had to undergo the removal of renal allograft due to other causes. It was considered that multipoint renal capsulotomy and hemostatic satin-sticky glue hemostasis graft was a safe, reliable, and simple procedure for the treatment of renal allograft rupture.%移植肾自发性破裂是同种异体肾移植术后早期的一个严重并发症,采用肾包膜多处切开结合止血绫-粘涂胶止血法保肾,并行双滤过法血浆分离术(DFPP)和应用抗胸腺细胞球蛋白(ATG)治疗6例严重移植肾破裂患者,止血效果达到100%,4例肾脏得以保存,2例切除移植肾.认为肾包膜多处切开结合止血绫-粘涂胶止血术是治疗严重移植肾破裂的一个安全、可靠和简便的止血保肾法.

  13. When Sandpaper Is 'Kiki' and Satin Is 'Bouba': an Exploration of the Associations Between Words, Emotional States, and the Tactile Attributes of Everyday Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzi, Roberta; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano; Gallace, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, scientists working on the topic of multisensory integration, as well as designers and marketers involved in trying to understand consumer behavior, have become increasingly interested in the non-arbitrary associations (e.g., sound symbolism) between different sensorial attributes of the stimuli they work with. Nevertheless, to date, little research in this area has investigated the presence of these crossmodal correspondences in the tactile evaluation of everyday materials. Here, we explore the presence and nature of the associations between tactile sensations, the sound of non-words, and people's emotional states. Samples of cotton, satin, tinfoil, sandpaper, and abrasive sponge, were stroked along the participants' forearm at the speed of 5 cm/s. Participants evaluated the materials along several dimensions, comprising scales anchored by pairs of non-words (e.g., Kiki/Bouba) and adjectives (e.g., ugly/beautiful). The results revealed that smoother textures were associated with non-words made up of round-shaped sounds (e.g., Maluma), whereas rougher textures were more strongly associated with sharp-transient sounds (e.g., Takete). The results also revealed the presence of a number of correspondences between tactile surfaces and adjectives related to visual and auditory attributes. For example, smooth textures were associated with features evoked by words such as 'bright' and 'quiet'; by contrast, the rougher textures were associated with adjectives such as 'dim' and 'loud'. The textures were also found to be associated with a number of emotional labels. Taken together, these results further our understanding of crossmodal correspondences involving the tactile modality and provide interesting insights in the applied field of design and marketing.

  14. Processing Adjustment Keypoints of Producing High Density Satin Stripped Fabric%生产高密缎条织物的工艺调试要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董喜平

    2009-01-01

    探讨在omniplus-190型喷气织机上生产特细号高密缎条织物的工艺调整方法.针对该品种总经根数多、织机效率低、布面质量差的问题,经过试验摸索,认为在穿筘工序采用每筘4入,在穿综工序地组织采用飞穿法、边组织采用纬重平穿法,在织造工序合理设定开口角、综框高度、开口时间、后梁、停经架、上机张力、引纬工艺等参数,可使织机效率由60%左右上升到85%左右,下机一等品率达98%.%Processing adjustment method of producing super fine high density satin stripped fabric in Omniplus-190 air-jet loom was discussed. According to the problems such as total warp number is larger,loom efficiency is lower and fabric surface is worse, through test and experiences, it is considered that 4 warp per reed was adopted in reed-in process, intermittent draw was adopted to ground weave and weft rib weave draw was adopted to edge weave in draft lifting plan process. In weaving process opening angle,heald frame height, shed time,back beam, stop frame,loom tension,weft insertion processing et al should be set properly,loom efficiency could be improve from 60% to 85% ,first grade percent-age before cloth repairing could reach 98%.

  15. Dry friction characterisation of carbon fibre tow and satin weave fabric for composite applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Bo; Sachs, Ulrich; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Composites forming processes such as resin transfer moulding (RTM) typically involve a preforming step in which dry fabric material is deformed. Frictional forces in tool–fabric and fabric–fabric contacts determine the fabric deformation behaviour to a large extent. Previous investigations of the fr

  16. MODA ODAKLI İÇGÜDÜSEL SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞINA ETKİ EDEN FAKTÖRLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur TÜFEKÇİ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Günümüzde geleneksel birçok moda perakendecisi, esnek olmayan tedarik zinciri, onun yarattığı aşırı stok ve kâr kayıplarıyla mücadele ederken, hızlı moda perakendecileri esnek tedarik zinciri yönetimi ve yeni trendlere hızla uyum sağlayarak bu problemi avantaja dönüştürmüşlerdir. Bu sayede hızlı moda pazarını oluşturma ve geliştirmede büyük başarı sağlamışlardır. Dolayısıyla çalışma, bu pazarda yer alan tüketicilerin algı ve tutumlarının satın alma davranışlarına etkisini belirlemek amacıyla düzenlenmiştir. Çalışma Atatürk Üniversitesi’nde okuyan kız öğrencilere 387 adet anket uygulaması yoluyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın amaçları doğrultusunda öncelikle hızlı moda perakendeciliğine yönelik tutum, kıtlık algısı, düşük fiyat algısı ve tükenebilir algısının moda odaklı içgüdüsel satın alma davranışı üzerine etkisini belirlemek için çoklu regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Sonrasında ise çok kriterli karar verme tekniklerinden TOPSIS yöntemi ile bu değişkenlerin önem sıralaması belirlenmiştir. Söz konusu değişkenlerin moda odaklı içgüdüsel satın alma üzerinde anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olduğu ve kriterler arasında en önemi etkiyi “tükenebilir algısı”nın taşıdığı belirlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Hızlı Moda, Moda Odaklı İçgüdüsel Satın Alma, TOPSIS. ABSTRACT: Many traditional fashion retailer are struggling with inflexible supply chain and the excess inventory and profit loss due to this inflexibility. But, these problems have been converted into advantages by fast fashion retailers, via adapting quickly to new trends and flexible supply chain management. In this way, they have achieved great success which is the creation of the fast fashion market and development. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine consumers' perceptions and attitudes effect on purchase behavior in this market. In the study, questionnaires were applied to 387 female students studying at the Atatürk University. For purposes of the study; firstly multiple regression analysis was applied to determine attitudes towards fast fashion retailing, perceived scarcity, perceived low price and the perceived perishability effect on fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior. Then, variables have been ranked in terms of importance level obtained by TOPSIS which is multi-criteria decision making techniques. As a result, independent variables were found have a significant effect on fashion-oriented impulse buying and perceived perishability has the most significant effect in all of other criteria. Keywords: Fast Fashion, Fashion-Oriented Impulse Buying Behavior, TOPSIS.

  17. DUYGUSAL ZEKA VE DÜRTÜSEL SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞI İLİŞKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    BÜYÜKER İŞLER, Didar; ATİLLA, Gaye

    2013-01-01

    Bireylerin kişilik özelliklerinin farklı olması tüketicilerin satın alma davranışında birbirinden farklı olmasında etkindir. İnsan davranışını yönlendiren biyolojik ve psikolojik etmenler de sürece eklendiğinde satın alma davranışı pekçok faktörün bombardımanı altında gerçekleşmektedir denilebilir. Fiziksel ve işlevsel faydaların ötesinde “duygu” son yıllarda pek çok alanda olduğu gibi tüketici davranışları konusunda önem kazanmaya başlamıştır. Duyguya hitap etmeyen bir ürünün satın alınabili...

  18. SATIN ALMA KARARLARINDA TÜKETİCİ ETNOSENTRİZMİ VE MENŞE ÜLKE ETKİSİNİN ROLÜ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Sertaç ARI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available THE ROLE OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND COUNTRY OF ORIGIN EFFECT ON PURCHASE DECISIONAbstract: This study examines and tests the relationship between the country of origin and consumer ethnocentrism concepts on the chosen sample. The aim is to evaluate the results of the research on the concepts of “country of origin” and “consumer ethnocentrism” on a different sample and to contribute to the international scale development and conforming dimension studies.In the first part of the study, the country of origin concept; and in the second part, the consumer ethnocentrism concept is examined and presented extensively with examples from related literature. In the third part, the results of the research, that was conducted on the members of Çukurova University, is presented.Contrary to the general judgement on the correlation between education level and ethnocentrism level, the academicians have been found to be more ethnocentric than the students. The relations between the levels of ethnocentrism and the demographic characteristics have been found to be supporting the findings in the literature. Namely, the women, the elderly and the lower income consumers have been found to be more ethnocentric. The results generally support the expectations deriving from the literature; however, some unexpected findings were found. Keywords: Country of Origin Effect, Consumer Ethnocentrism, Nationalism, Purchase Decision. S­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ATIN ALMA KARARLARINDA TÜKETİCİ ETNOSENTRİZMİ VE MENŞE ÜLKE ETKİSİNİN ROLÜ Özet: Bu çalışma, menşe ülke ve tüketici etnosentrizmi kavramlarını irdelemekte ve bu kavramların ilişkisini seçilen örneklemde test etmektedir. Burada amaç, “menşe ülke etkisi” ve “tüketici etnosentrizmi” kavramlarını farklı bir örneklemde test ederek bu kavramların hedef bölgedeki sonuçlarını görmek, uluslar arası ölçek geliştirme ve ortak boyut tespit çalışmalarına da katkı sağlamaktır.Çalışmanın ilk bölümünde menşe ülke etkisi; ikinci bölümünde tüketici etnosentrizmi kavramları ele alınmış, yazından örneklerle geniş biçimde sunulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde, Çukurova Üniversitesi mensupları üzerinde yapılan uygulama ve bu uygulamanın sonuçları sunulmuştur.Tüketici etnosentrizmi yazınındaki çalışmalarda varılan eğitim düzeyi-etnosentrizm düzeyi ilişkisindeki genel sonucun aksine üniversite mensupları arasında akademisyenlerin, öğrencilerden daha fazla etnosentrik eğilim gösterdikleri bulunmuştur. Etnosentrizm düzeyleri ile demografik değişkenler arasındaki ilişkinin genel literatürü desteklediği görülmüştür. Yani kadınlar, daha yaşlılar, daha düşük gelirliler daha yüksek düzeyde etnosentrik bulunmuştur. Sonuçlar, genel anlamda yazındaki genel beklentileri desteklemekle birlikte, beklenmeyen bazı bulgularla da karşılaşılmıştır.

  19. HEDONİZMİN SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞINA ETKİLERİ: ÇEVRİMİÇİ ALIŞVERİŞLERDE KADIN AKADEMİSYENLER

    OpenAIRE

    Eken, İhsan; YAZICI, Merve

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, along with the competition of the people against time, the importance of online shopping behavior has increased. The increase in internet usage not only created a new competitive area for companies, but also provided a new purchasing behavior setting for consumers. The main reasons for consumers tend to use this medium are more practical compared to store shopping behavior, opportunity to compare multiple similar products, detailed information about the product, no waiting in line d...

  20. Optimization of the Composite Repair Work using 5H Satin Dry Glass Fabric and Epoxy Resin LY5052/HY5052 Materials through the Vacuum Bagging Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono; Rifai, Mochammad; Subawi, Handoko

    2016-08-01

    In composite repair terminology, the intermingled fiber joints (IFJs) concept is clearly identified as the most effective in transferring stress. However, the practical application leads to apply the laminated fiber joints (LFJs) concept for composite repair. The LFJs become almost as strong as the IFJs as the jointed zone length increases. The LFJs concept was implemented to set up the repair configuration for this work. It is identified that fracture tendency as the result of crack propagation starts from the free edges. This tendency is alleviated by applying vacuum bag to compact the laminate system. If necessary, additional accelerated curing was performed at low temperature for short time. However, this repair work preferably applying natural overnight cure to ensure the structure stability. Additionally, the repair handling and waiting purposes take 40% out of the effectively repair time. The waiting time should be anticipated in the composite repair to reduce wasting time for unproductive output.

  1. Satin Alma Gücü Paritesi Teorisinin Geçerliligi: G7 Örnegi/Validity of Purchasing Power Parity Theory: The Case of G7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asli Önay Akçay; Filiz Eratas

    2015-01-01

    .... As a result of the analysis, there is evidence that unit root in the real exchange rate is not obtained with the firstgeneration panel unit root test, with the second-generation unit root tests it is...

  2. DUYGUSALLIK VE BİLİŞSELLİĞİN PLANSIZ SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞINA ETKİSİ-THE INFLUENCE OF AFFECT AND COGNITION ON IMPULSE BUYING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner DİNCER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, yazını zenginleştirmek ve yönetimsel kullanım için yeni bakış açıları sağlamak üzere, tüketicilerin kendilerini algılayışlarını göz önüne alarak plansız satın alma davranışı eğilimlerini incelemektir. Çalışmanın araştırma tasarımı, diğer çalışmalarda kullanılan ölçekleri Türk tüketicisine uyarlayan, toplamda 284 üniversite öğrencisi üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiş bir anket çalışmasından meydana gelmektedir. Duygusal ve bilişsel eğilim ölçekleri yüksek iç tutarlılık, güvenilirlik göstermiş ve analizlerde kullanılmışlardır. Bulgular, plansız satın alma davranışının tamamen duygusal olduğunu ve demografik özelliklerle bir ilişkisi olmadığını göstermiştir. Bu sonuçlar, firmalar için duygusal alışveriş ortamı yaratmanın ve pazarlama kampanyalarında duygusal unsurların kullanımının önemini vurgularken, araştırmacılar için de bu duygusal unsurların saptanmasının önemini vurgular.-The purpose of the study is to investigate the impulse buying tendency of the consumers while taking into consideration their self-perception in order to enrich the literature and provide new points of view for managerial use. The design of the study consists of a questionnaire administered to a total of 284 university students, adapting existing scales to Turkish context. The scales of affective and cognitive tendency showed high internal reliability and are used in the analysis. The findings revealed that impulse buying is purely affective and does not have any significant correlation with the used demographic variables. These results emphasize the importance of emotional shopping environment and the use of affective components in marketing campaigns for firms as well as the determination of these affective components for the researchers.

  3. 正反丝棉缎系列产品的设计与开发%Design and Development of Serial Products of Face-and back Silk Floss Satin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱飞

    2005-01-01

    巧妙地利用丝、棉两种天然纤维的服用舒适性能,在丝棉缎产品的基础上,通过合理的产品设计,综合开发出正反丝棉缎系列产品,充分体现出两种不同纤维的优异性能,给人以良好的感观效果.

  4. SOSYAL MEDYA ALGISININ, MARKA KREDİBİLİTESİNİN VE MARKA PRESTİJİNİN SATIN ALMA EĞİLİMİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    KAZANCI, Şerife; BAŞGÖZE, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the direct effects of social media on brand credibility and brand prestige and the direct and indirect effects of social media on purchase intention. With regard to the purposes of study, exploratory and descriptive research methods were used. In order to test the research model, data was collected from 417 participants via online and face to face questionnaire. In addition, three structural nested models were used. According to the analysis, consum...

  5. TURİSTİK ÜRÜN SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞININ TEKNOLOJİ KABUL MODELİ İLE İNCELENMESİ (INVESTIGATION OF TOURISM PRODUCT PURCHASING BEHAVIOUR BY THECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali TÜRKER

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quickly spreading of Internets’ using throughout all part of the community, changed the individuals habits and behaviors as a consumer as well as their lives. One of the important phenomena occurring In recent years, shopping over the Internet, could affect the tourists’ purchase decision process and exist as being a determining factor in the decision process stages, so it is becoming a controversial issue and increasingly important issue on the tourism product buying decision. In Turkey the number of research topics examining the shopping behavior of tourists over the Internet, is yet very insufficient. This study is being done in order to determine the behavior and tendencies of tourist coming to Turkey related to e-shopping, but also to discuss the efficiency of TAMs’ explaining the behavior of tourists through buying on internet.The main objective of this study is to examine the tourist product purchase behavior with the Technology Acceptance Model. The determination of the factors on touristic buying behavior and the directions and rates, will shed the light over electronic marketing activities.

  6. Posting Traditional Ecological Knowledge on Open Access Biodiversity Platforms: Implications for Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Johanna; Guthadjaka, Kathy; Kong, Gary

    2015-01-01

    BowerBird is an open platform biodiversity website (http://www.BowerBird.org.au) and a nationally funded project under management of the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) and Museum Victoria. Members post sightings and information about local species of plants and animals, and record other features of ecosystems. Charles Darwin University's Northern…

  7. HEDONİK TÜKETİM EĞİLİMİNİN PLANSIZ SATIN ALMA EĞİLİMİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİSİNİN BELİRLENMESİ-IDENTIFYING THE EFFECT OF HEDONIC CONSUMPTION TENDENCY ON IMPULSIVE BUYING TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulun AKTURAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı tüketicilerdeki hedonik tüketim eğiliminin plansız satın alma eğilimleri üzerindeki etkisini ortaya koymaktır. Hedonik tüketim, tüketimin duyular, algılamalar, fanteziler ve duygularla ilişkili olarak geliştiği davranışları kapsayan tüketimdir. Plansız satın alma davranışı ise, tüketicinin düşünmeden, ani, kuvvetli ve ısrarlı bir satın alma arzusu içinde olmasıdır. Bu bağlamda araştırmanın amacı ve literatür taraması doğrultusunda araştırma modeli geliştirilmiştir ve geliştirilen araştırma modeli Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli (Structural Equation Modeling-SEM kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında 284 tüketiciden anket yöntemiyle veri toplanmıştır. Analiz sonucunda hedonik tüketim eğiliminin plansız satın alma eğilimine ilişkin hem bilişsellik hem de duygusallık boyutu üzerinde pozitif etkisi olduğu bulunmuştur.-The aim of this research is to determine the effect of hedonic consumption tendency on impulsive buying tendency. Hedonic consumption designates those facts of consumer behavior that relate to the multi-sensory, fantasy and emotive aspects of consumption. Impulsive buying is an unplanned purchase which evolves as an immediate, persistent and strong urge to buy something with no pre-shopping intention. Within that scope a research model was developed in relation with the research objectives and the literature review. Then the research model was tested by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. In the study, data was collected from 284 consumers by face-to-face interviews. As a result of the analysis, it was found that hedonic consumption tendency has positive effect on both dimensions of impulsive buying tendency- cognitive and affective.

  8. TERMAL TURİZMDE TÜKETİCİ SATIN ALMA DAVRANIŞINI ETKİLEYEN FAKTÖRLERİN BELİRLENMESİ: GÖNEN ÖRNEĞİ - DETERMINATION OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOR IN THERMAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Oğuzhan İLBAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Günümüzde turistik bölgeler arasında yaşanan yoğunrekabet, tüketicilerin satın alma davranışlarını etkileyebilmeyi,buna bağlı olarak benzersiz bir ürün yaratmayı ve ürününfarklılığını ortaya koyabilmeyi son derece önemli halegetirmiştir. Bu durum turistik bölgenin turist sayısı ve eldeedeceği gelir düzeyini de yakından ilgilendirmektedir.Dolayısıyla, tüketiciler açısından turistik bölge tercihinde satınalma davranışını etkileyen faktörlerin öncelikle nelerolduğunun tespiti ve tüketicilerin belirli özelliklerine görehedef pazarların belirlenmesi bu çabaları yerine getirmedemuhakkak ki oldukça önemli katkılar sağlayacaktır. Bunoktadan hareketle, demografik özelliklerine göre termalturizme yönelik tüketicilerin satın alma davranışlarınıetkileyen faktörlerin belirlenmesi amacıyla bir anket çalışmasıuygulanmıştır. Anketlerden elde edilen verilerden hareketle,turistik tüketicilerin satın alma davranışlarını etkileyenfaktörlerin öncelik sırasına göre şu şekilde sıralanmıştır;pazarlama çabaları, ekonomik faktörler, sosyal faktörler,psikolojik faktörler ve kişisel ve kültürel faktörler. Ayrıcaaraştırmada, turistik tüketicilerin demografik özelliklerinegöre satın alma davranışlarını etkileyen faktörleri algılamalarıarasında anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur.Abstract:Today, fierce competition among the tourist areasmade affecting buying behavior of the consumers andcorrespondingly creating a unique product and putting forththe difference of the product extremely important. This case isa particular concern to tourist number of the tourist area andthe income level. Hence, firstly, from the perspective of touriststo choose a tourist place, determination of the factors affectingthe buying behaviors of the consumers and specifying thetarget markets according to the certain features of theconsumers, will make a significant contribution in makingthese efforts come true. From this point forth, for the aim ofdetermining demographic features of the buying behaviors ofconsumers who are for thermal tourism, a questionnaire studyis implemented. According to the data gotten from thequestionnaires, the factors affecting the buying behaviors ofthe tourist consumers are put into order of precedence likethis; marketing efforts, economical factors, social factors,psychological factors, personal and cultural factors,. Inaddition, in this study, meaningful differences are foundamong the tourist consumers’ perceptions of the buyingbehaviors according to the demographic features

  9. İNTERNET KULLANICILARININ İNTERNETTEN ALIŞ-VERİŞE YÖNELİK SATIN ALMA KARAR SÜREÇLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ ve KULLANIM YOĞUNLUKLARI AÇISINDAN SINIFILANDIRILMASI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA-INVESTIGATING INTERNET USERS DECISION MAKING PROCESSES REGARDING THEIR INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah CENGİZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tüketici satın alma karar süreci uzun yıllardır işletmelerin ve akademisyenlerin ilgi odaklarından birisidir. Tüketicilerin hangi faktörlerin etkisi altında ve hangi aşamalardan geçerek satın alma kararını verdikleri çeşitli modellerle açıklanmaya çalışılmış, karar sürecine hangi aşamalarda ne şekilde etki edilebileceği araştırma konusu olmuştur. Son zamanların önemle üzerinde durulan pazarlama fenomenlerinden biri de internet ve internet üzerinden satın alma eğilimleridir. İnternet üzerinden satın alma davranışı da aynı şekilde gerek işletmelerin gerekse akademisyenlerin önemle üzerinde durup inceledikleri bir konudur. Bu çalışmada tüketicilerin internet kullanma yoğunluğu temelinde, “internetten alış-verişe yönelik satın alma karar süreçleri”, “internette gerçekleştirdikleri faaliyetler” ve “demografik özellikler” açısından fark olup olmadığını incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, interneti yoğun veya az kullanmakla birlikte, internetten alış-veriş yapan tüketicilerin ayırt edici özellikleri belirlenmiştir.-Consumer buying process is one of the center of attention both businesses and academics for many years. Which factors influence the consumer decision making and buying stages have trying to explain by various models and which factors affecting the decision process have been investigated by many researcher. Internet and purchasing via internet are one of the very important marketing phenomenons of last decades. Purchasing via internet is also a hot topic among the business and academics. In this study consumers use the Internet on the basis of intensity, “internet shopping for the purchase decision process”, “internet activities performed”, and “demographic characteristics” in term of whether the differences were examined. In addition consumer’s distinctive characteristics have been identified in order to internet usage frequencies.

  10. Tuketici Etnosentrizmi ve Davranis Niyetleri Arasindaki Farkliligin Belirlenmesinde CETSCALE Olcegi

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Akin; Recep Cicek; Esen Gurbuz; M. Emin Inal

    2009-01-01

    Son yillarda cok farkli sebeplerle de olsa giderek ulkemizde de yayginlasmaya baslayan kuresellesme karsitligi sonucu olusan lokal milliyetcilik akimlarinin tuketicilerin satin alma karar surecine olan etkisi yadsinamaz bir gercek olarak karsimizda durmaktadir. Son yillarda ozellikle ABD ve AB karsitligi ile bunlarla boy olcusen Cin karsitligi butun dunyada oldugu gibi ulkemizde de hizla yayginlasmaktadir. Bu ve benzer olgularin tuketim ve satin alma aliskanliklarimiza etkisi basta uluslarara...

  11. 真相·美丽·自由·爱情--《红磨坊》观感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泓任

    2005-01-01

    Satine (Nicole Kidman) was the most popular courtesan1 in Moulin Rouge which is the centre of all amusement in Paris. She is so beautiful and sexy that every man wanted her.As most of the courtesans,Satine had a painful childhood due to her poor family and inferior2 status.But she was desperate to escape the ties of a courtesan lifestyle and pursue her dream as an actress.……

  12. 真相·美丽·自由·爱情--《红磨坊》观感%Truth Beauty Freedom Love--EVALUATION ON MOULIN ROUGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泓任

    2005-01-01

    @@ Satine (Nicole Kidman) was the most popular courtesan1 in Moulin Rouge which is the centre of all amusement in Paris. She is so beautiful and sexy that every man wanted her.As most of the courtesans,Satine had a painful childhood due to her poor family and inferior2 status.But she was desperate to escape the ties of a courtesan lifestyle and pursue her dream as an actress.

  13. Minimum 10-year survival of Kerboull cemented stems according to surface finish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadouche, Moussa; Baqué, François; Lefevre, Nicolas; Kerboull, Marcel

    2008-02-01

    The optimal surface finish for a cemented THA stem is still debated. We hypothesized surface finish would influence survival of Kerboull cemented hip arthroplasties and a matte finish would have lower survival. We reviewed survival of 433 total hip arthroplasties in 395 patients: 284 consecutive patients (310 hips) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study of polished (165 hips) or matte finish stems (145 hips) and compared to a historical series of satin stems (123 hips) in 111 patients. The satin and matte finish implants had similar geometry but the polished was quadrangular rather than oval. Finish roughnesses were: polished (radius, 0.04 microm), satin (radius, 0.9 microm), and matte (radius, 1.7 microm). The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was 63.6 years. The survival rate at 13 years, using radiographic loosening as the end point, was 97.3%+/-2.6% for polished stems, 97.1%+/-2.1% for satin stems, and 78.9%+/-5.8% for matte stems. The data suggest survival of Kerboull stems was higher with a polished or satin surface finish than with a matte finish. Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Research and Application of the Mathematic Model for the Washing Shrinkage of Woven Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having analyzed the relationships between washing shrinkage and weaving technique, parameters, material properties of woven fabrics and studied the shrinkage mechanism and its mathematical model of the plain fabric,researchers set up a shrinkage model of the twills and satins and proposed a method for calculating the washing shrinkage based on weaving technique and parameters of fabrics. Shrinkage experiments of silk habotai, silk twill and silk satin fabrics were performed. The results were compared with those of the theoretical computations, and it has been proven that the theoretical method is reliable.

  15. A multi-layer triangular membrane finite element for the forming simulation of laminated composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thije, ten R.H.W.; Akkerman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous fibre reinforced thermoplastics offer a cost reduction compared to thermosets due to promising fast production methods like diaphragm forming and rubber pressing. Forming experiments of pre-consolidated four-layer 8H satin weave PPS laminates on a dome geometry demonstrated that inter-ply

  16. 75 FR 6169 - Request for Public Comment on a Commercial Availability Request Under the U.S.-Singapore Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... certain non-U.S. and non-Singapore fabrics. The products covered by this request are: Specifications (1... Content: 100% polyester. Width: 58/60 inches. Construction: Plain, twill and satin weaves, in combinations..., each of which is dyed a different color. ] (5) Certain woven 100% cotton flannel fabrics, of...

  17. EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... and a case of metastatic osteosarcoma in a child. Conclusion: Majority of the ... rehabilitation can lead to critical survival pr0blems(2). Despite the fact that most of .... 1988; 75:ll93-1195. 10. Satin, 5., Shami, 5., Shields, D.A..

  18. Thermal Bond System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-31

    a twill weave, a crowfoot weave, a satin weave (FIG. 2), and a leno weave. Descriptions of the various weave types can be found in " Composite ...together to define a fabric mesh having first and second opposing woven surfaces. An adhesive bond that is flowable prior to drying is used to wet and

  19. 76 FR 18537 - Notice-Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Public Law 1115 (Recovery Act) under the authority... Fluorescent Ceiling Lighting Fixture (48'' Lensed Fluorescent w/Dimming Ballast & Satin Aluminum Finish); 48... the construction, alteration, maintenance, or repair of a public building or public work unless all of...

  20. Semi-continuous high speed gas analysis of generated vapors of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trap, H.C.; Langenberg, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and satin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a 'standard length' column, the system can either

  1. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    under- clothes, sportswear, canvas , silks and satins, hot and cold vacuum bottles, fruit, and other items, all of which are in great demand in...ally turned into a " Spider of the Orient," which people hate to the point of fearing only that they will not be able to escape it in time? And how

  2. Lama Firemen at thePotala Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    INSIDE the Potala Palace lives its own fire brigade, comprising 11 lamas.Constructed from earth and wood, the Potala Palace houses a large number of priceless cultural relics, as well as silks and satins, such as thangkas and prayer banners. Great importance is therefore attached to fire prevention. Protective clothing and advanced

  3. Neurobehavioral teratogenicity of sarin in an avian model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanai, Joseph; Pinkas, Adi; Seidler, Frederic J.; Ryde, Ian T.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    Nerve gas organophosphates like satin are likely to be used in urban terrorism, leading to widespread exposures of pregnant women and young children. Here, we established a model for sarin neurobehavioral teratogenicity in the developing chick so as to explore the consequences of apparently subtoxic

  4. Eelarvamustest lahti / Katt Hansen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hansen, Katt

    2003-01-01

    PÖFFi naistekeskseid mängufilme : taanlase Morten Arnfredi "Õnne tänav", tšehh Michaela Pavlatova "Truudusetud mängud", prantsuse filmid "29 Palms" (Bruno Dumont) ja "Väike Lili" (Claude Miller) ning prantsuse-tuneesia "Satin Rouge" (Raja Amari)

  5. The Effect of Various Weave Designs on Mechanical Behavior of Lamina Intraply Composite Made from Kenaf Fiber Yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The development of lamina intraply composite is a novel approach that can be adopted to address the challenges of balance mechanical properties of polymer composite. This research will focuses on the effects of weave designs on the mechanical behavior of a single ply or also known as lamina intraply composite. The six (6) specimens of lamina intraply composites were made by kenaf fiber as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno and leno weave. The vacuum infusion technique was adopted due to advantages over hand lay-up. It was found that the plain, twill and satin weave exhibited better mechanical properties on tensile strength. The fiber content of the specimen was 40% and the result of the resin content of the specimen was 60% due to the higher permeability of natural fiber.

  6. Composites from powder coated towpreg - Studies with variable tow sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh, Maylene K.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    Part fabrication from composite materials usually costs less when larger fiber tow bundles are used. On the other hand, mechanical properties generally are lower for composites made using larger size tows. This situation gives rise to a choice between costs and properties in determining the best fiber tow bundle size to employ in preparing prepreg materials for part fabrication. To address this issue, unidirectional and eight harness satin fabric composite specimens were fabricated from 3k, 6k, and 12k carbon fiber reinforced LARC-TPI powder coated towpreg. Short beam shear strengths and longitudinal and transverse flexure properties were obtained for the unidirectional specimens. Tension properties were obtained for the eight harness satin woven towpreg specimens. Knowledge of the variation of properties with tow size may serve as a guide in material selection for part fabrication.

  7. Composites from powder coated towpreg - Studies with variable tow sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh, Maylene K.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Part fabrication from composite materials usually costs less when larger fiber tow bundles are used. On the other hand, mechanical properties generally are lower for composites made using larger size tows. This situation gives rise to a choice between costs and properties in determining the best fiber tow bundle size to employ in preparing prepreg materials for part fabrication. To address this issue, unidirectional and eight harness satin fabric composite specimens were fabricated from 3k, 6k, and 12k carbon fiber reinforced LARC-TPI powder coated towpreg. Short beam shear strengths and longitudinal and transverse flexure properties were obtained for the unidirectional specimens. Tension properties were obtained for the eight harness satin woven towpreg specimens. Knowledge of the variation of properties with tow size may serve as a guide in material selection for part fabrication.

  8. High-Strain-Rate Constitutive Characterization and Modeling of Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-07

    impact fracture of carbon fiber reinforced 7075 -T6 aluminum matrix composite , Materials Transactions, Japan Institute of Metals, 41, 1055-1063...MODELING OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES Report Title The mechanical response of three different types of materials are examined: unidirectionally...conditions. This report also documents some of the highlights of the material response of Saffil filled aluminum matrix composite and a Nextel satin

  9. Influencia del envejecimiento higrotérmico en el comportamiento a fractura de compuestos de matriz termoplástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenasni, R.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging was carried out by introducing the materials into a climatic chamber under appropriate conditions of temperature, humidity and time. The materials are made of two types of weaving (2/2 Twill, 8H Satin glass fibre, and (8H Satin carbon fibre. The matrix was polyetherimide(PEI. In order to characterize the interlaminar fracture a mechanical test was carried out using the mode I Double Cantilever Beam (DCB and mode II End Notched Fixed (ENF tests. The analysis consists of knowing the different failure mechanisms which have generated the hygrothermal aging.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre la influencia del envejecimiento higrotérmico en el comportamiento a fractura interlaminar de tres tipos de compuestos, dos de ellos reforzados con tejido de fibra de vidrio(2/2 Twill, y 8H Satin y otro con fibra de carbono (8H Satin . El envejecimiento se realizó manteniendo, durante diferentes periodos de tiempo, probetas en una cámara climática bajo unas determinadas condiciones de temperatura y humedad relativa. La determinación de la tenacidad a fractura interlaminar se realizó utilizando probetas de modos I (DCB y II (ENF. El análisis realizado consistió en poner de manifiesto los diferentes mecanismos de rotura a fractura que se generan tras someter las probetas a la exposición higrotérmica. De los resultados de los ensayos se concluye un diferente comportamiento a fractura según el refuerzo existente y también a igual refuerzo, según la trama del tejido.

  10. Development of New Ecological Ceramic Tiles by Recycling of Waste Glass and Ceramic Materials; Incorporacion de residuos derivados de la fabricacion ceramica y del vidrio reciclado en el proceso ceramico integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, C.; Ramon Trilles, V.; Gomez, F.; Allepuz, S.; Fraga, D.; Carda, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    The following research work shows the results of the introduction of waste generated by the ceramic industry, such as the calcined clay from fired porcelain of stoneware and raw biscuit, sludge and cleaning water, as well as waste from other sectors like the recycling glass. In this way, it can be obtained a stoneware porcelain slab, engobe-glaze and satin glaze that contains high percentage of recyclable raw materials. (Author)

  11. China Report, Agriculture, No. 255, 1981 Agricultural Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Trichogramma 495 Ground Infra-red Forest Fire Detector 495 Culturing of Tree Fungus and Mushrooms in Wood Shavings 495 Chemical [Resin] Tapping...Tea Cotton cloth Wool Silks and satins Rnit underpants Leather shoes Rubber shoes Firewood Soap Thermos bottles Sewing machines...8) (9) (10) Forestry industry Food industry Textile, sewing and leather industries 8.36 20.17 40.75 2.92 7.05 14.25 (ID Paper making

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    species of listed plants have been documented on Cape Canaveral AS (Florida Natural Areas Inventory, 1996b). Two of these species, Curtiss’ milkweed ...Status Plants Giant leatherfern Acrostichum danaeifolium - T Curtiss’ milkweed Asclepias curtissii - E Satin-leaf Chrysophyllum olivaeforme - E Coastal...hazards in the form of increased skin cancer rates. Air quality impacts from No-Action Alternative operations would result from the general sources

  13. Development of a High-Temperature Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Testbed for Aerospace Grade Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-10

    properties. Table 2.1-1 Material identification and average properties of carbon fabric T650/35 Yarn Type T650/35 3K 309 NT Weave 8 Harness Satin Weight (Oz...reduction was achieved by adding lwt% SWNTs. In the future work, the research team will incorporate carbon nanotubes in PETI- 330/ carbon fiber composites...11 2.2.2 Synthesis of PETI-330

  14. Jade Articles Collected in Tibetan Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the Yuan Dynasty, Tibet has been formally part of the territory of China. By keeping abreast with developments in the hinterland, Tibet has maintained close relations with other provinces in China and kept up to date. Mutual interactions were frequent i.e. Tibetans presented tributes to the central government and vice versa, the central governments bestowed largess on Tibetans. The largess included Buddhist statues, porcelains, silks, satins, and fabulous jade ornaments. In book entitled "Memoir of...

  15. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Genetic polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method used FspBI restriction enzyme. PCR-RFLP data were analyzed by calculating allele and genotype frequencies. Sequencing was performed in rabbit with different genotypes which represents each of the samples. Genotype of AT had two cut points of the FspBI restriction enzyme at the base position of 508 bp and 444 bp. The cut point at the base position of 446 bp was site mutation base T became A. Genotype of TT had one cut point at the base position of 508 bp and no mutation site. Allele T had higher frequency than allele A and just Rex and Reza rabbit breeds had two alleles. The other rabbits (Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 only had one allele i.e., allele T. PCR - RFLP analysis of the MSTN|FspBI gene segments was polymorphic in Rex and Reza rabbit breeds. All of rabbit breeds in this study did not have AA genotype.

  16. Influence of weave structures on the tribological properties of hybrid Kevlar/PTFE fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dapeng; Yang, Yulin; Qi, Xiaowen; Deng, Wei; Shi, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The existing research of the woven fabric self-lubricating liner mainly focus on the tribological performance improvements and the service life raised by changing different fiber type combinations, adding additive modification, and performing fiber surface modification. As fabric composites, the weave structures play an important role in the mechanical and tribological performances of the liners. However, hardly any literature is available on the friction and wear behavior of such composites with different weave structures. In this paper, three weave structures (plain, twill 1/3 and satin 8/5) of hybrid Kevlar/PTFE fabric composites are selected and pin-on-flat linear reciprocating wear studies are done on a CETR tester under different pressures and different frequencies. The relationship between the tensile strength and the wear performance are studied. The morphologies of the worn surfaces under the typical test conditions are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis results show that at 10 MPa, satin 8/5 performs the best in friction-reduction and antiwear performance, and plain is the worst. At 30 MPa, however, the antiwear performance is reversed and satin 8/5 does not even complete the 2 h wear test at 16 Hz. There is no clear evidence proving that the tensile strength has an influence on the wear performance. So the different tribological performance of the three weave structures of fabric composites may be attributed to the different PTFE proportions in the fabric surface and the different wear mechanisms. The fabric composites are divided into three regions: the lubrication region, the reinforced region and the bonding region. The major mechanisms are fatigue wear and the shear effects of the friction force in the lubrication region. In the reinforced region fiber-matrix de-bonding and fiber breakage are involved. The proposed research proposes a regional wear model and further indicates the wear process and the wear mechanism

  17. Nickel Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Murakami; Yasuo Uchikoshiki; Kazutoshi Komori

    2004-01-01

    Nickel electroplating has been used practically for decades, is easy to plate, but there is an unknown interest in it.Nickel electroplating as a basis of surface treatment is shown practically from basics to the applied electronics use. At first the basics of nickel electroplating, for example, purpose, use, merit & demerit, nickel plating solution, current efficiency,limiting current density, additional agents and their behaviors are surveyed. And the points of nickel deposition already practically used such as decorative nickel plating, satin nickel plating and functional nickel plating, which has very high throwing power and has been used for electronics, are described in detail.

  18. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Nondestructive Evaluation of Incipient Heat Damage in Polymer Matrix Composites, A2476

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-15

    composite materials used on structural components of US Naval aircraft:  AS4/3501-6 (Five-harness satin (5HS) Fabric-reinforced, Epoxy matrix)  IM7...Systems Command (NAVAIR). Each set consisted of specimens of a different fiber-reinforced PMC material : AS4/3501 6 5HS; AS4/3501 6 Uni-Tape; IM7...carbon-fiber- reinforced PMC material : AS4/3501-6 5HS; AS4/3501-6 Uni-Tape; IM7/5250-4 Uni-Tape; and IM7/977-3 Uni-Tape. A chemometric model was

  19. Mechanical and Impact Characterization of Poly-Dicyclopentadiene (p-DCPD) Matrix Composites Using Novel Glass Fibers and Sizings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    tested according to ASTM D303914 with strains measured using digital -image correlation (DIC) with a single-camera, 2-D setup. Flexural testing was...the 8-harness satin weave architecture under short span, 3-point bending. Both the PPG X1-glass and Bi-axial E-glass composites had single- digit ...74 sizing on the X2-fibers was still not able to compete in mechanical and impact tests with the SC-15 epoxy-resin composites. Most of the

  20. On k-Positive Satisfiability Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiong; LI Wei

    1999-01-01

    An algorithm for solving thesatisfiability problem is presented. It is proved that this algorithmsolves 2-SAT and Horn-SAT in linear time and k-positive SAT(in which every clause contains at most k positive literals) in time, where |F| is the length of input F,n is the number of atoms occurring in F, and ξk is thegreatest real number satisfying the equation . Compared with previous results, this nontrivialupper bound on time complexity could only be obtained for k-SAT, whichis a subproblem of k-positive SAT.

  1. Nickel Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ToruMurakami; YasuoUchikoshiki; KazutoshiKomori

    2004-01-01

    Nickel electroplating has been used practically for decades, is easy to plate, but there is an unknown interest in it. Nickel electroplating as a basis of surface treatment is shown practically from basics to the applied electronics use. At first the basics of nickel electroplating, for example, purpose, use, merit & demerit, nickel plating solution, current efficiency, limiting current density, additional agents and their behaviors are surveyed. And the points of nickel deposition already practically used such as decorative nickel plating, satin nickel plating and functional nickel plating, which has very high throwing power and has been used for electronics, are described in detail.

  2. FODA/IBEA satellite access scheme for MIXED traffic at variable bit and coding rates system description

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Mihal, Vlado; Potort?, Francesco

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the FODA system working at variable coding and bit rates (FODA/IBEA-TDMA) FODA/IBEA is the natural evolution of the FODA-TDMA satellite access scheme working at 2 Mbit/s fixed rate with data 1/2 coded or uncoded. FODA-TDMA was used in the European SATINE-II experiment [8]. We remind here that the term FODA/IBEA system is comprehensive of the FODA/IBEA-TDMA (1) satellite access scheme and of the hardware prototype realised by the Marconi R.C. (U.K.). Both of them come fro...

  3. Springback Angle of a C/PPS Laminate with a Textile Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovec, Z.; Růžička, M.

    2013-05-01

    The residual stresses arising in fiber-reinforced laminates during their curing in closed molds lead to changes in the composites after their removal from the molds and cooling. One of these dimensional changes of angle sections is called springback. The article compares the springback angles computed by a model representating the weave geometry (for plain and satin weaves) and by a model with straight fibers with values measured after the manufacturing process. A comparison between the thermoelastic characteristics of composites computed by both the models also presented.

  4. FODA/IBEA satellite access scheme for MIXED traffic at variable bit and coding rates system description

    OpenAIRE

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina; Mihal, Vlado; Potort?, Francesco

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the FODA system working at variable coding and bit rates (FODA/IBEA-TDMA) FODA/IBEA is the natural evolution of the FODA-TDMA satellite access scheme working at 2 Mbit/s fixed rate with data 1/2 coded or uncoded. FODA-TDMA was used in the European SATINE-II experiment [8]. We remind here that the term FODA/IBEA system is comprehensive of the FODA/IBEA-TDMA (1) satellite access scheme and of the hardware prototype realised by the Marconi R.C. (U.K.). Both of them come fro...

  5. The design and function of birds' nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Mark C; Hartley, Ian R; Lambrechts, Marcel M; Deeming, D Charles

    2014-10-01

    All birds construct nests in which to lay eggs and/or raise offspring. Traditionally, it was thought that natural selection and the requirement to minimize the risk of predation determined the design of completed nests. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that sexual selection also influences nest design. This is an important development as while species such as bowerbirds build structures that are extended phenotypic signals whose sole purpose is to attract a mate, nests contain eggs and/or offspring, thereby suggesting a direct trade-off between the conflicting requirements of natural and sexual selection. Nest design also varies adaptively in order to both minimize the detrimental effects of parasites and to create a suitable microclimate for parents and developing offspring in relation to predictable variation in environmental conditions. Our understanding of the design and function of birds' nests has increased considerably in recent years, and the evidence suggests that nests have four nonmutually exclusive functions. Consequently, we conclude that the design of birds' nests is far more sophisticated than previously realized and that nests are multifunctional structures that have important fitness consequences for the builder/s.

  6. `Indoor` series vending machines; `Indoor` series jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensui, T.; Kida, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, H. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces three series of vending machines that were designed to match the interior of an office building. The three series are vending machines for cups, paper packs, cans, and tobacco. Among the three series, `Interior` series has a symmetric design that was coated in a grain pattern. The inside of the `Interior` series is coated by laser satin to ensure a sense of superior quality and a refined style. The push-button used for product selection is hot-stamped on the plastic surface to ensure the hair-line luster. `Interior Phase II` series has a bay window design with a sense of superior quality and lightness. The inside of the `Interior Phase II` series is coated by laser satin. `Interior 21` series is integrated with the wall except the sales operation panel. The upper and lower dress panels can be detached and attached. The door lock is a wire-type structure with high operativity. The operation block is coated by titanium color. The dimensions of three series are standardized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Influence of Textile Structure and Silica Based Finishing on Thermal Insulation Properties of Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rosace

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of weave structures and silica coatings obtained via sol-gel process on the thermal insulation properties of cotton samples. For this reason three main weave structures (plain, satin, and piqué of cotton fabric were selected with different yarn count, threads per cm, and mass per square meter values. Thereafter, only for the plain weave, the samples were padded using silica sol formed by hydrolysis and subsequent condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane under acidic conditions. The silanized plain weave samples were characterized by TGA and FT-IR techniques. The thermal properties were measured with a home-made apparatus in order to calculate thermal conductivity, resistance, and absorption of all the treated fabric samples. The relationship between the thermal insulation properties of the plain weave fabrics and the concentration of sol solutions has been investigated. Fabrics weave and density were found to strongly influence the thermal properties: piqué always shows the lowest values and satin shows the highest values while plain weave lies in between. The thermal properties of treated high-density cotton plain weave fabric were proved to be strongly influenced by finishing agent concentration.

  8. Effect of Inter Yarn Fabric Porosity on Dye Uptake of Reactive Dyed cotton Woven Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Farooq

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Porosity is an important property in determining the functional properties of a fabric. It relates to the count of a yarn as well as to the type of weave. Twill and satin cotton woven fabrics in three different weft densities (warp density kept constant were used to investigate the effect of porosity on the dyeuptake within one weave. The effects of change in weave type, keeping yarn densities the same, on the porosity were also investigated. Objective determination of porosity was carried out using an image analysis technique while, colour yield was determined using K/S values. Higher the weft density in a satin fabric low will be the porosity of that fabric. Porosity values varied from 6.85-10.98% for S1 and S3 respectively. However, for the twill fabric no substantial change in porosity have been observed as the porosity values varied from 6.4-5.3% for T1 and T3 respectively. Colour strengths for S1 and T1 are lower than S3 and T3 respectively for all the primary colours at 0.25, 1.00 and 2.00% depth levels. It is observed that the change in colour strength is more prominent at 2% depth level as compared to 0.25% depth level

  9. Optimisation of Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites Using a Variant of Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, Andrei; Taranu, Nicolae; Bejan, Liliana; Hudisteanu, Iuliana

    2017-03-01

    Fabric reinforced polymeric composites are high performance materials with a rather complex fabric geometry. Therefore, modelling this type of material is a cumbersome task, especially when an efficient use is targeted. One of the most important issue of its design process is the optimisation of the individual laminae and of the laminated structure as a whole. In order to do that, a parametric model of the material has been defined, emphasising the many geometric variables needed to be correlated in the complex process of optimisation. The input parameters involved in this work, include: widths or heights of the tows and the laminate stacking sequence, which are discrete variables, while the gaps between adjacent tows and the height of the neat matrix are continuous variables. This work is one of the first attempts of using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimise the geometrical parameters of satin reinforced multi-layer composites. Given the mixed type of the input parameters involved, an original software called SOMGA (Satin Optimisation with a Modified Genetic Algorithm) has been conceived and utilised in this work. The main goal is to find the best possible solution to the problem of designing a composite material which is able to withstand to a given set of external, in-plane, loads. The optimisation process has been performed using a fitness function which can analyse and compare mechanical behaviour of different fabric reinforced composites, the results being correlated with the ultimate strains, which demonstrate the efficiency of the composite structure.

  10. Estimation of genetic distance of rabbit by morphometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation on morphological body conformation of English Spot (ES, Flemish Giant (FG, New Zealand White (NZWm, and Rex (Rexm from Magelang, Central Java, and New Zealand White (NZWb, Rex (Rexb, Satin (Satin and RS (RS from Balitnak-Ciawi, were carried out to determine estimation of Mahalanobis genetic distance. This research was held in Magelang (Central Java and Balitnak-Ciawi (West Java, 237 heads of Rabbits were used. Eleven different body parts were measured, those were head (length and width, ear (length and width, chest (girth, depth, and width, humerus length, radius-ulna length, tibia length and body length. General Linear Models were used in this observation (SAS package program. Simple discriminant analyses as further analyses were done for head (length and width, chest (girth, depth, and width, humerus length, radius-ulna length, tibia length and body length. ES, FG and NZWm rabbits had morphological size bigger than others. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that NZWm and NZWb, Rexm and Rexb were had differences with genetic distances of 5.89139 and 6.75571 respectively. Rabbits from Magelang and from Balitnak were different on morphometric with mahalanobis distance of that region ranges were 4.89426 to 6.96749. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained by chest girth, chest width and humerus length on first canonical and head length on second cannonical.

  11. The Variability of Growth Hormone Gene Associated with Ultrasound Imaging of Longissimus dorsi Muscle and Perirenal Fat in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes in rabbits correlated to economic traits were intended to improve and develop their genetic quality. The objective of this research was to analyze the variability of growth hormone gene (GH in three rabbit breeds, i.e. Rex, Satin, and Reza (Rex and Satin crosses then was associated with ultrasound imaging of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat thickness. Identification of the variability of growth hormone gene was analyzed using PCR RFLP technique from blood samples of 33 mature male rabbits in Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Thickness of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat were imaged and measured by using ultrasound unit at 2nd to 3rd lumbar vertebrae in the left body side. PCR product of GH gene fragment (231 base pair /bp was digested with restriction enzyme Bsh1236I. PCR-RFLP patterns were allele T resulted in an undigested fragment of 231 bp; allele C resulted in fragment of 169 bp and 62 bp. The result showed that Bsh1236I GH gene had three genotypes, i.e. CC, TT, and CT. There were signifficant association of Longissimus dorsi muscle thickness between rabbit breed (P<0.05. There was no significant association between GH Bsh1236I gene polymorphism and imaging ultrasound of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat thickness. The association of characteristic genotype of GH|Bsh1236I gene with measurement phenotype was not significant, however it had potency as marker assisted selection (MAS.

  12. 真丝/PLA织物的染整工艺研究%Study on the dyeing and finishing of the fabric made of silk and PLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岚; 翁艳芳; 王晓芳; 余志成

    2012-01-01

    以聚乳酸(PLA)长丝与桑蚕丝交织成的丝玉珠缎织物为研究对象,针对PLA纤维不耐强碱和高温的特点,对真丝/PLA织物的前处理、染色、热定形工艺参数等进行了研究,确定了适合真丝/PLA织物的酶练工艺、一浴法染中浅色和一浴两步法或二浴法染深色的染色方法、热定形等染整工艺参数,使真丝/PLA织物保持良好的风格及服用性能.%The satin perl made of the PLA fiber and the silk fiber was the object of the study. As the PLA fiber could not resist the alkali and high temperature, the process of the satin perl should be studied, including the pretreatment, dyeing and heat setting. The optimum dyeing and finishing parameters of the process of the fabric was researched by investigating the condition of proteinase refining, dyeing method and heat setting. One bath process was used to dye the neutral and light colors. And one bath two-stage process or two baths process was employed to dye the deep colors. The fabric style and good wearability were retained.

  13. Low-cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejor, E.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae harvesting is known to be a major problem in the water industry. This is attributed to the minute nature of the algae cells and the often low concentration of the species in water and wastewater. While various chemical and mechanical harvesting techniques have been developed for algae harvesting, their application have been limited by prohibitive costs. There is also the disadvantage of not utilising the harvested microalgae as feedstock when it has accumulated significant amounts of chemicals (coagulants employed during the harvesting operation. This work investigates the low cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water using physical (non-chemical method. Four fabric filters: stretch-cotton, polyester-linen, satin-polyester and silk were investigated to determine their microalgae harvesting efficiencies using filtration method on three algae communities with cell size of 2- 20 µm. For the three algae communities investigated, stretch-cotton filter showed a harvesting efficiency of 66- 93%, followed by polyester-linen (54- 90%, while satin-polyester and silk fabrics achieved harvesting efficiencies of 43- 71% and 27- 75% respectively. The research revealed that for wastewater generation of 1500m3/day and algae concentration of 200mg/l, microalgae harvesting cost per sq. meter per kg of algae per cubic meter would be ≤ £0.15 using stretch cotton filter

  14. Satiety Innovations: Food Products to Assist Consumers with Weight Loss, Evidence on the Role of Satiety in Healthy Eating: Overview and In Vitro Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; Marzorati, Massimo; Scarabottolo, Lia; Halford, Jason C G; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Sanmartín, Angel M; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Harrold, Joanne A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally, driven by the availability of energy-dense palatable foods. Most dietary strategies fail because of hunger generated by calorie restriction, and interventions that specifically control hunger and/or promote fullness may aid success. Current consumers have a limited choice of satiety-enhancing products with proven health benefits, and innovative ways to produce new foods (as structural modification) to enhance satiety/satiation may provide new opportunities. However, this potential is hindered by the cost of product testing. Within the SATIN-SATiety INnovation project-an in vitro platform has been developed to offer a cost-effective means of assessing the potential satiation/satiety effect of novel foods. This combines in vitro technologies to assess changes in colonic bacteria metabolism, appetite hormone release and the stability and bioavailability of active compounds in the new products/ingredients. This article provides a brief review of nutrients for which an impact on short-term appetite regulation has been demonstrated, and a summary of the changes to food structure which can be used to produce a change in appetite expression. Furthermore, the SATIN in vitro platform is discussed as a means of assessing the impact of nutritional and structural manipulations on appetite.

  15. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women and indigo dye (fabric whitener are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+, fair (+, and poor (- and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

  16. All-solid, flexible solar textiles based on dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanorod arrays on stainless steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Youngjin [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunae, E-mail: eakim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • All-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with DSSCs is demonstrated. • DSSCs woven into a satin structure and transparent PET film are used. • Solar textile showed a high efficiency of 2.57%. -- Abstract: An all-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) woven into a satin structure and transparent poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was demonstrated. A ZnO nanorod (NR) vertically grown from fiber-type conductive stainless steel (SS) wire was utilized as a photoelectrode, and a Pt-coated SS wire was used as a counter electrode. A graft copolymer, i.e. poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as a solid electrolyte. The conditions for the growth of ZnO NR and sufficient dye loading were investigated to improve cell performance. The adhesion of PET films to DSSCs resulted in physical stability improvements without cell performance loss. The solar textile with 10 × 10 wires exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 2.57% with a short circuit current density of 20.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination, which is the greatest account of an all-solid, ZnO-based flexible solar textile. DSSC textiles with woven structures are applicable to large-area, roll-to-roll processes.

  17. 腹腔注射氢气与腹腔氢水对大鼠氢气代谢的影响%Effects of Intraperitoneal Injection with Saturated Hydrogen Saline or Hydrogen Gas on Hydrogen Metabolism in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 黄国庆; 文明祥; 廖晓星

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较腹腔注射氢气与氢水对鼠氢气代谢的影响.方法 20只SD大鼠,在监测呼气氢气基础值后,均先后腹腔注射氢气及饱和氢气生理盐水1 ml/100 g及2 ml/100 g.记录不同给氢方式呼气氢气浓度的达峰时间、峰浓度,计算半衰期和曲线下面积,比较不同给氢方式对呼气氢气浓度的影响.结果 腹腔注射1 ml/100 g氢水、氢气、达峰时间(Tmax)分别为(3.48±1.54)min、(15.85±7.24)min,注射2 ml/100 g氢水、氢气分别为(5.48±1.88)min、(21.25±11.65)min;1 ml/100 g氢水、氢气峰浓度(Cmax)分别为(35.04±12.43)ppm、(44.43±16.13)ppm,2 ml/100 g氢水、氢气分别为(49.45±18.89)ppm、(62.82±23.74)ppm,同剂量不同方式比较及同方式不同剂量比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);单倍剂量氢水、氢气半衰期(T1/2)分别为(8.37±3.22)min、(125.08±73.68)min,双倍剂量氢水、氢气分别为(11.21±4.84)min、(168.46±85.77)min;1 ml/100 g氢水、氢气较基础值增加的曲线下面积(AUC)分别为(279.43±161.67)ppm/min、(4 249.87±1 689.74) ppm/min,2 ml/100 g氢水、氢气分别为(384.03±172.25)ppm/min、(6 834.04±2471.67)ppm/min.可见同剂量不同方式比较及同方式不同剂量比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 腹腔注射氢水、氢气均可迅速提高呼气氢气浓度,存在量效关系.腹腔注射氢气能长时间维持呼气氢气高浓度.%Objective To compare; thc; e;ffe;cts of intrapcritoncat injection vvith saturated hydrogen satine; or hydrogen gas on hydrogen metabotism in rats. Methods Tvvcnty SD rats were; te;ste;d the; basis concentration of e;xhate;d hydrogen. Then att of them were; successivety supptied intraperitoneat saturated hydrogen satine; or hydrogen gas of 1 mt/KX) g and 2 mt/KX) g. To record the; peak time; of e;xhate;d hydrogen concentration( Tmax ) of different hydrogen-supptied ways, the; max e;xhate;d hydrogen concentration( Cmax ),and to catcutate hatf-tife;( T1/2 ) and area under

  18. COACH 2009春夏新品亮相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺兰

    2009-01-01

    美国著名品牌COACH的Amanda晚装系列将于2009春夏系列再次重现,凭借其鲜艳的色调和高贵的造型,引领时装潮流。Amanda FoldoverSatin Clutch饰以金属链带,效果令人惊喜;Legacy系列运用独特的造型及材料,令系列变得不平凡;而Madison系列更沿用一贯的鲜艳色调,将COACH的时尚风格延续下去。进一步展现品牌无限创意的Tattoo系列,以

  19. Effects of Microstructural Variability on Thermo-Mechanical Properties of a Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Marlana B.; Sankar, Bhavani V.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this paper include identifying important architectural parameters that describe the SiC/SiC five-harness satin weave composite and characterizing the statistical distributions and correlations of those parameters from photomicrographs of various cross sections. In addition, realistic artificial cross sections of a 2D representative volume element (RVE) are generated reflecting the variability found in the photomicrographs, which are used to determine the effects of architectural variability on the thermo-mechanical properties. Lastly, preliminary information is obtained on the sensitivity of thermo-mechanical properties to architectural variations. Finite element analysis is used in combination with a response surface and it is shown that the present method is effective in determining the effects of architectural variability on thermo-mechanical properties.

  20. An Investigation on Different Physical Properties of Cotton Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Akter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “An Investigation on Different Physical Properties of Cotton Woven Fabrics”, some sample fabrics were produced with plain, 2/2 twill, 3/1 twill and 4-end satin weave structure using four different weft counts. By means of regression, the correlation coefficient and correlation between different properties of fabrics were investigated. The findings of this study revealed that the crease recovery angle and the bending length are inversely proportional to each other. It was also found that with the increasing of weft yarn counts lead to a decreasing in stiffness, abrasion resistance and increasing in crease recovery angle. The pilling and wrinkle recovery affected very low by the increase of weft yarn count and for the variation of weave structure. Plain weave was superior to other structures in stiffness where as twill weave showed higher crease recovery.

  1. Statistical data for the tensile properties of natural fibre composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Torres

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features a large statistical database on the tensile properties of natural fibre reinforced composite laminates. The data presented here corresponds to a comprehensive experimental testing program of several composite systems including: different material constituents (epoxy and vinyl ester resins; flax, jute and carbon fibres, different fibre configurations (short-fibre mats, unidirectional, and plain, twill and satin woven fabrics and different fibre orientations (0°, 90°, and [0,90] angle plies. For each material, ~50 specimens were tested under uniaxial tensile loading. Here, we provide the complete set of stress–strain curves together with the statistical distributions of their calculated elastic modulus, strength and failure strain. The data is also provided as support material for the research article: “The mechanical properties of natural fibre composite laminates: A statistical study” [1].

  2. A study of elevated temperature testing techniques for the fatigue behavior of PMCS: Application to T650-35/AMB21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gastelli, Michael G.; Ellis, John R.; Burke, Christopher S.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the mechanical behavior of a T650-35/AMB21 eight-harness satin weave polymer composite system. Emphasis was placed on the development and refinement of techniques used in elevated temperature uniaxial PMC testing. Issues such as specimen design, gripping, strain measurement, and temperature control and measurement were addressed. Quasi-static tensile and fatigue properties (R(sub sigma) = 0.1) were examined at room and elevated temperatures. Stiffness degradation and strain accumulation during fatigue cycling were recorded to monitor damage progression and provide insight for future analytical modeling efforts. Accomplishments included an untabbed dog-bone specimen design which consistently failed in the gage section, accurate temperature control and assessment, and continuous in-situ strain measurement capability during fatigue loading at elevated temperatures. Finally, strain accumulation and stiffness degradation during fatigue cycling appeared to be good indicators of damage progression.

  3. Gold-weaving Fabric and Its Popularity in the Mongol-yuan Period%织金锦及其在蒙元时期的流行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏轩; 杨小明

    2012-01-01

    介绍了织金锦纳石失和金缎子,比较分析了两种织金锦的异同和在蒙元时期的流行情况,以及从蒙元时期古代墓葬中出土的织金、印金织物,总结了纳石失等织金织物在蒙元时期流行并达到鼎盛的原因。%It introduced nasish gold satin, compared and analyzed two types of gold-weaving fabrics and the situation of the popu- larity in the Mongol-yuan period, as well as the gold-weaving fabric and gold-plated fabric unearthed from ancient tombs in the Mon- gol-yuan period, summarized the reasons why gold-weaving fabric such as nasish was popular in the Mongol-yuan period.

  4. High-dose neutron irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites. Part 2: Mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai, E-mail: katohy@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nozawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori-ken (Japan); Shih, Chunghao [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ozawa, Kazumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori-ken (Japan); Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wally; Snead, Lance L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573–1073 K. The material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating the irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. The observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.

  5. Rubber-toughened polyfunctional epoxies - Brominated vs nonbrominated formulated for graphite composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new, commercially available, trifunctional epoxy resin (tris-(hydroxyphenyl)-methane triglycidyl ether) was modified with synthetic rubber to increase the impact resistance of epoxy/graphite composites. These composites were reinforced with commercially available satin-weave carbon cloth using two formulations of epoxies (brominated and nonbrominated) containing various amounts of carboxy-terminated butadience acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber that had been prereacted with epoxy resin. The impact resistance was determined by measuring the interlaminar shear strength of the composites after impact. The mechanical properties, such as flexural strength and modulus at room temperature and at 93 C, were also determined. Measurements were taken of the flammability and glass transition temperature (Tg); and a thermal-gravimetric analysis was made.

  6. Predicting the Failure Behavior of Textile Composite Laminates by Using a Multi-Scale Correlating Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Chen, Xiuhua; Wang, Hai

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the elastic and failure behavior of textile composite laminates by using an analytical multi-scale correlating approach. The analyses are performed under the four scale levels, i.e. the laminate scale, representative unit cell (RUC) scale, tow architecture scale and fiber/matrix scale levels. The correlation between different scales is derived based on the continuum mechanics and homogenization method from which the stress and strain fields in multiple scales can be obtained concurrently. Effective modulus and ultimate failure strengths of different textile composite (plain weave, twill weave and satin weave) laminates are predicted solely from the corresponding constituent properties, braid geometrical parameters and lay-up. The damage and failure mechanisms at the constituent level are also determined by the micromechanical failure criteria. All the predicted results compare favorably with available experimental data. Parametric studies are also performed to examine the effect of various mechanical and geometrical parameters on the resulting mechanical properties.

  7. Multifunctional Laminated Composite Materials for Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin M. Aly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protective clothing performs a vital role in maintaining the safety of human in workplace. The developments in this field are proceeding to fulfill the needs with multifunctional materials at competitive costs. Recently, the protective clothing field introduces the usage of composite materials taking advantage of their outstanding properties. In this paper, the multifunctional performance of hybrid laminated composites (HLC was investigated aiming to be utilized in protective clothing. The influences of reinforcement and resin properties on the physical properties of the laminated composites and their resistance to puncture load and UV transmittance were studied. ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that, the reinforcement material and structure and the fiber/matrix interface have major influences on the laminated composites performance. It was revealed that, the HLC fabricated from (polyester/glass fabric with satin 4 structure and nonwoven glass fiber mat exhibited the best functional performance.

  8. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B.; Martovetsky, N. N.

    2014-01-01

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  9. Évaluation des esters méthyliques de tournesol isomérisés comme substitut de solvants (COV dans le domaine des peintures et vernis et assimilés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiên Hoang Lê

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude a été consacrée à l’évaluation des performances techniques d’esters méthyliques isomérisés dans des applications ciblées de l’industrie des peintures et vernis où les solvants à remplacer sont des composés organiques volatils en grandes proportions, ce sont : les lasures (55 à 65 %, les vernis (45 à 55 %, les peintures laquées (35 à 40 %, les peintures satinées (40 à 45 % et les peintures anticorrosion (30 à 40 % de COV. Les esters méthyliques étudiés sont : -- les esters méthyliques de tournesol classique isomérisés cis-trans, -- les esters méthyliques de tournesol classique isomérisés trans-trans. Les résultats de cette étude ont démontré que les esters méthyliques conjugués de tournesol classique peuvent remplacer les solvants organiques volatils (white spirit par exemple des peintures murales (brillantes et satinées et des lasures. Ces esters jouent non seulement le rôle de solvant mais aussi celui d’un réactif de siccativation. En effet, ils participent à la formation du film de peinture ou de lasure au cours du séchage. En formulation de vernis et de lasures, les résultats montrent qu’il est possible d’incorporer des taux d’esters méthyliques de tournesol conjugués à hauteur de 10 %, ce qui permet de ramener le taux de COV de 550-650 g\\\\l à moins de 400 g\\\\l. En formulation de peintures laquées, la performance des esters méthyliques dépend non seulement du type de laque étudiée « brillante » ou « satinée » et surtout du système résine\\\\ETI (Esters de Tournesol Isomérisés. Les esters méthyliques conjugués peuvent être utilisés plus favorablement dans les laques brillantes, jusqu’à une concentration de 2,5 % en substitution des solvants hydrocarbonés habituels (white spirit D40 ou D60. Ils permettent dans ce cas d’augmenter sensiblement l’extrait sec, tout en restant conforme aux objectifs fixés par le CEPE pour les

  10. The Effect of Lamina Intraply Hybrid Composites on the Tensile Properties of Various Weave Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhazri, M. Y.; Amirhafizan, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Sihombing, H.; Nirmal, U.; Saarah, A. B.; Fadzol, O. M.

    2016-11-01

    The topic of natural fiber is one of the most active areas in thermoset composite research today. This paper will focuses on the effect of weave designs on the mechanical behaviour of lamina intraply hybrid composites. Twelve specimens were used and they were made of kenaf fibre and glass fibre as a reinforcement and unsaturated polyester resin as a matrix in various weave designs which were plain, twill, satin, basket, mock leno, and leno weave. Vacuum infusion technique was used due to its superior advantages over hand lay-up. The specimens were produced in two types which were kenaf fibre in warp direction interlace with glass fibre in weft direction (WK-WG) and glass fibre in warp direction interlace with kenaf fibre in weft direction (WG-WK). Various weave designs were found to affect the tensile properties. Glass fibre in warp direction has a greater effect on tensile strength compared to kenaf fibre in warp direction. Mock leno weave exhibited better mechanical properties for WK-WG and WG-WK, about 54.74 MPa and 99.46 MPa respectively.

  11. Comparison of the efficacy of HI6 and 2-PAM against soman, tabun, sarin, and VX in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study compared the efficacy of H16 and 2-PAM against nerve agent (soman tabun sarin and VX) -induced lethality in the atropinesterase-free rabbits pretreated with vehicle (controls) or pyridostigmine. Treatment was administered at signs or 2 min after agent challenge and consisted ofoxime (l00umol/lkg) + atropine 13 mg(kg) (alone or together with diazepam). Twenty-four-h LD50 values were calculated for soman- and tabun-intoxicated animals, whereas 24-h survival was noted in animals given 10 LD50s of sarin or VX. In pyridostigmine and control rabbits intoxicated with soman and treated with oxime + atropine (alone or together with diazepam), HI6 was 35 times more effective than 2-PAM. In contrast 1116 was less effective than 2-PAM against tabun poisoning. In pyridostigmine-pretreated animals exposed to tabun, efficacy was increased more than 3-fold when compare to tabun-challenged animals treated with atropine + H16 alone. Both oximes were highly effective against satin and VX. These findings suggest that Hifi could replace 2-PAM as therapy for nerve agent poisoning because it is superior to 2-PAM against soman, and when used in pyridostigmine-pretreated animals it affords excellent protection against all four nerve agents when used in combination with atropine (alone or together with diazepam) therapy.

  12. PRACTICAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF RESISTANCE ASSEMBLIES MADE WITH WARP KNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan-Pavel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principle that a body to be obtained by sewing the material to provide resistance and the like in the stitching assembly, the experimental study of which developed resistance is compared with the resistance materials to effectively assembled by the assembly line. The experimental values resistance for assemblies were obtained in the testing for resistance to sliding stitch ASTM D 434 using Tinius Olsen HK5T test type machine. The assembly strength was determined for warp knitted fabric and satin charmeuse, made of poly-filamentary wires and mono-filament polyester and polyamide. Resistance assembling is one of the major determinants of the quality of the stitching. It is defined as "the tensile strength or friction." Tenacity stitching seam rupture is the force recorded at its weakest point. Seam abrasion resistance is the number of cycles required friction mesh destruction of seam. It can be said that the strength of the used assembly, the seam 301 is achieved by, in most of the cases, lower resistance knitted studied. In these cases, the primary findings presented, it is clear that the assembly is not appropriate in terms of reliability and maintainability of the product. Such a situation requires a first step to change the type (class of stitch used. Another way to remedy the deficiencies could be using a sewing thread with a lower finesse or strength in grain, especially in the upper loop of wire used in the study-specific.

  13. Fabrication of Electrospun Polyamide-6/Chitosan Nanofibrous Membrane toward Anionic Dyes Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Ghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrous filter media of polyamide-6/chitosan were fabricated by electrospinning onto a satin fabric substrate and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and water contact angle (WCA. Anionic dye removal capability of the filter was investigated for Solophenyl Red 3BL and Polar Yellow GN, respectively, as acidic and direct dyes were investigated with respect to solution parameters (pH and initial dye concentration and membrane parameters (electrospinning time and chitosan ratio through filtration system. Experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM based on five-level central composite design (CCD with four parameters to maximize removal efficiency of the filter media. Moreover, the effect of parameters and their likely interactions on dye removal were investigated by mathematically developed models. The optimum values for solution pH, initial dye concentration, electrospinning time, and chitosan ratio were predicted to be 5, 50 mg/L, 4 hr, 30% and 5, 100 mg/L, 4 hr, 10%, respectively, for achieving 96% and 95% removal of Solophenyl Red 3BL and Polar Yellow GN. Evaluation of the estimation capability of applied models revealed that the models have a good agreement with experimental values. This study demonstrated that polyamide-6/chitosan nanofibrous membrane has an enormous applicable potential in dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  14. Investigation of Effects of Material Architecture on the Elastic Response of a Woven Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2012-01-01

    To develop methods for quantifying the effects of the microstructural variations of woven ceramic matrix composites on the effective properties and response of the material, a research program has been undertaken which is described in this paper. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, CVI SiC/SiC, composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents and collect relevant statistics such as within ply tow spacing. This information was then used to build two dimensional finite element models that approximated the observed section geometry. With the aid of geometrical models generated by the microstructural characterization process, finite element models were generated and analyses were performed to quantify the effects of the microstructure and its variation on the effective stiffness and areas of stress concentration of the material. The results indicated that the geometry and distribution of the porosity appear to have significant effects on the through-thickness modulus. Similarly, stress concentrations on the outer surface of the composite appear to correlate to regions where the transverse tows are separated by a critical amount.

  15. Creep Behavior in Interlaminar Shear of a SiC/SiC Ceramic Composite with a Self-healing Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.; Pope, M. T.

    2014-02-01

    Creep behavior in interlaminar shear of a non-oxide ceramic composite with a multilayered matrix was investigated at 1,200 °C in laboratory air and in steam environment. The composite was produced via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). The composite had an oxidation inhibited matrix, which consisted of alternating layers of silicon carbide and boron carbide and was reinforced with laminated Hi-Nicalon™ fibers woven in a five-harness-satin weave. Fiber preforms had pyrolytic carbon fiber coating with boron carbide overlay applied. The interlaminar shear properties were measured. The creep behavior was examined for interlaminar shear stresses in the 16-22 MPa range. Primary and secondary creep regimes were observed in all tests conducted in air and in steam. In air and in steam, creep run-out defined as 100 h at creep stress was achieved at 16 MPa. Larger creep strains were accumulated in steam. However, creep strain rates and creep lifetimes were only moderately affected by the presence of steam. The retained properties of all specimens that achieved run-out were characterized. Composite microstructure, as well as damage and failure mechanisms were investigated.

  16. Processing, properties and applications of composites using powder-coated epoxy towpreg technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, T. D.; Osborne, P. P.; Thrasher, T. P.; Hartness, J. T.; Johnston, N. J.; Marchello, J. M.; Hugh, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Composite manufacturing using the current prepregging technology of impregnating liquid resin into three-dimensionally reinforced textile preforms can be a costly and difficult operation. Alternatively, using polymer in the solid form, grinding it into a powder, and then depositing it onto a carbon fiber tow prior to making a textile preform is a viable method for the production of complex textile shapes. The powder-coated towpreg yarn is stable, needs no refrigeration, contains no solvents and is easy to process into various woven and braided preforms for later consolidation into composite structures. NASA's Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program has provided an avenue for developing the technology by which advanced resins and their powder-coated preforms may be used in aircraft structures. Two-dimensional braiding and weaving studies using powder-coated towpreg have been conducted to determine the effect of resin content, towpreg size and twist on textile composite properties. Studies have been made to customize the towpreg to reduce friction and bulk factor. Processing parameters have been determined for three epoxy resin systems on eight-harness satin fabric, and on more advanced 3-D preform architectures for the downselected resin system. Processing effects and the resultant mechanical properties of these textile composites will be presented and compared.

  17. Possible novel roles of poly(rC)-binding protein 1 in SH-SY5Y neurocytes: an analysis using a dynamic Bayesian network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Huo; Jian-Tao Liang; Jun-Hua Zou; Lan-Ying Wang; Qi Li; Xiao-MinWang

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Poly(rC)-binding protein 1 (PCBP1) belongs to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family and participates in transcriptional and translational regulation.Previous work has identified transcripts targeted by both knockdown and overexpression of PCBP1 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells using a microarray or ProteomeLabTM protein fractionation 2-dimensions (PF-2D) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.The present study aimed to further determine whether these altered transcripts from major pathways (such as Wnt signaling,TGF-β signaling,cell cycling,and apoptosis) and two other genes,H2AFX and H2BFS (screened by PF-2D),have spatial relationships.[Methods] The genes were studied by qRT-PCR,and dynamic Bayesian network analysis was used to rebuild the coordination network of these transcripts.[Results] PCBP1 controlled the expression or activity of the seven transcripts.Moreover,PCBP1 indirectly regulated MAP2K2,FOS,FST,TP53 and WNT7B through H2AFX or regulated these genes through SAT.In contrast,TP53 and WNT7B are regulated by other genes.[Conclusion]The seven transcripts and PCBP1 are closely associated in a spatial interaction network.

  18. Excess of genomic defects in a woolly mammoth on Wrangel island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2017-01-01

    Woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) populated Siberia, Beringia, and North America during the Pleistocene and early Holocene. Recent breakthroughs in ancient DNA sequencing have allowed for complete genome sequencing for two specimens of woolly mammoths (Palkopoulou et al. 2015). One mammoth specimen is from a mainland population 45,000 years ago when mammoths were plentiful. The second, a 4300 yr old specimen, is derived from an isolated population on Wrangel island where mammoths subsisted with small effective population size more than 43-fold lower than previous populations. These extreme differences in effective population size offer a rare opportunity to test nearly neutral models of genome architecture evolution within a single species. Using these previously published mammoth sequences, we identify deletions, retrogenes, and non-functionalizing point mutations. In the Wrangel island mammoth, we identify a greater number of deletions, a larger proportion of deletions affecting gene sequences, a greater number of candidate retrogenes, and an increased number of premature stop codons. This accumulation of detrimental mutations is consistent with genomic meltdown in response to low effective population sizes in the dwindling mammoth population on Wrangel island. In addition, we observe high rates of loss of olfactory receptors and urinary proteins, either because these loci are non-essential or because they were favored by divergent selective pressures in island environments. Finally, at the locus of FOXQ1 we observe two independent loss-of-function mutations, which would confer a satin coat phenotype in this island woolly mammoth. PMID:28253255

  19. Incorporación de residuos derivados de la fabricación cerámica y del vidrio reciclado en el proceso cerámico integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, F.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The following research work shows the results of the introduction of waste generated by the ceramic industry, such as the calcined clay from fired porcelain of stoneware and raw biscuit, sludge and cleaning water, as well as waste from other sectors like the recycling glass. In this way, it can be obtained a stoneware porcelain slab, engobe-glaze and satin glaze that contains high percentage of recyclable raw materials.

    A través del siguiente trabajo de investigación, se indica los resultados obtenidos de la introducción de residuos generados por el propio sector cerámico, como es la chamota procedente de tiesto cocido de gres porcelánico y tiesto crudo, lodos y agua procedente de las diferentes operaciones de limpieza, así como también residuos procedentes de otros sectores, como ha sido el vidrio procedente de su reciclado, todo ello, para obtener una baldosa ecológica integral, diseñando para ello un engobe y un esmalte con dichos residuos.

  20. Computational modeling of the electromagnetic characteristics of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites with different weave structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A. M.; Douglas, J. F.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRPC) are of great interest in the aerospace and automotive industries due to their exceptional mechanical properties. Carbon fibers are typically woven and inter-laced perpendicularly in warps and wefts to form a carbon fabric that can be embedded in a binding matrix. The warps and wefts can be interlaced in different patterns called weaving structures. The primary weaving structures are the plain, twill, and satin weaves, which give different mechanical composite properties. The goal of this work is to computationally investigate the dependence of CFRPC microwave and terahertz electromagnetic characteristics on weave structure. These bands are good candidates for the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of CFRPC since their wavelengths are comparable to the main weave features. 3D full wave electromagnetic simulations of several different weave models have been performed using a finite element (FEM) simulator, which is able to accurately model the complex weave structure. The computational experiments demonstrate that the reflection of electromagnetic waves from CFRPC depend sensitively on weave structure. The reflection spectra calculated in this work can be used to identify the optimal frequencies for the NDE of each weave structure.

  1. Modeling and characterization of long term material behavior in polymer composites with woven fiber architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas

    The purpose of this research is to develop an analytical tool which, when coupled with accelerated material characterization, is capable of predicting long-term durability of polymers and their composites. Conducting creep test on each composite laminate with different fibers, fiber volume fractions, and weave architectures is impractical. Moreover, in case of thin laminates, accurately characterizing the out-of-plane matrix dominated viscoelastic response is not easily achievable. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to present a multi-scale modeling methodology to simulate the long-term interlaminar properties in polymer matrix woven composites and then predict the critical regions where failure is most likely to occur. A micromechanics approach towards modeling the out-of-plane viscoelastic behavior of a five-harness satin woven-fiber cross-ply composite laminate is presented, taking into consideration the weave architecture and time-dependent effects. Short-term creep tests were performed on neat resin at different test temperatures and stress levels to characterize physical aging of the resin matrix. In addition, creep and recovery experiments were conducted on un-aged resin specimens in order to characterize the pronounced stress-dependent nonlinear viscoelastic response of the PR500 resin. Two-dimensional micromechanics analysis was carried out using a test-bed finite element code, NOVA-3D, including interactions between non-linear material constitutive behavior, geometric nonlinearity, aging and environmental effects.

  2. Malignant renal schwannoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier Sharif

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A nine-year-old male European shorthair cat with rapidly enlarging mass at the left kidney doubted to be malignant was presented. The purpose of this study is to present the clinical, radiological and pathological findings of a primary renal tumor in the cat. Grossly, the mass mostly encapsulated the kidney. Histologically, excisional biopsy showed worrying histological features. A sarcoma-like tumor composed mainly of neoplastic spindle-shaped cells. Neoplastic nodules of aggregations of fusiform cells arranged in multidirectional bundles. Immunohistochemically, several immunohistochemical satins (melan-A, S-100, vimentin, actin, desmin, cytokeratin, neurofilament, melan-A, NSE, synaptophysin, chromogranin, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein GFAP, Collagen IV and CD99 were used to differentially diagnose the mass. The stained neoplastic sections positively tested to S-100, but negative to the other aforementioned immunohistochemical stains. Immunohistochemistry with S-100 antibody staining showed an unusually strong positive reaction throughout the tumor cells. Based on our comparative diagnosis relative to other tumors, in addition to the progressive clinical signs, histopathological and immunohistochemical results, this case was presumptively diagnosis as a malignant schwannoma. According to our investigation of the relevant literature, this study of malignant renal Schwannoma (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a highly rare case not previously characterized in a cat.

  3. La retouche des peintures acryliques en émulsion non vernies : Aquazol 200. Étude des capacités physiques, chimiques et optiques d’un liant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Sautois

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’exécution de retouches satinées à brillantes est une problématique de restauration que pose les peintures acryliques en émulsion non vernies. Ces dernières sont sensibles à de nombreux solvants organiques réduisant fortement le panel d’interventions de restauration envisageable et disqualifiant tous les liants de retouche brillant nécessitant leur emploi. Cette étude évalue les capacités optiques de plusieurs polymères hydrosolubles en vue de leur utilisation pour ces cas spécifiques de retouche. Les capacités optiques, la stabilité et la compatibilité de l’Aquazol 200 avec les peintures acryliques font l’objet de recherches plus poussées.Glossy retouching is one of the restoration problems which occur with unvarnished  acrylic emulsion paintings. Due to the sensitivity to many solvents, every glossy retouching technique has to be avoided because they are not compatible.  These investigations have compared the optical abilities of a few water-soluble polymers mixed with water and pigments. The optical feature, the stability and the compatibility of Aquazol 200 have been more deeply evaluated in a scientific way.  

  4. Characterization of preform permeability and flow behavior for liquid composite molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerlot, Stephen Joseph

    Preform characterization is an important step in the processing of high-performance parts with liquid composite molding. A better understanding of preform compressibility and permeability creates more accurate process models, ultimately leading to high-quality finished composites. Without characterization, mold design and processing parameters are subject to guess-work and ad hoc optimization methods, which can result in poor infusions and inconsistent part quality. In this study, a complex architecture fiber reinforcement was characterized in compaction and permeability for liquid composite molding. Preforms of a four-harness satin carbon fabric were assembled with and without a novel inter-layer tackifier for experimentation. Compaction and permeability were measured to investigate the effects of the tackifier system, debulking, preform layup, and other processing parameters. Permeability and flow behavior was measured through saturated and unsaturated techniques, including investigations of fluid effects and high-flow rate infusions. The tackifier was seen to decrease permeability in both saturated and unsaturated cases, while notably influencing the orientation of first principal permeability. Tackified preforms also displayed a sensitivity to fluid type that non-tackified samples did not. Experimentally derived permeability was also used to generate numerical mold fill simulations of radially injected infusions, which produced favorable results.

  5. Comparison of tensile strength of different carbon fabric reinforced epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Faulstich de Paiva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fabric/epoxy composites are materials used in aeronautical industry to manufacture several components as flaps, aileron, landing-gear doors and others. To evaluate these materials become important to know their mechanical properties, for example, the tensile strength. Tensile tests are usually performed in aeronautical industry to determinate tensile property data for material specifications, quality assurance and structural analysis. For this work, it was manufactured four different laminate families (F155/PW, F155/HS, F584/PW and F584/HS using pre-impregnated materials (prepregs based on F155TM and F584TM epoxy resins reinforced with carbon fiber fabric styles Plain Weave (PW and Eight Harness Satin (8HS. The matrix F155TM code is an epoxy resin type DGEBA (diglycidil ether of bisphenol A that contains a curing agent and the F584TM code is a modified epoxy resin type. The laminates were obtained by handing lay-up process following an appropriate curing cycle in autoclave. The samples were evaluated by tensile tests according to the ASTM D3039. The F584/PW laminates presented the highest values of tensile strength. However, the highest modulus results were determined for the 8HS composite laminates. The correlation of these results emphasizes the importance of the adequate combination of the polymeric matrix and the reinforcement arrangement in the structural composite manufacture. The microscopic analyses of the tested specimens show valid failure modes for composites used in aeronautical industry.

  6. Impact of Material and Architecture Model Parameters on the Failure of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) via the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang C.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that failure of a material is a locally driven event. In the case of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), significant variations in the microstructure of the composite exist and their significance on both deformation and life response need to be assessed. Examples of these variations include changes in the fiber tow shape, tow shifting/nesting and voids within and between tows. In the present work, the effects of many of these architectural parameters and material scatter of woven ceramic composite properties at the macroscale (woven RUC) will be studied to assess their sensitivity. The recently developed Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells methodology is used to determine the overall deformation response, proportional elastic limit (first matrix cracking), and failure under tensile loading conditions. The macroscale responses investigated illustrate the effect of architectural and material parameters on a single RUC representing a five harness satin weave fabric. Results shows that the most critical architectural parameter is weave void shape and content with other parameters being less in severity. Variation of the matrix material properties was also studied to illustrate the influence of the material variability on the overall features of the composite stress-strain response.

  7. Investigations to Model and Analyse the OHC Strength of Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Siddeswarappa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the utilization of hybrid polymer matrix composite materials in many engineering fields has increasedtremendously. The present investigation is devoted on fabric-reinforced hybrid composite laminates with different volumefractions of the constituent materials; epoxy resin, plain-woven glass fabric, and textile satin fabric. Fracture toughness ofa material has immense importance in the determination of the resistance of the material to crack propagation. Hence thisarticle explores the findings of the experimentation on the compressive strength and fracture toughness of fabric-reinforcedlaminates with 0/90O & ± 45O orientation with five notch configurations. The fracture toughness has been found to increasecontinuously with increased volumes of glass fabric and it is less dependent on notch size upto certain limit. Data collectedduring experimentations are validated using analysis of variance (ANOVA technique. Percentage contribution of each parameterwas evaluated using ANOVA technique with fiber content, orientation and notch size as input parameters, while theoutput parameter being the OHC strength of the laminate

  8. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  9. Influence of the Geometric Parameters on the Mechanical Behaviour of Fabric Reinforced Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, Andrei; Taranu, Nicolae; Bejan, Liliana

    2016-10-01

    A polymer fabric reinforced composite is a high performance material, which combines strength of the fibres with the flexibility and ductility of the matrix. For a better drapeability, the tows of fibres are interleaved, resulting the woven fabric, used as reinforcement. The complex geometric shape of the fabric is of paramount importance in establishing the deformability of the textile reinforced composite laminates. In this paper, an approach based on Classical Lamination Theory ( CLT), combined with Finite Element Methods ( FEM), using Failure Analysis and Internal Load Redistribution, is utilised, in order to compare the behaviour of the material under specific loads. The main goal is to analyse the deformability of certain types of textile reinforced composite laminates, using carbon fibre satin as reinforcement and epoxy resin as matrix. This is accomplished by studying the variation of the in-plane strains, given the fluctuation of several geometric parameters, namely the width of the reinforcing tow, the gap between two consecutive tows, the angle of laminae in a multi-layered configuration and the tows fibre volume fraction.

  10. Effect of thermal cycling of SiC{sub f}/SiC composites on their mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udayakumar, A., E-mail: audayk@yahoo.com [Materials Science Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore-560 017 (India); Stalin, M.; Abhayalakshmi, M.B.; Hariharan, Ramya [Materials Science Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore-560 017 (India); Balasubramanian, M., E-mail: mbala@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600 036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    SiC{sub f}/SiC composites are class of high temperature structural materials being developed for use in nuclear fusion and fission reactor systems because of their superior high temperature mechanical properties, low radiation damage and low induced radioactivity. Two types of 2D SiC{sub f}/SiC composites were made through isothermal and isobaric chemical vapor infiltration process using eight harness satin-woven ceramic-grades Nicalon™ fibers with boron nitride (BN) interface, namely: one with lower interface thickness and a second type with higher interface thickness. The BN interface was applied to the fiber prior to SiC matrix addition to modify the interfacial bond strength leading to better toughness and improved oxidation resistance. The density achieved was around 2.6 g/cc. The composite specimens were subjected to thermal cycling treatment using an in-house furnace. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, fracture toughness and interfacial bond strength were also studied for all the composites before and after thermal cycling. It is seen from the results that both composites withstood thermal shocks and thermal cycling treatment. It was also concluded from the present work that good balance between load transfer and crack arresting was established.

  11. Tension-Compression Fatigue of a Nextel™720/alumina Composite at 1200 °C in Air and in Steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, R. L.; Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    Tension-compression fatigue behavior of an oxide-oxide ceramic-matrix composite was investigated at 1200 °C in air and in steam. The composite is comprised of an alumina matrix reinforced with Nextel™720 alumina-mullite fibers woven in an eight harness satin weave (8HSW). The composite has no interface between the fiber and matrix, and relies on the porous matrix for flaw tolerance. Tension-compression fatigue behavior was studied for cyclical stresses ranging from 60 to 120 MPa at a frequency of 1.0 Hz. The R ratio (minimum stress to maximum stress) was -1.0. Fatigue run-out was defined as 105 cycles and was achieved at 80 MPa in air and at 70 MPa in steam. Steam reduced cyclic lives by an order of magnitude. Specimens that achieved fatigue run-out were subjected to tensile tests to failure to characterize the retained tensile properties. Specimens subjected to prior cyclic loading in air retained 100 % of their tensile strength. The steam environment severely degraded tensile properties. Tension-compression cyclic loading was considerably more damaging than tension-tension cyclic loading. Composite microstructure, as well as damage and failure mechanisms were investigated.

  12. Creep behavior in interlaminar shear of a Hi-Nicalon™/SiC–B{sub 4}C composite at 1200 °C in air and in steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles-Wrenn, M.B., E-mail: marina.ruggles-wrenn@afit.edu; Pope, M.T.; Zens, T.W.

    2014-07-29

    Creep behavior in interlaminar shear of a non-oxide ceramic composite with a multilayered matrix was investigated at 1200 °C in laboratory air and in steam environment. The composite was produced via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). The composite had an oxidation inhibited matrix, which consisted of alternating layers of silicon carbide and boron carbide and was reinforced with laminated Hi-Nicalon™ fibers woven in a five-harness-satin weave. Fiber preforms had pyrolytic carbon fiber coating with boron carbon overlay applied. The interlaminar shear properties were measured. The creep behavior was examined for interlaminar shear stresses in the 16–22 MPa range. Primary and secondary creep regimes were observed in all tests conducted in air and in steam. In air and in steam, creep run-out defined as 100 h at creep stress was achieved at 16 MPa. Similar creep strains were accumulated in air and in steam. Furthermore, creep strain rates and creep lifetimes were only moderately affected by the presence of steam. The retained properties of all specimens that achieved run-out were characterized. Composite microstructure, as well as damage and failure mechanisms were investigated. The tested specimens were also examined using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). Analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed significant surface oxidation, but only trace amounts of boron and carbon. Cross sectional analysis showed increasing boron concentration in the specimen interior.

  13. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.

  14. Destruction of methylphosphonic acid in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale double wall reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bambang Veriansyah; Eun-Seok Song; Jae-Duck Kim

    2011-01-01

    The destruction of methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a final product by hydrolysis/neutralization of organophosphorus agents such as satin and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothionate), was investigated in a a bench-scale, continuous concentric vertical double wall reactor under supercritical water oxidation condition. The experiments were conducted at a temperature range of 450-600~C and a fixed pressure of 25 MPa. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidant. The destruction efficiency (DE) was monitored by analyzing total organic carbon (TOC) and MPA concentrations using ion chromatography on the liquid effluent samples. The results showed that the DE of MPA up to 99.999% was achieved at a reaction temperature of 600~C, oxygen concentration of 113% storichiometric requirement, and reactor residence time of 8 sec. On the basis of the data derived from experiments, a global kinetic rate equation for the DE of MPA and DE of TOC were developed by nonlinear regression analysis. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data.

  15. Creep behavior in interlaminar shear of a Hi-NicalonTM/ SiC-B4C composite at 1200∘C in air and in steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggles-Wrenn Marina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep behavior in interlaminar shear of a non-oxide ceramic composite with a multilayered matrix was investigated at 1200∘C in laboratory air and in steam environment. The composite was produced via chemical vapor infiltration (CVI. The composite had an oxidation inhibited matrix, which consisted of alternating layers of silicon carbide and boron carbide and was reinforced with laminated Hi-NicalonTM fibers woven in a five-harness-satin weave. Fiber preforms had pyrolytic carbon fiber coating with boron carbon overlay applied. The interlaminar shear properties were measured. The creep behavior was examined for interlaminar shear stresses in the 16–22 MPa range. Primary and secondary creep regimes were observed in all tests conducted in air and in steam. In air and in steam, creep run-out defined as 100 h at creep stress was achieved at 16 MPa. Similar creep strains were accumulated in air and in steam. Furthermore, creep strain rates and creep lifetimes were only moderately affected by the presence of steam. The retained properties of all specimens that achieved run-out were characterized. Composite microstructure, as well as damage and failure mechanisms were investigated. The tested specimens were also examined using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS. Analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed significant surface oxidation, but only trace amounts of boron and carbon. Cross sectional analysis showed increasing boron concentration in the specimen interior.

  16. The Inlfuence of the Artistic Effect of Fabric Weave on the Soil of Shaanxi Weaving%织物组织对陕西土织布的艺术效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爱香; 李晓艳

    2015-01-01

    陕西土织布一般是由三原组织织成。通过分析三原组织中平纹组织、斜纹组织和缎纹组织的最基本组织结构以及变化组织结构,采用对比分析的方法研究了陕西土织布艺术的表现,认识到这3种织物组织的优缺点,根据这些它们自身的特点,会对土织布图案有一定的局限性,使设计者在设计土织布图案时有所参考,对设计出土织布图案的最后效果有直接的认知,设计与织造能联系上,以及在实践中对土织布艺术效果的影响。%Shaanxi Province soil fabric is a hand woven cloth in Shaanxi Guanzhong area, it is generally made of Sanyuan weave. In this paper, through the analysis of the most fundamental organizational structure of plain weave, twill weave and satin weave, and their changes in organizational structure, by using the method of comparative analysis on Shaanxi soil weaving art performance, it realized the advantages and disadvantages of these three kinds of fabric structure, according to the characteristics of their own, they will have certain limitation on the soil weaving pattern, so that designers have the reference in the design of soil weaving pattern, and have a direct effect on the cognition of final weaving pattern design, and a connection between design and fabric, and influence on soil weaving artistic effect in practice.

  17. Fat segmentation on chest CT images via fuzzy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Wu, Caiyun; Pednekar, Gargi; Subramanian, Janani Rajan; Lederer, David J.; Christie, Jason; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of fat throughout the body is vital for the study of many diseases. In the thorax, it is important for lung transplant candidates since obesity and being underweight are contraindications to lung transplantation given their associations with increased mortality. Common approaches for thoracic fat segmentation are all interactive in nature, requiring significant manual effort to draw the interfaces between fat and muscle with low efficiency and questionable repeatability. The goal of this paper is to explore a practical way for the segmentation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) components of chest fat based on a recently developed body-wide automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology. The AAR approach involves 3 main steps: building a fuzzy anatomy model of the body region involving all its major representative objects, recognizing objects in any given test image, and delineating the objects. We made several modifications to these steps to develop an effective solution to delineate SAT/VAT components of fat. Two new objects representing interfaces of SAT and VAT regions with other tissues, SatIn and VatIn are defined, rather than using directly the SAT and VAT components as objects for constructing the models. A hierarchical arrangement of these new and other reference objects is built to facilitate their recognition in the hierarchical order. Subsequently, accurate delineations of the SAT/VAT components are derived from these objects. Unenhanced CT images from 40 lung transplant candidates were utilized in experimentally evaluating this new strategy. Mean object location error achieved was about 2 voxels and delineation error in terms of false positive and false negative volume fractions were, respectively, 0.07 and 0.1 for SAT and 0.04 and 0.2 for VAT.

  18. Arrows of Desire: Dance and Power in Transnational Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Telmissany

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s'intéresse à la pratique de danse orientale en tant qu'expression de la joie et de la puissance féminine célébrée par les réalisateurs de la diaspora arabe et nord-africaine. Associée à l'émancipation de la femme plutôt qu'à son déclin moral, la danse orientale est désormais perçue comme un symbole de la prise de parole subalterne, un site de solidarité féminine et un outil de libération sexuelle. La réhabilitation de la danse orientale dans le cinéma transnational permet de réfléchir sur les dispositifs de désir et de pouvoir comme les principes immanents permettant la réorganisation des forces dans la société. En utilisant le concept des machines désirantes de Deleuze et Guattari, cet article tente d'élucider le rapport problématique entre la danse, le désir et le pouvoir dans quatre films de réalisateurs Nord-Africains vivant en France: Satin Rouge [Raja Amari, Tunisie, 2002], Viva Laldjérie et Délice Paloma [Nadir Moknèche, Algérie, 2004 et 2007], et Whatever Lola Wants [Nabil Ayouch, Maroc, 2007 ; cf. note de l’auteur.

  19. New design of textile light diffusers for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Cédric; Mordon, Serge R; Lesage, Jean Claude; Koncar, Vladan

    2013-04-01

    A homogeneous and reproducible fluence delivery rate during clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) plays a determinant role in preventing under- or overtreatment. PDT applied in dermatology has been carried out with a wide variety of light sources delivering a broad range of more or less adapted light doses. Due to the complexities of the human anatomy, these light sources do not in fact deliver a uniform light distribution to the skin. Therefore, the development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of plastic optical fiber (POF) into textile structures could offer an interesting alternative. In this article, a textile light diffuser (TLD) has been developed using POF and Polyester yarns. Predetermined POF macrobending leads to side emission of light when the critical angle is exceeded. Therefore, a specific pattern based on different satin weaves has been developed in order to improve light emission homogeneity and to correct the decrease of side emitted radiation intensity along POF. The prototyped fabrics (approximately 100 cm(2): 5×20 cm) were woven using a hand loom, then both ends of the POF were coupled to a laser diode (5 W, 635 nm). The fluence rate (mW/ cm(2)) and the homogeneity of light delivery by the TLD were evaluated. Temperature evolution, as a function of time, was controlled with an infrared thermographic camera. When using a power source of 5 W, the fluence rate of the TLD was 18±2.5 mw/cm(2). Due to the high efficiency of the TLD, the optical losses were very low. The TLD temperature elevation was 0.6 °C after 10 min of illumination. Our TLD meets the basic requirements for PDT: homogeneous light distribution and flexibility. It also proves that large (500 cm(2)) textile light diffusers adapted to skin, but also to peritoneal or pleural cavity, PDTs can be easily produced by textile manufacturing processes.

  20. Karakterisasi Morfometrik dan Jarak Genetik Rumpun-Rumpun Kelinci di Jawa Barat (MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DISTANCE OF RABBIT BREEDS IN WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Dedi Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess morphometric characteristics, breeds relationship andvariables that distinguished among breeds of rabbits raised in West Java. This research used 419 rabbitsconsisted of Angora (AG, Dutch (DT, Flemish Giant (FG, Lop (LP, Netherland Dwarf (ND, Composite(PX, Rex (RX, Satin (ST, Reza (XA and New Zealand White (ZW. Head length (PK, head width (LK, earlength (PTL, ear width (LTL, chest width (LD, chest depth (DD, chest circumference (LKD, body length(PB , hips width (LP, length of the scapula bone (PS, humerus length (PH, radius-ulna length (PRU,femur length (PF and tibia length (PT were observed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance,discriminant and canonical analysis using SAS program ver. 9.1.3 and MEGA5 program to get theconstruction of phenogram tree. FG and ST rabbits were generally larger in size and shape than the otherrabbits breeds, while ND rabbit had the smallest morphological size than other rabbits breeds, except forLK, LD and DD. Results of discriminant analysis showed that LP, RX, ND and XA had a high similarityvalue, otherwise DT, FG, ST, PX, AG and ZW had no the value. The closest genetic distance matrix valueindicated by PX-ZW breeds (1,53 and the farthest genetic distance indicated by FG-ND breeds (6,62.Phenogram tree construction showed that the breeds rabbits divided into five clusters, namely cluster ND,DT; ST clusters; FG cluster; cluster LP, PX, ZW and cluster AG, XA, RX. Phenotypic size that had stronginfluence on the differentiation of rabbit breeds were PTL, LTL, PRU, PH and PF on the canonical 1 alsoPT and PS on canonical 2.

  1. Curing kinetics and thermomechanical properties of latent epoxy/carbon fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Vacche, S.; Michaud, V.; Demierre, M.; Bourban, P.-E.; Månson, J.-A. E.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy and a latent hardener, dicyandiamide (DICY), as well as carbon fiber (CF) composites based on them, were prepared with three commercial accelerators: a methylene bis (phenyl dimethyl urea), a cycloaliphatic substituted urea, and a modified polyamine. The curing kinetics of the three DGEBA/DICY/accelerator systems were investigated by chemorheology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in isothermal and over temperature change conditions. Differences in the reaction onset temperature, and in the glass transition temperature (Tg) were highlighted. For curing of thick resin samples, a slow curing cycle at the lowest possible temperature was used, followed by high temperature (160 - 180 °C) post-curing. Indeed, fast curing at higher temperatures caused the formation of hot spots and led to local burning of the samples. The obtained thermomechanical properties, assessed by ultimate tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in single cantilever configuration, were all in the expected range for epoxy resins, with tensile moduli close to 3 GPa and Tg > 140 °C. The longterm stability of these resins at room temperature was verified by DSC. Composite samples were prepared by hand lay-up by manually impregnating four layers of 5-harness satin CF textile, and curing in vacuum bag. Impregnation quality and void content were assessed by optical microscopy. The flexural properties of the post-cured composites were assessed by three-point bending test at room temperature and showed no relevant differences, all composites having bending moduli of 45 - 50 GPa. Finally, composites cured with a faster high temperature curing cycle (20 min at 140 °C) were prepared with the DGEBA/DICY/ methylene bis (phenyl dimethyl urea) system, obtaining similar properties as with the slower curing cycle, showing that the prepreg system allowed more flexibility in terms of curing cycle than the bulk resin

  2. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  3. Fatigue of a 3D Orthogonal Non-crimp Woven Polymer Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. P.; Ruggles-Wrenn, M. B.

    2017-02-01

    Tension-tension fatigue behavior of two polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was studied at elevated temperature. The two PMCs consist of the NRPE polyimide matrix reinforced with carbon fibers, but have different fiber architectures: the 3D PMC is a singly-ply non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite and the 2D PMC, a laminated composite reinforced with 15 plies of an eight harness satin weave (8HSW) fabric. In order to assess the performance and suitability of the two composites for use in aerospace components designed to contain high-temperature environments, mechanical tests were performed under temperature conditions simulating the actual operating conditions. In all elevated temperature tests performed in this work, one side of the test specimen was at 329 °C while the other side was open to ambient laboratory air. The tensile stress-strain behavior of the two composites was investigated and the tensile properties measured for both on-axis (0/90) and off-axis (±45) fiber orientations. Elevated temperature had little effect on the on-axis tensile properties of the two composites. The off-axis tensile strength of both PMCs decreased slightly at elevated temperature. Tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted at elevated temperature at a frequency of 1.0 Hz with a ratio of minimum stress to maximum stress of R = 0.05. Fatigue run-out was defined as 2 × 105 cycles. Both strain accumulation and modulus evolution during cycling were analyzed for each fatigue test. The laminated 2D PMC exhibited better fatigue resistance than the 3D composite. Specimens that achieved fatigue run-out were subjected to tensile tests to failure to characterize the retained tensile properties. Post-test examination under optical microscope revealed severe delamination in the laminated 2D PMC. The non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave composite offered improved delamination resistance.

  4. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  5. Hygrothermal modeling and testing of polymers and polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiqun

    2000-10-01

    The dissertation, consisting of four papers, presents the results of the research investigation on environmental effects on polymers and polymer matrix composites. Hygrothermal models were developed that would allow characterization of non-Fickian diffusion coefficients from moisture weight gain data. Hygrothermal testing was also conducted to provide the necessary data for characterizing of model coefficients and model verification. In part 1, a methodology is proposed that would allow characterization of non-Fickian diffusion coefficients from moisture weight gain data for a polymer adhesive below its Tg. Subsequently, these diffusion coefficients are used for predicting moisture concentration profiles through the thickness of a polymer. In part 2, a modeling methodology based on irreversible thermodynamics applied within the framework of composite macro-mechanics is presented, that would allow characterization of non-Fickian diffusion coefficients from moisture weight gain data for laminated composites with distributed uniaxial damage. Comparisons with test data for a 5-harness satin textile composite with uniaxial micro-cracks are provided for model verifications. In part 3, the same modeling methodology based on irreversible thermodynamics is extended to the case of a bi-axially damaged laminate. The model allows characterization of nonFickian diffusion coefficients as well as moisture saturation level from moisture weight gain data for laminates with pre-existing damage. Comparisons with test data for a bi-axially damaged Graphite/Epoxy woven composite are provided for model verifications. Finally, in part 4, hygrothermal tests conducted on AS4/PR500 5HS textile composite laminates are summarized. The objectives of the hygrothermal tests are to determine the diffusivity and maximum moisture content of the laminate.

  6. Approaches to influencing food choice across the age groups: from children to the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Julian G; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Halford, Jason C G

    2015-05-01

    Nutrition across the lifespan encompasses both preventative and treatment options to maintain health and vitality. This review will focus on the challenge of overconsumption of energy relative to energy expenditure and the consequent development of overweight and obesity, since they are responsible for much of the burden of chronic disease in the developed world. Understanding the mechanisms of hunger and satiety and how particular foodstuffs and nutrients affect appetite and motivation to eat is important for evidence-based interventions to achieve weight control and design of community-wide dietary strategies that reach across the lifespan. Food reformulation for appetite control and weight management requires a knowledge of the mechanisms of hunger and satiety, how food interacts with peripheral and central regulatory systems, and how these interactions change across the lifecourse, allied to the technical capability to generate, evaluate and develop new ingredients and foods with enhanced biological potency based on these mechanisms. Two European Union-funded research projects, Full4Health and SATIN, are adopting these complementary approaches. These research projects straddle the sometimes conflicted ground between justifiable public health concerns on the one hand and the food and drink industry on the other. These multi-disciplinary projects pull together expertise in nutrition, neuroimaging, psychology and food technology that combines with food industry partners to maximise expected impact of the research. Better knowledge of mechanisms regulating hunger/satiety will lead to evidence base for preventive strategies for the European population, to reduction of chronic disease burden and to increased competitiveness of European food industry through the development of new food products.

  7. Effects of Fiber Reinforcement Architecture on the Hygrothermal-Mechanical Performance of Polyimide Matrix Composites for Aeropropulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, E. Eugene; Thesken, John C.; Sutter, James K.; Chuang, Kathy; Juhas, John; Veverka, Adrienne; Inghram, Linda; Papadopoulos, Demetrios; Burke, Chris; Scheiman, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A lightweight sandwich support structure, for the combustor chamber of a new generation liquid propellant rocket engine, was designed and fabricated using a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facesheet on a Ti honeycomb core. The PMC facesheet consisted of high stiffness carbon fiber, M40JB, and high temperature Polyimides, such as PMR-II-50 and HFPE-II-52. Six different fiber architectures; four harness satin (4HS) woven fabric, uni-tape, woven-uni hybrid, stitched woven fabric, stitched uni-tape and triaxial braided structures have been investigated for optimum stiffness-thickness-weight-hygrothermal performance design criteria for the hygrothermal-mechanical propulsion service exposure conditions including rapid heating up to 200 F/sec, maximum operating temperature of 600 F, internal pressure up to 100 psi. One of the specific objectives in this study is to improve composite blistering resistance in z-direction at minimum expense of in-plane mechanical properties. An extensive property-performance database including dry-wet mechanical properties at various temperatures, thermal-physical properties, such as blistering onset condition was generated for fiber architecture down-selection and design guidelines. Various optimized process methods such as vacuum bag compression molding, solvent assistant resin transfer molding (SaRTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and autoclaving were utilized for PMC panel fabrication depending on the architecture type. In the case of stitched woven fabric architecture, the stitch pattern in terms of stitch density and yarn size was optimized based on both in-plane mechanical properties and blistering performance. Potential reduction of the in-plane properties transverse to the line of stitching was also evaluated. Efforts have been made to correlate the experimental results with theoretical micro-mechanics predictions. Changes in deformation mechanism and failure sequences in terms of fiber architecture will be discussed.

  8. New design of textile light diffusers for photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.cochrane@ensait.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ENSAIT, GEMTEX, F-59100 Roubaix (France); Mordon, Serge R.; Lesage, Jean Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM U 703, Lille University Hospital — CHRU (France); Koncar, Vladan [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ENSAIT, GEMTEX, F-59100 Roubaix (France)

    2013-04-01

    A homogeneous and reproducible fluence delivery rate during clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) plays a determinant role in preventing under- or overtreatment. PDT applied in dermatology has been carried out with a wide variety of light sources delivering a broad range of more or less adapted light doses. Due to the complexities of the human anatomy, these light sources do not in fact deliver a uniform light distribution to the skin. Therefore, the development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of plastic optical fiber (POF) into textile structures could offer an interesting alternative. In this article, a textile light diffuser (TLD) has been developed using POF and Polyester yarns. Predetermined POF macrobending leads to side emission of light when the critical angle is exceeded. Therefore, a specific pattern based on different satin weaves has been developed in order to improve light emission homogeneity and to correct the decrease of side emitted radiation intensity along POF. The prototyped fabrics (approximately 100 cm{sup 2}: 5 × 20 cm) were woven using a hand loom, then both ends of the POF were coupled to a laser diode (5 W, 635 nm). The fluence rate (mW/cm{sup 2}) and the homogeneity of light delivery by the TLD were evaluated. Temperature evolution, as a function of time, was controlled with an infrared thermographic camera. When using a power source of 5 W, the fluence rate of the TLD was 18 ± 2.5 mw/cm{sup 2}. Due to the high efficiency of the TLD, the optical losses were very low. The TLD temperature elevation was 0.6 °C after 10 min of illumination. Our TLD meets the basic requirements for PDT: homogeneous light distribution and flexibility. It also proves that large (500 cm{sup 2}) textile light diffusers adapted to skin, but also to peritoneal or pleural cavity, PDTs can be easily produced by textile manufacturing processes.

  9. Evaluation of Solid Modeling Software for Finite Element Analysis of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Mital, Subodh; Lang, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Three computer programs, used for the purpose of generating 3-D finite element models of the Repeating Unit Cell (RUC) of a textile, were examined for suitability to model woven Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). The programs evaluated were the open-source available TexGen, the commercially available WiseTex, and the proprietary Composite Material Evaluator (COMATE). A five-harness-satin (5HS) weave for a melt-infiltrated (MI) silicon carbide matrix and silicon carbide fiber was selected as an example problem and the programs were tested for their ability to generate a finite element model of the RUC. The programs were also evaluated for ease-of-use and capability, particularly for the capability to introduce various defect types such as porosity, ply shifting, and nesting of a laminate. Overall, it was found that TexGen and WiseTex were useful for generating solid models of the tow geometry; however, there was a lack of consistency in generating well-conditioned finite element meshes of the tows and matrix. TexGen and WiseTex were both capable of allowing collective and individual shifting of tows within a ply and WiseTex also had a ply nesting capability. TexGen and WiseTex were sufficiently userfriendly and both included a Graphical User Interface (GUI). COMATE was satisfactory in generating a 5HS finite element mesh of an idealized weave geometry but COMATE lacked a GUI and was limited to only 5HS and 8HS weaves compared to the larger amount of weave selections available with TexGen and WiseTex.

  10. Origin and diagenetic evolution of gypsum and microbialitic carbonates in the Late Sag of the Namibe Basin (SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Gindre-Chanu; Edoardo, Perri; Ian, Sharp R.; Peacock, D. C. P.; Roger, Swart; Ragnar, Poulsen; Hercinda, Ferreira; Vladimir, Machado

    2016-08-01

    Ephemeral evaporitic conditions developed within the uppermost part of the transgressive Late Sag sequence in the Namibe Basin (SW Angola), leading to the formation of extensive centimetre- to metre-thick sulphate-bearing deposits and correlative microbialitic carbonates rich in pseudomorphs after evaporite crystals. The onshore pre-salt beds examined in this study are located up to 25 m underneath the major mid-Aptian evaporitic succession, which is typified at the outcrop by gypsiferous Bambata Formation and in the subsurface by the halite-dominated Loeme Formation. Carbonate-evaporite cycles mostly occur at the top of metre-thick regressive parasequences, which progressively onlap and overstep landward the former faulted (rift) topography, or fill major pre-salt palaeo-valleys. The sulphate beds are made up of alabastrine gypsum associated with embedded botryoidal nodules, dissolution-related gypsum breccia, and are cross-cut by thin satin-spar gypsum veins. Nodular and fine-grained fabrics are interpreted as being diagenetic gypsum deposits resulting from the dissolution and recrystallisation of former depositional subaqueous sulphates, whereas gypsum veins and breccia result from telogenetic processes. The carbonates display a broader diversity of facies, characterised by rapid lateral variations along strike. Thin dolomitic and calcitic bacterial-mediated filamentous microbialitic boundstones enclose a broad variety of evaporite pseudomorphs and can pass laterally over a few metres into sulphate beds. Dissolution-related depositional breccias are also common and indicate early dissolution of former evaporite layers embedded within the microbialites. Sulphate and carbonate units are interpreted as being concomitantly deposited along a tide-dominated coastal supra- to intertidal- sabkha and constitute high-frequency hypersaline precursor events, prior to the accumulation of the giant saline mid-Aptian Bambata and Loeme Formations. Petrographic and geochemical

  11. Time and dose-dependent deformation of SiC/SiC composites With off-axis fiber alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The use of SiC-reinforced composites for fusion reactors or other nuclear applications will not be restricted to 0/90 aligned fiber architecture in all cases. It is important to understand the role of fiber orientation in the strength, toughness, and time-dependent properties for such materials. The use of high-strength ceramic fibers for composites is predicated on optimizing the strength, fracture resistance, and retained strength in aggressive environments, which argues for the best use of fiber strengths, namely on-axis loading for full load transfer to the high-strength fibers. Relatively few researchers have systematically studied the effects of fiber orientation on composite properties, and none have, to the best of our knowledge, performed any time-dependent testing of composites with off-axis fiber orientations. We have performed mechanical property tests on Hi-Nicalon Type-S fiber SiC/SiC composites as a function of fiber orientation. The mechanical testing consisted of 4- point bend strength, 4-point single-edge notched bend fracture toughness, and 4-point bend slow crack growth testing on two composite architectures from ambient to 1600 deg. C (1873 K). The two composite materials that were tested included a {+-}55 deg.-braided-weave composite with Type-S fibers inclined at 55 deg. to the principal composite axes to simulate a tubular-weave architecture and a Type-S 0/90 satin-weave composite as a reference material. A time-dependent fiber-bridging model that accounts for fiber orientation has been developed and its predictions are compared to the strength and crack growth data. The level of agreement suggests that existing models of off-axis bridging fibers are adequate for fusion reactor designs using SiC/SiC composites in off-axis orientations. However, the strength data suggests that off-axis orientations are much weaker than aligned fiber orientations and, thus, care must be taken to ensure that some fraction of

  12. The relation between serum lipids and lutein and zeaxanthin in the serum and retina: results from cross-sectional, case-control and case study designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzi Lisa M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xanthophyll carotenoids lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z are found in and around the macula of the primate retina, where they are termed macular pigment (MP. Dietary L and Z are absorbed with fat in the gut and transported on lipoproteins to the retina. Both MP and serum lipoproteins have been related to risk for neurodegenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD. L and Z are carried on both HDL (related to reduced risk of AMD and LDL (related to increased risk. The purpose of this set of studies was to analyze the relation between L and Z in the serum and retina with the circulating lipid profile. Methods In all experiments, lipoproteins were measured enzymatically from plasma, and MP optical density (MPOD was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Experiment 1: Relations between serum L and Z, MPOD and lipoprotein levels. 108 young, healthy subjects (M = 23.2, SD = 4.12 years participated. Lipoprotein levels and MPOD were measured. In a subset of 66 participants, serum L and Z levels were also measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Experiment 2: Relations between lipoprotein levels and MPOD in statin users. 20 subjects (M = 58.05, SD = 11.08 years taking statin medication and 20 subjects (M = 57.95, SD = 11.03 years not taking satin were recruited for participation. MPOD and lipoprotein levels were measured. Experiment 3: lowering lipoprotein levels to impact MPOD. One individual (aged 41 years with high MP density adhered first to an atorvastatin regimen, then, after a wash-out period, to a rosuvastatin regimen. Results Experiment 1: HDL were significantly (p r = 0.33, to serum L (r = 0.36 and to serum Z (r = 0.26. MPOD was also significantly related to total cholesterol (r = 0.19. Experiment 2: MPOD was not lower in statin users when compared to matched non-statin users, but MPOD decreased significantly with increased duration of statin use (r = −0

  13. Studies on Chromosome Karyotype and Polyploid Induction of Vegetable Jute%叶用黄麻染色体核型分析和多倍体诱导研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆红; 曾勇军; 范淑英; 邓启刚; 袁亮

    2013-01-01

    采用常规压片法可获得分散良好,形态清晰的黄麻有丝分裂中期染色体.对其进行核型分析后表明,黄麻的染色体数目为2n=14;全组染色体的总长度为21.36 μm,平均长度3.05 μm;臂比均介于1~1.7,其染色体均属于中着丝粒染色体,且第四对染色体具有一对随体,核型公式为2n=2x=14=12m+ 2m(SAT).此外,经不同浓度秋水仙素溶液浸泡后的黄麻种子,其萌发的时间会随溶液浓度的增加而延后,常规压片后可观察到清晰的同源三倍体、四倍体和六倍体.%The well-spread and clear mitotic metaphase chromosomes of jute were obtained.The karyotype analysis showed that jute was diploid (2n =2x =14).The total length of jute' s chromosome was 21.36 μm and the average length was 3.05 μm.The arm ratios were all between 1 ~ 1.7,meaning that their chromosomes belonged to the centromere of chromosomes,and the fourth pair of chromosomes had a pair of accompanying bodies.The karyotype formula was 2n =2x =14 =12m + 2m (SAT).In addition,the germination time of the jute seeds soaked with different concentrations of colchicine solution,would be delayed with the concentration increased.The autotetraploid and hexaploid of the jute could be observed when treated with 0.1% colchicine solution.

  14. Self-sealing of thermal fatigue and mechanical damage in fiber-reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Jericho L.

    Fiber reinforced composite tanks provide a promising method of storage for liquid oxygen and hydrogen for aerospace applications. The inherent thermal fatigue of these vessels leads to the formation of microcracks, which allow gas phase leakage across the tank walls. In this dissertation, self-healing functionality is imparted to a structural composite to effectively seal microcracks induced by both mechanical and thermal loading cycles. Two different microencapsulated healing chemistries are investigated in woven glass fiber/epoxy and uni-weave carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Self-healing of mechanically induced damage was first studied in a room temperature cured plain weave E-glass/epoxy composite with encapsulated dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) monomer and wax protected Grubbs' catalyst healing components. A controlled amount of microcracking was introduced through cyclic indentation of opposing surfaces of the composite. The resulting damage zone was proportional to the indentation load. Healing was assessed through the use of a pressure cell apparatus to detect nitrogen flow through the thickness direction of the damaged composite. Successful healing resulted in a perfect seal, with no measurable gas flow. The effect of DCPD microcapsule size (51 microm and 18 microm) and concentration (0--12.2 wt%) on the self-sealing ability was investigated. Composite specimens with 6.5 wt% 51 microm capsules sealed 67% of the time, compared to 13% for the control panels without healing components. A thermally stable, dual microcapsule healing chemistry comprised of silanol terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) plus a crosslinking agent and a tin catalyst was employed to allow higher composite processing temperatures. The microcapsules were incorporated into a satin weave E-glass fiber/epoxy composite processed at 120°C to yield a glass transition temperature of 127°C. Self-sealing ability after mechanical damage was assessed for different microcapsule sizees (25 microm and 42

  15. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  16. La pesca artesanal en las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina (Caribe Colombiano: distribución espacial y temporal de los recursos capturados con línea de mano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Martínez Adriana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis para evaluar la pesca artesanal de las islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina, caribe colombiano, y establecer la dinámica de la pesquería con énfasis en aspectos ecológicos de la comunidad íctica que se extrae con el método de línea de mano. En ocho sitios de desembarco de productos pesqueros en las islas: Mountain, Santa Catalina, Free Town, Old Town, Lazy Hill, South West, Bottom House, y Rocky Point y mediante una serie de formatos se registró entre otros: la actividad diaria por método de pesca, la composición por especie de los desembarcos, sitios de pesca. A partir de esta información se cuantificaron 51 UEPS y se estimó un año pesquero de 303 días (promedio mensual 25 días, el esfuerzo anual como total de faenas fue de 2.888, de las cuales el 57% fueron realizadas utilizando línea de mano, buceo 40% y nasas 3%. Se muestreo el 23% (673 de las faenas estimadas en el 2001 (19% de buceo, 27% de línea de mano y 22% nasas. Se identificaron 96 especies correspondientes a 54 géneros, 28 familias, cuatro clases, tres Phylla. La captura total estimada para el año 2001 fue de 67.888 kg, de los cuales el 66% correspondió a línea de mano, seguido del buceo 26% y las nasas 8%. La composición de las especies capturadas mediante línea de mano arrojó que los demersales, 36 especies de peces, representaran el 47% (21.269 kg de la CT estimada, siendo las especies con mayor captura estimada el brim Etelis oculatus (6.482 kg, el "yellow eye" Lutjanus vivanus (2.435 kg y el satin Pristipomoides macrophthalmus (1.395 kg; el 37% (1.6467 kg fueron recursos pelágicos -15 especies-, siendo aquellas con mayor captura estimada el bonito Thunnus atlanticus (5.839 kg, la barra Sphyraena barracuda (4.240 kg y el king fish Acanthocybium solandri (4.138 kg; el 16% (7.119 kg lo constituyeron recursos demerso-pelágicos, 11 especies, las de mayor captura estimada fueron el "yellow tail" Ocyurus chrysurus (4.236 kg y el