WorldWideScience

Sample records for satiation selectively influence

  1. Effect of alginate on satiation, appetite, gastric function, and selected gut satiety hormones in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T; Vázquez-Roque, María I; Camilleri, Michael; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Clark, Matthew M; Wodrich, Lynne; Lempke, Mary; McKinzie, Sanna; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2010-08-01

    Lack of control of food intake, excess size, and frequency of meals are critical to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, but its effects on gastric motor functions and satiation are unknown. We evaluated effects of 10 days treatment with alginate or placebo on gastric functions, satiation, appetite, and gut hormones associated with satiety in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a randomized, 1:1, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study in 48 overweight or obese participants with excluded psychiatric comorbidity and binge eating disorder. All underwent measurements of gastric emptying (GE), fasting, and postprandial gastric volumes (GVs), postprandial satiation, calorie intake at a free choice meal and selected gut hormones after 1 week of alginate (three capsules vs. matching placebo per day, ingested 30 min before the main meal). Six capsules were ingested with water 30 min before the GE, GV, and satiation tests on days 8-10. There were no treatment group effects on GE or volumes, gut hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY)), satiation, total and macronutrient calorie intake at a free choice meal. There was no difference detected in results between obese and overweight patients. Alginate treatment for a period of 10 days showed no effect on gastric motor functions, satiation, appetite, or gut hormones. These results question the use of short-term alginate treatment for weight loss.

  2. Transient inactivation of basolateral amygdala during selective satiation disrupts reinforcer devaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth A; Forcelli, Patrick A; Murnen, Alice T; McCue, David L; Gale, Karen; Malkova, Ludise

    2012-08-01

    Basolateral amygdala (BLA) function is critical for flexible, goal-directed behavior, including performance on reinforcer devaluation tasks. Here we tested, in rats, the hypothesis that BLA is critical for conditioned reinforcer devaluation during the period when the primary reinforcer (food) is being devalued (by feeding it to satiety), but not thereafter for guiding behavioral choices. We used a spatially independent task that used two visual cues, each predicting one of two foods. An instrumental action (lever press) was required for reinforcer delivery. After training, rats received BLA or sham lesions, or cannulae implanted in BLA. Under control conditions (sham lesions, saline infusions), devaluation of one food significantly decreased responding to the cue associated with that food, when both cues were presented simultaneously during extinction. BLA lesions impaired this devaluation effect. Transient inactivation of BLA by microinfusion of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A agonist muscimol resulted in an impairment only when BLA was inactivated during satiation. When muscimol was infused after satiation and therefore, BLA was inactivated only during the choice test, rats showed no impairment. Thus, BLA is necessary for registering or updating cues to reflect updated reinforcer values, but not for guiding choices once the value has been updated. Our results are the first to describe the contribution of rat BLA to specific components of reinforcer devaluation and are the first to show impairment in reinforcer devaluation following transient inactivation in the rat.

  3. Larval starvation to satiation: influence of nutrient regime on the success of Acanthaster planci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Wolfe

    Full Text Available High density populations of the crown-of-thorns seastar, Acanthaster planci, are a major contributor to the decline of coral reefs, however the causes behind periodic outbreaks of this species are not understood. The enhanced nutrients hypothesis posits that pulses of enhanced larval food in eutrophic waters facilitate metamorphic success with a flow-on effect for population growth. The larval resilience hypothesis suggests that A. planci larvae naturally thrive in tropical oligotrophic waters. Both hypotheses remain to be tested empirically. We raised A. planci larvae in a range of food regimes from starvation (no food to satiation (excess food. Algal cell concentration and chlorophyll levels were used to reflect phytoplankton conditions in nature for oligotrophic waters (0-100 cells ml(-1; 0-0.01 μg chl a L(-1, natural background levels of nutrients on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR (1,000-10,000 cells ml(-1; 0.1-1.0 μg chl a L(-1, and enhanced eutrophic conditions following runoff events (100,000 cells ml(-1; 10 μg chl a L(-1. We determine how these food levels affected larval growth and survival, and the metamorphic link between larval experience and juvenile quality (size in experiments where food ration per larvae was carefully controlled. Phytoplankton levels of 1 μg chl a L(-1, close to background levels for some reefs on the GBR and following flood events, were optimal for larval success. Development was less successful above and below this food treatment. Enhanced larval performance at 1 μg chl a L(-1 provides empirical support for the enhanced nutrients hypothesis, but up to a limit, and emphasizes the need for appropriate mitigation strategies to reduce eutrophication and the consequent risk of A. planci outbreaks.

  4. Larval Starvation to Satiation: Influence of Nutrient Regime on the Success of Acanthaster planci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Graba-Landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Byrne, Maria

    2015-01-01

    High density populations of the crown-of-thorns seastar, Acanthaster planci, are a major contributor to the decline of coral reefs, however the causes behind periodic outbreaks of this species are not understood. The enhanced nutrients hypothesis posits that pulses of enhanced larval food in eutrophic waters facilitate metamorphic success with a flow-on effect for population growth. The larval resilience hypothesis suggests that A. planci larvae naturally thrive in tropical oligotrophic waters. Both hypotheses remain to be tested empirically. We raised A. planci larvae in a range of food regimes from starvation (no food) to satiation (excess food). Algal cell concentration and chlorophyll levels were used to reflect phytoplankton conditions in nature for oligotrophic waters (0-100 cells ml-1; 0-0.01 μg chl a L-1), natural background levels of nutrients on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) (1,000-10,000 cells ml-1; 0.1-1.0 μg chl a L-1), and enhanced eutrophic conditions following runoff events (100,000 cells ml-1; 10 μg chl a L-1). We determine how these food levels affected larval growth and survival, and the metamorphic link between larval experience and juvenile quality (size) in experiments where food ration per larvae was carefully controlled. Phytoplankton levels of 1 μg chl a L-1, close to background levels for some reefs on the GBR and following flood events, were optimal for larval success. Development was less successful above and below this food treatment. Enhanced larval performance at 1 μg chl a L-1 provides empirical support for the enhanced nutrients hypothesis, but up to a limit, and emphasizes the need for appropriate mitigation strategies to reduce eutrophication and the consequent risk of A. planci outbreaks. PMID:25790074

  5. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  6. The control of meal size in human subjects: a role for expected satiety, expected satiation and premeal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-05-01

    Unlike energy expenditure, energy intake occurs during discrete events: snacks and meals. The prevailing view is that meal size is governed by physiological and psychological events that promote satiation towards the end of a meal. This review explores an alternative and perhaps controversial proposition. Specifically that satiation plays a secondary role, and that meal size (kJ) is controlled by decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Recently, techniques have been developed that enable us to quantify 'expected satiation' and 'expected satiety' (respectively, the fullness and the respite from hunger that foods are expected to confer). When compared on a kJ-for-kJ basis, these expectations differ markedly across foods. Moreover, in self-selected meals, these measures are remarkably good predictors of the energy content of food that ends up on our plate, even more important than palatability. Expected satiation and expected satiety are influenced by the physical characteristics of a food (e.g. perceived volume). However, they are also learned. Indeed, there is now mounting evidence for 'expected-satiation drift', a general tendency for a food to have higher expected satiation as it increases in familiarity. Together, these findings show that important elements of control (discrimination and learning/adaptation) are clearly evident in plans around portion size. Since most meals are eaten in their entirety, understanding the nature of these controls should be given high priority.

  7. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, C. de; Blom, W.A.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding

  8. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, C. de; Blom, W.A.M.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Stafleu, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding

  9. The effect of textural complexity of solid foods on satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingyuan; Larsen, Danaé S; Ferguson, Lynnette R; James, Bryony J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that food texture affects satiation by influencing the eating rate, bite size and oral transit time. However, investigations into the direct effect of texture on satiation are limited. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of textural complexity on satiation, independent of oral processing time and energy density. A preload-test meal design was used in this study; model foods with three levels of textural complexity (low, medium and high) were consumed as preload foods followed by a two-course ad libitum meal. This study was a randomized cross-over trial with 38 subjects. The results clearly showed that food with greater textural complexity led to significantly lower food intake overall. The first course of the meal and total food intake was significantly reduced (psatiety after three hours post-trial and the time taken to the next eating occasion did not differ between different preload conditions. Increased textural complexity in food enhances satiation and may potentially impact on satiety however this needs to be further confirmed in future studies. The findings suggest that foods with more complex textures can be a helpful tool in reducing the short-term food intake and enhancing the satiation response.

  10. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Cees; Blom, Wendy A M; Smeets, Paul A M; Stafleu, Annette; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2004-06-01

    This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We made a distinction between biomarkers of satiation or meal termination and those of meal initiation related to satiety and between markers in the brain [central nervous system (CNS)] and those related to signals from the periphery to the CNS. Various studies showed that physicochemical measures related to stomach distension and blood concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 are peripheral biomarkers associated with meal termination. CNS biomarkers related to meal termination identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are indicators of neural activity related to sensory-specific satiety. These measures cannot yet serve as a tool for assessing the satiating effect of foods, because they are not yet feasible. CNS biomarkers related to satiety are not yet specific enough to serve as biomarkers, although they can distinguish between extreme hunger and fullness. Three currently available biomarkers for satiety are decreases in blood glucose in the short term (2-4 d) negative energy balance; and ghrelin concentrations, which have been implicated in both short-term and long-term energy balance. The next challenge in this research area is to identify food ingredients that have an effect on biomarkers of satiation, satiety, or both. These ingredients may help consumers to maintain their energy intake at a level consistent with a healthy body weight.

  11. Functional food and satiety. Impact of a satiating context effect on appetite control of non-obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Gagnon-Sweeney, Marlène; Pigeon, Étienne; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the addition of satiating nutrients and a satiating context effect could influence appetite sensations, spontaneous energy intake and food appreciation under conditions of standardized energy density of a meal. Eighteen non-obese men were submitted to a control, a satiating, and a context effect condition composed of a standardized breakfast and an ad libitum test lunch (macaroni entrée plus chocolate cake). The satiating macaroni contained more proteins, unsaturated fats, fibres and calcium than the control macaroni despite similar energy density, appearance and palatability. In the context effect condition, participants believed they were eating "a highly satiating macaroni", but were served the control macaroni. Appreciation of the macaronis, quantities of macaroni and cake consumed and 4-h satiating potential were measured for each condition. Quantities of macaroni and dessert consumed did not differ between conditions. Satiating potential was greater for the context effect meal compared to the control and/or the satiating meals up to 4h after its consumption. The context effect macaroni obtained higher appreciation rates than the control and the satiating macaronis. The context effect may positively influence the appreciation toward a meal and contribute to increase its satiety potential for many hours.

  12. Modeling Preference Change through Brand Satiation

    OpenAIRE

    Terui, Nobuhiko; HASEGAWA, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we develop structural models of preference change due to consumer state dependence through satiation by purchase experience. A dynamic factor model with switching structure is proposed to explain consumer preference changes. Two types of dynamic factor models are separately applied to baseline and satiation parameters in a direct utility model that accommodates multiple discreteness data. The first dynamic factor model has a switching structure for consumer preference, and deco...

  13. Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as sugar-containing beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley A; Hamill, Liam R; Davies, Sarah; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative 'expected satiation' (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500 ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5-205.2 kcal; p = 0.87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages.

  14. Individual Influence on Model Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Sonya K.; Pek, Jolynn

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in psychology are increasingly using model selection strategies to decide among competing models, rather than evaluating the fit of a given model in isolation. However, such interest in model selection outpaces an awareness that one or a few cases can have disproportionate impact on the model ranking. Though case influence on the fit…

  15. Functional neuroimaging of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research project was to understand the effect of internal state on brain activity associated with different food and odour properties. To this end, the brain activation in response to differential taste and odour stimuli when either being hungry or satiated, and additionally,

  16. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  17. Functional neuroimaging of satiation and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research project was to understand the effect of internal state on brain activity associated with different food and odour properties. To this end, the brain activation in response to differential taste and odour stimuli when either being hungry or satiated, and additionally, th

  18. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing

  19. Retronasal Aroma Release and Satiation: a Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the epidemic of obesity, one of the aims of the food industry is to develop good-tasting food products that may induce an increased level of satiation, preventing consumers from overeating. This review focuses on the possibility of using aroma as a trigger for inducing or increasing satia

  20. Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor exposu

  1. Effects of aroma : texture congruency within dairy custard on satiation and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Weinbreck, F.; Burgering, M.J.; Wijk, de R.A.; Ponne, C.T.; Bult, J.H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation comprises numerous components from peripheral and central pathways, including sensory and cognitive elements. This study investigated if congruency in different aroma¿texture combinations within a dairy product influences satiation and food consumption in humans. Among seven

  2. Economic Satiation as an Element in an Ecological Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig; Levin-Jensen, Anna Karina M.

    1999-01-01

    Most debates on environmental sustainability focus on the constraints this will impose on human behavior, because mainstream economic theory of insatiable human wants is taken for granted in real life. A natural satiation option is ignored as an element in a sustainable economy. Fortunately, from...... promoting policy will per definition imply a better everyday life for the majority....... the satiation trend. This could constitute a decisive contribution to reaching an environmentally sustainable development, since it would allow the full benefit of technical improvements to come through. Furthermore, since the satiation reflects a wish by people to achieve a more satisfactory life, a satiation...

  3. Texture, not flavor, affects the expected satiation of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Graaf, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ expectations about the satiating capacity of a food may differ markedly across a broad range of food products, but also between foods within one product category. Our objective is to investigate the role of sensory attributes and means of consumption in the expected satiation of dairy

  4. Texture, not flavor, determines expected satiation of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ expectations about the satiating capacity of a food may differ markedly across a broad range of food products, but also between foods within one product category. Our objective is to investigate the role of sensory attributes and means of consumption in the expected satiation of dairy pro

  5. Texture, not flavor, affects the expected satiation of dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Stafleu, A.; Mars, M.; Brunstrom, J.M.; Graaf, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ expectations about the satiating capacity of a food may differ markedly across a broad range of food products, but also between foods within one product category. Our objective is to investigate the role of sensory attributes and means of consumption in the expected satiation of dairy pro

  6. The role of sweet taste in satiation and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-09-02

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual's ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity.

  7. CCK-58 elicits both satiety and satiation in rats while CCK-8 elicits only satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Gibbs, James; Cummings, David E; Reeve, Joseph R

    2014-04-01

    Reduction of food intake by exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) has been demonstrated primarily for its short molecular form, CCK-8. Mounting evidence, however, implicates CCK-58 as a major physiologically active CCK form, with different neural and exocrine response profiles than CCK-8. In three studies, we compared meal-pattern effects of intraperitoneal injections CCK-8 vs. CCK-58 in undeprived male Sprague-Dawley rats consuming sweetened condensed milk. In study 1, rats (N=10) received CCK-8, CCK-58 (0.45, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 nmol/kg) or vehicle before a 4-h test-food presentation. At most doses, both CCK-8 and CCK-58 similarly reduced meal size relative to vehicle. Meal-size reduction prompted a compensatory shortening of the intermeal interval (IMI) after CCK-8, but not after CCK-58, which uniquely increased the satiety ratio (IMI/size of the preceding meal). In the second study, lick patterns were monitored after administration of 0.9 nmol/kg CCK-58, CCK-8 or vehicle. Lick cluster size, lick efficiency and interlick-interval distribution remained unaltered compared to vehicle, implying natural satiation, rather than illness, following both CCK forms. In study 3, threshold satiating doses of the two CCK forms were given at 5 and 30 min after meal termination, respectively. CCK 58, but not CCK-8 increased the intermeal interval and satiety ratio compared to vehicle. In conclusion, while CCK 58 and CCK-8 both stimulate satiation, thereby reducing meal size, CCK-58 consistently exerts a satiety effect, prolonging IMI. Given the physiological prominence of CCK-58, these results suggest that CCK's role in food intake regulation may require re-examination.

  8. Are You Sure? Confidence about the Satiating Capacity of a Food Affects Subsequent Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi B. Schiöth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expectations about a food’s satiating capacity predict self-selected portion size, food intake and food choice. However, two individuals might have a similar expectation, but one might be extremely confident while the other might be guessing. It is unclear whether confidence about an expectation affects adjustments in energy intake at a subsequent meal. In a randomized cross-over design, 24 subjects participated in three separate breakfast sessions, and were served a low-energy-dense preload (53 kcal/100 g, a high-energy-dense preload (94 kcal/100 g, or no preload. Subjects received ambiguous information about the preload’s satiating capacity and rated how confident they were about their expected satiation before consuming the preload in its entirety. They were served an ad libitum test meal 30 min later. Confidence ratings were negatively associated with energy compensation after consuming the high-energy-dense preload (r = −0.61; p = 0.001. The same relationship was evident after consuming the low-energy-dense preload, but only after controlling for dietary restraint, hunger prior to, and liking of the test meal (p = 0.03. Our results suggest that confidence modifies short-term controls of food intake by affecting energy compensation. These results merit consideration because imprecise caloric compensation has been identified as a potential risk factor for a positive energy balance and weight gain.

  9. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF DENTAL NURSING AS A. PROFESSION ... Colleges of Health Technology undergoing external ... questionnaire requested information on age ... individual with good communication skills and ...

  10. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Sebastián Basallo Gómez

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language levels and personal/professional interests. The findings align with three categories of influence: motivation, engagement, and contextualization/interpr...

  11. Relationship between Rate of Eating and Degree of Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Kellen, Michael J.; Brooks, Jeannie; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral psychologists have developed effective methods of treatment for overeating and weight control, including mealtime regulation, avoidance of taboo foods, and removal of identified precursors to the bingeing behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between speed of eating and levels of satiation in weight conscious…

  12. Relationship between Rate of Eating and Degree of Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrin, Nathan H.; Kellen, Michael J.; Brooks, Jeannie; Ehle, Chris; Vinas, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral psychologists have developed effective methods of treatment for overeating and weight control, including mealtime regulation, avoidance of taboo foods, and removal of identified precursors to the bingeing behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between speed of eating and levels of satiation in weight conscious…

  13. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Basallo Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language levels and personal/professional interests. The findings align with three categories of influence: motivation, engagement, and contextualization/interpretation of readings. The main objective of this project was to see how the students’ text selection processes, guided by systematically designed criteria and elaborated strategies, influenced learning and acquisition in terms of motivation, perceptions, and opinions towards reading in English.

  14. Efficiency of pollination and satiation of predators determine reproductive output in Iberian Juniperus thurifera woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, E T; Rodríguez-García, E; Olano, J M

    2016-01-01

    Fruit production in animal-dispersed plants has a strong influence on fitness because large crops increase the number of seeds dispersed by frugivores. Large crops are costly, and environmental control of plant resources is likely play a role in shaping temporal and spatial variations in seed production, particularly in fluctuating environments such as the Mediterranean. The number of fruits that start to develop and the proportion of viable seeds produced are also linked to the number of flowers formed and the efficiency of pollination in wind-pollinated plants. Finally, large fruit displays also attract seed predators, having a negative effect on seed output. We assessed the relative impact of environmental conditions on fruit production, and their combined effect on seed production, abortion and seed loss through three predispersal predators in Juniperus thurifera L., sampling 14 populations across the Iberian Peninsula. Wetter than average conditions during flowering and early fruit development led to larger crop sizes; this effect was amplified at tree level, with the most productive trees during more favourable years yielding fruits with more viable seeds and less empty and aborted seeds. In addition, large crops satiated the less mobile seed predator. The other two predispersal predators responded to plant traits, the presence of other seed predators and environmental conditions, but did not show a satiation response to the current-year crop. Our large-scale study on a dioecious, wind-pollinated Mediterranean juniper indicates that pollination efficiency and satiation of seed predators, mediated by environmental conditions, are important determinants of reproductive output in this juniper species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Gut-Brain Nutrient Signaling: Appetition vs. Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Multiple hormonal and neural signals are generated by ingested nutrients that limit meal size and suppress postmeal eating. However, the availability of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods can override these satiation/satiety signals and lead to overeating and obesity. The palatable flavor of these foods is one factor that promotes overeating, but sugar and fat also have postoral actions that can stimulate eating and increase food preferences. This is revealed in conditioning studies in which rodents consume flavored solutions paired with intragastric sugar or fat infusions. The significant flavor preferences and increased intake produced by the nutrient infusions appear to involve stimulatory gut-brain signals, referred to here as appetition signals, that are distinct from the satiation signals that suppress feeding. Newly developed rapid conditioning protocols may facilitate the study of postoral appetition processes. PMID:22664300

  16. Gut-brain nutrient signaling. Appetition vs. satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    Multiple hormonal and neural signals are generated by ingested nutrients that limit meal size and suppress postmeal eating. However, the availability of sugar-rich and fat-rich foods can override these satiation/satiety signals and lead to overeating and obesity. The palatable flavor of these foods is one factor that promotes overeating, but sugar and fat also have postoral actions that can stimulate eating and increase food preferences. This is revealed in conditioning studies in which rodents consume flavored solutions paired with intragastric sugar or fat infusions. The significant flavor preferences and increased intake produced by the nutrient infusions appear to involve stimulatory gut-brain signals, referred to here as appetition signals, that are distinct from the satiation signals that suppress feeding. Newly developed rapid conditioning protocols may facilitate the study of postoral appetition processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The appetizing and satiating effects of odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim

    Unhealthy eating habits such as unhealthy food choices or overeating increase the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how separate factors, such as sensory processes, influence our eating b

  18. Variables influencing victim selection in genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Debra A

    2008-01-01

    While victims of racially motivated violence may be identified through observation of morphological features, those targeted because of their ethnic, religious, or national identity are not easily recognized. This study examines how perpetrators of genocide recognize their victims. Court documents, including indictments, witness statements, and testimony from the International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (FY) detail the interactions between victim and assailant. A total of 6012 decedents were included in the study; only 20.8% had been positively identified. Variables influencing victim selection in Rwanda included location, segregation, incitement, and prior relationship, while significant factors in FY were segregation, location, age/gender, and social data. Additional contributing factors in both countries included self-identification, victim behavior, linguistic or clothing evidence, and morphological features. Understanding the system of recognition used by perpetrators aids investigators tasked with establishing victim identity in such prosecutions.

  19. Acute Effects of Complexity in Aroma Composition on Satiation and Food Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijschop, R.M.A.J.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sw

  20. How is an ideal satiating yogurt described? A case study with added-protein yogurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morell, P.; Piqueras-Fiszman, B.; Hernando, I.; Fiszman, S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein is recognized as the macronutrient with the highest satiating ability. Yogurt can be an excellent basis for designing satiating food as it is protein-based food product. Five different set-type yogurts were formulated by adding extra skim milk powder (MP), whey protein concentrate (WPC),

  1. The role of non-semantic factors in semantic satiation effect in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Prochwicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Semantic satiation is defined as the subjective experience of the loss of access to the meanings of words or images caused by prolonged and quick repetitions of the material. Previous researches indicated that the semantic satiation of words and images occurs faster in schizophrenics than in healthy subjects. Individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal the tendency to lose of access to the meaning of words after fewer words repetition than healthy controls. The aim of the research was to establish whether the semantic satiation of images in schizophrenia is the effect of the loss of meanings of images or is caused by non - semantic factors i.e. fatiguing experimental procedure. Methods: It was assumed that in conditions where the participant's level of fatigue was parallel to the fatigue observed in the research on semantic satiation and the meaning of satiated images was not required for semantic decisions, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls would not reveal the semantic satiation effect defined as an increase in reaction time. Two groups of participants: patients suffering from schizophrenia (10 women and 10 men, average age 30 and healthy controls (9 female and 9 male, average age 30.7 were shown 80 trails. Each one of them consisted of a satiated image which appeared repeatedly on the computer screen, and a non-satiated image accompanied by a written word, which were shown simultaneously after the final presentation of the satiated image. The participants' task was to decide whether the written word named the object presented on the non-satiated picture correctly. The participants did not make any decisions on the basis of satiated images. Results: The results obtained confirmed the hypothesis. In conditions where participants were shown the images flashing on the computer screen but were not required to make a semantic decision related to those images, their reaction time to subsequently presented

  2. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  3. Beliefs about the satiating effect of bread with spread varying in macronutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, C; Stafleu, A; Staal, P; Wijne, M

    1992-04-01

    Beliefs about the satiating effect of foods varying in contents of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and fibre were investigated by face-to-face interviews with a random telephone sample of 101 subjects. Respondents were presented with photographs of two slices of bread covered with common spreads. Fibre level was manipulated by using white bread or wholemeal bread. Levels of proteins, fats and carbohydrates were manipulated by using different kinds of spread. Low and high levels of proteins, fats and carbohydrates had similar energy contents. The results showed that protein-rich spreads (lean meat products) and high-fibre (wholemeal) bread were believed to have a strong satiating effect. The satiating effect of high-fat spreads (butter, bacon) was believed to be much smaller, whereas the sweet carbohydrate spreads (jam, honey) were believed to have no satiating effect.

  4. Reinforcer satiation and resistance to change of responding maintained by qualitatively different reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2009-05-01

    In previous research on resistance to change, differential disruption of operant behavior by satiation has been used to assess the relative strength of responding maintained by different rates or magnitudes of the same reinforcer in different stimulus contexts. The present experiment examined resistance to disruption by satiation of one reinforcer type when qualitatively different reinforcers were arranged in different contexts. Rats earned either food pellets or a 15% sucrose solution on variable-interval 60-s schedules of reinforcement in the two components of a multiple schedule. Resistance to satiation was assessed by providing free access either to food pellets or the sucrose solution prior to or during sessions. Responding systematically decreased more relative to baseline in the component associated with the satiated reinforcer. These findings suggest that when qualitatively different reinforcers maintain responding, relative resistance to change depends upon the relations between reinforcers and disrupter types.

  5. Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    During non-migratory flight, gulls (Larids) use a wide variety of flight strategies. We investigate the extent to which the energy balance of a bird explains flight strategy selection. We develop a model based on optimal foraging and aerodynamic theories, to calculate the ground speeds and airspeeds

  6. Influence of selected factors on induced syneresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Syneresis is the process of whey separation induced by gel contraction resulting in rearranging or restructuring of casein matrix formed during enzymatic coagulation. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The influences of pH, calcium concentration, temperature of coagulation of milk and applied heat treatment on the syneresis induced by different intensity of centrifugal force have been investigated. Coagulated samples were centrifuged at 1000, 2000 and 3000 rpm for 5 min, respectively. Reconstituted skim milk powder (control sample and reconstituted non-fat milk heat treated at 87ºC/10 min (experimental sample are coagulated at temperatures of 30ºC and 35ºC, at pH value of 5.8 and 6.2, and with the addition of 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2, respectively. Centrifugation at 1000 rpm of both control and experimental samples didn’t recover any sera, regardless of the applied coagulation conditions. This indicates that the intensity of centrifugal force wasn’t strong enough to disrupt gel structure and cause syneresis. When the intensity of centrifugal force was increased up to 2000 rpm, the syneresis was induced, but the degree of syneresis depended on the applied factors of coagulation, primary on the applied heat treatments and temperature of coagulation. The amount of added CaCl2 didn’t have a significant influence on the induced syneresis at 2000 rpm. The induced syneresis was very significant for both control and experimental samples when the intensity of centrifugal force of 3000 rpm was applied. It was also noted that curd produced from heat treated milk in which milk protein coaggregates were formed, released less sera regardless of the applied coagulation factors.

  7. Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Luning, Pieternel A; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Lakemond, Catriona M M; Bult, Johannes H F; Gort, Gerrit; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m²) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9% lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake.

  8. Influence of Selected Organic Micropollutants on Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk-Makuła, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the toxicity of organic micropollutants on tested microorganisms. Itis a current issue because organic micropollutants are identified in all elements of environmental (surface water, ground water, soils) and in food products. The organic micropollutants include: polychlorinated dibenzodioxyns PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH, halogenated compounds and by-products of water treatment. Some organic compounds cause hazard for health and human life due to their estrogenic biological activity, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic activity. The influence on organisms indicators of these compounds based on literature data were presented. The level of TEQ (toxic equivalency) in response to organic chlorine derivatives (PCDDs, PCDF, PCBs) is usually determined by toxic equivalency factor (TEF). The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies organic micropollutants as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), possibly carcinogenic (Group 2A) or probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

  9. Influence of Selected Organic Micropollutants on Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the toxicity of organic micropollutants on tested microorganisms. Itis a current issue because organic micropollutants are identified in all elements of environmental (surface water, ground water, soils and in food products. The organic micropollutants include: polychlorinated dibenzodioxyns PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH, halogenated compounds and by-products of water treatment. Some organic compounds cause hazard for health and human life due to their estrogenic biological activity, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic activity. The influence on organisms indicators of these compounds based on literature data were presented. The level of TEQ (toxic equivalency in response to organic chlorine derivatives (PCDDs, PCDF, PCBs is usually determined by toxic equivalency factor (TEF. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies organic micropollutants as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1, possibly carcinogenic (Group 2A or probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B.

  10. Variable selection in multiple linear regression: The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akaike's information criterion, influential data cases, Mallows' Cp criterion, multiple ... In this paper we introduce two new measures of the selection influence of an ..... [1] Akaike H, 1973, Information theory and an extension of the maximum ...

  11. Advantages of masting in European beech: timing of granivore satiation and benefits of seed caching support the predator dispersal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Rafał; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Crone, Elizabeth E

    2016-03-01

    The predator satiation and predator dispersal hypotheses provide alternative explanations for masting. Both assume satiation of seed-eating vertebrates. They differ in whether satiation occurs before or after seed removal and caching by granivores (predator satiation and predator dispersal, respectively). This difference is largely unrecognized, but it is demographically important because cached seeds are dispersed and often have a microsite advantage over nondispersed seeds. We conducted rodent exclosure experiments in two mast and two nonmast years to test predictions of the predator dispersal hypothesis in our study system of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Specifically, we tested whether the fraction of seeds removed from the forest floor is similar during mast and nonmast years (i.e., lack of satiation before seed caching), whether masting decreases the removal of cached seeds (i.e., satiation after seed storage), and whether seed caching increases the probability of seedling emergence. We found that masting did not result in satiation at the seed removal stage. However, masting decreased the removal of cached seeds, and seed caching dramatically increased the probability of seedling emergence relative to noncached seeds. European beech thus benefits from masting through the satiation of scatterhoarders that occurs only after seeds are removed and cached. Although these findings do not exclude other evolutionary advantages of beech masting, they indicate that fitness benefits of masting extend beyond the most commonly considered advantages of predator satiation and increased pollination efficiency.

  12. Nutritional influences in selected gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Kiss, Lajos S; Miheller, Pal

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional factors, as sources of luminal antigens, have been thought to be important factors in the immunopathogenesis of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. In some diseases, the role of the nutritional component is causal in the susceptible host. Such diseases include celiac disease, a common heritable chronic inflammatory condition of the small intestine induced by dietary wheat, rye and barley, in susceptible individuals. Specific HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 risk alleles are necessary, but not sufficient, for disease development. The well-defined role of HLA-DQ heterodimers encoded by these alleles is to present cereal peptides to CD4+ T cells, activating an inflammatory immune response in the intestine. Genome-wide association studies have been performed which identified the IL2-IL21 risk locus and other genes with immune functions and key roles in thymic T-cell selection. Another example for this group is Wilson's disease, an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism caused by mutation of the ATP7B gene, resulting in a defect of biliary copper excretion and toxic accumulation in the body, especially in the liver, brain and cornea, resulting in hepatic and/or neurological symptoms. In other diseases, however, the association is less well established. In such endeavor, epidemiological observations may become a valuable part of the overall investigations aimed at identifying dietary factors, which are involved in the initiation and perpetuation of the specific disease. As an example, relationships between nutrition and colorectal cancer have been hypothesized early on (e.g. folate, calcium, vitamin D, red meat). Similarly, intake of certain diet constituents like fat, refined sugar, fruits, vegetables and fiber was reported to be associated with the expression of inflammatory bowel diseases. In addition, in children with active Crohn's disease, enteral nutrition was found to be equally effective as corticosteroids in induction of remission, with mucosal

  13. Effects of exogenous leptin on satiety and satiation in patients with lipodystrophy and leptin insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Jennifer R; Riggs, Patti A; Calis, Karim A; Freedman, Renee J; Oral, Elif A; DePaoli, Alex M; Yanovski, Jack A

    2004-09-01

    To examine leptin's role in human appetite regulation, we studied recombinant methionyl human leptin's effects on satiation and satiety in a model of leptin insufficiency, lipodystrophy. Eight females with hypoleptinemia and lipodystrophy were given sc injections of A-100 (maximal dose, 200% of that predicted to normalize serum leptin) for 4 months. Satiation and satiety were determined before and again during leptin treatment. Satiation was measured as the time to voluntary cessation of eating from a standardized food array after a 12-h fast. Satiety was determined as the time to hunger sufficient to consume a full meal after consumption of a standardized preload. During leptin treatment, satiation time decreased (41.2 +/- 18.2 to 19.5 +/- 10.6 min; P = 0.01), satiety time increased (62.9 +/- 64.8 to 137.8 +/- 91.6 min; P = 0.04), energy consumed to produce satiation decreased (2034 +/- 405 to 1135 +/- 432 kcal or 8.5 +/- 1.7 to 4.7 +/- 1.8 MJ; P satiety. These data support the hypothesis that leptin plays an important, permissive role in human appetite regulation.

  14. Influence of Strategy Selection of Dairy Enterprises on Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoqun REN; Yucheng HE; Lisha HU

    2016-01-01

    Dairy enterprises have to cope with intense market pressure and survival pressure.In such complex and competitive market environment,it is of great realistic significance for studying the influence of strategy selection of dairy enterprises on their performance.Through selecting 115 dairy enterprises,empirical analysis was made,and multiple linear regression model and structural equation model were established with the aid of SPSS and Amos software.Comparative analysis was carried out for performance of different strategy selection.Results indicate that dairy enterprises selecting vertical strategies obtain the best performance,followed by horizontal strategy,and the worst is multiple strategy,and the strategy selection exerts positive and direct influence on performance of dairy enterprises.

  15. Diel foraging and shelter use of large juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) under food satiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, J.; Jyde, M.; Filrup, K.;

    2012-01-01

    The diel partitioning of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta foraging behaviour is controlled by a number of factors including predation risk, competition, temperature and food availability. The present study uses PIT-tagging and visual observation to asses the use of shelter and foraging behaviour...... of Danish wild juvenile brown trout (13.5-15.6 cm). The experiment was conducted in a fluvarium and the fish were fed to satiation. It was hypothesised that food satiation would promote nocturnal foraging and increase daytime shelter use. Our results showed a significant difference in diel shelter use...

  16. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks : Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enh

  17. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  18. The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Jonathan, M.C.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Mars, M.; Schols, H.A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of dietary fibre with bulking, viscous and gel-forming properties on satiation, and to identify the underlying mechanisms. We conducted a randomised crossover study with 121 men and women. Subjects were healthy, non-restrained eaters, aged 18–50 years and w

  19. Mind wandering minimizes mind numbing: Reducing semantic-satiation effects through absorptive lapses of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooneyham, Benjamin W; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2016-08-01

    Mind wandering is associated with perceptual decoupling: the disengagement of attention from perception. This decoupling is deleterious to performance in many situations; however, we sought to determine whether it might occur in the service of performance in certain circumstances. In two studies, we examined the role of mind wandering in a test of "semantic satiation," a phenomenon in which the repeated presentation of a word reduces semantic priming for a subsequently presented semantic associate. We posited that the attentional and perceptual decoupling associated with mind wandering would reduce the amount of satiation in the semantic representations of repeatedly presented words, thus leading to a reduced semantic-satiation effect. Our results supported this hypothesis: Self-reported mind-wandering episodes (Study 1) and behavioral indices of decoupled attention (Study 2) were both predictive of maintained semantic priming in situations predicted to induce semantic satiation. Additionally, our results suggest that moderate inattention to repetitive stimuli is not sufficient to enable "dishabituation": the refreshment of cognitive performance that results from diverting attention away from the task at hand. Rather, full decoupling is necessary to reap the benefits of mind wandering and to minimize mind numbing.

  20. A method for identifying satiation versus extinction effects under noncontingent reinforcement schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, S W; Iwata, B A; Thompson, R H; Hanley, G P

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated one method for determining whether response suppression under noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) is a function of satiation or extinction. Three individuals with developmental disabilities who engaged in self-injurious behavior (SIB) or aggression participated. Results of functional analyses indicated that their problem behavior was maintained by social-positive reinforcement. NCR procedures, individualized for each participant, were implemented in a multiple baseline across subjects design and were associated with decreases in all participants' problem behavior. Identification of the mechanism by which NCR produced these effects was based on examination of cumulative records showing response patterns during and immediately following each NCR session. Satiation during NCR should lead to a temporary increase in responding during the post-NCR (extinction) period due to a transition from the availability to the unavailability of reinforcement (satiation to deprivation). Alternatively, extinction during NCR should reveal no increase in responding during the extinction period because the contingency for the problem behavior would remain unchanged and the transition from satiation to deprivation conditions would be irrelevant. Results suggested that the operative mechanisms of NCR were idiosyncratic across the 3 participants and appeared to change during treatment for 1 of the participants.

  1. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger.

  2. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  3. Influence of Synbiotics on Selected Oxidative Stress Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) influence on oxidative stress parameters such as concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione, and free sulfhydryl groups content. Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). The subjects were divided into women group (n = 16) and men group (n = 16) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 wks, at the end of the study. The administration of synbiotic resulted in a significant decrease in MDA (p inulin may have positive influence on selected oxidative stress markers. PMID:28286605

  4. Price elasticity and pharmaceutical selection: the influence of managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Marisa Elena; Salkever, David S

    2003-07-01

    State Medicaid programs are turning increasingly to managed care to control expenditures, although the types of managed care programs in use have changed dramatically. Little is known about the influence of the shifting Medicaid managed care arena on treatment decisions. This paper investigates factors affecting the selection of treatments for depression by providers participating in either of two Medicaid managed care programs. Of particular interest is the influence of medication price on the choice of treatment, since one vehicle through which managed care organizations can reduce total expenditures is by increasing the price sensitivity of participating providers. We take a new approach by phrasing the problem as a discrete choice, using a nested multinomial logit model for the analyses. Contrary to earlier literature, we find some evidence that physicians in both programs do take price into consideration when selecting among treatment options. HMO providers in particular demonstrate increased price sensitivity in the two most commonly prescribed categories of antidepressants.

  5. Factors influencing predation on juvenile ungulates and natural selection implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Barber-Meyer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile ungulates are generally more vulnerable to predation than are adult ungulates other than senescent individuals, not only because of their relative youth, fragility, and inexperience, but also because of congenital factors. Linnell et al.’s (Wildl. Biol. 1: 209-223 extensive review of predation on juvenile ungulates concluded that research was needed to determine the predisposition of these juveniles to predation. Since then, various characteristics that potentially predispose juvenile ungulates have emerged including blood characteristics, morphometric and other condition factors, and other factors such as birth period, the mother’s experience, and spatial and habitat aspects. To the extent that any of the physical or behavioral traits possessed by juvenile ungulates have a genetic or heritable and partly independent epigenetic component that predisposes them to predation, predators may play an important role in their natural selection. We review the possible influence of these characteristics on predisposing juvenile ungulates to predation and discuss natural selection implications and potential selection mechanisms. Although juvenile ungulates as a class are likely more vulnerable to predation than all but senescent adults, our review presents studies indicating that juveniles with certain tendencies or traits are killed more often than others. This finding suggests that successful predation on juveniles is more selective than is often assumed. Because we are unable to control for (or in some cases even measure the myriad of other possible vulnerabilities such as differences in sensory abilities, intelligence, hiding abilities, tendency to travel, etc., finding selective predation based on the relatively few differences we can measure is noteworthy and points to the significant role that predation on juveniles has in the natural selection of ungulates. Future research should compare characteristics, especially those known to

  6. Overt and relational victimization and adolescent friendships : Selection, de-selection, and social influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Rambaran, Ashwin J.; Ojanen, Tiina J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and social influence in overt and relational victimization during middle school (N=504; 1214 years) using longitudinal social network analysis. Relational victimization was related to undesirability as a friend (i.e., receiving fewer friendship nominations fr

  7. Influence of condensation temperature on selected exhaled breath parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manini Paola

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of changes in cooling temperature on biomarker levels in exhaled breath condensate have been little investigated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of condensation temperature on the parameters of exhaled breath condensate and the levels of selected biomarkers. Methods Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 24 healthy subjects at temperatures of -10, -5, 0 and +5 C degrees. Selected parameters (condensed volume and conductivity and biomarkers (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde were measured. Results There was a progressive increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations, and condensate conductivity as the cooling temperature increased; total condensate volume increased as the cooling temperature decreased. Conclusion The cooling temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection influenced selected biomarkers and potential normalizing factors (particularly conductivity in different ways ex vivo. The temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection should be controlled and reported.

  8. Factors influencing consumers' selection of a primary care physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Teresa A; Butler, E Sonny; McGlone, Vernon L

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature regarding patient choice of health care plans, patient satisfaction, and patient evaluation of health care quality, but there is little information concerning the factors that influence the initial selection of a primary care physician (PCP). This exploratory study identifies and conceptualizes the physician selection dimensions which include: physician reputation/manner, physician record, physician search, consumer self-awareness, physician location, physician qualifications, physician demographics, office atmospherics, house calls/insurance, and valuing patient opinion. The study also develops and tests a scale for PCP selection using factor analysis which is demonstrated to be valid, and determines significant differences of variables, which include education level, gender, and age, using a summated scale. The study is of use to physicians in their targeting and communication strategies, and to researchers seeking to refine the scale.

  9. TLR7 influences germinal center selection in murine SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneparth, Alexis; Huang, Weiqing; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Woods, Megan; Sahu, Ranjit; Arora, Shitij; Akerman, Meredith; Lesser, Martin; Davidson, Anne

    2015-01-01

    TLR7 enhances germinal center maturation and migration of B cells to the dark zone where proliferation and somatic hypermutation occur. Our goal was to determine how Tlr7 dose influences selection of the autoreactive B cell repertoire in NZW/BXSB. Yaa mice bearing the site-directed heavy chain transgene 3H9 that encodes for the TLR7 regulated anti-CL response. To create a physiologic setting in which autoreactive B cells compete for survival with non-autoreactive B cells, we generated bone marrow chimeras in which disease onset occurred with similar kinetics and the transferred 3H9+ female non-Yaa, male Yaa or male TLR7(-/Yaa) cells could be easily identified by positivity for GFP. Deletion of 3H9 B cells occurred in the bone marrow and the remaining 3H9 follicular B cells manifested a decrease in surface IgM. Although there were differences in the naïve repertoire between the chimeras it was not possible to distinguish a clear pattern of selection against lupus related autoreactivity in TLR7(-/Yaa) or female chimeras. By contrast, preferential expansion of 3H9+ B cells occurred in the germinal centers of male Yaa chimeras. In addition, although all chimeras preferentially selected 3H9/Vκ5 encoded B cells into the germinal center and plasma cell compartments, 3H9 male Yaa chimeras had a more diverse repertoire and positively selected the 3H9/Vκ5-48/Jκ4 pair that confers high affinity anti-cardiolipin activity. We were unable to demonstrate a consistent effect of Tlr7 dose or Yaa on somatic mutations. Our data show that TLR7 excess influences the selection, expansion and diversification of B cells in the germinal center, independent of other genes in the Yaa locus.

  10. Selection Strategies for Social Influence in the Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    The ubiquity of online social networks makes the study of social influence extremely significant for its applications to marketing, politics and security. Maximizing the spread of influence by strategically selecting nodes as initiators of a new opinion or trend is a challenging problem. We study the performance of various strategies for selection of large fractions of initiators on a classical social influence model, the Threshold model (TM). Under the TM, a node adopts a new opinion only when the fraction of its first neighbors possessing that opinion exceeds a pre-assigned threshold. The strategies we study are of two kinds: strategies based solely on the initial network structure (Degree-rank, Dominating Sets, PageRank etc.) and strategies that take into account the change of the states of the nodes during the evolution of the cascade, e.g. the greedy algorithm. We find that the performance of these strategies depends largely on both the network structure properties, e.g. the assortativity, and the distribution of the thresholds assigned to the nodes. We conclude that the optimal strategy needs to combine the network specifics and the model specific parameters to identify the most influential spreaders. Supported in part by ARL NS-CTA, ARO, and ONR.

  11. Holling's "hungry mantid" model for the invertebrate functional response considered as a Markov process. III. Stable satiation distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, H J

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, we study an analytical model describing predatory behaviour. It is assumed that the parameter describing the predator's behaviour is its satiation. Using semigroup methods and compactness arguments we prove that a stable satiation distribution is reached if t----infinity. Furthermore, using a Trotter-Kato theorem we justify the transition to the much simpler problem that is obtained if the prey biomass tends to zero.

  12. Effects of noncontingent reinforcement on problem behavior and stimulus engagement: the role of satiation, extinction, and alternative reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagopian, L P; Crockett, J L; M. Stone; DeLeon, I G; Bowman, L G

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with and without extinction on problem behavior and stimulus engagement (consumption of reinforcement) of 4 participants. Reductions in problem behavior using NCR have frequently been attributed to both satiation of the reinforcer and extinction. In the current study, aspects of the NCR treatment effects were difficult to explain based solely on either a satiation or an extinction account. Specifically, it was found that sti...

  13. Optimal selection of nodes to propagate influence on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifan

    2016-11-01

    How to optimize the spreading process on networks has been a hot issue in complex networks, marketing, epidemiology, finance, etc. In this paper, we investigate a problem of optimizing locally the spreading: identifying a fixed number of nodes as seeds which would maximize the propagation of influence to their direct neighbors. All the nodes except the selected seeds are assumed not to spread their influence to their neighbors. This problem can be mapped onto a spin glass model with a fixed magnetization. We provide a message-passing algorithm based on replica symmetrical mean-field theory in statistical physics, which can find the nearly optimal set of seeds. Extensive numerical results on computer-generated random networks and real-world networks demonstrate that this algorithm has a better performance than several other optimization algorithms.

  14. Influence of Speech Codecs Selection on Transcoding Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Janicki, Artur; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The typical approach to steganography is to compress the covert data in order to limit its size, which is reasonable in the context of a limited steganographic bandwidth. TranSteg (Trancoding Steganography) is a new IP telephony steganographic method that was recently proposed that offers high steganographic bandwidth while retaining good voice quality. In TranSteg, compression of the overt data is used to make space for the steganogram. In this paper we focus on analyzing the influence of the selection of speech codecs on hidden transmission performance, that is, which codecs would be the most advantageous ones for TranSteg. Therefore, by considering the codecs which are currently most popular for IP telephony we aim to find out which codecs should be chosen for transcoding to minimize the negative influence on voice quality while maximizing the obtained steganographic bandwidth.

  15. Spine Surgeon Selection Criteria: Factors Influencing Patient Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Ahn, Junyoung; Bohl, Daniel D; Mayo, Benjamin C; Louie, Philip K; Singh, Kern

    2016-07-01

    A prospective questionnaire. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors that patients consider when selecting a spine surgeon. The rise in consumer-driven health insurance plans has increased the role of patients in provider selection. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that may influence a patient's criteria for selecting a spine surgeon. Two hundred thirty-one patients who sought treatment by one spine surgeon completed an anonymous questionnaire consisting of 26 questions. Four questions regarded demographic information; 16 questions asked respondents to rate the importance of specific criteria regarding spine surgeon selection (scale 1-10, with 10 being the most important); and six questions were multiple-choice regarding patient preferences toward aspects of their surgeon (age, training background, etc.). Patients rated board certification (9.26 ± 1.67), in-network provider status (8.10 ± 3.04), and friendliness/bedside manner (8.01 ± 2.35) highest among factors considered when selecting a spine surgeon. Most patients (92%) reported that 30 minutes or less should pass between check-in and seeing their surgeon during a clinic appointment. Regarding whether their spine surgeon underwent training as a neurosurgeon versus an orthopedic surgeon, 25% reported no preference, 52% preferred neurosurgical training, and 23% preferred orthopedic training. Our findings suggest that board certification and in-network health insurance plans may be most important in patients' criteria for choosing a spine surgeon. Advertisements were rated least important by patients. Patients expressed varying preferences regarding ideal surgeon age, training background, proximity, medical student/resident involvement, and clinic appointment availability. The surgeon from whom patients sought treatment completed an orthopedic surgery residency; hence, it is notable that 52% of patients preferred a spine surgeon with a neurosurgical background. In the context

  16. Leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons inhibits cholecystokinin signaling and satiation in diet induced obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume de Lartigue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK plays an important role in regulating meal size and duration by activating CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent neurons (VAN. Leptin enhances CCK signaling in VAN via an early growth response 1 (EGR1 dependent pathway thereby increasing their sensitivity to CCK. In response to a chronic ingestion of a high fat diet, VAN develop leptin resistance and the satiating effects of CCK are reduced. We tested the hypothesis that leptin resistance in VAN is responsible for reducing CCK signaling and satiation. RESULTS: Lean Zucker rats sensitive to leptin signaling, significantly reduced their food intake following administration of CCK8S (0.22 nmol/kg, i.p., while obese Zucker rats, insensitive to leptin, did not. CCK signaling in VAN of obese Zucker rats was reduced, preventing CCK-induced up-regulation of Y2 receptor and down-regulation of melanin concentrating hormone 1 receptor (MCH1R and cannabinoid receptor (CB1. In VAN from diet-induced obese (DIO Sprague Dawley rats, previously shown to become leptin resistant, we demonstrated that the reduction in EGR1 expression resulted in decreased sensitivity of VAN to CCK and reduced CCK-induced inhibition of food intake. The lowered sensitivity of VAN to CCK in DIO rats resulted in a decrease in Y2 expression and increased CB1 and MCH1R expression. These effects coincided with the onset of hyperphagia in DIO rats. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin signaling in VAN is required for appropriate CCK signaling and satiation. In response to high fat feeding, the onset of leptin resistance reduces the sensitivity of VAN to CCK thus reducing the satiating effects of CCK.

  17. Predictive context influences perceptual selection during binocular rivalry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N Denison

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prediction may be a fundamental principle of sensory processing: it has been proposed that the brain continuously generates predictions about forthcoming sensory information. However, little is known about how prediction contributes to the selection of a conscious percept from among competing alternatives. Here, we used binocular rivalry to investigate the effects of prediction on perceptual selection. In binocular rivalry, incompatible images presented to the two eyes result in a perceptual alternation between the images, even though the visual stimuli remain constant. If predictive signals influence the competition between neural representations of rivalrous images, this influence should generate a bias in perceptual selection that depends on predictive context. To manipulate predictive context, we developed a novel binocular rivalry paradigm in which rivalrous test images were immediately preceded by a sequence of context images presented identically to the two eyes. One of the test images was consistent with the preceding image sequence (it was the expected next image in the series, and the other was inconsistent (non-predicted. We found that human observers were more likely to perceive the consistent image at the onset of rivalry, suggesting that predictive context biased selection in favor of the predicted percept. This prediction effect was distinct from the effects of adaptation to stimuli presented before the binocular rivalry test. In addition, perceptual reports were speeded for predicted percepts relative to non-predicted percepts. These results suggest that predictive signals related to visual stimulus history exist at neural sites that can bias conscious perception during binocular rivalry. Our paradigm provides a new way to study how prior information and incoming sensory information combine to generate visual percepts.

  18. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy.

  19. Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Stephanie R; Scarlett Tudor, M; Moore, Allen J; Miller, Christine W

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised juveniles on natural high- and low-quality diets, cactus pads with and without ripe cactus fruits. New adults were again assigned a cactus pad with or without fruit, paired with a potential mate, and observed for mating behaviors. We found developmental and adult encounter environments affected mating decisions and the resulting patterns of sexual selection for both males and females. Males were not choosy in the low-quality encounter environment, cactus without fruit, but they avoided mating with small females in the high-quality encounter environment. Females were choosy in both encounter environments, avoiding mating with small males. However, they were the choosiest when they were in the low-quality encounter environment. Female mate choice was also context dependent by male developmental environment. Females were more likely to mate with males that had developed on cactus with fruit when they were currently in the cactus with fruit environment. This pattern disappeared when females were in the cactus without fruit environment. Altogether, these results experimentally demonstrate context-dependent mate choice by both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple, seasonal changes in resources can lead to fluctuations in sexual selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2013-09-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  1. Critical incidents influencing students' selection of elective science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, Danny Ray

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the critical incidents that determined high school students' self selection into and out of elective science classes. The Critical Incident Technique was used to gather data. Procedure. Subjects for study were 436 students attending five high schools within the geographical boundaries of a Northeast Texas County. Each student was enrolled in a senior level government/economics course during the spring semester of 1997. Students enrolled and in attendance during data collection procedures were subjects of the study. The subjects recorded 712 usable critical incidents. Incidents were categorized by examiners and a total of eleven incident categories emerged for analysis purposes. Incident frequencies were categorized by sample population, selectors, and nonselectors; subdivided by gender. Findings. The following categories emerged for study; (A) Mentored, (B) Requirements, (C) Personal Interest(s), (D) Level of Difficulty, (E) Time Restraints, (F) Future Concerns, (G) Grades, (H) Teacher, (I) Peer Influence, (J) Challenge, (K) Other Academic Experiences. Data were analyzed qualitatively to answer research questions and quantitatively to test hypotheses. There was an emergence of ten incident categories for nonselectors and an emergence of eleven incident categories for selectors. Of the twelve hypotheses, four failed to be rejected and eight were rejected. Conclusions. Nonselectors and selectors of elective science were influenced by various external factors. Requirements were influential for nonselectors. Nonselectors chose to select the minimum number of science classes necessary for graduation. Selectors were influenced by curriculum requirements, future concerns and mentors. Special programs that required extra science classes were influential in students' decisions to enroll in elective science. Gender differences were not influential for selectors or nonselectors of elective science.

  2. First selection, then influence : Developmental differences in friendship dynamics regarding academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Mariola Claudia; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René

    This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades

  3. Variable selection in multiple linear regression: The influence of individual cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Steel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of individual cases in a data set is studied when variable selection is applied in multiple linear regression. Two different influence measures, based on the C_p criterion and Akaike's information criterion, are introduced. The relative change in the selection criterion when an individual case is omitted is proposed as the selection influence of the specific omitted case. Four standard examples from the literature are considered and the selection influence of the cases is calculated. It is argued that the selection procedure may be improved by taking the selection influence of individual data cases into account.

  4. Influence of vowel selection on determination of phonation threshold pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plexico, Laura W; Sandage, Mary J

    2012-09-01

    Phonation threshold pressure values reported in the literature have largely been determined with use of one of three consonant-vowel sequences, /pi/, /pae/, and /pa/; however, it is not currently known if vowel choice influences phonation threshold pressure values. Based on the evidence that describes velopharyngeal closure variations between vowels, this research effort hypothesized that phonation threshold pressure values measured from the consonant-vowel sequence /pi/ would be significantly lower than the /pae/ and /pa/ sequences. Twelve female participants aged between 20 and 27 years produced five-syllable trains of /pi/, /pae/, and /pa/ at low, modal, and high pitches. A within-subject repeated measures approach was conducted to compare phonation threshold pressure value differences between the three consonant-vowel sequences for three different pitches while controlling for other task elicitation variables that may also influence phonation threshold pressure values. Repeated measures analysis of the data indicated that there was no significant difference (Pvowel sequences at any frequency assessed. Further, for all three consonant-vowel sequences measured, significant differences of phonation threshold pressure magnitude were observed when comparing the high frequency versus the low and modal frequencies, a finding consistent with previous publications. The vowel selected for task elicitation for phonation threshold pressure determination does not appear to significantly affect phonation threshold values, indicating flexibility of the vowel aspect of this measure for clinical use of phonation threshold pressure. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of extrinsic motivation on competition-based selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sänger, Jessica; Wascher, Edmund

    2011-10-10

    The biased competition approach to visuo-spatial attention proposes that the selection of competing information is effected by the saliency of the stimulus as well as by an intention-based bias of attention towards behavioural goals. Wascher and Beste (2010) [32] showed that the detection of relevant information depends on its relative saliency compared to irrelevant conflicting stimuli. Furthermore the N1pc, N2pc and N2 of the EEG varied with the strength of the conflict. However, this system could also be modulated by rather global mechanisms like attentional effort. The present study investigates such modulations by testing the influence of extrinsic motivation on the selection of competing stimuli. Participants had to detect a luminance change in various conditions among others against an irrelevant orientation change. Half of the participants were motivated to maximize their performance by the announcement of a monetary reward for correct responses. Participants who were motivated had lower error rates than participants who were not motivated. The event-related lateralizations of the EEG showed no motivation-related effect on the N1pc, which reflects the initial saliency driven orientation of attention towards the more salient stimulus. The subsequent N2pc was enhanced in the motivation condition. Extrinsic motivation was also accompanied by enhanced fronto-central negativities. Thus, the data provide evidence that the improvement of selection performance when participants were extrinsically motivated by announcing a reward was not due to changes in the initial saliency based processing of information but was foremost mediated by improved higher-level mechanisms.

  6. Oral processing characteristics of solid savoury meal components, and relationship with food composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, C G; van Kuijk, N; Thaler, T; de Graaf, C; Martin, N

    2013-01-01

    The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew

  7. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration.

  8. Influence of filler selection on twin screw foam granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, K E; Weatherley, S; Sheskey, P J; Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    The influence of filler selection in wet granulation was studied for the novel case where the binder is delivered as an unstable, semi-rigid aqueous foam to an extrusion process. The work primarily examined the impact of differing concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH® 101) in a formulation with spray-dried α-lactose monohydrate (Flowlac® 100) in regards to wetting and granule nucleation for this relatively new technique known as continuous foam granulation. Foam stability was varied within the work to change its drainage and coarsening behavior atop these powder excipients, by use of different foamable binding agents (METHOCEL™ F4 PLV and METHOCEL™ Premium VLV) as well as by adjusting the foam quality. A static bed penetration test was first used to study the foam behavior in wetting these powders without the processing constraints of an extruder which limit possible liquid-to-solids ratios as well as introduce shear which may complicate interpretation of the mechanism. The test found that the penetration time to saturate these powders decreased as their water absorption capacity increased which in turn decreased the size of the formed nuclei. Differences in the stability of the foamed binder had minimal influence on these attributes of wetting despite its high spread-to-soak behavior. The size of granules produced by extrusion similarly demonstrated sensitivity to the increasing water absorption capacity of the filler and little dependency on foam properties. The different liquid-to-solids ratios required to granulate these different formulations inside the extruder highlighted an evolving concept of powder lubricity for continuous foam granulation.

  9. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa M House

    Full Text Available Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection or 27°C (elevated natural selection in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

  10. Factors That Influence State or Private University Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Kargić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of the university is one of the most important life decisions among young people. With a continually rising assortment of educational options, future students look for institutions that will provide them a distinctive educational knowledge that they will keep in their minds for a lifetime. Also, students usually seek an educational program that will prepare them for a successful profession and that will provide them profitable employment. A lot of different factors heavily impact the decision whether to choose state university or a private one. This paper is focused on examining those factors, such as curriculum, quality and number of the staff, facilities, equipment, language of instruction, payments and fees and many others. Data for this study were collected though surveys of 303 examinees attending both private and state universities. The topic is important since the reasons why students choose one or the other option reveals a lot on their motives as well, which is, most often, extremely important for their development, quality and success, which is both a good indicator of the present quality and can influence the future representation of the university itself and, more important, heavily affects the quality of the society in general. The results of the survey can also help these institutions understand their strengths and weaknesses develop better marketing strategies, provide better conditions to their students and develop a constructive competition between these two types of institutions.

  11. Social selection and peer influence in an online social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kevin; Gonzalez, Marco; Kaufman, Jason

    2012-01-03

    Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science's greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends-except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes.

  12. Friendship selection and friends' influence. Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whos

  13. Friendship selection and friends' influence : Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Andrea Beate

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents whos

  14. Friendship selection and friends' influence. Dynamics of networks and actor attributes in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent friends are often found to be similar. Similarity can be caused by selection and influence processes. This book examines selection and influence processes for delinquency, school attitudes, and alcohol use in early adolescence. For selection processes, we hypothesize that adolescents

  15. Influence of the use of selected and non-selected yeasts in red wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dorneles

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae selected varieties in the elaboration of Terci red wine from Colombo. The winemaking method followed the classic red wine vinification system and the samples were analyzed according to the official table wine methods. The assays performed showed differences mainly over volatile acids, acetaldehyde, esters and methanol contents, confirming that the use of selected yeasts contributed on improving the wine quality.Dentre os diferentes tipos de vinho, o vinho proveniente de Vitis labrusca ainda é o mais consumido no Brasil. Seu preparo em pequenas vinícolas envolve antigas tradições que acarretam características indesejáveis e imprevisíveis à bebida. Em Colombo (Paraná, Brasil são cultivados anualmente 130 hectares de videiras, produzindo 1300 toneladas de uvas comuns do gênero Vitis labrusca e 800.000 L/ano de vinho artesanal de mesa, sem nenhum procedimento padronizado, como o uso de leveduras selvagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência do uso de variedades selecionadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae na elaboração de vinho tinto com uva Terci, proveniente do município de Colombo. A técnica de preparo dos vinhos seguiu o sistema clássico de vinificação para vinhos tintos e as amostras foram analisadas de acordo com os métodos oficiais. Os resultados demonstraram diferenças nas amostras, principalmente em relação aos teores de acidez volátil, acetaldeído, ésteres e metanol, comprovando que com a utilização de leveduras selecionadas contribui para melhorar os parâmetros de qualidade e padronização do vinho.

  16. Oral processing characteristics of solid meal components and relationship with foord composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forde, R.M.; Kuijk, van N.; Thaler, T.; Graaf, de C.; Martin, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating eff

  17. Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlayson, G.; Bordes, I.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, de C.; Blundell, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying

  18. Susceptibility to Overeating Affects the Impact of Savory of Sweet Drinks on Satiation, Reward, and Food Intake in Nonobese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finlayson, G.; Bordes, I.; Griffioen-Roose, S.; Graaf, de C.; Blundell, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Taste is involved in food preference and choice, and it is thought that it can modulate appetite and food intake. The present study investigated the effect of savory or sweet taste on satiation, reward, and food intake and according to individual differences in eating behavior traits underlying susc

  19. Cholecystokinin regulates satiation independently of the abdominal vagal nerve in a pig model of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Meulen, J. van der; Schuurman, T.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The vagal nerve and gut hormones CCK and GLP-1 play important roles in the control of food intake. However, it is not clear to what extent CCK and GLP-1 increase satiation by stimulating receptors located on abdominal vagal nerve endings or via receptors located elsewhere. This study aimed to furthe

  20. Cholecystokinin regulates satiation independently of the abdominal vagal nerve in a pig model of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Meulen, J. van der; Schuurman, T.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The vagal nerve and gut hormones CCK and GLP-1 play important roles in the control of food intake. However, it is not clear to what extent CCK and GLP-1 increase satiation by stimulating receptors located on abdominal vagal nerve endings or via receptors located elsewhere. This study aimed to furthe

  1. Vagal and hormonal gut–brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERTHOUD, H.-R.

    2012-01-01

    Studying communication between the gut and the brain is as relevant and exciting as it has been since Pavlov's discoveries a century ago. Although the efferent limb of this communication has witnessed significant advances, it is the afferent, or sensory, limb that has recently made for exciting news. It is now clear that signals from the gut are crucial for the control of appetite and the regulation of energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and more. Ghrelin, discovered just a few years ago, is the first gut hormone that increases appetite, and it may be involved in eating disorders. The stable analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1 has rapidly advanced to one of the most promising treatment options for type-2 diabetes. Changes in the signalling patterns of these and other gut hormones best explain the remarkable capacity of gastric bypass surgery to lower food intake and excess body weight. Given the enormous societal implications of the obesity epidemic, these are no small feats. Together with the older gut hormone cholecystokinin and abundant vagal mechanosensors, the gut continuously sends information to the brain regarding the quality and quantity of ingested nutrients, not only important for satiation and meal termination, but also for the appetitive phase of ingestive behaviour and the patterning of meals within given environmental constraints. By acting not only on brainstem and hypothalamus, this stream of sensory information from the gut to the brain is in a position to generate a feeling of satisfaction and happiness as observed after a satiating meal and exploited in vagal afferent stimulation for depression. PMID:18402643

  2. Vagal and hormonal gut-brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, H-R

    2008-05-01

    Studying communication between the gut and the brain is as relevant and exciting as it has been since Pavlov's discoveries a century ago. Although the efferent limb of this communication has witnessed significant advances, it is the afferent, or sensory, limb that has recently made for exciting news. It is now clear that signals from the gut are crucial for the control of appetite and the regulation of energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and more. Ghrelin, discovered just a few years ago, is the first gut hormone that increases appetite, and it may be involved in eating disorders. The stable analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1 has rapidly advanced to one of the most promising treatment options for type-2 diabetes. Changes in the signalling patterns of these and other gut hormones best explain the remarkable capacity of gastric bypass surgery to lower food intake and excess body weight. Given the enormous societal implications of the obesity epidemic, these are no small feats. Together with the older gut hormone cholecystokinin and abundant vagal mechanosensors, the gut continuously sends information to the brain regarding the quality and quantity of ingested nutrients, not only important for satiation and meal termination, but also for the appetitive phase of ingestive behaviour and the patterning of meals within given environmental constraints. By acting not only on brainstem and hypothalamus, this stream of sensory information from the gut to the brain is in a position to generate a feeling of satisfaction and happiness as observed after a satiating meal and exploited in vagal afferent stimulation for depression.

  3. Influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the phase formation in Cu-Zn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the selected alloy additions into copper and zinc alloys was investigated in order to find out the possibility of limiting the precipitation of unfavourable phase . The observation of microstructures and strength tests were performed. The results of metallographic and strength investigations indicate positive influence of small amounts of nickel, cobalt or tellurium. The precise determination of the influence of the selected alloy additions on limiting the gamma phase formation will be the subject of further examinations.

  4. Bully Victimization: Selection and Influence Within Adolescent Friendship Networks and Cliques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Giletta, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents tend to form friendships with similar peers and, in turn, their friends further influence adolescents' behaviors and attitudes. Emerging work has shown that these selection and influence processes also might extend to bully victimization. However, no prior work has examined selection and influence effects involved in bully victimization within cliques, despite theoretical account emphasizing the importance of cliques in this regard. This study examined selection and influence processes in adolescence regarding bully victimization both at the level of the entire friendship network and the level of cliques. We used a two-wave design (5-month interval). Participants were 543 adolescents (50.1% male, Mage = 15.8) in secondary education. Stochastic actor-based models indicated that at the level of the larger friendship network, adolescents tended to select friends with similar levels of bully victimization as they themselves. In addition, adolescent friends influenced each other in terms of bully victimization over time. Actor Parter Interdependence models showed that similarities in bully victimization between clique members were not due to selection of clique members. For boys, average clique bully victimization predicted individual bully victimization over time (influence), but not vice versa. No influence was found for girls, indicating that different mechanisms may underlie friend influence on bully victimization for girls and boys. The differences in results at the level of the larger friendship network versus the clique emphasize the importance of taking the type of friendship ties into account in research on selection and influence processes involved in bully victimization.

  5. Arbitrary social norms influence sex differences in romantic selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W

    2009-10-01

    Men tend to be less selective than women when evaluating and pursuing potential romantic partners. The present experiment employed speed-dating procedures to test a novel explanation for this sex difference: The mere act of physically approaching a potential romantic partner (vs. being approached), a behavior that is more characteristic of men than of women, increases one's attraction to that partner. This hypothesis was supported in a sample of speed daters (N = 350) who attended a heterosexual event where either men (eight events) or women (seven events) rotated from one partner to the next while members of the other sex remained seated. Rotators were significantly less selective than were sitters, which meant that the tendency for men to be less selective than women at events where men rotated disappeared at events where women rotated. These effects were mediated by increased self-confidence among rotators relative to sitters.

  6. Reading Strategies in Hypertexts and Factors Influencing Hyperlink Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopsaltis, Aristidis

    2008-01-01

    Previous work applying cognitive load theory has demonstrated the effect of various text/graphic/narration relations on learning using multimedia material. Other work has looked at how the degree of integration between the text and graphics influences their use. This study set out to look at how the degree of integration between text and graphics…

  7. Influencing the selectivity of zeolite Y for triglycine adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijntje, R.; Bosch, H.; Haan, de A.B.; Bussmann, P.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    In prior work we studied the adsorption of triglycine on zeolite Y under reference conditions. This study aims to solve the question of which adsorbent properties and process conditions influence the adsorption triglycine from an aqueous solution by zeolite Y. Relevant zeolite parameters to study ar

  8. Factors That Influence State or Private University Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargic, Lejla; Poturak, Mersid

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the university is one of the most important life decisions among young people. With a continually rising assortment of educational options, future students look for institutions that will provide them a distinctive educational knowledge that they will keep in their minds for a lifetime. Also, students usually seek an educational…

  9. Postcopulatory sexual selection influences baculum evolution in primates and carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Matilda

    2016-01-01

    The extreme morphological variability of the baculum across mammals is thought to be the result of sexual selection (particularly, high levels of postcopulatory selection). However, the evolutionary trajectory of the mammalian baculum is little studied and evidence for the adaptive function of the baculum has so far been elusive. Here, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to reconstruct baculum evolution across the mammalian class and investigate the rate of baculum length evolution within the primate order. We then test the effects of testes mass (postcopulatory sexual selection), polygamy, seasonal breeding and intromission duration on the baculum in primates and carnivores. The ancestral mammal did not have a baculum, but both ancestral primates and carnivores did. No relationship was found between testes mass and baculum length in either primates or carnivores. Intromission duration correlated with baculum presence over the course of primate evolution, and prolonged intromission predicts significantly longer bacula in extant primates and carnivores. Both polygamous and seasonal breeding systems predict significantly longer bacula in primates. These results suggest the baculum plays an important role in facilitating reproductive strategies in populations with high levels of postcopulatory sexual selection. PMID:27974519

  10. Cultural Influence on Selective Attention Processes among Nigerian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Anselm

    Three experiments in auditory selective attention form the basis of this investigation of cross-cultural differences among the ethnic groups of the Ibo and Yoruba adolescents of Nigeria. A sample of 200 16-year-olds were randomly drawn from four secondary schools. Yoruba adolescents showed superior performance in a task-involving the repetition of…

  11. The relationship between cohabitation and divorce: selectivity or causal influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, W G; Thornton, A

    1992-08-01

    Recent evidence linking premarital cohabitation to high rates of divorce poses a complex theoretical and empirical puzzle. We develop hypotheses predicting that premarital cohabitation is selective of those who are prone to divorce as well as hypotheses predicting that the experience of premarital cohabitation produces attitudes and values which increase the probability of divorce. Using multiwave panel data from a recent cohort of young men and women in the United States, we specify and test models of these predictions. The results are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that cohabitation is selective of men and women who are less committed to marriage and more approving of divorce. The results also are consistent with the conclusion that cohabiting experiences significantly increase young people's acceptance of divorce.

  12. Influence of boundaries on pattern selection in through-flow

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, D R; Lücke, M; Müller, H W; Kamps, M; Schmitz, R

    1996-01-01

    The problem of pattern selection in absolutely unstable open flow systems is investigated by considering the example of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The spatiotemporal structure of convection rolls propagating downstream in an externally imposed flow is determined for six different inlet/outlet boundary conditions. Results are obtained by numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations and by comparison with the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equation. A unique selection process is observed being a function of the control parameters and the boundary conditions but independent of the history and the system length. The problem can be formulated in terms of a nonlinear eigen/boundary value problem where the frequency of the propagating pattern is the eigenvalue. PACS: 47.54.+r, 47.20.Bp, 47.27.Te, 47.20.Ky

  13. Factors influencing property selection for conservation revolving funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mathew J; Fitzsimons, James A; Bekessy, Sarah A; Gordon, Ascelin

    2017-07-20

    Finding sustainable ways to increase the amount of private land protected for biodiversity is a challenge for many conservation organizations. In a number of countries, organizations use 'revolving fund' programs, whereby land is purchased, and then on-sold to conservation-minded owners with a condition to enter into a conservation covenant or easement. The proceeds from sale are then used to purchase, protect and on-sell additional properties, incrementally increasing the amount of protected private land. As the effectiveness of this approach relies upon selecting the right properties, we sought to explore the factors currently considered by practitioners and how these are integrated into decision-making. We conducted exploratory, semi-structured interviews with managers from each of the five major revolving funds in Australia. Responses suggest that whilst conservation factors are important, financial and social factors are also highly influential, with a major determinant being whether the property can be on-sold within a reasonable timeframe, and at a price that replenishes the fund. To facilitate the on-sale process, often selected properties include the potential for the construction of a dwelling. Practitioners are faced with clear trade-offs between conservation, financial, amenity and other factors in selecting properties; and three main potential risks: difficulty recovering the costs of acquisition, protection, and resale; difficulty on-selling the property; and difficulty meeting conservation goals. Our findings suggest that the complexity of these decisions may be limiting revolving fund effectiveness. We draw from participant responses to identify potential strategies to mitigate the risks identified, and suggest that managers could benefit from a shared learning and adaptive approach to property selection given the commonalities between programs. Understanding how practitioners are dealing with complex decisions in the implementation of revolving

  14. Ranked Levels of Influence Model: Selecting Influence Techniques to Minimize IT Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Christa E.; Butler, Brian S.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    Implementation of electronic health records (EHR), particularly computerized physician/provider order entry systems (CPOE), is often met with resistance. Influence presented at the right time, in the right manner, may minimize resistance or at least limit the risk of complete system failure. Combining established theories on power, influence tactics, and resistance, we developed the Ranked Levels of Influence model. Applying it to documented examples of EHR/CPOE failures at Cedars-Sinai and Kaiser Permanente in Hawaii, we evaluated the influence applied, the resistance encountered, and the resulting risk to the system implementation. Using the Ranked Levels of Influence model as a guideline, we demonstrate that these system failures were associated with the use of hard influence tactics that resulted in higher levels of resistance. We suggest that when influence tactics remain at the soft tactics level, the level of resistance stabilizes or de-escalates and the system can be saved. PMID:20176135

  15. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients' decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jean; Sick, Brian; Anderson, Joseph; Berg, Andrea; Dehmer, Chad; Tufano, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Each year consumers make a variety of decisions relating to their healthcare. Some experts argue that stronger consumer engagement in decisions about where to obtain medical care is an important mechanism for improving efficiency in healthcare delivery and financing. Consumers' ability and motivation to become more active decision makers are affected by several factors, including financial incentives and access to information. This study investigates the set of factors that consumers consider when selecting a provider, including attributes of the provider and the care experience and the reputation of the provider. Additionally, the study evaluates consumers awareness and use of formal sources of provider selection information. Our results from analyzing data from a survey of 467 patients at four clinics in Minnesota suggest that the factors considered of greatest importance include reputation of the physician and reputation of the healthcare organization. Contractual and logistical factors also play a role, with respondents highlighting the importance of seeing a provider affiliated with their health plan and appointment availability. Few respondents indicated that advertisements or formal sources of quality information affected their decision making. The key implication for provider organizations is to carefully manage referral sources to ensure that they consistently meet the needs of referrers. Excellent service to existing patients and to the network of referring physicians yields patient and referrer satisfaction that is critical to attracting new patients. Finally, organizations more generally may want to explore the capabilities of new media and social networking sites for building reputation.

  16. Cleaner wrasse influence habitat selection of young damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D.; Cheney, K. L.; Werminghausen, J.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; McCormick, M. I.; Cribb, T. H.; Grutter, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    The presence of bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, on coral reefs increases total abundance and biodiversity of reef fishes. The mechanism(s) that cause such shifts in population structure are unclear, but it is possible that young fish preferentially settle into microhabitats where cleaner wrasse are present. As a first step to investigate this possibility, we conducted aquarium experiments to examine whether settlement-stage and young juveniles of ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, selected a microhabitat near a cleaner wrasse (adult or juvenile). Both settlement-stage (0 d post-settlement) and juvenile (~5 weeks post-settlement) fish spent a greater proportion of time in a microhabitat adjacent to L. dimidiatus than in one next to a control fish (a non-cleaner wrasse, Halichoeres melanurus) or one where no fish was present. This suggests that cleaner wrasse may serve as a positive cue during microhabitat selection. We also conducted focal observations of cleaner wrasse and counts of nearby damselfishes (1 m radius) to examine whether newly settled fish obtained direct benefits, in the form of cleaning services, from being near a cleaner wrasse. Although abundant, newly settled recruits (reinforces the potentially important role of mutualism during the processes of settlement and recruitment of young reef fishes.

  17. Influence of selected fluorescent dyes on small aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Marcin

    2011-02-01

    Rhodamine B and Rhodamine WT are fluorescent dyes commonly used as tracers in hydrological investigations. Since introducing intensely red substances into rivers raises understandable doubts of ecological nature, the authors aimed at examining the influence of these dyes on small water fauna using bioindication methods. Quantitative results, calculated with the use of Bliss-Weber probit statistical method, were achieved by means of standardized ecotoxicological tests containing ready-to-hatch resting forms of fairy shrimp (Thamnocephalus platyurus). Qualitative studies included observation of water flea crustacean (Daphnia magna) and horned planorbis snail (Planorbis corneus), both typically present in rivers and representative for temperate climate, as well as guppy fish (Poecilla reticulata), paramecium protozoan (Paramaecium caudatum) and the above-mentioned fairy shrimp. The investigation revealed that both dyes in concentrations used for hydrological purposes are low enough to exert almost no toxic impact on water fauna considered.

  18. The Usefulness of Explicit Grammar Teaching: An lnvestigation of Syntactic Satiation Effects and Acceptability Judgements in Libyan EFL Contexts.

    OpenAIRE

    Abugharsa, Aisha Fathi

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that techniques based on ‘syntactic priming’, a tendency to produce utterances with structures individuals have recently been exposed to, and ‘syntactic satiation’, which leads individuals to judge previously unacceptable utterances as acceptable, can be used to evaluate second language teaching methods. This is based on the assumption that the more robust an individual’s linguistic intuitions, the less susceptible they are to priming or satiation effects. ...

  19. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  20. Extinction intensity, selectivity and their combined macroevolutionary influence in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Bush, Andrew M; Chang, Ellen T; Heim, Noel A; Knope, Matthew L; Pruss, Sara B

    2016-10-01

    The macroevolutionary effects of extinction derive from both intensity of taxonomic losses and selectivity of losses with respect to ecology, physiology and/or higher taxonomy. Increasingly, palaeontologists are using logistic regression to quantify extinction selectivity because the selectivity metric is independent of extinction intensity and multiple predictor variables can be assessed simultaneously. We illustrate the use of logistic regression with an analysis of physiological buffering capacity and extinction risk in the Phanerozoic marine fossil record. We propose the geometric mean of extinction intensity and selectivity as a metric for the influence of extinction events. The end-Permian mass extinction had the largest influence on the physiological composition of the fauna owing to its combination of high intensity and strong selectivity. In addition to providing a quantitative measure of influence to compare among past events, this approach provides an avenue for quantifying the risk posed by the emerging biodiversity crisis that goes beyond a simple projection of taxonomic losses.

  1. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  2. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  3. Synergistic relationship between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the satiating effect of cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerard P

    2013-12-01

    Synergism between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the research program of Smith and Gibbs on the satiating effect of cholecystokinin during the past 40 years is described. The Seminar was synergistic with the research program in five ways. First, the steady parade of speakers gave us a window on the varied and interesting work going on in the field. Second, the Seminar was the kind of audience for presentations of the work-in-progress on CCK that scientists hope for and rarely find. Criticism by members of the Seminar was relentless and constructive, and ideas for further experiments or new ways to tackle problematic data poured forth. Third, members of the Seminar did experiments that facilitated the experimental success of the research program. Fourth, members of the Seminar tutored us on topics that we wanted to import into the research program on CCK. Fifth, and probably most important, members of the Seminar gave us the encouragement, good humor, and friendship so necessary for coping with the struggles of the scientific life.

  4. Regional brain responses associated with drinking water during thirst and after its satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, Pascal; Farrell, Michael J; Adib, Faiz R M; Egan, Gary F; McKinley, Michael J; Denton, Derek A

    2014-04-08

    The instinct of thirst was a cardinal element in the successful colonization by vertebrates of the dry land of the planet, which began in the Ordovician period about 400 million y ago. It is a commonplace experience in humans that drinking water in response to thirst following fluid loss is a pleasant experience. However, continuing to drink water once thirst has been satiated becomes unpleasant and, eventually, quite aversive. Functional MRI experiments reported here show pleasantness of drinking is associated with activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann area 32) and the orbitofrontal cortex. The unpleasantness and aversion of overdrinking is associated with activation in the midcingulate cortex, insula, amygdala, and periaqueductal gray. Drinking activations in the putamen and cerebellum also correlated with the unpleasantness of water, and the motor cortex showed increased activation during overdrinking compared with drinking during thirst. These activations in motor regions may possibly reflect volitional effort to conduct compliant drinking in the face of regulatory mechanisms inhibiting intake. The results suggestive of a specific inhibitory system in the control of drinking are unique.

  5. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  6. Looking for cues - infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, N; Vereijken, C M J L; Blundell, P; Hetherington, M M

    2017-01-01

    It is known that duration of breastfeeding and responsive feeding are associated with decreased risk of obesity. It is however, not clear whether breastfed infants signal more to mothers to facilitate responsive feeding, compared to formula fed, nor what communication cues are important during the feeding interaction. The present study aimed to explore feeding cues in milk-fed infants and to examine if such cues vary by mode of feeding. Twenty-seven mothers and infants were filmed while breastfeeding or formula feeding. Infants' age ranged from 3 to 22 weeks. Feeding cues were identified using a validated list of communication cues (NCAST). The frequency of each cue during the beginning, middle, and end of the meal was recorded. There were 22 feeding cues identified during the feeds, with significantly more frequent disengagement cues expressed than engagement cues. Significantly more frequent feeding cues were observed at the beginning than at the end of the meal showing that cue frequency changes with satiation. Breastfeeding infants exhibited more engagement and disengagement cues than formula fed infants. Supporting mothers to identify engagement and disengagement cues during a milk feed may promote more responsive feeding-strategies that can be acquired by mothers using different modes of feeding.

  7. Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined grain pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Ibrugger, Sabine; Bache, Jessica; Thomassen, Mette Torp; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Kristensen, Mette

    2016-12-01

    Wholegrains have received much attention in recent years due to their role in prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. Many studies about energy regulation are focused on the effect between meals (satiety), but the effect within meal (satiation) for wholegrain foods has not been extensively studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were administered in sixteen overweight/obese subjects in a crossover design. The test meals consisted of RGP and WGP served with tomato sauce. Study A: the ad libitum lunch meal was consumed then EI registered. Study B: the iso-caloric lunch meal was served, then subjective appetite sensation and breath hydrogen excretion were assessed for 240 min followed by an ad libitum meal where EI was calculated. Overall, WGP did not significantly differ in the effect on ad libitum EI within meal (p = 0.23) in study A. In study B, WGP resulted in an increased sensation of satiety (p intake at the subsequent meals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Satiation and satiety sensations produced by eating oatmeal vs. oranges. a comparison of different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalus, Melinda; Vickers, Zata

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to use the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire (Karalus, 2011) to compare the changes in satiation and satiety produced by eating oranges with the changes produced by eating oatmeal. A secondary objective was to compare the data from the 5-Factor Satiety Questionnaire with that from more traditionally used scales. Thirty participants evaluated hunger and fullness feelings before breakfast and at 0, 60, and 120 min after consuming breakfasts of equal volumes of oranges and oatmeal. We covertly recorded food intake from an ad libitum snack offered 2 h after breakfast. Oranges were less effective than oatmeal for decreasing mental hunger immediately after eating. Mental hunger increased more and mental fullness decreased more during the 2-h period after eating oranges than after eating oatmeal. Neither physical hunger changes nor physical fullness changes differed between the two foods. Participants ate more food at an ad libitum snack 2 h after eating the oranges compared with after eating the oatmeal. We were better able to distinguish the feelings produced by the oatmeal from the feelings produced by the oranges with the factor scales than with the traditional scales of hunger and fullness.

  9. Z-Selective olefin metathesis on peptides: investigation of side-chain influence, preorganization, and guidelines in substrate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Shane L; O'Leary, Daniel J; Grubbs, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors.

  10. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis on Peptides: Investigation of Side-Chain Influence, Preorganization, and Guidelines in Substrate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis has emerged as a promising strategy for modulating the stability and activity of biologically relevant compounds; however, the ability to control olefin geometry in the product remains a challenge. Recent advances in the design of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts has led to new strategies for achieving such control with high fidelity and Z selectivity, but the scope and limitations of these catalysts on substrates bearing multiple functionalities, including peptides, remained unexplored. Herein, we report an assessment of various factors that contribute to both productive and nonproductive Z-selective metathesis on peptides. The influence of sterics, side-chain identity, and preorganization through peptide secondary structure are explored by homodimerization, cross metathesis, and ring-closing metathesis. Our results indicate that the amino acid side chain and identity of the olefin profoundly influence the activity of cyclometalated ruthenium catalysts in Z-selective metathesis. The criteria set forth for achieving high conversion and Z selectivity are highlighted by cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis on diverse peptide substrates. The principles outlined in this report are important not only for expanding the scope of Z-selective olefin metathesis to peptides but also for applying stereoselective olefin metathesis in general synthetic endeavors. PMID:25102124

  11. [Influence of selected factors on fortified food intake by children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Katarzyna; Januszko, Olga; Bylinowska, Justyna; Sicińska, Ewa; Pietruszka, Barbara; Kałuza, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The range of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals in Poland is growing rapidly in the last years. Also the consumption of such food and dietary supplements is increasing. Therefore there is a risk of excessive intake of vitamins and minerals. The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants of intake of food products fortified with vitamins and minerals among children aged 6-12. Data was collected by a questionnaire specially developed and a FFQ method including vitamins and/or minerals in fortified food products. There were collected data from parents of 743 children (374 boys, 369 girls) attending primary schools, placed in four different districts of Poland. More than 70% of children consumed food products fortified with vitamins and/or minerals, among them 76% - every day. As a main reason of intake of fortified food by children, parents mentioned the beneficial effects on health (86.2% parents) and taste preferences (61.2%). However, the main reason of no consuming this kind of products, were proper nutrition of the children (57.4%), no influence on health (30.3%) and prohibitive price (24,1%). There were statistically significant relationships between intake of food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals and children's age (75.8% of age 6-9 years vs. 58.1% of age 10-12 years), health condition (71.6% of children with good and very good health status -assessed by parents - vs. 55.6% with average and poor health status), the number of meals eaten during the day (75.6% eating 4 meals/day vs. 67.8% - 5 and more meals vs. 52.3% - 3 meals), regular breakfast eating (71.8% eating vs. 50.0% non consumption), brunch eating (73.3% vs. 54.0% respectively), afternoon snack eating (75.7% vs. 59.4%) and using of dietary supplements (84.6% among children who use supplements vs. 61.4% among non users). It was established that about 22% of parents were unaware that their children consumed food fortified with vitamins and/or minerals. Food fortified with

  12. Use of Behavior and Influence Functions for Relay Selection in Cooperative Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Prasad, Ramjee;

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a novel set of functions to model the relay selection process in a scenario of cooperative wireless communications. We define a utility function that reflects the behavior and influence that a selected relay may have on the quality of the link to be established for the forwarding...... of data. The utility function takes into account also the strategies of other players. To this end, we define a relay selection game and a supporting Nash Equilibrium (NE) algorithm for the choice of a relay during communication. The successful selection of a relay is evaluated by simulations in terms...

  13. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-09-01

    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  14. The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Široký, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Title: The influence of elements of synchronized swimming on technique of the selected swimming strokes Objectives: The objective of the thesis is to assess the effect of the elements of synchronized swimming at improving the techniques of swimming. Methods: The results were detected by overt observation with active participation and subsequent scaling on the ordinal scale 1 to 5. Results: The results show that the influence of the elements of synchronized swimming on improving the technique ...

  15. Backflow of Migrant Workers in Urbanization: Place Selection and Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuedong LI; Liang ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Backflow of migrant workers is an essential part of rural surplus labor transfer. 425 valid samples from Haicheng,Taian and Xiuyan cities of Liaoning Province were analyzed and place selection and influencing factors were discussed. The study indicated that in backflow migrant workers,43. 16% returned to counties and towns,while 56. 84% returned to rural areas. Place selection was significantly influenced by years of migrant work,training,times of migration,migration distance,age,land area in hometown,and living preference.

  16. Evaluation of the Influence of Selected Factors on a Successful ERP Software Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Hołodnik-Janczura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a pilot study, a list of critical success factors for an IT project was developed. These factors were subjected to statistical analysis on the basis of the results of a questionnaire. Two samples of projects, called "success" and "failure" respectively, were analysed. The groups were distinguished in order to evaluate the influence of selected factors on the success of an implementation project. Furthermore, a non-parametric test was applied, in order to conduct statistical data analysis, which confirmed the influence of the majority of the selected factors on the success of an implementation project. (original abstract

  17. The demographic transition influences variance in fitness and selection on height and BMI in rural Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Rickard, Ian J; Lummaa, Virpi; Prentice, Andrew M; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stearns, Stephen C

    2013-05-20

    Recent human history is marked by demographic transitions characterized by declines in mortality and fertility. By influencing the variance in those fitness components, demographic transitions can affect selection on other traits. Parallel to changes in selection triggered by demography per se, relationships between fitness and anthropometric traits are also expected to change due to modification of the environment. Here we explore for the first time these two main evolutionary consequences of demographic transitions using a unique data set containing survival, fertility, and anthropometric data for thousands of women in rural Gambia from 1956-2010. We show how the demographic transition influenced directional selection on height and body mass index (BMI). We observed a change in selection for both traits mediated by variation in fertility: selection initially favored short females with high BMI values but shifted across the demographic transition to favor tall females with low BMI values. We demonstrate that these differences resulted both from changes in fitness variance that shape the strength of selection and from shifts in selective pressures triggered by environmental changes. These results suggest that demographic and environmental trends encountered by current human populations worldwide are likely to modify, but not stop, natural selection in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholecystokinin regulates satiation independently of the abdominal vagal nerve in a pig model of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, D; van der Wielen, N; van der Meulen, J; Schuurman, T; Witkamp, R F; Hendriks, H F J; Koopmans, S J

    2015-02-01

    The vagal nerve and gut hormones CCK and GLP-1 play important roles in the control of food intake. However, it is not clear to what extent CCK and GLP-1 increase satiation by stimulating receptors located on abdominal vagal nerve endings or via receptors located elsewhere. This study aimed to further explore the relative contribution of the abdominal vagal nerve in mediating the satiating effects of endogenous CCK and GLP-1. Total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or sham operation was combined with administration of CCK1 and GLP-1 receptor antagonists devazepide and exendin (9-39) in 12 pigs, applying an unbalanced Latin Square within-subject design. Furthermore, effects of vagotomy on preprandial and postprandial acetaminophen absorption, glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and CCK plasma concentrations were investigated. Ad libitum liquid meal intake (mean±SEM) was similar in sham and vagotomized pigs (4180±435 and 3760±810 g/meal). Intake increased by about 20% after blockade of CCK1 receptors, independently of the abdominal vagal nerve. Food intake did not increase after blockade of GLP-1 receptors. Blockade of CCK1 and GLP-1 receptors increased circulating CCK and GLP-1 concentrations in sham pigs only, suggesting the existence of a vagal reflex mechanism in the regulation of plasma CCK1 and GLP-1 concentrations. Vagotomy decreased acetaminophen absorption and changed glucose, insulin, CCK and GLP-1 concentrations indicating a delay in gastric emptying. Our data show that at liquid feeding, satiation is decreased effectively by pharmacological blockade of CCK1 receptors. We conclude that regulation of liquid meal intake appears to be primarily regulated by CCK1 receptors not located on abdominal vagal nerve endings.

  19. Hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of impulse activity of masticatory muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Ju P; Kromin, A A

    2009-01-01

    Impulse activity of masticatory muscles, jaw elevators and depressors, during hunger, eating, and satiation was studied in chronic experiments on rabbits. The state of hunger is specifically reflected in the structure of temporal organization of impulse activity of proper masticatory muscles as a monomodal distribution of interpulse intervals and in activity of the mylohyoid muscle as bimodal distributions. Food intake induces reorganization of the temporal structure of impulse activity in both muscles manifesting in the form of similar bimodal patterns of distributions of interpulse intervals.

  20. The influence of neighbor relatedness on multilevel selection in the Great Lakes sea rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Natural selection can operate at the individual and group level in natural populations. This study investigates the ecological factors that determine the relative importance of individual versus group selection. In particular, it determines how the relatedness of interacting neighbors influences multilevel natural selection in a population of the Great Lakes sea rocket. Focal plants were grown in groups of siblings, groups of plants that were themselves siblings but unrelated to the focal plants, and groups of plants with mixed genotypes. Significant group selection on plant size was observed only when the neighbors were siblings but not when they were unrelated. In sibling groups, individuals with heavier stems had higher fitness, and individuals growing with heavier but shorter neighbors also had higher fitness. Thus, individual and group selection on stem weight operated in the same direction. The detection of group selection in sibling groups can be attributed in part to an increased opportunity for group selection in these groups since sibling groups differed more from one another than the other group types. In addition, the quality of the selective environment in sibling groups may have differed from that for the other group types. Group selection was therefore more prevalent in the most genetically structured sample, in which responses to group selection are also most likely to occur.

  1. The Influence of Membership Groups on Selecting Accommodations: the Case of the Residential Tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perez-Aranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.

  2. Factors Influencing the Selection of Surgical Specialty among Pakistani Medical Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avan B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The delineation between selection of surgery and non-surgery residency programmes could provide a pragmatic view of the influences on medical graduates' careers. This would also help coordinators and educators of residency programmes in surgery to further understand the dynamics of specialty selection. AIMS: To identify the different factors that influence the graduates to select surgical specialties in Pakistan. SETTINGS AND DESIGNS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4 teaching hospitals of Karachi between July 1999 and January 2001. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A total of 455 residents in 1-5 years of residency programmes were contacted. Three hundred and forty-one residents consented to the interview. Residents who were registered both with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan (CPSP and the Post Graduate Medical Education (PGME office of the selected hospitals were included in this study. STATISTICAL METHOD USED: Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Final multivariate analysis identified 4 factors that remained significantly associated with the selection of surgical specialty: deriving gratification from direct patient care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 26.99, procedure-based medical practice (aOR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.23, 6.61, nature of clinical problems (aOR = 3.39; 95% CI: 1.47, 7.84, and lack of consideration of stress during professional work (aOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.25, 4.13. CONCLUSIONS: Direct patient care is perceived to be an integral part of surgery residency and immediate patient outcome is a positive influence in selecting surgical specialty. The inclination towards surgery appeared to be determined by the type of procedures and technical skills involved in its practice. The nature of clinical problems is an important determinant of the choice of specialty. Stress was not perceived to be an important influencing factor for those who decided to select surgical

  3. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2012-11-01

    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  4. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on gastric volume, satiation and enteroendocrine secretion in Type 2 diabetes: a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Adrian; Bock, Gerlies; Giesler, Paula D

    2008-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 14 subjects with type 2 diabetes received vildagliptin (50mg bid) or placebo for 10-days in random order separated by a 2-week washout. On day 7, fasting and post-meal gastric volumes were measured by a (99m......)Tc-SPECT method. On day 8, a liquid Ensure((R)) meal was consumed at 30 ml/min, and maximum tolerated volume (MTV) as well as symptoms 30 minutes later were measured using visual analog scales (VAS) to assess effects on satiation. On day 10, subjects ingested water till maximum satiation was achieved. Volume...... pmol/l, p= 0.01) Conclusions: vildagliptin does not alter satiation or gastric volume in people with type 2 diabetes despite elevated GLP-1 concentrations. Compensatory changes in enteroendocrine secretion could account for the lack of gastrointestinal symptoms....

  5. Laser parameter influence on quantum path selection in a bichromatic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaoyi; Hong Weiyi; Lan Pengfei; Zhang Qingbin; Lu Peixiang [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)], E-mail: lupeixiang@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2009-05-28

    We theoretically investigate the laser parameter influence on quantum path selection in a two-colour laser pulse, of which both fundamental field and its controlling field are linearly polarized. The laser's parameters, namely, the relative intensity of the controlling field and its relative phase with respect to the fundamental field, determine the quantum path selection by affecting their ionization probabilities. In both cases of the {omega} + 3{omega} and {omega} + 2{omega} laser fields, it is shown that the quantum path selection in the multi-cycle pulse is more dependent on the parameters than that in the few-cycle pulse, and the selection of the quantum path in the multi-cycle {omega} + 3{omega} pulse shows stability to the phase and intensity variation. Our results are very beneficial to choosing appropriate parameters for quantum path selection in experiments.

  6. The influence of Coalition Formation on Idea Selection in Dispersed Teams: A Game Theoretic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory

    2009-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L. (2009). The influence of coalition formation on idea selection in dispersed teams: a game theoretic approach. Poster presentation at the Fourth European conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2009). September, 29-October, 2, 2009, Nice, France.

  7. Assessing the Attributes which Influence Pharmacy School Selection Utilizing the Freshman Pharmacy Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Victoria F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of data indicates that student-centered, as opposed to institution-centered or program-centered, attributes have a greater impact on the student's decision-making process when selecting a pharmacy school. Significant differences in attribute influence based on demographic variables are presented. (Author/MLW)

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SELECTING RECEIVING SLITSAND USING RANDOMLY ORIENTED STANDARD SAMPLESON QUANTITATIVE TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毓舒

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the selection of receiving slits and the use of standard samples with random orientation on the result of quantitative texture analysis was tested and discussed. The result proves that it will improve the precision of the analysis to use proper slits and a randomly oriented standard sample. A simple method was given to interpolate the correction curves of random intensities.

  9. The influence of caffeine on spatial-selective attention : an event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, MB; Snel, J; Lorist, MM; Ruijter, J

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Following the indications of previous studies that caffeine might have a specific effect on the processing of spatial information compared with other types of information, the present study investigated the influence of caffeine on an often used spatial-selective attention task. Methods:

  10. Influence and Selection Processes in Friendships and Adolescent Smoking Behaviour: The Role of Parental Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vitaro, Frank; Blokland, Endy Den Exter; de Kemp, Raymond; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerning the role of parental smoking on development of adolescent smoking, most studies have exclusively focused on the direct effects of parents' smoking on youths' smoking. However, parental smoking may also play an indirect role by affecting youths' susceptibility to peer influences and by affecting friendship selection. Data were from a…

  11. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adol

  12. Early Adolescent Friendships and Academic Adjustment: Examining Selection and Influence Processes with Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed…

  13. Peer selection and influence on children's reading skills in early primary grades: A social network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiuru, N.; DeLay, D.; Laursen, B.; Burk, W.J.; Lerkkanen, M.K.; Poikkeus, A.M.; Nurmi, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study from Grades 1 to 4 investigated (a) the extent to which children select peers based on similarity in reading skills and (b) the extent to which children are influenced by the level of their peers' reading skills. The sample consisted of 1003 Finnish children in Grades 1-4, fo

  14. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  15. The Influence of Selected Personality and Workplace Features on Burnout among Nurse Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilci, Sevgi; Erdogan, Vesile; Sozen, Emine

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of selected individual and situational features on burnout among nurse academics. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to assess the burnout levels of academics. The sample population comprised 94 female participant. The emotion exhaustion (EE) score of the nurse academics was 16.43[plus or minus]5.97,…

  16. Peer Selection and Influence on Children's Reading Skills in Early Primary Grades: A Social Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Burk, William J.; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study from Grades 1 to 4 investigated (a) the extent to which children select peers based on similarity in reading skills and (b) the extent to which children are influenced by the level of their peers' reading skills. The sample consisted of 1003 Finnish children in Grades 1-4, for whom reading fluency and comprehension were…

  17. The Influence of Coalition Formation on Idea Selection in Dispersed Teams: A Game Theoretic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sie, R. L. L., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., & Sloep, P. B. (2009). The Influence of Coalition Formation on Idea Selection in Dispersed Teams: A Game Theoretic Approach. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines. Proceedings of the Fourth European Conferenc

  18. Social capital and employee well-being : Disentangling intrapersonal and interpersonal selection and influence mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, F.; Wittek, R.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    We argue that sociological explanations proposed within the social capital framework to explain individual well-being are incomplete because they do not differentiate between interpersonal influence and selection mechanisms, on the one hand, and cognitive intra-personal processes. on the other. To t

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  1. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development: friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Hawley, Patricia H; Little, Todd D

    2010-12-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and extrinsic friendship motivation on friendship selection and social influence by utilizing social network modeling. In addition, longitudinal relations among motivation and friendship quality were estimated with structural equation modeling. Extrinsic motivation predicted activity in making friendship nominations during the sixth grade and lower friendship quality across time. Intrinsic motivation predicted inactivity in making friendship nominations during the sixth, popularity as a friend across the transition to middle school, and higher friendship quality across time. Social influence effects were observed for both motives, but were more pronounced for intrinsic motivation.

  3. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  4. Impaired satiation and increased feeding behaviour in the triple-transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedolapo Adebakin

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with non-cognitive symptoms such as changes in feeding behaviour that are often characterised by an increase in appetite. Increased food intake is observed in several mouse models of AD including the triple transgenic (3×TgAD mouse, but the mechanisms underlying this hyperphagia are unknown. We therefore examined feeding behaviour in 3×TgAD mice and tested their sensitivity to exogenous and endogenous satiety factors by assessing food intake and activation of key brain regions. In the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS, 3×TgAD mice consumed more food after a fast compared to Non-Tg controls. Feeding and drinking behaviours were increased and rest decreased in 3×TgAD mice, but the overall sequence of behaviours in the BSS was maintained. Exogenous administration of the satiety factor cholecystokinin (CCK; 8-30 µg/kg, i.p. dose-dependently reduced food intake in Non-Tg controls and increased inactive behaviour, but had no effect on food intake or behaviour in 3×TgAD mice. CCK (15 µg/kg, i.p. increased c-Fos protein expression in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS and area postrema of the brainstem to the same extent in Non-Tg and 3×TgAD mice, but less c-Fos positive cells were detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of CCK-treated 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. In response to a fast or a period of re-feeding, there was no difference in the number of c-Fos-positive cells detected in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, NTS and area postrema of 3×TgAD compared to Non-Tg mice. The degree of c-Fos expression in the NTS was positively correlated to food intake in Non-Tg mice, however, this relationship was absent in 3×TgAD mice. These data demonstrate that 3×TgAD mice show increased feeding behaviour and insensitivity to satiation, which is possibly due to defective gut-brain signalling in response to endogenous satiety factors released

  5. Temperature influences selective mortality during the early life stages of a coral reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauna L Rankin

    Full Text Available For organisms with complex life cycles, processes occurring at the interface between life stages can disproportionately impact survival and population dynamics. Temperature is an important factor influencing growth in poikilotherms, and growth-related processes are frequently correlated with survival. We examined the influence of water temperature on growth-related early life history traits (ELHTs and differential mortality during the transition from larval to early juvenile stage in sixteen monthly cohorts of bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus, sampled on reefs of the upper Florida Keys, USA over 6 years. Otolith analysis of settlers and juveniles coupled with environmental data revealed that mean near-reef water temperature explained a significant proportion of variation in pelagic larval duration (PLD, early larval growth, size-at-settlement, and growth during early juvenile life. Among all cohorts, surviving juveniles were consistently larger at settlement, but grew more slowly during the first 6 d post-settlement. For the other ELHTs, selective mortality varied seasonally: during winter and spring months, survivors exhibited faster larval growth and shorter PLDs, whereas during warmer summer months, selection on PLD reversed and selection on larval growth became non-linear. Our results demonstrate that temperature not only shapes growth-related traits, but can also influence the direction and intensity of selective mortality.

  6. On the Influence of Selection Operators on Performances in Cellular Genetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Simoncini, David; Verel, Sébastien; Clergue, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the selective pressure on the performance of cellular genetic algorithms. Cellular genetic algorithms are genetic algorithms where the population is embedded on a toroidal grid. This structure makes the propagation of the best so far individual slow down, and allows to keep in the population potentially good solutions. We present two selective pressure reducing strategies in order to slow down even more the best solution propagation. We experiment these strategies on a hard optimization problem, the quadratic assignment problem, and we show that there is a value for of the control parameter for both which gives the best performance. This optimal value does not find explanation on only the selective pressure, measured either by take over time and diversity evolution. This study makes us conclude that we need other tools than the sole selective pressure measures to explain the performances of cellular genetic algorithms.

  7. Application of influence diagrams to prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jürgen; Phillips, Mark H.; Cho, Paul S.; Kalet, Ira; Doctor, Jason N.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose is to incorporate clinically relevant factors such as patient-specific and dosimetric information as well as data from clinical trials in the decision-making process for the selection of prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. The approach is to incorporate the decision theoretic concept of an influence diagram into the solution of the multiobjective optimization inverse planning problem. A set of candidate IMRT plans was obtained by varying the importance factors for the planning target volume (PTV) and the organ-at-risk (OAR) in combination with simulated annealing to explore a large part of the solution space. The Pareto set for the PTV and OAR was analysed to demonstrate how the selection of the weighting factors influenced which part of the solution space was explored. An influence diagram based on a Bayesian network with 18 nodes was designed to model the decision process for plan selection. The model possessed nodes for clinical laboratory results, tumour grading, staging information, patient-specific information, dosimetric information, complications and survival statistics from clinical studies. A utility node was utilized for the decision-making process. The influence diagram successfully ranked the plans based on the available information. Sensitivity analyses were used to judge the reasonableness of the diagram and the results. In conclusion, influence diagrams lend themselves well to modelling the decision processes for IMRT plan selection. They provide an excellent means to incorporate the probabilistic nature of data and beliefs into one model. They also provide a means for introducing evidence-based medicine, in the form of results of clinical trials, into the decision-making process.

  8. Direct and Indirect Factors Influencing Selection of Birthing Attendants in Gunungsari, West Lombok (NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Aryaniti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study aims to determine the direct and indirect factors influencing the selection of birth attendants in Gunungsari subdistrict, West Lombok.Methods: This study was cross-sectional with a purposively selected sample of 27 mothers giving birth assisted by non-health professionals. Samples of those assisted by health professionals were taken by means of proportional systematic random sampling in Gunungsari and Penimbung health centers, respectively 29 of 916 and 14 of 437. Exogenous factors were maternal education levels, attendance to ANC classes, knowledge levels regarding to birthing attendants, maternal attitude, family support, and access to facilities. Birth attendant selection was the endogenousfactor. Data were collected by means of interviews. Data analysis includes descriptive and inferential analysis with path analysis by linear regression.Results: The majority of respondents were 21-25 years old (87.4% , housewives (47.14% had educat ion under high school (65.72% and were married (88.57%. Family support had a direct influence in decision making with a coefficient of 0.534 and 35.54% influence overall. Attendance to ANC classes in addition to family support had anindirect influence with a coefficient of 0.520 and 34.78% influence overall. Family support had a direct influence and the factor of attendance to ANC classes and family support has an indirect effect with the overall effect of 70.32%.Conclusion: The presence of the husband/family was needed in ANC class, through an implementation of schedule agreement.Keywords: family support, ANC class, birth attendants, path analysis, West Lombok

  9. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending: effects of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Factors Influencing Residency Program Selection by Medical Students Pursuing Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Meredith J; Metz, Torri D; Fothergill, Russell; Meg Autry, Amy; Wagner, Sarah A; Allshouse, Amanda A; Stephenson-Famy, Alyssa

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the factors that influence medical student selection of obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residency programs. We assessed the factors influencing residency program selection by fourth-year medical students pursuing ob-gyn training. A voluntary, anonymous, 19-question survey of residency selection factors was distributed to all fourth-year medical students interviewing at 1 of 5 academic ob-gyn departments for a residency position during the 2013-2014 interview season. Participants were surveyed about the relative importance (not important, somewhat important, important) of various residency selection factors, including operative experience, exposure to subspecialties, curricular experience, access to fellowships, and administrative aspects of residency, including adherence to duty hour restrictions. Of 322 potential respondents, 262 (81%) completed the survey. Surgical training and training in laparoscopic surgery were deemed "important" by nearly all respondents (98%, 258 of 262, and 97%, 253 of 262, respectively). Factors that were considered "not important" by a significant group of respondents included maternity/paternity leave policies (22%, 58 of 259); opportunity for international rotations/electives (20%, 51 of 259); exposure to quality and safety initiatives (13%, 34 of 259); and training in abortion (13%, 34 of 262). Fourth-year medical students identified surgical training as the most important factor in selecting an ob-gyn residency, a finding that is particularly relevant as decreasing and changing surgical volumes affect residency training in this specialty.

  11. The Influence of Context on Occupational Selection in Sport-for-Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Njelesani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sport-for-development (SFD is a growing phenomenon involving engagement in sport activities to achieve international development goals. Kicking AIDS Out is one sport for development initiative that raises HIV/AIDS awareness through sport. Despite sport-for-development’s global prevalence, there is a paucity of literature exploring how activities are selected for use in differing contexts. An occupational perspective can illuminate the selection of activities, sport or otherwise, in sport-for-development programming and the context in which they are implemented. The purpose of the study was to understand how context influences the selection of sport activities in Kicking AIDS Out programs. Thematic analysis was used to guide the secondary analysis of qualitative data gathered with Kicking AIDS Out leaders in Lusaka, Zambia and Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. Findings include that leaders strive to balance their activity preferences with those activities seen as feasible and preferential within their physical, socio-historical, and cultural contexts, and that leader’s differing understandings of sport as a development tool influences their selection of activities. To enable a better fit of activities chosen for the particular context and accomplishment of international development goals, sport-for-development programmes might consider how leaders are trained to select such activities.

  12. The influence of paint dispersion parameters on the spectral selectivity of black-pigmented coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunde, M.K.; Orel, Z.C. [National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hutchins, M.G. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    2003-10-31

    The optical properties of variously prepared black-pigmented solar absorbing paints were calculated in terms of their effective absorption and scattering abilities. The phenomenological two-parameter Kubelka-Munk effective medium theory was applied. Paints with the same composition were prepared for different degrees of pigment dispersion and characterized by the average size of pigment agglomerates present in the pigment/vehicle system. Prepared paints were applied to aluminium foil in two ways, by coil coating and by spraying. The size of coarse pigment particles and the paint application technique influence the spectral selectivity and thus determine the final performance of spectrally selective surfaces. (author)

  13. Gastric antrectomy with selective gastric vagotomy does not influence gallbladder motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A;

    1996-01-01

    Fasting gastrointestinal motility and gallbladder motility during the interdigestive state and in the postprandial period was studied in eight patients who were operated for ulcer disease with an antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy. Nocturnal motility recording revealed all three phases.......77%/min (0.33-0.86%/min). The values in the control group were 0 min (-9 to 13.5 min) and 0.76%/min (0.54-2.25%/min), respectively. These differences between the patients and controls were not significant. In conclusion, antrectomy and selective gastric vagotomy do not influence fasting gastrointestinal...

  14. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  15. Influences of load pattern selection and higher modes on pushover analysis for R.C. structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shuang; OU Jin-ping

    2008-01-01

    Load pattern selection is one of the critical issues in pushover analysis (POA) when the influence of higher modes is evident. In terms of interstory drift, comparisons between the nonlinear time history analysis (NL-THA) and the pushover analysis (POA) were conducted for three typical RC frame buildings under a va-riety of ground motion levels. Eight typical earthquake inputs, including four earthquake records and four artifi-cial earthquake waves, were employed as the input of NL-THA; five typical lateral load patterns were consid-ered in POA. By means of modal participation factor, the higher mode effect in POA was quantified considering floor numbers and the ground motion intensity. Suggestions about load pattern selection in POA were provided when higher mode influence was found evident.

  16. Influence of selective atomic measurement on the entanglement properties of a two-atom outside cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Dao-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Considering three two-level atoms initially in the W or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, one of the three atoms is put into an initially coherent light cavity and made to resonantly interact with the cavity. The two-atom entanglement evolution outside the cavity is investigated. The influences of state-selective measurement of the atom inside the cavity and strength of the light field on the two-atom entanglement evolution outside the cavity are discussed. The results obtained from the numerical method show that the two-atom entanglement outside the cavity is strengthened through state-selective measurement of the atom inside the cavity. In addition, the strength of the light field also influences the two-atom entanglement properties.

  17. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Makara-Studzińska; Karolina Kryś-Noszczyką; Grzegorz Jakiel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment...

  18. The influence of selected ionic liquids on activity of chitin deacetylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspras Izabela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitin deacetylase is the only known enzyme which is able to deacetylate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units in chitin or chitosan chains. As chitin can hardly be dissolved in organic/inorganic solvents, new solvents are still searched. Ionic liquids are promising for that application and for homophase enzymatic deacetylation. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of selected ionic liquids on activity of chitin deacetylase.

  19. The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: A 21-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Stimmel, Barry; Serber, M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-yea...

  20. Peer selection and influence effects on adolescent alcohol use: a stochastic actor-based model

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Early adolescent alcohol use is a major public health challenge. Without clear guidance on the causal pathways between peers and alcohol use, adolescent alcohol interventions may be incomplete. The objective of this study is to disentangle selection and influence effects associated with the dynamic interplay of adolescent friendships and alcohol use. Methods The study analyzes data from Add Health, a longitudinal survey of seventh through eleventh grade U.S. students enrol...

  1. Factors that influence the selection and utilization of children’s medical insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Shishu Zhang; Gregory J. Soukup

    2015-01-01

    The researchers analyzed how different regions in the USA, family structure, ethnicity, and family income levels influenced the selection and utilization of medical care programs and services by American children. To prevent any possible bias in the analysis and to produce reliable results, an endogenous switching model was utilized in the study. The researchers found no statistically significant differences in the number of doctor visits and hospital stays between children with insurance and...

  2. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Twenty-three children (ages 5-7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13-15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576.

  3. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…

  4. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…

  5. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  6. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Pilgrim, Kristy L.; Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Adams, Layne G.; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider explicit assumptions and spatial scales of measurement. We calculated pairwise genetic distance among 301 Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) in southcentral Alaska using an intensive noninvasive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite loci. We used multiple regression of distance matrices to assess the correlation of pairwise genetic distance and landscape resistance derived from an RSF, and combinations of landscape features hypothesized to influence dispersal. Dall's sheep gene flow was positively correlated with steep slopes, moderate peak normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), and open land cover. Whereas RSF covariates were significant in predicting genetic distance, the RSF model itself was not significantly correlated with Dall's sheep gene flow, suggesting that certain habitat features important during summer (rugged terrain, mid-range elevation) were not influential to effective dispersal. This work underscores that consideration of both habitat selection and landscape genetics models may be useful in developing management strategies to both meet the immediate survival of a species and allow for long-term genetic connectivity.

  7. Influence of substrate process tolerances on transmission characteristics of frequency-selective surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhang; Jun Lu; Guancheng Sun; Hongliang Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-selective surface (FSS) is a two-dimensional periodic structure consisting of a dielectric substrate and the metal units (or apertures) arranged periodically on it. When manufacturing the substrate, its thickness and dielectric constant suffer process tolerances. This may induce the center frequency of the FSS to shift, and consequently influence its characteristics. In this paper, a bandpass FSS structure is designed. The units are the Jerusalem crosses arranged squarely. The mode-matching technique is used for simulation. The influence of the tolerances of the substrate's thickness and dielectric constant on the center frequency is analyzed. Results show that the tolerances of thickness and dielectric constant have different influences on the center frequency of the FSS. It is necessary to ensure the process tolerance of the dielectric constant in the design and manufacturing of the substrate in order to stabilize the center frequency.

  8. [Influence of selected family environment factors on the child's speech development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grazyna; Wolanin, Grazyna; Stemplewska, Bozena

    2004-01-01

    All environment strata, natural, cultural and social environment affect the individual in typical way and create his specific reactions as well as mental experiences. A speech, as one of elements enabling adaptation to life in community is formed individually with particular children. The basis of such process is always the possibility of the intercourse with speech. The aim of undertaken subject was the analysis of influence of selected family environment factors on the child's speech development. The study was conducted with children of six and seven year old, where speech should be mastered with fixed pronunciation and proper speech technique. The following research problems have been assumed: 1) how does the speech competences' development with children of six and seven proceed, 2) in which level do the following factors of family environment (parents' age, parents' education, family's financial conditions) influence the child's speech development, 3) does the family's structure influence the proper child's speech development. The following research methods were applied: observation, interview and questionnaire. Applied research tools may be described as follows: inquiry sheet of questionnaire, child's speech card, pictorial test, test chi2. The presented work is a trial of analysis how the selected family environment factors influence the child's speech development.

  9. Habitat selection by postbreeding female diving ducks: Influence of habitat attributes and conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat selection studies of postbreeding waterfowl have rarely focused on within-wetland attributes such as water depth, escape cover, and food availability. Flightless waterfowl must balance habitat selection between avoiding predation risks and feeding. Reproductively successful female ducks face the greatest challenges because they begin the definitive prebasic molt at or near the end of brood rearing, when their body condition is at a low point. We assessed the relative importance of habitat attributes and group effects in habitat selection by postbreeding female lesser scaup Aythya affinis on a 2332-ha montane wetland complex during the peak flightless period (August) over seven years. Hypothesis-based habitat attributes included percent open water, open water:emergent edge density, water depth, percent flooded bare substrate, fetch (distance wind can travel unobstructed), group size, and several interactions representing functional responses to interannual variation in water levels. Surveys of uniquely marked females were conducted within randomly ordered survey blocks. We fitted two-part generalized linear mixed-effects models to counts of marked females within survey blocks, which allowed us to relate habitat attributes to relative probability of occurrence and, given the presence of a marked female, abundance of marked individuals. Postbreeding female scaup selected areas with water depths > 40 cm, large open areas, and intermediate edge densities but showed no relation to flooded bare substrate, suggesting their habitat preferences were more influenced by avoiding predation risks and disturbances than in meeting foraging needs. Grouping behavior by postbreeding scaup suggests habitat selection is influenced in part by behavioral components and/or social information, conferring energetic and survival benefits (predation and disturbance risks) but potentially also contributing to competition for food resources. This study demonstrates the importance of

  10. Waterbird nest-site selection is influenced by neighboring nests and island topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John Y.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Avian nest-site selection is influenced by factors operating across multiple spatial scales. Identifying preferred physical characteristics (e.g., topography, vegetation structure) can inform managers to improve nesting habitat suitability. However, social factors (e.g., attraction, territoriality, competition) can complicate understanding physical characteristics preferred by nesting birds. We simultaneously evaluated the physical characteristics and social factors influencing selection of island nest sites by colonial-nesting American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) at 2 spatial scales in San Francisco Bay, 2011–2012. At the larger island plot (1 m2) scale, we used real-time kinematics to produce detailed topographies of nesting islands and map the distribution of nests. Nesting probability was greatest in island plots between 0.5 m and 1.5 m above the water surface, at distances less likely to nest in plots adjacent to plots with nesting avocets, suggesting an influence of intra-specific territoriality. At the smaller microhabitat scale, or the area immediately surrounding the nest, we compared topography, vegetation, and distance to nearest nest between nest sites and paired random sites. Topography had little influence on selection of the nest microhabitat. Instead, nest sites were more likely to have vegetation present, and greater cover, than random sites. Finally, avocet, and to a lesser extent tern, nest sites were closer to other active conspecific or heterospecific nests than random sites, indicating that social attraction played a role in selection of nest microhabitat. Our results demonstrate key differences in nest-site selection between co-occurring avocets and terns, and indicate the effects of physical characteristics and social factors on selection of nesting habitat are dependent on the spatial scale examined. Moreover, these results indicate that islands with abundant area between 0.5 m and 1.5

  11. Selection of asset investment models by hospitals: examination of influencing factors, using Switzerland as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Hospitals are responsible for a remarkable part of the annual increase in healthcare expenditure. This article examines one of the major cost drivers, the expenditure for investment in hospital assets. The study, conducted in Switzerland, identifies factors that influence hospitals' investment decisions. A suggestion on how to categorize asset investment models is presented based on the life cycle of an asset, and its influencing factors defined based on transaction cost economics. The influence of five factors (human asset specificity, physical asset specificity, uncertainty, bargaining power, and privacy of ownership) on the selection of an asset investment model is examined using a two-step fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. The research shows that outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are particularly favored in the presence of two combinations of influencing factors: First, if technological uncertainty is high and both human asset specificity and bargaining power of a hospital are low. Second, if assets are very specific, technological uncertainty is high and there is a private hospital with low bargaining power, outsourcing-oriented asset investment models are favored too. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it can be demonstrated that investment decisions of hospitals do not depend on isolated influencing factors but on a combination of factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Medial nucleus tractus solitarius oxytocin receptor signaling and food intake control: the role of gastrointestinal satiation signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhi Yi; Alhadeff, Amber L; Grill, Harvey J

    2015-05-01

    Central oxytocin (OT) administration reduces food intake and its effects are mediated, in part, by hindbrain oxytocin receptor (OT-R) signaling. The neural substrate and mechanisms mediating the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain OT-R signaling are undefined. We examined the hypothesis that hindbrain OT-R-mediated feeding inhibition results from an interaction between medial nucleus tractus solitarius (mNTS) OT-R signaling and the processing of gastrointestinal (GI) satiation signals by neurons of the mNTS. Here, we demonstrated that mNTS or fourth ventricle (4V) microinjections of OT in rats reduced chow intake in a dose-dependent manner. To examine whether the intake suppressive effects of mNTS OT-R signaling is mediated by GI signal processing, rats were injected with OT to the 4V (1 μg) or mNTS (0.3 μg), followed by self-ingestion of a nutrient preload, where either treatment was designed to be without effect on chow intake. Results showed that the combination of mNTS OT-R signaling and GI signaling processing by preload ingestion reduced chow intake significantly and to a greater extent than either stimulus alone. Using enzyme immunoassay, endogenous OT content in mNTS-enriched dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in response to ingestion of nutrient preload was measured. Results revealed that preload ingestion significantly elevated endogenous DVC OT content. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that mNTS neurons are a site of action for hindbrain OT-R signaling in food intake control and that the intake inhibitory effects of hindbrain mNTS OT-R signaling are mediated by interactions with GI satiation signal processing by mNTS neurons.

  13. Development of satiating and palatable high-protein meat products by using experimental design in food technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Kristine Sivertsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Foods high in protein are known to satiate more fully than foods high in other constituents. One challenge with these types of food is the degree of palatability. This study was aimed at developing the frankfurter style of sausages that would regulate food intake as well as being the preferred food choice of the consumer. Design and measures: 16 sausage varieties with commercial (PE% 20 or higher amount of protein (PE% 40, being modified with vegetable fat (3% of rapeseed oil, and smoked or not, underwent a sensory descriptive analysis, in which the information was used to choose a subsample of four sausages for a satiety test. Twenty-seven subjects were recruited based on liking and frequency of sausage consumption. The participants ranged in age from 20 to 28, and in body mass index (BMI between 19.6 and 30.9. The students were served a sausage meal for five consecutive days and then filled out a questionnaire to describe their feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness, desire to eat an their prospective consumption on a visual analogue scale (VAS starting from right before, right after the meal, every half hour for 4 h until the next meal was served, and right after the second meal. Results and conclusion: The higher protein sausages were less juicy, oily, fatty, adhesive, but harder and more granular than with lower amount of protein. The high-protein sausages were perceived as more satiating the first 90 min after the first meal. Some indication of satiety effect of added oil versus meat fat. No significant differences in liking among the four sausage varieties.

  14. The good, the bad, and the timely: how temporal order and moral judgment influence causal selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kevin; Kirfel, Lara; van Riel, Raphael; Barlassina, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Causal selection is the cognitive process through which one or more elements in a complex causal structure are singled out as actual causes of a certain effect. In this paper, we report on an experiment in which we investigated the role of moral and temporal factors in causal selection. Our results are as follows. First, when presented with a temporal chain in which two human agents perform the same action one after the other, subjects tend to judge the later agent to be the actual cause. Second, the impact of temporal location on causal selection is almost canceled out if the later agent did not violate a norm while the former did. We argue that this is due to the impact that judgments of norm violation have on causal selection-even if the violated norm has nothing to do with the obtaining effect. Third, moral judgments about the effect influence causal selection even in the case in which agents could not have foreseen the effect and did not intend to bring it about. We discuss our findings in connection to recent theories of the role of moral judgment in causal reasoning, on the one hand, and to probabilistic models of temporal location, on the other.

  15. Differential Factors That Influence Applicant Selection of a Prosthodontic Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Ryan; Lee, Meng-Chieh; Jimenez, Monik; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The main objectives of this study were to identify current prosthodontic resident demographics and to analyze factors that may influence applicants in selecting prosthodontics as a career, as well as a specific prosthodontic program. We also investigated the influence of age, gender, relationship status, and year in program on applicant decisions. Materials and Methods Two questionnaires were mailed to all prosthodontic residents (N = 304) registered with the American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) Central Office. Part I assessed resident demographics and factors influencing choice of specialty. Part II assessed factors influencing the selection of a specific prosthodontic program. Results Completed surveys were obtained from 193 of 304 (63.4%) of all prosthodontic residents registered at the ACP Central Office. The completed surveys represented approximately 48% of the total population of prosthodontic residents in the United States. Demographic data revealed that 37% and 62% of the respondents were female and male, respectively (1% did not report gender). The mean age of the respondents was 30.3 years. More residents reported being married than either single or in a relationship. Most residents were accepted to their top choice program. Part I of the survey revealed that the complexity and challenge of treatment planning/treatment, ability to lead multidisciplinary cases, possession of skills/talents suited to the specialty, enjoyment of clinical work, and the intellectual content of the specialty were reported to be the five most influential factors in choosing prosthodontics as a career. Part II demonstrated that applicants place a high emphasis on clinical education, their impression of the program director, advice from predoctoral mentors, their impression of resident satisfaction and happiness, and the opportunity to place dental implants. The factors of least importance are climate and opportunities to moonlight, teach, and conduct research

  16. Self-selected resistance training intensity in healthy women: the influence of a personal trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Hoffman, Jay R; Kang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the influence of resistance training with a personal trainer versus unsupervised resistance training on the self-selected intensities used by women during resistance exercise. Forty-six resistance-trained women (age = 26.6 +/- 6.4 years; body mass = 64.2 +/- 10.9 kg) who either trained individually (n = 27; No PT) or with a personal trainer (n = 19; PT) were carefully instructed to select a weight they used in their own resistance training workouts that enabled the completion of 10 repetitions for the chest press (CP), leg press (LP), seated row (SR), and leg extension (LE) exercises. Each participant was subsequently tested for one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength on each exercise, and the self-selected intensity was calculated based on a percent of each 1RM value. For self-selected relative intensity, the PT group selected significantly greater intensities for LP (50% vs. 41%), CP (57.4% vs. 48%), and SR (56% vs. 42%) whereas a trend (p = 0.10) was observed for LE (43% vs. 38%) compared with No PT. Overall, the average self-selected intensity for all exercises was approximately 51.4% in PT group and approximately 42.3% in the No PT group. 1RM values for LP, LE, and SR were greater in the PT than No PT group. Ratings of perceived exertion values were significantly greater in the PT compared with the No PT group for CP, LE, and SR but not LP. These results indicate that resistance training under the supervision of a personal trainer leads to greater initial 1RM strength values, self-selection of greater workout intensities, and greater ratings of perceived exertion values during resistance exercise.

  17. Habitat manipulation influences northern bobwhite resource selection on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Peters, David C.; Unger, Ashley M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha of mine land have been reclaimed in the eastern United States, providing large contiguous tracts of early successional vegetation that can be managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). However, habitat quality on reclaimed mine land can be limited by extensive coverage of non-native invasive species, which are commonly planted during reclamation. We used discrete-choice analysis to investigate bobwhite resource selection throughout the year on Peabody Wildlife Management Area, a 3,330-ha reclaimed surface mine in western Kentucky. We used a treatment-control design to study resource selection at 2 spatial scales to identify important aspects of mine land vegetation and whether resource selection differed between areas with habitat management (i.e., burning, disking, herbicide; treatment) and unmanaged units (control). Our objectives were to estimate bobwhite resource selection on reclaimed mine land and to estimate the influence of habitat management practices on resource selection. We used locations from 283 individuals during the breeding season (1 Apr–30 Sep) and 136 coveys during the non-breeding season (1 Oct–Mar 31) from August 2009 to March 2014. Individuals were located closer to shrub cover than would be expected at random throughout the year. During the breeding season, individuals on treatment units used areas with smaller contagion index values (i.e., greater interspersion) compared with individuals on control units. During the non-breeding season, birds selected areas with greater shrub-open edge density compared with random. At the microhabitat scale, individuals selected areas with increased visual obstruction >1 m aboveground. During the breeding season, birds were closer to disked areas (linear and non-linear) than would be expected at random. Individuals selected non-linear disked areas during winter but did not select linear disked areas (firebreaks) because they were planted to winter wheat each fall and

  18. Factors Influencing Store Selection for Supply with Fast-Moving Consumer Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Albana Berisha Qehaja; Justina Shiroka Pula

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on factors that influence store selection for supply with fast-moving consumer goods. We have surveyed 90 households in the Republic of Kosovo. We have decided to undertake this research seeing in one hand ‘competitive struggle’ which is being developed among the largest retail chains of fast-moving consumer goods, and, on the other hand, the created ‘situation’ for traditional stores as a result of the exp...

  19. [Selection of medical talents under the influence of imperial examination system in the Tang Dynasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Guo; Zang, Shou-Hu

    2005-10-01

    The Tang Dynasty was an important period in which China's ancient imperial examination system was formed and perfected. The medical examination at that time was influenced by imperial examination system, too. Medical talents were chosen according to a clear regulation of exam subjects imitating "Examination based on Imperial College law", "Ming Jing" and "Ming Fa" in the Tang Dynasty. The ways of choosing sheng tu, gong jü, zhi jü, dai zhao were also used for choosing medical talents, and the practical subjects of medical examination and qualified standard were also made, which can be used as a reference for TCM education, examination, selecting and checking of TCM talents today.

  20. CHANGES OF SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES IN MEN UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prystupa Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is defining the influence of exposure to heat during the Finnish sauna treatment in the morning hours on selected physiological indices in men, who were monitored during a series of three sauna treatments in a row. 74 healthy men took part in the studies. Body weight and its composition was diagnosed with the help of TANITA BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER TBF-300 based on bioelectrical impedance analysis. The conducted research confirm the hypothesis about the positive effect of the Finnish sauna on the body mass components, such as body mass, BMI, TBW (kg and % body fat.

  1. Factors Influencing Selection of Vaginal, Open Abdominal, or Robotic Surgery to Treat Apical Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Weaver, Amy L.; Fruth, Kristin M.; Gebhart, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors influencing selection of Mayo-McCall culdoplasty (MMC), open abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC), or robotic sacrocolpopexy (RSC) for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. Methods We retrospectively searched for the records of patients undergoing posthysterectomy apical vaginal prolapse surgery between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2012, at our institution. Baseline characteristics and explicit selection factors were abstracted from the electronic medical records. Factors were compared between groups using χ2 tests for categorical variables, ANOVA for continuous variables, and Kruskal-Wallis tests for ordinal variables. Results Among the 512 patients identified who met inclusion criteria, the MMC group (n=174) had more patients who were older, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3+ or greater, had anterior vaginal prolapse grade 3+, desired to avoid abdominal surgery, and did not desire a functional vagina. Patients in the ASC (n=237) and RSC (n=101) groups had more failed prolapse surgeries, suspected abdominopelvic pathologic processes, and chronic pain. Advanced prolapse was more frequently cited as an explicit selection factor for ASC than for either MMC or RSC. Conclusions The most common factors that influenced the type of apical vaginal vault prolapse surgery overlapped with characteristics that differed at baseline. In general, MMC was chosen for advanced anterior vaginal prolapse and baseline characteristics that increased surgical risks, ASC for advanced apical prolapse, and ASC or RSC for recurrent prolapse, suspected abdominal pathology, and patients with chronic pain or lifestyles including heavy lifting. Thus, efforts should be made to attempt to control for selection bias when comparing these procedures. PMID:26945273

  2. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals.

  3. A Review on influencing criteria for selecting supplier of information technology services in the hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad; Ketabi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Organizations try to outsource their activities as much as possible in order to prevent the problems and use organizational capabilities in Information Technology (IT) field. The purpose of this paper was first, to express the effective criteria for selecting suppliers of IT services, second, to explain the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing IT in hospitals. This study was narrative review, which search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, and databases of Science Direct, PubMed, Proquest, Springer, and SID (Scientific Information Database). In our searches, we employed the following keywords and their combinations: Outsourcing, information technology, hospital, decision making, and criteria. The preliminary search resulted in 120 articles, which were published between 2000 and 2013 during July 2013. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 46 papers were selected based on their relevancy. The criteria and sub-criteria influencing outsourcing decisions in Iranian hospitals were identified in six major categories including administrative issues, issues related to the service/product, technology factors, environmental factors, risks, and economic factors associated with 15 sub-criteria containing business integration, dependence on suppliers, human resources, focus on core competencies, facilities and physical capital, innovation, quality, speed of service delivery, flexibility, market capabilities, geographical location, security, management control, cost, and financial capability. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and effective criteria in IT services supplier selection causes the managers be able to take the most appropriate decision to select supplier of IT services. This is a general review on influencing criteria for electing of supplier of information technology services in hospitals. PMID:25540781

  4. The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmel, B; Serber, M

    1999-03-01

    To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.

  5. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE SELECTION OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT NURSES IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L F Small

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available T he researcher, being a nursing lecturer, questioned the method of selection of learning opportunities for student nurses in two training hospitals in the Northern part of Namibia.

    The study therefore focused on the following objective: To identify the factors that influence the selection of learning opportunities for primary health care in hospital units. A qualitative research design utilising focus group discussions were used. The population consisted of conveniently selected lecturers, student nurses and registered nurses. The same initial question was asked in each focus group to initiate the discussions. The data were analysed according to Tesch's method.

    The results indicated that there is positive commitment from the lecturers and registered nurses to be involved in selecting appropriate learning opportunities. The student nurses also demonstrated a willingness to learn and to be exposed to learning opportunities in primary health care. There were however certain constraints that emerged as themes, namely:
    • Managerial constraints • Educational constraints
    Under the theme "managerial constraints" categories such as workload, nursing staff shortages and communication problems were identified. Under the theme "educational constraints" categories such as a lack of guidance, and the correlation of theory and practice emerged.

    Recommendations based on this research report include improvement of in-service education on managerial and educational aspects to facilitate the primary health care approach in hospitals.

  6. Modelling the factors influencing the selection of the construction equipment for Indian construction organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. Raja Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Indian construction sector to the GDP is approximately 10%. Under new government policy, it is anticipated that $1000 Billion share for exclusively infrastructure segment would be completed within the next few years. Construction sector in developing country like India still depends on labor and the practice of mechanization, adopting to use of versatile construction equipment is not in force. The need for implementing new technologies and automation is essential to improve the quality, safety and efficiency. To meet the challenges ahead the construction, organizations should focus on utilization of machinery/equipment to achieve desirable results. Modern construction is characterized by the increase in utilization of equipment to accomplish numerous construction activities. The selection of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time and effort. It is therefore important for managements of construction organizations and planners to be familiar with the features of various types of equipment commonly used in construction activities. The selection of appropriate equipment is a crucial decision making process as it involves huge capital investment. The purpose of the present study is to develop a model pertaining to the factors influencing the selection of construction equipment by using interpretive structural modelling and the results indicate that productivity and safety are the important factors in selection of equipment in Indian construction organizations.

  7. Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Ibarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD. Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018; this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015. There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed

  8. Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Astbury, Nerys M.; Olli, Kaisa; Alhoniemi, Esa; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD). Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018); this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015). There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed effects of

  9. Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a gro

  10. Influence of inorganic ions and selected emerging contaminants on the degradation of Methylparaben: A sonochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Subha; Rayaroth, Manoj P; Devadasan, Dineep; Aravind, Usha K; Aravindakumar, Charuvila T

    2015-12-30

    The study on the possible pathway of hydroxyl radicals mediated sonolytic degradation of paraben in water is reported. Methylparaben (MPB) which is the most utilized of paraben family is selected as a model emerging pollutant. The influence of common anions and some selected emerging contaminants that may coexist in typical water matrix on the degradation pattern is analyzed alongside. Among the anions, carbonate presents a negative influence which is attributed to the competition for OH radical. Some emerging contaminants also showed negative impact on degradation as was clear from HPLC data. The intermediates, analyzed by LC-Q-TOF-MS include hydroxylated and hydrolytic products. Three major steps (aromatic hydroxylation, hydroxylation at the ester chain and hydrolysis) are proposed to involve in the reaction of OH radical with MPB which ultimately leads to mineralization. The intensity of formation and decay of mono and dihydroxy products of MPB in the presence of additives have also been evaluated. COD analysis indicates a percentage reduction of 98% at 90 min of sonolysis and further increase in the degradation time resulted complete mineralization, which became evident from the mass spectrometric data. MTT assay revealed considerable decrease in the potential cytotoxicity.

  11. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  12. Factors that influence the selection of sterile glove brand: a randomized controlled trial evaluating the performance and cost of gloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Smith, Hugh M; Duncan, Christopher M; Torsher, Laurence C; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hebl, James R

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether glove use modifies tactile and psychomotor performance of health care providers when compared with no glove use and to evaluate factors that influence the selection of sterile glove...

  13. Color perception influences microhabitat selection of refugia and affects monitoring success for a cryptic anuran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S; MacKenzie, Michelle L; Maerz, John C; Farrell, Christopher B; Castleberry, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    Perceptual-biases are important for understanding an animal's natural history, identifying potential ecological traps, and for developing effective means to monitor individuals and populations. Despite research demonstrating anurans having a positive phototactic response towards blue colors, we do not yet understand if color cues are used functionally beyond sexual selection. The aim of our study was to determine if color cues are used in selecting microhabitat, and if anuran's blue-positive phototactic response could increase selection of artificial PVC refugia used to monitor cryptic camouflaging anuran species. We captured 32 Cope's Gray Treefrogs and placed them in mesh enclosures with three PVC tubes painted blue, brown, and white. Concurrently, we placed blue, brown, or unpainted white PVC tubes in stratified arrays around a treefrog breeding pond, and counted the number of occasions treefrogs occupied different colored PVC tubes. In the confined choice experiment, treefrogs selected blue tubes (48.3%) significantly more often than brown (28.5%) or white (23.2%) tubes. Our field experiment mirrored these findings (52.0% of capture events in blue, 29.0% in brown, and 19.0% in unpainted white tubes). Our results suggest color influences Cope's Gray Treefrog microhabitat selection, and they utilize color vision when choosing refugia. We demonstrate simple, small changes based on perceptual-biases can induce behaviors that may in turn have large impacts on sampling techniques used in monitoring and inventorying. Incorporating non-traditional physiological measures into animal inventorying and monitoring programs can be used in the future to improve conservation efforts.

  14. The Competitive Influences of Perceptual Load and Working Memory Guidance on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yuanfang; Wang, Lijun; Tian, Xia; Cui, Yan; Yang, Qian; Pan, Weigang; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Chen, Antao

    2015-01-01

    The perceptual load theory in selective attention literature proposes that the interference from task-irrelevant distractor is eliminated when perceptual capacity is fully consumed by task-relevant information. However, the biased competition model suggests that the contents of working memory (WM) can guide attentional selection automatically, even when this guidance is detrimental to visual search. An intriguing but unsolved question is what will happen when selective attention is influenced by both perceptual load and WM guidance. To study this issue, behavioral performances and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded when participants were presented with a cue to either identify or hold in memory and had to perform a visual search task subsequently, under conditions of low or high perceptual load. Behavioural data showed that high perceptual load eliminated the attentional capture by WM. The ERP results revealed an obvious WM guidance effect in P1 component with invalid trials eliciting larger P1 than neutral trials, regardless of the level of perceptual load. The interaction between perceptual load and WM guidance was significant for the posterior N1 component. The memory guidance effect on N1 was eliminated by high perceptual load. Standardized Low Resolution Electrical Tomography Analysis (sLORETA) showed that the WM guidance effect and the perceptual load effect on attention can be localized into the occipital area and parietal lobe, respectively. Merely identifying the cue produced no effect on the P1 or N1 component. These results suggest that in selective attention, the information held in WM could capture attention at the early stage of visual processing in the occipital cortex. Interestingly, this initial capture of attention by WM could be modulated by the level of perceptual load and the parietal lobe mediates target selection at the discrimination stage.

  15. The impact of objective function selection on the influence of individual data points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Thyer, Mark; Westra, Seth; McInerney, David

    2016-04-01

    Across the field of hydrology practitioners apply a range of objective functions which are selected based upon the intended model application and suitability of the objective function assumptions to the data in question. Despite most objective functions providing fundamentally different calibration results there are currently limited methods for comparison of alternatives. Influence diagnostics quantify the impact of individual data points on model performance, parameters and predictions. The goal of this study is to use compare four commonly applied objective functions in hydrology using influence diagnostics to provide insights on how objective function selection changes the influence of individual data points on model calibration. The specific aims are to: 1) explore the impact on magnitude of influence of objective functions, 2) investigate similarities between influential points identified by objective functions and, 3) categorise flows that are influential under objective functions. We use case-deletion influence diagnostics to examine four objective functions: Standard Least Squares (SLS), Weighted Least Squares (WLS), Log transformed flows (LOG) and the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE). We apply these objective functions to six scenarios: two conceptual hydrological models (GR4J and IHACRES) across three catchment case studies with varying runoff coefficients (0.14 to 0.57). We quantify influence using the case-deletion relative change in flow metrics: mean flow prediction, maximum flow prediction, and the 10th percentile low flow prediction. The results show that when using objective functions SLS and KGE influential data points have larger magnitude influence (maximum of 10% change in the flow metrics across all data points for both objective functions) than heteroscedastic WLS and LOG (WLS maximum of 8% and LOG maximum of 6% change in the flow metrics). SLS and KGE identify similar influential points (75% of the most influential points are common to both

  16. Analysis of feature selection with Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) to classify sources influencing indoor air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    There are various sources influencing indoor air quality (IAQ) which could emit dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter. These gases are usually safe for us to breathe in if they are emitted in safe quantity but if the amount of these gases exceeded the safe level, they might be hazardous to human being especially children and people with asthmatic problem. Therefore, a smart indoor air quality monitoring system (IAQMS) is needed that able to tell the occupants about which sources that trigger the indoor air pollution. In this project, an IAQMS that able to classify sources influencing IAQ has been developed. This IAQMS applies a classification method based on Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). It is used to classify the sources of indoor air pollution based on five conditions: ambient air, human activity, presence of chemical products, presence of food and beverage, and presence of fragrance. In order to get good and best classification accuracy, an analysis of several feature selection based on data pre-processing method is done to discriminate among the sources. The output from each data pre-processing method has been used as the input for the neural network. The result shows that PNN analysis with the data pre-processing method give good classification accuracy of 99.89% and able to classify the sources influencing IAQ high classification rate.

  17. Which factors influence students' selection of advanced graduate programs? One institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sophia; Jimenez, Monik; Howell, Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2008-06-01

    The reasons that students choose certain specialties may be integral to the quality of specialty programs and the future of those specialties. The Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) has a high percentage (87.6 percent) of students who enroll in postgraduate programs. The goals of this study were to establish a baseline of factors that affect postgraduate program selection at HSDM and to determine if there was a significant difference in factor selection by gender, relationship status, graduation year, or choice to specialize versus choice to pursue advanced training in general dentistry. As a pilot study, we asked HSDM graduates from the classes of 2005 to 2007 to rank the importance of forty-two factors in selecting a field of dentistry and a particular program or institution within a specialty. Overall, students felt that intellectual content, challenging diagnostic problems, and possessing a special skill or talent unique to a specialty were the most important factors in choosing a field of dentistry. Influence of family members in dentistry was ranked as least important. In choice of a certain program or institution within a given field, clinical training and philosophy of training were ranked most highly. Students felt that the opportunity to moonlight was least important. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found regarding gender, relationship status, and students who chose to specialize versus those pursuing advanced general dentistry training. No significant differences were found among the students in different graduating classes.

  18. Factors Influencing Store Selection for Supply with Fast-Moving Consumer Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albana Berisha Qehaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion on factors that influence store selection for supply with fast-moving consumer goods. We have surveyed 90 households in the Republic of Kosovo. We have decided to undertake this research seeing in one hand ‘competitive struggle’ which is being developed among the largest retail chains of fast-moving consumer goods, and, on the other hand, the created ‘situation’ for traditional stores as a result of the expansion of these retailers. This study also aims to highlight factors that consumers consider in order to improve the performance of these businesses. We have proposed that the opening of hypermarkets in Kosovo has affected negatively on traditional stores’ turnover. We have also proposed that the most influential factors in customers in the selection of stores where they will be supplied with fast-moving consumer goods are the rich store offering, good customer service and good staff behaviour. We have also proposed that the factors affecting the selection of hypermarket/store for supplying are closely related to the factors that affect customer dissatisfaction that leads to the change of hypermarket/ store. The results of this empirical study are consistent with the hypothesis set out in the paper.

  19. CarPrice versus CarpRice: Word Boundary Ambiguity Influences Saccade Target Selection during the Reading of Chinese Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    As a contribution to a theoretical debate about the degree of high-level influences on saccade targeting during sentence reading, we investigated eye movements during the reading of structurally ambiguous Chinese character strings and examined whether parafoveal word segmentation could influence saccade-target selection. As expected, ambiguous…

  20. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Ahrén, Bo; Lindeberg, Staffan

    2010-11-30

    We found marked improvement of glucose tolerance and lower dietary energy intake in ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients after advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a Mediterranean-like diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meals and data on the satiety hormone leptin and the soluble leptin receptor from the same study. Twenty-nine male IHD patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes type 2, and waist circumference > 94 cm, were randomized to ad libitum consumption of a Paleolithic diet (n = 14) based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, or a Mediterranean-like diet (n = 15) based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils and margarines during 12 weeks. In parallel with a four day weighed food record the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety Quotients were calculated, as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. Leptin and leptin receptor was measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Free leptin index was calculated as the ratio leptin/leptin receptor. The Paleolithic group were as satiated as the Mediterranean group but consumed less energy per day (5.8 MJ/day vs. 7.6 MJ/day, Paleolithic vs. Mediterranean, p = 0.04). Consequently, the quotients of mean change in satiety during meal and mean consumed energy from food and drink were higher in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.03). Also, there was a strong trend for greater Satiety Quotient for energy in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.057). Leptin decreased by 31% in the Paleolithic group and by 18% in the Mediterranean group with a trend for greater relative decrease of leptin in the Paleolithic group. Relative changes in leptin and changes in weight and waist circumference correlated significantly in the Paleolithic group (p Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a

  1. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrén Bo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We found marked improvement of glucose tolerance and lower dietary energy intake in ischemic heart disease (IHD patients after advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a Mediterranean-like diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meals and data on the satiety hormone leptin and the soluble leptin receptor from the same study. Methods Twenty-nine male IHD patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes type 2, and waist circumference > 94 cm, were randomized to ad libitum consumption of a Paleolithic diet (n = 14 based on lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs, and nuts, or a Mediterranean-like diet (n = 15 based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruit, fish, and oils and margarines during 12 weeks. In parallel with a four day weighed food record the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety Quotients were calculated, as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. Leptin and leptin receptor was measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks. Free leptin index was calculated as the ratio leptin/leptin receptor. Results The Paleolithic group were as satiated as the Mediterranean group but consumed less energy per day (5.8 MJ/day vs. 7.6 MJ/day, Paleolithic vs. Mediterranean, p = 0.04. Consequently, the quotients of mean change in satiety during meal and mean consumed energy from food and drink were higher in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.03. Also, there was a strong trend for greater Satiety Quotient for energy in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.057. Leptin decreased by 31% in the Paleolithic group and by 18% in the Mediterranean group with a trend for greater relative decrease of leptin in the Paleolithic group. Relative changes in leptin and changes in weight and waist circumference correlated significantly in the Paleolithic group (p Conclusions A

  2. A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis of Peer Influence, Peer Selection, and Smoking Behavior Among Adolescents in British Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Steglich, Christian; Sinclair, Philip; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Sinclair, W

    Objective: Similarity in smoking behavior among adolescent friends could be caused by selection of friends on the basis of behavioral similarity, or by influence processes, where behavior is changed to be similar to that of friends. The main aim of the present study is to disentangle selection and

  3. Influence of hydroxyl content on selected properties of 45S5 bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew M

    2007-12-01

    Numerous material properties may be influenced by the concentration of chemically dissolved hydroxyl species within a glass. A tube furnace connected to a steam generator was used to create hydroxyl-saturated 45S5 glass under 1 atm of water at 1100 degrees C. Selected properties of as-melted and hydroxyl-saturated samples were compared to assess the sensitivity of 45S5 to excess hydroxylation. The glass transition temperature and the peak crystallization temperature of the treated 45S5 glass were reduced in comparison to the as-melted 45S5 glass. In addition, the treated glass exhibited a broad endothermic signal that may be indicative of enhanced viscous flow. A simple dissolution experiment indicated that the treated 45S5 glass was also less durable than the as-melted 45S5 glass.

  4. Influence of the direction of selective laser sintering on machinability of parts from 316L steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. P.; Balyakin, A. V.; Khaimovich, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents the results of research of the impact of layer-by-layer growing of workpieces made of 316L steel on their machinability. The results of determination of residual stresses and measurement of hardness of the workpieces grown have been demonstrated. A series of experimental studies has been performed in order to determine the cutting force which occurs in the process of machining. The microstructure of the workpieces grown has been examined. It has been shown that the workpieces machined using Selective Laser Melting technology have the microstructure which is a totality of ‘microwelded seams’, which have a significant influence on the behavior of deformation processes in case of machining. The studies have shown that in case of lateral milling of the horizontally grown workpiece, the codirectional microwelded borders prevent any significant deformation of the misalignment which increases the cutting force by up to 10% as compared with milling of the vertically grown workpiece.

  5. Factors that influence the selection and utilization of children’s medical insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The researchers analyzed how different regions in the USA, family structure, ethnicity, and family income levels influenced the selection and utilization of medical care programs and services by American children. To prevent any possible bias in the analysis and to produce reliable results, an endogenous switching model was utilized in the study. The researchers found no statistically significant differences in the number of doctor visits and hospital stays between children with insurance and children without insurance. However, significant differences were determined regarding family structure, family income, geographic regions, and ethnicity. Children from single-parent families with insurance coverage (private, Medicaid, or SCHIP had statistically higher rates of doctor visits and hospital stays than children from two-parent families with insurance coverage. Family income, region, and ethnicity variables all had significant impacts on the type of health insurance coverage that was reported for children.

  6. Influence of the Selected Parameters on the Effectiveness of IGCC System Integrated With CCS Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorek-Osikowska Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic input data and modelling results of IGCC system with membrane CO2 capture installation and without capture. The models were built using commercial software (Aspen and GateCycle and with the use of authors’ own computational codes. The main parameters of the systems were calculated, such as gross and net power, auxiliary power of individual installations and efficiencies. The models were used for the economic and ecological analysis of the systems. The Break Even Point method of analysis was used. The calculations took into account the EU emissions trading scheme. Sensitivity analysis on the influence of selected quantities on break-even price of electricity was performed

  7. Influence of selected antimicrobials on the viability, endotoxicity and lipopolysaccharide composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, M; Venter, P; Lues, J F R; Ivanov, I; de Smidt, O

    2009-11-01

    This research focused on the influence of selected antimicrobial agents (AMAs) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common causative agent of nosocomial infections. As LPS has been shown to play a role in attachment and virulence, the research is primarily aimed at shedding light on the response of these organisms to cleaning regimens in healthcare settings using various disinfectants. The endotoxicity and viability of the organisms following disinfection were further investigated via propagation in sublethal concentrations of the selected AMAs. The AMAs included a CIP chlorinated disinfectant, a heavy-duty alkaline detergent and a phenolic handwash solution. The effects of the antimicrobials on LPS both from intact cells and from debris were assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a chromogenic Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Results indicated significant changes in the supramolecular structure of the O-polysaccharide when exposed to the AMAs. Adaptations occurred in both the total assessed saccharide and the lipid fractions, especially in the case of the heavy-duty alkaline detergent. Endotoxicity was found to be influenced by changes in the O-chain rather than the lipid fraction. The phenolic handwash and chlorine-based AMA treatments resulted in a slight decrease in the total amount of fatty acids in the LPS compared with saccharides, whereas the heavy-duty alkaline detergent resulted in a notable reduction in total saccharides. Microbial adaptation of the supramolecular structure of LPS may cause a reduction in membrane solubility of these organisms in an aqueous environment, thus affecting the organism's susceptibility to water-soluble AMAs as well as its ability to adhere to charged surfaces.

  8. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  9. The influence of selected factors and sport results of endurance horses on their saliva cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, I; Bereznowski, A; Strzelec, K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the influence of the selected factors (gender, age, transportation time, riding distance and air temperature during the ride) on the cortisol secretion and finding a correlation between the hormone level and the horses' sport results (veterinary parameters and the ride route parameters). The research was performed on 38 Arabian pure breed horses taking part in the endurance rides. The cortisol level was measured with enzyme-immunological method in saliva samples, taken four times from each horse. In order to verify the differences between the mean results the repeated measures design was applied. The significance of the differences between the mean values was determined by the Tukey test. To evaluate the interrelations between the analysed attributes Pearson's correlation analysis was applied. The cortisol level at rest was not affected by any of the analysed factors. In case of other results, the most significant influence (P cortisol level was noted in mares, horses running the longest distances and at the highest temperatures. A significant increase in the cortisol level was noted when the ride distance was longer. There were no clear correlation between the adrenal cortex activity and the veterinary parameters at different riding speed. High cortisol concentration can negatively affect the heart rate (HR) by increasing it, but it can simultaneously stimulate the body to fight dehydration.

  10. Texture and Diet Related Behavior: A Focus on Satiation and Satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.; Zijlstra, N.; Hogenkamp, P.S.; Mars, M.

    2011-01-01

    In view of the increasing numbers in overweight and obesity, insight in food intake regulation is necessary. Food intake is regulated by sensory, cognitive, post-ingestive, and post-absorptive processes. Food properties, such as energy density, macronutrient composition, volume, and form, influence

  11. Aberrant Food Choices after Satiation in Human Orexin-Deficient Narcolepsy Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; van der Cruijsen, L.; van Mierlo, P.; Lammers, G.J.; Cools, R.; Overeem, S.; Aarts, E.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneou

  12. Aberrant Food Choices after Satiation in Human Orexin-Deficient Narcolepsy Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; van der Cruijsen, L.; van Mierlo, P.; Lammers, G.J.; Cools, R.; Overeem, S.; Aarts, E.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and

  13. An empirical investigation on factors influencing customer selection of ADSL services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on various factors affecting ADSL service selection in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a standard questionnaire and distributes it among randomly selected customers who have some experiences on internet based ADSL products. The study implements factor analysis as well as weighted regression technique to perform the study. There are eight hypotheses associated with the proposed study of this paper, which indicates the effects of product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix, productivity and quality of marketing mix, people, promotion and education and physical evidence on customer choice. The results of factor analysis have confirmed the impacts of the first four factors but the effects of the other factor were not confirmed. In other words, the results of the survey have indicated that product marketing, place and time of marketing mix, process-marketing mix and productivity and quality of marketing mix influence customer choice. However, the other four components including people, promotion, price and physical evidence do not play essential role on customer choice.

  14. [The influence of periodontal diseases on the concentration of selected metals in saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Małgorzata; Golasik, Magdalena; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Kulza, Maksymilian; Chesy, Paulina; Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Woźniak, Anna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowksa, Monika; Stopa, Janina; Parczewski, Andrzej; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of elements (mainly metals) in biological materials provides a challenge for analytics. It results from complex matrix of this kind of samples and strict requirements for purity at all stages of the analytical process. Over the years many effective methods for determination of metals in body fluids have been developed, which link with searching for the association between elemental composition of human body and various diseases. The aim of the investigation was to study the usefulness of available methodology to determination of selected metals in saliva and blood of patients with periodontitis and healthy controls by two techniques" ICP-MS and ICP-OES. Next statistical analysis of the data statistical was carried out. The influence of periodontal disease upon the concentrations of selected metals (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in saliva was examined, as well the attempt to classify samples of patients with periodontitis and healthy individuals correctly was made. Additionally mutual relations between analytes in examined materials were determined by computing the Pearson's correlation coefficient and principal component analysis (PCA).

  15. Manga comic influences snack selection in Black and Hispanic New York City youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Agaronov, Alen; Hou, Ningqi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether a single exposure to a Manga comic (Japanese comic art) with multiple messages promoting fruit intake influenced snack selection in minority urban youth. Fifty-seven youth (mean age 10.8 y; 54% female; 74% black/African American) attending after-school programs in Brooklyn, NY participated in a pilot study in which they were randomly assigned to receive the comic or a non-health-related newsletter. After reading their media, participants were offered a snack and could choose from among healthy/unhealthy options. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations related to fruit intake and media transportation. Data were analyzed using regression and paired t test. Comic group participants were significantly more likely to choose a healthy snack, compared to the Attention-control group (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-12.1, P = .04). The Comic group reported increases in self-efficacy (P = .04) and greater transportation (immersion into media) (P = .006). Results suggest Manga comics may be a useful format to promote healthy snack selection in urban minority youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple mini interviews for selection of dental students: influence of gender and starting station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michele E; Sandy, Jonathan R

    2014-04-01

    Multiple Mini Interviews (MMI) are an increasingly popular tool for selecting entrants to undergraduate degree programs in dentistry in the United Kingdom. This article reports on the use of MMI to select dental students at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom, over two successive admissions cycles (2011-12 and 2012-13). MMI provided an efficient means to discriminate between the performance of applicants who were all academically highly qualified, with total scores ranging from 35 percent to 87 percent of the maximum possible score. Female candidates performed significantly better than male candidates when assessed by total score (p=0.011; mean score 94.4 for female applicants and 91.9 for male applicants) and by outcome (offer/decline; p=0.016; 58.6 percent of female and 46.4 percent of male interviewees received an offer of study following interview). There was no statistically significant effect of starting station on candidate performance (p=0.359), indicating that a candidate's overall chance of success in the MMI was not influenced by which station he or she experienced first. Stakeholder acceptance was good, with 75 percent of candidates and 95 percent of assessors preferring MMI over traditional interviews.

  17. Influence of temperature and chemical composition on phase transformations of selected oxide melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobrovská

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with structural changes of solid phase of selected oxide systems during their transition into liquid state. Analyses concerned poly-component systems forming basis of casting powders for CCM mould. Industrially used oxide system with prevailing contents of CaO–Al2O3–SiO2 components and with numerous accompanying admixtures was tested. Investigation was focused on temperatures, during which individual phases disappear and precipitate, as well as on influence of CaO content on phase composition at selected temperatures. The experiments were realised with use of original methodology consisting of shock cooling of the tested melt in liquid nitrogen. Thus obtained samples were further investigated by X-ray diffraction phase analyses at ambient temperatures. The obtained results provide additional data on physical-chemical properties of oxide systems, such as surface tension, viscosity, sintering intervals, etc., which can be used in technological practice for appropriate lubrication effect of casting powders in the mould.

  18. The liver-selective thyromimetic T-0681 influences reverse cholesterol transport and atherosclerosis development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tancevski

    Full Text Available Liver-selective thyromimetics have been reported to efficiently reduce plasma cholesterol through the hepatic induction of both, the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL receptor; the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI. Here, we investigated the effect of the thyromimetic T-0681 on reverse cholesterol transport (RCT and atherosclerosis, and studied the underlying mechanisms using different mouse models, including mice lacking LDLr, SR-BI, and apoE, as well as CETP transgenic mice.T-0681 treatment promoted bile acid production and biliary sterol secretion consistently in the majority of the studied mouse models, which was associated with a marked reduction of plasma cholesterol. Using an assay of macrophage RCT in mice, we found T-0681 to significantly increase fecal excretion of macrophage-derived neutral and acidic sterols. No positive effect on RCT was found in CETP transgenic mice, most likely due to the observed decrease in plasma CETP mass. Studies in SR-BI KO and LDLr KO mice suggested hepatic LDLr to be necessary for the action of T-0681 on lipid metabolism, as the compound did not have any influence on plasma cholesterol levels in mice lacking this receptor. Finally, prolonged treatment with T-0681 reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 60% in apoE KOs on Western type diet. In contrast, at an earlier time-point T-0681 slightly increased small fatty streak lesions, in part due to an impaired macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity, when compared to controls.The present results show that liver-selective thyromimetics can promote RCT and that such compounds may protect from atherosclerosis partly through induction of bile acid metabolism and biliary sterol secretion. On-going clinical trials will show whether selective thyromimetics do prevent atherosclerosis also in humans.

  19. Career Choice And College Students: Parental Influence on Career Choice Traditionalism among College Students in Selected Cities in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sella Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the influence of parents on choosing career among college students in selected private colleges situated around Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. Choosing a suitable career is a vital part in every student’s life. Further, it ignites a person’s future life for his/her own job preference and life style. In this context, influence of social members is inevitable; generally the influence of family members and most particularly parents play a major role as an influencer and determiner o...

  20. High satiety expectations of a first course promote selection of less energy in a main course picture task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsing, P.J.; Gutjar, S.; Zijlstra, N.; Zandstra, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    One of the factors determining meal size is the expectation one has about satiating properties of foods. Foods eliciting low satiety expectations are often chosen in larger portions. We investigated whether satiety expectations of one food lead to a different portion size selection of other foods

  1. Esophagogastric pathology in morbid obese patient: preoperative diagnosis and influence in the selection of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Estévez-Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the difficulty in accessing to the excluded stomach after gastric bypass and the increase in gastroesophageal reflux after sleeve gastrectomy, it is justified to perform a preoperative fibrogastroscopy. The influence of the fibrogastroscopy (FGS findings in the therapeutic approach is analyzed. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of preoperative FGS findings is performed, from 04/06 to 12/12. The influence of the FGS results on the surgical technique selection, in the endoscopic or medical treatment and its relation to gastric fistula is analyzed by means of multivariate regression (confounding factors: Age, body mass index, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, antiplatelet therapy, surgical technique (bariatric surgery, sleeve gastrectomy. Results: Three hundred thirty one patients are included: 32.6% biopsy of gastric lesion; 27% gastritis; 18.1% hiatal hernia; 3% metaplasia; 0.6% Barrett esophagus; 2.1% esophagitis; 0.3% dysplasia; 0.3 Schatzky's ring; 1.5% incompetent cardia; 2.4% duodenitis; 0.3% gastric erosions; 0.6% gastric xanthoma; 1.8%, gastric polyp; 1.6% duodenal ulcer; 0.6% papulo-erosive gastritis; 0.6% esophageal papilloma; 0.3% submucosal tumor. Helicobacter pylori+ 30.2% (triple therapy eradication in all patients. The FGS findings led to a variation in the surgical technique or to the completion of endoscopic treatment in 22.2% of cases. The gastric lesions did not influence the development of gastric fistula. Independent prognostic factors of fistula: Sleeve gastrectomy (7.9% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.02; OR: 1.38 IC95: 1.01-1.87 and the body mass index > 50 kg/m² (6.7% vs. 2.2%; p = 0.04; OR: 3.7 IC95: 1.12-12.4. Conclusions: The diagnosis of gastroesophageal disease through preoperative FGS motivated variations in the therapeutic approach in 52% of patients, so we consider essential to include the preoperative FGS in bariatric surgery.

  2. Evaluation of the satiating properties of a nutraceutical product containing Garcinia cambogia and Ascophyllum nodosum extracts in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Marcos A; Finlayson, Graham; Fischman, Daniela; de Paz, Carolina; Telleriarte, Martín R; Ferrero, Alejandro J; Bobillo, Cecilia; Fernández, Belisario E

    2014-04-01

    A nutraceutical product composed of a combination of Garcinia cambogia, l-carnitine and a seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum has been recently developed. The aim of the present study was to characterize its effects on subjective satiety sensations and food preferences in healthy volunteers. In a crossover design, 28 subjects (21 females and 7 males, aged 31 ± 5, BMI 22.6 ± 1.7) were randomly assigned to receive the active treatment (LIS) or placebo (PL) over one week. At the end of each treatment period, subjects were instructed to consume ad libitum a test meal. Food preferences and appetite sensations were evaluated by means of the Leeds Food Preferences Questionnaire and visual analog scales, before and after meal, over three hours. There were no differences in energy intake between study groups. LIS was associated with a reduction in subjective hunger sensations (p = 0.018) and to an increase in satiety (p = 0.02) and fullness (p = 0.01) ratings. The preference for high fat foods was reduced after consuming the test meal in both study groups. There was a significant effect of LIS treatment on food explicit liking and implicit wanting, as evidenced by an increase in preference for sweet foods (relative to savory foods; p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively), but no differences were observed regarding the preference for low or high fat foods (NS). These results provide proof of principle for the satiating properties of a nutraceutical containing Garcinia cambogia, Ascophyllum nodosum extract and l-carnitine and suggest that it might be useful as an appetite modulator.

  3. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Kryś-Noszczyka, Karolina; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors' own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  4. The influence of selected socio-demographic variables on symptoms occurring during the menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Makara-Studzińska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment. The study was carried out in 2013-2014 in the Silesian, Podlaskie and Lesser Poland voivodeships. The set of tools consisted of the authors’ own survey questionnaire and the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Results : The most commonly occurring symptom in the group of studied women was a depressive mood, from the group of psychological symptoms, followed by physical and mental fatigue, and discomfort connected with muscle and joint pain. The greatest intensity of symptoms was observed in the group of women with the lowest level of education, reporting an average or bad material situation, and unemployed women. Conclusions : An alarmingly high number of reported psychological symptoms in the group of menopausal women was observed, and in particular among the group of low socio-economic status. Career seems to be a factor reducing the risk of occurrence of psychological symptoms. There is an urgent need for health promotion and prophylaxis in the group of menopausal women, and in many cases for implementation of specialist psychological assistance.

  5. Selective sulfation of carrageenans and the influence of sulfate regiochemistry on anticoagulant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Cristiano A; Noseda, Miguel D; Cipriani, Thales R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Ducatti, Diogo R B

    2013-01-16

    Sulfated polysaccharides are recognized for their broad range of biological activities, including anticoagulant properties. The positions occupied by the sulfate groups are often related to the level of the inherent biological activity. Herein the naturally sulfated galactans, kappa-, iota- and theta-carrageenan, were additionally sulfated by regioselective means. The anticoagulant activity of the resulting samples was then studied using the aPTT in vitro assay. The influence of sulfate regiochemistry on the anticoagulant activity was evaluated. From kappa-carrageenan three rare polysaccharides were synthesized, one of them involved a synthetic route with an amphiphilic polysaccharide intermediate containing pivaloyl groups. Iota- and theta-carrageenan were utilized in a selective C6 sulfation at β-D-Galp units to produce different structures comprising trisulfated diads. All the samples were characterized by NMR (1D and 2D). The resulting aPPT measurements suggested that sulfation at C2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-D-Galp and C6 of β-D-Galp increased the anticoagulant activity.

  6. The influence of mitigation on sage-grouse habitat selection within an energy development field.

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    Bradley C Fedy

    Full Text Available Growing global energy demands ensure the continued growth of energy development. Energy development in wildlife areas can significantly impact wildlife populations. Efforts to mitigate development impacts to wildlife are on-going, but the effectiveness of such efforts is seldom monitored or assessed. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus are sensitive to energy development and likely serve as an effective umbrella species for other sagebrush-steppe obligate wildlife. We assessed the response of birds within an energy development area before and after the implementation of mitigation action. Additionally, we quantified changes in habitat distribution and abundance in pre- and post-mitigation landscapes. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development at large spatial scales is well documented. We limited our research to directly within an energy development field in order to assess the influence of mitigation in close proximity to energy infrastructure. We used nest-location data (n = 488 within an energy development field to develop habitat selection models using logistic regression on data from 4 years of research prior to mitigation and for 4 years following the implementation of extensive mitigation efforts (e.g., decreased activity, buried powerlines. The post-mitigation habitat selection models indicated less avoidance of wells (well density β = 0.18 ± 0.08 than the pre-mitigation models (well density β = -0.09 ± 0.11. However, birds still avoided areas of high well density and nests were not found in areas with greater than 4 wells per km2 and the majority of nests (63% were located in areas with ≤ 1 well per km2. Several other model coefficients differed between the two time periods and indicated stronger selection for sagebrush (pre-mitigation β = 0.30 ± 0.09; post-mitigation β = 0.82 ± 0.08 and less avoidance of rugged terrain (pre-mitigation β = -0.35 ± 0.12; post-mitigation β = -0.05 ± 0.09. Mitigation efforts

  7. The influence of mitigation on sage-grouse habitat selection within an energy development field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C; Kirol, Christopher P; Sutphin, Andrew L; Maechtle, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Growing global energy demands ensure the continued growth of energy development. Energy development in wildlife areas can significantly impact wildlife populations. Efforts to mitigate development impacts to wildlife are on-going, but the effectiveness of such efforts is seldom monitored or assessed. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are sensitive to energy development and likely serve as an effective umbrella species for other sagebrush-steppe obligate wildlife. We assessed the response of birds within an energy development area before and after the implementation of mitigation action. Additionally, we quantified changes in habitat distribution and abundance in pre- and post-mitigation landscapes. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development at large spatial scales is well documented. We limited our research to directly within an energy development field in order to assess the influence of mitigation in close proximity to energy infrastructure. We used nest-location data (n = 488) within an energy development field to develop habitat selection models using logistic regression on data from 4 years of research prior to mitigation and for 4 years following the implementation of extensive mitigation efforts (e.g., decreased activity, buried powerlines). The post-mitigation habitat selection models indicated less avoidance of wells (well density β = 0.18 ± 0.08) than the pre-mitigation models (well density β = -0.09 ± 0.11). However, birds still avoided areas of high well density and nests were not found in areas with greater than 4 wells per km2 and the majority of nests (63%) were located in areas with ≤ 1 well per km2. Several other model coefficients differed between the two time periods and indicated stronger selection for sagebrush (pre-mitigation β = 0.30 ± 0.09; post-mitigation β = 0.82 ± 0.08) and less avoidance of rugged terrain (pre-mitigation β = -0.35 ± 0.12; post-mitigation β = -0.05 ± 0.09). Mitigation efforts implemented may

  8. The acute effects of a pulse-containing meal on glycaemic responses and measures of satiety and satiation within and at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, R C; Zykus, A; Luhovyy, B L; Nunez, M F; Wong, C L; Anderson, G H

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low glycaemic foods; however, their effect on satiation is unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of an ad libitum pulse meal on food intake (FI), appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after a test meal (4 h later) and on FI at the test meal. Males (n 24, 22·8 kg/m2) received one of four treatments or control. The pulse treatments contained pasta and tomato sauce and 44 % of energy from: (1) chickpeas, (2) lentils, (3) navy beans or (4) yellow peas. The control was pasta and tomato sauce (pasta and sauce). FI (satiation) was measured at the treatment meal (0-20 min) and at an ad libitum pizza meal 4 h later. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. At the treatment meal, lentils led to lower FI compared to chickpeas and pasta and sauce, whereas navy beans led to lower FI compared to chickpeas. Also, lentils led to lower cumulative FI compared to pasta and sauce. All pulses led to lower BG peak and cumulative area under the curve (AUC; 0-340 min); however, only chickpeas, lentils and navy beans reduced pre-pizza meal BG AUC (0-260 min) relative to pasta and sauce. Chickpeas led to lower post-pizza meal BG AUC (260-340 min) compared to navy beans and yellow peas. Consumption of pulses in a high-glycaemic meal contributes to earlier satiation, lower BG following the meal and after a later meal, but these effects are specific to pulse type and cannot be explained by their glycaemic properties alone.

  9. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks : a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; Vartiainen, E.; De Vries, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks

  10. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  11. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks : a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; Vartiainen, E.; De Vries, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks

  12. Smoking-based selection and influence in gender-segregated friendship networks : a social network analysis of adolescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercken, Liesbeth; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; Vertiainen, Erkki; Vartiainen, E.; De Vries, H.

    Aims The main goal of this study was to examine differences between adolescent male and female friendship networks regarding smoking-based selection and influence processes using newly developed social network analysis methods that allow the current state of continuously changing friendship networks

  13. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S Libal

    Full Text Available Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142, adult male (n = 36, and juvenile (n = 35 den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC = 0.926 and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880 den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841 den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52 and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1 than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9 den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring.

  14. Factors that influence medical student selection of an emergency medicine residency program: implications for training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey N; Howell, John M; Hegarty, Cullen B; McLaughlin, Steven A; Coates, Wendy C; Hopson, Laura R; Hern, Gene H; Rosen, Carlo L; Fisher, Jonathan; Santen, Sally A

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of student decision-making when selecting an emergency medicine (EM) training program is essential for program directors as they enter interview season. To build upon preexisting knowledge, a survey was created to identify and prioritize the factors influencing candidate decision-making of U.S. medical graduates. This was a cross-sectional, multi-institutional study that anonymously surveyed U.S. allopathic applicants to EM training programs. It took place in the 3-week period between the 2011 National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) rank list submission deadline and the announcement of match results. Of 1,525 invitations to participate, 870 candidates (57%) completed the survey. Overall, 96% of respondents stated that both geographic location and individual program characteristics were important to decision-making, with approximately equal numbers favoring location when compared to those who favored program characteristics. The most important factors in this regard were preference for a particular geographic location (74.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72% to 78%) and to be close to spouse, significant other, or family (59.7%, 95% CI = 56% to 63%). Factors pertaining to geographic location tend to be out of the control of the program leadership. The most important program factors include the interview experience (48.9%, 95% CI = 46% to 52%), personal experience with the residents (48.5%, 95% CI = 45% to 52%), and academic reputation (44.9%, 95% CI = 42% to 48%). Unlike location, individual program factors are often either directly or somewhat under the control of the program leadership. Several other factors were ranked as the most important factor a disproportionate number of times, including a rotation in that emergency department (ED), orientation (academic vs. community), and duration of training (3-year vs. 4-year programs). For a subset of applicants, these factors had particular importance in overall decision-making. The vast majority

  15. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libal, Nathan S; Belant, Jerrold L; Leopold, Bruce D; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring.

  16. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.

  17. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  18. Influence of material selection on the structural behavior of a wave energy converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. S. P. Malça

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the world energy demand has raised significantly. Concerning this fact, wave energy should be considered as a valid alternative for electricity production. Devices suitable to harness this kind of renewable energy source and convert it into electricity are not yet commercially competitive. This paper is focused on the selection and analysis of different types of elastic materials and their influence on the structural behavior of a wave energy converter (WEC. After a brief characterization of the device, a tridimensional computer aided design (3D CAD numerical model was built and several finite element analyses (FEA were performed through a commercial finite element code. The main components of the WEC, namely the buoy, supporting cables and hydraulic cylinder were simulated assuming different materials. The software used needs, among other parameters, the magnitude of the resultant hydrodynamic forces acting upon the floating buoy obtained from a WEC time domain simulator (TDS which was built based on the WEC dynamic model previously developed. The Von Mises stress gradients and displacement fields determined by the FEA demonstrated that, regardless of the WEC component, the materials with low Young's modulus seems to be unsuitable for this kind of application. The same is valid for the material yield strength since materials with a higher yield strength lead to a better structural behavior of WEC components because lower stress and displacement values were obtained. The developed 3D CAD numerical model showed to be suitable to analyze different combinations of structural conditions. They could depend of different combinations of buoy position and resultant hydrodynamic forces acting upon the buoy, function of the specific sea wave parameters found on the deployment site.

  19. The influence of selected senses on consumer experience: A brandy case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Pentz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Sensory marketing has become a popular marketing technique to enhance consumer experience. Researchers have suggested that marketers should incorporate as many senses as possible in order for sensory marketing to be effective.Research purpose: To investigate the influence of selected senses – sight, sound and smell – on consumers’ experience, specifically in terms of the tastiness of brandy.Motivation for the study: Even though the use of the senses such as sight, sound and smell is a popular sensory marketing tool in the field of experiential marketing, applying such marketing techniques is a challenging and costly exercise for marketers, and researchers have called for more studies on senses and consumer experience.Research design, approach and method: A full factorial laboratory experiment (2 x 2 x 2 was conducted where 240 spirits consumers indicated the tastiness of a brandy sample under certain conditions.Main findings: Results revealed that, within a laboratory setting, consumers recorded lower levels of tastiness under conditions where more senses were manipulated than in conditions where less senses were manipulated.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study coincided with previous results, which indicated that, within certain product categories, sensory marketing could actually decrease the consumer’s experience as sensory overload could occur.Contribution/value-add: In the endeavour to reduce possible sensory overload in the alcohol industry, the findings suggest that marketers should not apply sensory marketing indiscriminately to all product categories. For example, on a retail level, where experimental marketing might be too costly or even too complex to apply to some product categories, marketers should rather rethink the use of sensory marketing strategies within certain industries and focus on other marketing strategies, such a brand building.

  20. Career Choice And College Students: Parental Influence on Career Choice Traditionalism among College Students in Selected Cities in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sella Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the influence of parents on choosing career among college students in selected private colleges situated around Bahirdar City, Ethiopia. Choosing a suitable career is a vital part in every student’s life. Further, it ignites a person’s future life for his/her own job preference and life style. In this context, influence of social members is inevitable; generally the influence of family members and most particularly parents play a major role as an influencer and determiner on choosing a career option. Students in Ethiopia are not exceptional to this phenomenon of selecting right and suitable career. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted and multi stage sampling technique was employed to identify the participants. Totally, 175 participants (Male=99 and (Female =76 responded to Holland Personality Inventory (Holland, 1997 and Career Choice Traditionalism Scale (Hensely, 2003. The collected data were statistically processed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive and inferential statistics was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that there is a significant influence of parents on career choice among students. Specifically, father’s influence is found to be more significant on career choice decision making among students than their mothers.

  1. Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum daily ambient temperature on grizzly bear habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D

    2016-08-01

    To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient temperature on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient temperature on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a daily and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient temperature, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm temperatures. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient temperatures increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient temperatures, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.

  2. Determination of the influence of substrate concentration on enzyme selectivity using whey protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butré, Claire I; Sforza, Stefano; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter A

    2014-10-22

    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each cleavage site in the protein. It was determined from the identification and quantification of the peptides present in the hydrolysates. Solutions of 0.1-10% (w/v) whey protein isolate (WPI) were hydrolyzed by Bacillus licheniformis protease at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. The cleavage sites were divided into five groups, from very high (>10%) to very low selectivity (protein concentrations. This finding shows that both the rate of hydrolysis and the enzyme selectivity were influenced by the substrate concentration.

  3. Study of coagulation processes of selected humic acids under copper ions influence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokolowska, Zofia

    2013-04-01

    Humic acids have limited sorption capacity and big dose of metal or other mineral component which can be sorbed on humic acids, can cause saturation of negative, surface charge of humic acids leading to destabilization of dissolved humic acids compounds. Destabilisation can be observed as coagulation and floculation proces of humic acids. However there are a lot of mechanisms which causing precipitation of humic acids. Thereby, in order to full description of coagulation process, different methods should be applied. Ordinarily, humic acids coagulation is studied by measurement of absorbance, transmittance or carbon loss in solution. Meanwhile, very significant information is also variation of metal content in soil solution and information whether metal goes to precipitate together with humic acids or stays in dissolved form in solution. So, that, from one side, processes of stronger accumulation of metal can lead to soil degradation and micronutrient deficiency for plants. However, there is also possibility to stay metal in solution in toxic and bioavailable form for plants. Main aim of this paper was to study coagulation process of different humic acids extracted from mucking peats under copper ions influence at adjusted pH to 5. In order to this, four peaty-muck soils were taken from selected places in east part of Poland (meadows and river valleys). These soils differed by humification degree, secondary transformation, density and pH. At next step, humic acids were extracted from soils using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) extractant. After exact purification by washing with HF-HCl mixture and water, humic acids were liofilized. Solutions of humic acids were prepared at concentration 40 mg/dm3 with addition of different amount of copper ions to obtain final concentration of Cu(II) ranged from 0-40mg/dm3. After 24 hours solutions were investigated using measurements of absorbance at 470nm (UV-VIS spectrometer Jasco V-530), measurements of organic carbon in solution

  4. Influence of early pregnancy on reproductive rate in lines of mice selected for litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, E J

    1980-09-01

    The influence of male-induced early puberty on female reproductive rate was determined in three lines of mice differing in litter size and body weight. The lines originated from a single base population and had undergone 20 generations of selection for the following criteria: large litter size at birth (L(+)), large litter size and small 6-week body weight (L(+)W(-)), or small litter size and large 6-week body weight (L(-)W(+)). Females were paired with a mature intact male of the same line at 3, 5 or 7 weeks of age. Mean mating age, averaged over lines, was 26.5 ± .3, 38.3 ± .3 and 52.7 ± .3 days. Exposure to a mature male accelerated female sexual maturation in each line. When contrasted with their sibs mated at a later age, early-pregnant females from each line exhibited a decline in one or more component of reproductive performance, suggesting that the physiological state of the very young female was not optimum for normal pregnancy. In comparisons of early and later mating ages, all three lines showed a decreased littering rate at first mating, number born alive, and individual birth weight of progeny adjusted for litter size; L(+) and L(+)W(-) mice showed an increased perinatal mortality rate; L(+) and L(-)W(+) had a reduction in litter size at birth. When the L(+), L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) lines were compared with an unselected strain and a line selected for high postweaning gain in similar experiments, a genotype by environment interaction was apparent since all lines did not respond in a similar manner to early mating. The line ranking for litter size at birth for each age at male-exposure was L(+)>L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), despite the significant line by age interaction. When litter size was adjusted by covariance for body weight at mating, the significant effects of age at male-exposure and line by age interaction were eliminated. All fertile females were remated after they had weaned their first litter to obtain information on litter size in parity two. Line

  5. [Influence of nutrition on selected metabolic cardiovascular risk factors among female residents of Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piórecka, Beata; Jagielski, Paweł; Zwirska, Jaśmina; Piskorz, Anna; Brzostek, Tomasz; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The study involved influence of nutritional factors on select anthropometrical and lipid indices (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL) in female residents of Krakow who were voluntarily participating in the investigation. Only women free of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases were included. The study group consisting of 100 women aged 30-65 years, was divided into two groups: pre-menopause (PM, n=47) and after menopause (AM, n=53). The anthropometrical measurements, % of fat tissue - Tanita scale and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The energy value and the consumption of basic nutrients intake were calculated using 24-hour recalls from the day before the examination. The AM group presented higher anthropometrical and metabolic risk profile: overweight and obesity (BMI-PM = 25.51 +/- 4.16 kg/m2; AM = 28.28 +/- 4.89 kg/m2) and central adiposity type (WC-PM = 81.04 +/- 10.00 cm; AM = 86.46 +/- 11.73 cm); lipids (Total cholesterol-PM = 5.14 +/- 0.87 mmol/l, AM = 5.67 +/- 1.10 mmol/l; LDL-chol-PM = 2.98 +/- 0.90 mmol/l, AM = 3.40 +/- 0.93 mmol/l; HDL-chol-PM = 1.65 +/- 0.39 mmol/l; AM = 1.63 + 0.46 mmol/l). The irregular participation of fatty acids, proteins from plant sources and dietary fibers in daily diet were found (%Energy PM: SFA = 11.66 +/- 4.34, MUFA = 10.91 +/- 4.04, PUFA = 4.76 +/- 2.75, Keys index = 41.89 +/- 14.91; %EnergyAM: SFA = 11.48 +/- 3.86, MUFA = 11.02 +/- 4.12, PUFA = 4.89 +/- 2.92, Keys index = 40.87 +/- 14.4). Women in the AM group represented healthier nutritional behaviors. Results presented indicate that in further study concerning evaluation of nutrients consumption among women the fact of natural menopause should be considered.

  6. A factors influencing applicant selection of entry-level physical therapist education programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kim Curbow; Weber, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Physical therapist education programs must compete for qualified applicants due to a nationwide reduction in the applicant pool. To develop successful recruitment strategies, faculty members need information on factors influencing applicant selection of a program. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing selection of an entry-level physical therapist education program. Survey subjects were students enrolled in the first professional year of an accredited entry-level physical therapist education program. A survey instrument was developed based on the literature and interviews with physical therapist students and faculty members. Results of pilot studies to determine face and content validity were acceptable. Stratified random cluster sampling was applied to select 66 entry-level physical therapy programs from an available population of 150 of the 199 accredited programs. Forty-nine programs were not included in the population for various reasons. Using a five-point Likert scale, subjects rated the influence of 51 items on their selection of a specific physical therapist education program. The overall return rate was 70.4% (1,250 surveys returned). Data were analyzed by response frequency. Four factors were selected as "very influential" by 50% or more of the subjects: degree offered, accreditation status, perception of educational quality, and program atmosphere. Additional factors selected by 45% or more of respondents as "very influential" were pass rate on licensing examination, marketability of degree, student/faculty ratio, and small class size. Factors rated "not influential" by 50% or more of subjects included ethnic, cultural, and gender issues. Since 1998, the physical therapy profession has experienced changes in entry-level degree requirements, practice requirements, and employment opportunities, resulting in increased competition for qualified applicants to education programs. The information gained in this study may assist faculty in

  7. The influence of twine thickness, twine number and netting orientation on codend selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Wienbeck, Harald; Moderhak, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Based on an experimental Baltic trawl fishery, we tested diamond mesh codends with different twine thicknesses, twine numbers (single or double), and netting orientation (T0 or T90) to quantify the effects of the twine characteristics on the size selection of cod (Gadus morhua) and plaice....... Increasing twine thickness reduces selection for plaice. Our results demonstrate that very different selectivity results can be obtained using the same mesh size, simply by varying the twine thickness, the twine number, and the netting orientation. In some fisheries, the size selectivity could be improved...... considerably by adjusting these simple design parameters alternatively to produce more advanced and complex designs....

  8. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  9. The influence of hydraulic forces on the selection of structural form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glerum, A.; Schippers, J.

    1981-01-01

    Besides that the hydraulic forces have an influence on the structure, the shape of the structure may often influence the hydraulic loads as well. A distinction should be made between hydrostatic forces which are for instance caused by a difference in head between two water levels and dynamic forces

  10. Heat, sight and scent: multiple cues influence foraging site selection by an ambush-foraging snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo DU, Jonathan K. WEBB, Richard SHINE

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most mobile organisms respond to multiple cues when selecting habitat types, and laboratory experiments that manipulate only single cues may fail to reveal the true complexity of habitat-selection behaviour. In south-eastern Australia, broad-headed snakes Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae lie in wait under sun-warmed rocks to ambush velvet geckos Oedura leseuerii (Gekkonidae. Previous laboratory work has shown that both the geckos and the snakes actively select hotter rather than colder rocks, and that the snakes actively select rocks scented by geckos. We manipulated rock temperature and the presence of two types of cues from geckos (chemical and visual information to clarify the causal basis for foraging site selection by the juveniles of this snake. When given a choice between cold lizard-scented rocks and hot unscented rocks, our captive snakes gave a higher priority to lizard scent than to temperature. The snakes also selected shelter-sites that provided visual as well as scent cues from lizards, rather than shelter-sites with scent cues alone. Thus, although broad-headed snakes show a direct preference for hotter rather than colder rocks in the laboratory, their choice of foraging site in the field may also be influenced by the presence of scent cues from prey. Our laboratory results suggest that habitat selection by broad-headed snakes may be more complex than has been suggested by previous single-factor laboratory trials[Current Zoology 55(4: 266–271, 2009].

  11. Influence of target concentration and background binding on in vitro selection of affinity reagents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based aptamers possess many useful features that make them a promising alternative to antibodies and other affinity reagents, including well-established chemical synthesis, reversible folding, thermal stability and low cost. However, the selection process typically used to generate aptamers (SELEX often requires significant resources and can fail to yield aptamers with sufficient affinity and specificity. A number of seminal theoretical models and numerical simulations have been reported in the literature offering insights into experimental factors that govern the effectiveness of the selection process. Though useful, these previous models have not considered the full spectrum of experimental factors or the potential impact of tuning these parameters at each round over the course of a multi-round selection process. We have developed an improved mathematical model to address this important question, and report that both target concentration and the degree of non-specific background binding are critical determinants of SELEX efficiency. Although smaller target concentrations should theoretically offer superior selection outcome, we show that the level of background binding dramatically affect the target concentration that will yield maximum enrichment at each round of selection. Thus, our model enables experimentalists to determine appropriate target concentrations as a means for protocol optimization. Finally, we perform a comparative analysis of two different selection methods over multiple rounds of selection, and show that methods with inherently lower background binding offer dramatic advantages in selection efficiency.

  12. The Influence of Selective and Divided Attention on Audiovisual Integration in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanna; Yang, Dan Ou; Yuan, Xue; Wu, Jinglong

    2016-01-24

    This article aims to investigate whether there is a difference in audiovisual integration in school-aged children (aged 6 to 13 years; mean age = 9.9 years) between the selective attention condition and divided attention condition. We designed a visual and/or auditory detection task that included three blocks (divided attention, visual-selective attention, and auditory-selective attention). The results showed that the response to bimodal audiovisual stimuli was faster than to unimodal auditory or visual stimuli under both divided attention and auditory-selective attention conditions. However, in the visual-selective attention condition, no significant difference was found between the unimodal visual and bimodal audiovisual stimuli in response speed. Moreover, audiovisual behavioral facilitation effects were compared between divided attention and selective attention (auditory or visual attention). In doing so, we found that audiovisual behavioral facilitation was significantly difference between divided attention and selective attention. The results indicated that audiovisual integration was stronger in the divided attention condition than that in the selective attention condition in children. Our findings objectively support the notion that attention can modulate audiovisual integration in school-aged children. Our study might offer a new perspective for identifying children with conditions that are associated with sustained attention deficit, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  13. Theoretical study of the influence of twine thickness on haddock selectivity in diamond mesh cod-ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using the cod-end simulation model PRESEMO, the influence of twine thickness on cod-end selectivity is investigated. The reduction of lateral mesh opening that arises as a result of both twine bending stiffness and the physical presence of the twine is considered. While it is shown that this leads...... to a reduction in cod-end selectivity with an increase of twine thickness, it does not fully explain the relationship found in the available experimental data.The effect twine thickness may have on the ability of a fish to deform a mesh during the early part of a haul and how netting made of thicker twine may...... discourage a fish from making escape attempts is investigated. The influence that these factors may have is examined and when included in PRESEMO the resulting simulations are a much better representation of the experimental data....

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF RURAL AND URBAN CONSUMERS OF SELECT PERSONAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS IN COIMBATORE REGION, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; Arun, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers on select personal hygiene products in the Coimbatore region of Tamilnadu. It examines the factors influencing consumer behaviour in respect to purchase of personal hygiene products identified by the researcher based on the data collected from the rural and urban consumers. The study has used a 5 point Likert type scale for measuring the reasons for buying a particular purchase format, rank preferences on factors influencin...

  15. Influence of selected demographic factors on traumas in persons over 65 years of age reporting to the Hospital Medical Ward

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Andrzej Pytlak; Natalia Tomska; Andrzej Bohatyrewicz; Aleksandra Rył; Iwona Rotter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Falls and traumas in elderly persons don’t only result in health problems, but they also involve social and economic, psychological and political consequences. The most frequent trauma mechanisms in the elderly include: falls and traffic accidents. ;b:Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess selected factors influencing the energy, type and area of a trauma incurred by elderly people. Material and methods. A group of 108 patients aged 65–93 treated at the SPSK 1...

  16. Factors Influencing Selection of Higher Education Institutions in Finland by Foreign Students : Marketing Higher Education Services to Foreign Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kunwar, Jeet

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly Finland has turned out to be a popular destination for foreign students seeking higher education institutions (HEIs) for further studies abroad. In this context, it is natural to try to understand how foreign students evaluate their choices for HEIs globally and more specifically within Finland. The aim of this study is to find out the factors which influence selection of HEIs by foreign students. Ultimately, the aim of the study is to develop appropriate marketing strategies for...

  17. Phthalates Are Metabolised by Primary Thyroid Cell Cultures but Have Limited Influence on Selected Thyroid Cell Functions In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are plasticisers added to a wide variety of products, resulting in measurable exposure of humans. They are suspected to disrupt the thyroid axis as epidemiological studies suggest an influence on the peripheral thyroid hormone concentration. The mechanism is still unknown as only few in vitro studies within this area exist. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of three phthalate diesters (di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and two monoesters (mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP on the differentiated function of primary human thyroid cell cultures. Also, the kinetics of phthalate metabolism were investigated. DEHP and its monoester, MEHP, both had an inhibitory influence on 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate secretion from the cells, and MEHP also on thyroglobulin (Tg secretion from the cells. Results of the lactate dehydrogenase-measurements indicated that the MEHP-mediated influence was caused by cell death. No influence on gene expression of thyroid specific genes (Tg, thyroid peroxidase, sodium iodine symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor by any of the investigated diesters could be demonstrated. All phthalate diesters were metabolised to the respective monoester, however with a fall in efficiency for high concentrations of the larger diesters DnBP and DEHP. In conclusion, human thyroid cells were able to metabolise phthalates but this phthalate-exposure did not appear to substantially influence selected functions of these cells.

  18. Factors influencing the electrospray intrasource separation and selective ionization of glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianlin; Yang, Kui; Yang, Jingyue; Fikes, Kora N; Cheng, Hua; Gross, Richard W

    2006-02-01

    The external electric field induces a separation of cations from negative electrolyte ions in the infusate while differential ionization of molecular species that possess differential electrical propensities can be induced in either the positive- or negative-ion mode during the electrospray ionization process. These physical and electrical processes that occur in the electrospray ion source have been used to selectively ionize lipid classes possessing different electrical propensities that are now known as "intrasource separation and selective ionization". However, the chemical principles underlying charge-dependent alterations in ionization efficiencies responsible for the selective ionization of lipid classes are not known with certainty. Herein, we examined the multiple factors that contribute to intrasource separation and selective ionization of lipid classes under optimal instrumental conditions. We demonstrated that many different lipid classes could be selectively ionized in the ion source and that intrasource resolution of distinct molecular constituents was independent of lipid concentration, flow rate, and residual ions under most experimental conditions. Moreover, the presence of alkaline conditions facilitates the selective ionization of many lipid classes through a mechanism independent of the design of the ESI ion source. Collectively, this study provides an empirical foundation for understanding the chemical mechanisms underlying intrasource separation and selective ionization of lipid classes that can potentially be used for global analysis of cellular lipidomes without the need for chromatographic separation.

  19. Positive and purifying selection influence the evolution of doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iderval S Sobrinho

    Full Text Available The gene doublesex (dsx is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae, and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.

  20. Positive and Purifying Selection Influence the Evolution of Doublesex in the Anastrepha fraterculus Species Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Iderval S.; de Brito, Reinaldo A.

    2012-01-01

    The gene doublesex (dsx) is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae), and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS) in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution. PMID:22428050

  1. Influences of human and livestock density on winter habitat selection of Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenhua; Liu, Bingwan; Liu, Songtao; Jiang, Zhigang; Halbrook, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Human and livestock related disturbances of habitat selection by ungulates are topics of global concern, as they have profound impacts on ungulate survival, population density, fitness, and management; however, differences in ungulate habitat use under different human and livestock densities are not fully understood. Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa), an endemic ungulate species on the Asia-European steppe, faces varying intensities of human and livestock disturbances in the area around Dalai Lake, China. To investigate how habitat selection strategies vary as disturbance intensity changes, we randomly set 20 transects containing 1486 plots, on which we conducted repeated surveys of 21 ecological factors during the winters in the period of 2005-2008. We aimed to: 1) determine the critical factors underlying habitat selection of the gazelles; 2) determine the gazelles' habitat preferences in this area; 3) determine how habitat selection varies with disturbance intensity and explore the primary underlying mechanism. We used binary-logistic regressions and information theoretic approaches to build best-fit habitat selection models, and calculated resource selection functions. Sixty-six herds, 522 individuals, and 499 tracks were recorded. Our results indicate that snow depth and aboveground biomass are the main factors affecting habitat selection by Mongolian gazelle throughout the district in winter. Thin snow cover and abundant aboveground biomass are preferred. Avoiding disturbance was the primary factor accounting for habitat selection in low disturbance areas, although with increasing human or live-stock-related disturbance, gazelle maintained a reduced distance to the source of the disturbance. Presumably owing to that shift, movement costs were more important as disturbance increased. In addition, Mongolian gazelle selected habitats based on topographical features promoting greater visibility where disturbance was lower. We suggest several management

  2. CarPrice versus CarpRice: Word boundary ambiguity influences saccade target selection during the reading of Chinese sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2016-11-01

    As a contribution to a theoretical debate about the degree of high-level influences on saccade targeting during sentence reading, we investigated eye movements during the reading of structurally ambiguous Chinese character strings and examined whether parafoveal word segmentation could influence saccade-target selection. As expected, ambiguous strings took longer to process. More critically there were theoretically relevant interactions between ambiguity and launch site when first-fixation location and saccade amplitude served as dependent variables: Ambiguous strings in the parafovea triggered longer saccades and more rightward fixations for close launch sites than unambiguous ones; the reverse result was obtained for far launch sites. These crossover interactions indicate that parafoveal word segmentation influences saccade generation in Chinese and provide support of the hypothesis that high-level information can be involved in the decision about where to fixate next. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Influence of solvents on properties of solar selective coatings obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mihaela Dudita; Luminita Isac; Anca Duta

    2012-11-01

    Solar selective coatings for solar thermal flat-plate collectors consisting of crystalline copper oxides and amorphous nickel oxide composites were obtained by robotic spray pyrolyzed deposition. The parameters were optimized for increased spectral selectivity (): high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance. The coatings were deposited using nickel and copper acetate, dissolved in mixed solvents with various water: ethanol ratios. The coatings’ properties were characterized in terms of crystalline composition (XRD), surface morphology (AFM, contact angle) and optical properties (solar absorptance, thermal emittance and spectral selectivity). Considering the precursor solutions composition (solvent, wetting behaviour), the growth processes were modelled for two different systems: predominant hydrophilic and predominant hydrophobic. The high selectivity values ( > 30) of the optimized composite coatings were explained based on two parallel mechanisms: intrinsic absorption and multiple reflections generated when absorbers with controlled roughness are deposited.

  4. The influence of nestling predation on nest site sele,ction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-08-25

    Aug 25, 1987 ... resemble the environment in which adaptive behaviour may have evolved. ... larger tree-climbing carnivores or omnivores, such as genet (Genetta spp.) ... goodness of fit test to detect positive selection versus random use.

  5. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-07-16

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials -trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems.

  6. The influence of neighbouring species on ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

    2013-01-01

    Ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L. were studied in the years 2011-2012, in the abandoned patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by small meadow species (Patch I), macroforbs (Patch II...

  7. Selective liquid CO2 extraction of purine alkaloids in different Ilex paraguariensis progenies grown under environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Euclides Lara; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio; Filho, Osvaldo Ferrarese; Zanoelo, Everton Fernando

    2007-08-22

    In this investigation, liquid carbon dioxide at 20 degrees C and 150 bar was used for the selective extraction of caffeine and theobromine from dry leaves of mate. A comparison between the chromatograms from CO2 extraction and traditional solvent extraction supports the selectivity of carbon dioxide for these purine alkaloids. The advantages of selective liquid CO2 extraction in terms of speed and resolution of UV/HPLC is also evidenced. A randomized block design of experiments was proposed to investigate the influence of 16 progenies of Ilex paraguariensis grown in 3 diverse sites on the contents of caffeine and theobromine in liquors of mate leaves obtained by extraction with compressed CO2. A significant effect of both these factors on the parameters investigated was observed by involving the F distribution in the statistical analysis. A cluster analysis based on the experimental uncertainties in the contents of these two methylxanthines has identified from four to six different groups of mate progenies.

  8. Dissociating the influence of response selection and task anticipation on corticospinal suppression during response preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Cazares, Christian; Ivry, Richard B

    2014-12-01

    Motor behavior requires selecting between potential actions. The role of inhibition in response selection has frequently been examined in tasks in which participants are engaged in some advance preparation prior to the presentation of an imperative signal. Under such conditions, inhibition could be related to processes associated with response selection, or to more general inhibitory processes that are engaged in high states of anticipation. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the degree of anticipatory preparation. Participants performed a choice reaction time task that required choosing between a movement of the left or right index finger, and used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the left hand agonist. In high anticipation blocks, a non-informative cue (e.g., fixation marker) preceded the imperative; in low anticipation blocks, there was no cue and participants were required to divide their attention between two tasks to further reduce anticipation. MEPs were substantially reduced before the imperative signal in high anticipation blocks. In contrast, in low anticipation blocks, MEPs remained unchanged before the imperative signal but showed a marked suppression right after the onset of the imperative. This effect occurred regardless of whether the imperative had signalled a left or right hand response. After this initial inhibition, left MEPs increased when the left hand was selected and remained suppressed when the right hand was selected. We obtained similar results in Experiment 2 except that the persistent left MEP suppression when the left hand was not selected was attenuated when the alternative response involved a non-homologous effector (right foot). These results indicate that, even in the absence of an anticipatory period, inhibitory mechanisms are engaged during response selection, possibly to prevent the occurrence of premature and inappropriate responses during a competitive selection process.

  9. Influence of carbonisation on selected engineering properties of carbon resin electrodes for electrochemical treatment of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oke, I.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-10-15

    Carbon resin electrodes (CRE) developed using a non-heat treatment process were investigated in an effort to determine the influence of several properties on electrode performance. These included density; electrical resistance; microstructure; hydroscopy; stability moisture content; and compressive and flexural strength. The influences of carbonization temperature, carbon particle size, and compaction pressure were also analyzed. Results of the study showed that the electrical resistance and density of the CRE decreased with increases in carbonization temperatures. Particle size, compacting pressure, and the percentage of resin used in the electrodes also influenced electrical resistance. The carbonization of the CREs from 30 to 220 degrees C reduced specific electrical resistance and density. The carbonization temperature did not have a significant effect on wetness, compressive and flexural strength, or on the stability and moisture content of the electrodes. It was concluded that the cost of producing the CREs is significantly cheaper than the cost of heat-treated electrodes. 78 refs., 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. The influence of selective attention to auditory and visual speech on the integration of audiovisual speech information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Julie N; Munhall, Kevin G

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting visual speech information can influence the perception of acoustic speech, causing an illusory percept of a sound not present in the actual acoustic speech (the McGurk effect). We examined whether participants can voluntarily selectively attend to either the auditory or visual modality by instructing participants to pay attention to the information in one modality and to ignore competing information from the other modality. We also examined how performance under these instructions was affected by weakening the influence of the visual information by manipulating the temporal offset between the audio and video channels (experiment 1), and the spatial frequency information present in the video (experiment 2). Gaze behaviour was also monitored to examine whether attentional instructions influenced the gathering of visual information. While task instructions did have an influence on the observed integration of auditory and visual speech information, participants were unable to completely ignore conflicting information, particularly information from the visual stream. Manipulating temporal offset had a more pronounced interaction with task instructions than manipulating the amount of visual information. Participants' gaze behaviour suggests that the attended modality influences the gathering of visual information in audiovisual speech perception.

  11. The Parameters Selection of PSO Algorithm influencing On performance of Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization (PSO is an optimization algorithm based on intelligent optimization. Parameters selection of PSO will play an important role in performance and efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of PSO is analyzed when the control parameters vary, including particle number, accelerate constant, inertia weight and maximum limited velocity. And then PSO with dynamic parameters has been applied on the neural network training for gearbox fault diagnosis, the results with different parameters of PSO are compared and analyzed. At last some suggestions for parameters selection are proposed to improve the performance of PSO.

  12. Influence of Selective Biochemical and Morphological Agents on Natural History of Aneurysm of Abdominal Aorta Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszko, Tomasz; Skórski, Maciej; Kwasiborski, Przemysław; Kmin, Ewelina; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Pogorzelski, Ryszard

    2016-02-09

    BACKGROUND The development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is probably influenced by many factors. The role of some of these factors, such as intraluminal thrombus (ILT) or cystatin C serum levels, remains controversial. Proving their influence could have therapeutic implications for some patients with AAA. Associations between the rate of increase in diameter of an aneurysm and ILT, as well as other factors, including biochemical factors (C-Reactive Protein - CRP, cystatin C), age, sex, and comorbidities, could predict disease progression in individual patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy patients with small AAA were included into the study. The patients were followed using ultrasound and CT imaging. We evaluated aneurysm dimensions and aneurysm wall thickness, as well as ILT and its dimensions, aneurysm wall morphology, CRP, and cystatin C. RESULTS We observed significant growth of AAA and thinning of aneurysmal wall. Aneurysms over 4 cm grew significantly faster in the second year of observation. ILT grew together with AAA size. Age, sex, smoking, dyslipidemias, or controlled arterial hypertension had no influence on aneurysm progression rate. Changes in serum of CRP concentration did not reach statistical significance, but cystatin C levels did. CONCLUSIONS Presence and size of ILT, wall thickness, and cystatin C levels may be considered in prediction of AAA progression. ILT might exert a protective influence on the risk of aneurysm rupture. However, larger aneurysms containing larger thrombi grow faster and their walls undergo more rapid degradation, which in turn increases the risk of rupture. This matter requires further studies.

  13. Practices and Factors Influencing the Use of Antibiotics in Selected Poultry Farms in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boamah, VE; Odoi, H; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    and to assess factors influencing farmers’ choice of antibiotics for use on their farms. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and semistructured interviews was conducted among 400 poultry farms in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS...

  14. Friendship Selection and Influence in Bullying and Defending: Effects of Moral Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Rambaran, J. Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C. S.; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network…

  15. Friendship Selection and Influence in Bullying and Defending : Effects of Moral Disengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young a

  16. Nonconscious Influence of Masked Stimuli on Response Selection Is Limited to Concrete Stimulus-Response Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Haas, Brian W.

    2005-01-01

    A pattern-masked arrow negatively biased the "free choice" between 2 manual responses or between 2 vocal responses. This apparently nonconscious influence occurred only when the free-choice trials were intermixed randomly with other trials that terminated in fully visible arrows, which directed a response of the same modality (manual vs. vocal) as…

  17. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending : Effects of moral disengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Rambaran, J.A.; Caravita, S.C.S.; Gini, G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends’ influence and individual and friends’ moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young

  18. Friendship Selection and Influence in Bullying and Defending : Effects of Moral Disengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young

  19. Social Influence Interpretation of Interpersonal Processes and Team Performance Over Time Using Bayesian Model Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Alan R.; van de Schoot, Rens; Delmar, Frédéric; Crano, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The team behavior literature is ambiguous about the relations between members’ interpersonal processes—task debate and task conflict—and team performance. From a social influence perspective, we show why members’ interpersonal processes determine team performance over time in small groups. Together,

  20. Selective Influence of Circadian Modulation and Task Characteristics on Motor Imagery Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Sahraoui, Djafar; Champely, Stephane; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of circadian modulation on motor imagery (MI) time while also considering the effects of task complexity and duration. The ability to imagine in real time was influenced by circadian modulation in a simple walking condition, with longer MI times in the morning and evening sessions. By contrast, there was no…

  1. Influence of single particle orbital sets and configuration selection on multideterminant wavefunctions in quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Raymond C. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61821 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Morales, Miguel A., E-mail: moralessilva2@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    Multideterminant wavefunctions, while having a long history in quantum chemistry, are increasingly being used in highly accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Since the accuracy of QMC is ultimately limited by the quality of the trial wavefunction, multi-Slater determinants wavefunctions offer an attractive alternative to Slater-Jastrow and more sophisticated wavefunction ansatz for several reasons. They can be efficiently calculated, straightforwardly optimized, and systematically improved by increasing the number of included determinants. In spite of their potential, however, the convergence properties of multi-Slater determinant wavefunctions with respect to orbital set choice and excited determinant selection are poorly understood, which hinders the application of these wavefunctions to large systems and solids. In this paper, by performing QMC calculations on the equilibrium and stretched carbon dimer, we find that convergence of the recovered correlation energy with respect to number of determinants can depend quite strongly on basis set and determinant selection methods, especially where there is strong correlation. We demonstrate that properly chosen orbital sets and determinant selection techniques from quantum chemistry methods can dramatically reduce the required number of determinants (and thus the computational cost) to reach a given accuracy, which we argue shows clear need for an automatic QMC-only method for selecting determinants and generating optimal orbital sets.

  2. Assessing the Attributes Which Influence Pharmacy School Selection to Promote Effective Recruiting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Victoria F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A 1989 survey of 1,800 first-year pharmacy students from 18 schools identified factors in pharmacy school selection and compared findings with 1985 data. Factors considered include institutional reputation, academic environment, finances, degrees offered, curricular options, advising, and student characteristics. Institutional reputation and…

  3. INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON SELECTIVE ATTENTION IN WELL-RESTED AND FATIGUED SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; KOK, A; MULDER, G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of caffeine were studied in a visual focused selective search task in well-rested and fatigued subjects. A dose of 200 + 50 mg caffeine or placebo, dissolved in decaffeinated coffee, was administered in a double-blind and deceptive fashion. The task was to detect a target letter on one

  4. Plant protein and secondary metabolites influence diet selection in a mammalian specialist herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy C. Ulappa; Rick G. Kelsey; Graham G. Frye; Janet L. Rachlow; LIsa A. Shipley; Laura Bond; Xinzhu Pu; Jennifer Sorensen. Forbey

    2014-01-01

    For herbivores, nutrient intake is limited by the relatively low nutritional quality of plants and high concentrations of potentially toxic defensive compounds (plant secondary metabolites [PSMs]) produced by many plants. In response to phytochemical challenges, some herbivores selectively forage on plants with higher nutrient and lower PSM concentrations relative to...

  5. Selecting the right robot: influence of user attitude, robot sociability and embodiment on user preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Mike; Truong, Khiet P.

    2015-01-01

    Selecting the suitable form of a robot, i.e. physical or virtual, for a task is not straightforward. The choice for a physical robot is not self-evident when the task is not physical but entirely social in nature. Results from previous studies comparing robots with different body types are found to

  6. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  7. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  8. INFLUENCE OF CAFFEINE ON SELECTIVE ATTENTION IN WELL-RESTED AND FATIGUED SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LORIST, MM; SNEL, J; KOK, A; MULDER, G

    1994-01-01

    Effects of caffeine were studied in a visual focused selective search task in well-rested and fatigued subjects. A dose of 200 + 50 mg caffeine or placebo, dissolved in decaffeinated coffee, was administered in a double-blind and deceptive fashion. The task was to detect a target letter on one diago

  9. Selecting the right robot: Influence of user attitude, robot sociability and embodiment on user preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Mike; Truong, Khiet Phuong

    Selecting the suitable form of a robot, i.e. physical or virtual, for a task is not straightforward. The choice for a physical robot is not self-evident when the task is not physical but entirely social in nature. Results from previous studies comparing robots with different body types are found to

  10. An Examination of Factors Influencing Students Selection of Business Majors Using TRA Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Making decisions regarding the selection of a business major is both very important and challenging for students. An understanding of this decision-making process can be valuable for students, parents, and university programs. The current study applies the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) consumer decision-making model to examine factors that…

  11. The influence of plant spacing in the early stages of selection of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torró, I.; Bretó, P.; García-Yzaguirre, A.

    2016-11-01

    The cultural practices of the early generations in a pedigree breeding programme may influence its success. The main objective of this study was to compare two selection environments in rice: Widely spaced planting in the field and dense planting in concrete basins. Both methods had yielded commercial varieties in the past. Two F2 populations (J and MS), derived from two crosses sharing the same female parent, were transplanted to both environments. Phenotypic traits were evaluated and their narrow sense heritabilities (h2) estimated in the F3 and in the F4 progenies of selected plants, all grown in the field. Growth potential was more apparent in the field for most traits, especially those related to yield, but broad sense heritabilities were higher in the basins for ten traits, being higher in the field for the other five. In population F2MS, field selection resulted in F3 plants which retained a higher tillering ability than those derived from basins selection. Most traits showed low h2 values: Additive variance was only relevant in panicle length (in both populations), plant height and mean panicle weight (in the J population). However, response to one generation of selection (from F3 to F4) also showed fixable variation in panicle number. In addition, this selection reduced plant height, increased culm diameter and internode length (in both populations), and improved pulling resistance (against lodging) in population J. It may be concluded that both practices can be used for selection in the F2, although different responses might be expected in yield related traits. (Author)

  12. The influence of plant spacing in the early stages of selection of rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Torró

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cultural practices of the early generations in a pedigree breeding programme may influence its success. The main objective of this study was to compare two selection environments in rice: Widely spaced planting in the field and dense planting in concrete basins. Both methods had yielded commercial varieties in the past. Two F2 populations (J and MS, derived from two crosses sharing the same female parent, were transplanted to both environments. Phenotypic traits were evaluated and their narrow sense heritabilities (h2 estimated in the F3 and in the F4 progenies of selected plants, all grown in the field. Growth potential was more apparent in the field for most traits, especially those related to yield, but broad sense heritabilities were higher in the basins for ten traits, being higher in the field for the other five. In population F2MS, field selection resulted in F3 plants which retained a higher tillering ability than those derived from basins selection. Most traits showed low h2 values: Additive variance was only relevant in panicle length (in both populations, plant height and mean panicle weight (in the J population. However, response to one generation of selection (from F3 to F4 also showed fixable variation in panicle number. In addition, this selection reduced plant height, increased culm diameter and internode length (in both populations, and improved pulling resistance (against lodging in population J. It may be concluded that both practices can be used for selection in the F2, although different responses might be expected in yield related traits.

  13. Potential influence of selection criteria on the demographic composition of students in an Australian medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puddey Ian B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to 1999 students entering our MBBS course were selected on academic performance alone. We have now evaluated the impact on the demographics of subsequent cohorts of our standard entry students (those entering directly from high school of the addition to the selection process of an aptitude test (UMAT, a highly structured interview and a rural incentive program. Methods Students entering from 1985 to 1998, selected on academic performance alone (N = 1402, were compared to those from 1999 to 2011, selected on the basis of a combination of academic performance, interview score, and UMAT score together with the progressive introduction of a rural special entry pathway (N = 1437. Results Males decreased from 57% to 45% of the cohort, students of NE or SE Asian origin decreased from 30% to 13%, students born in Oceania increased from 52% to 69%, students of rural origin from 5% to 21% and those from independent high schools from 56% to 66%. The proportion of students from high schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage remained unchanged at approximately 10%. The changes reflect in part increasing numbers of female and independent high school applicants and the increasing rural quota. However, they were also associated with higher interview scores in females vs males and lower interview scores in those of NE and SE Asian origin compared to those born in Oceania or the UK. Total UMAT scores were unrelated to gender or region of origin. Conclusions The revised selection processes had no impact on student representation from schools with relative socio-educational disadvantage. However, the introduction of special entry quotas for students of rural origin and a structured interview, but not an aptitude test, were associated with a change in gender balance and ethnicity of students in an Australian undergraduate MBBS course.

  14. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF TRUST IN THE CONSTITUTION OF A BRAZILIAN COOPERATIVE OF SELECTIVE WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Marciane Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Brazilian public policy started to encourage solidarity economy in 2003, the number of projects and enterprises in this sector has steadily increased. Embeddedness has contributed to the understanding of organizational phenomena of solidarity economy and cooperatives. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of trust, from the perspective of Mark Granovetter’s social networks, on the constitution of a cooperative of urban recyclable waste pickers in southern Brazil between 1996 until early 2012, considered the foundation period. We used the qualitative method with a historical approach to social relationships and content analysis. Possible influences of trust were analysed based on the economic, social and political history of the cooperative. Among the main results, we highlight the existence of social relations before the constitution, defined by trust due to family identity and reputation built over time.

  16. Influence of selected modifiers on crystallization curve of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In article was introduced the results of investigations of modified chromium cast iron crystallization process. It the cast iron about composition of basic elements C = 2,8 % and Cr = 18% was modified with five substances (boron carbide, ferrosilicon, ferrocalciumsilicon, ferroniobium and ferroniobium with ferrovanadium. Influence on course of primary and secondary crystallization process was observed. The investigations of crystallization was conducted DTA method in tester DTA - C.

  17. In Vitro Influence of Mycophenolic Acid on Selected Parameters of Stimulated Peripheral Canine Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Guzera

    Full Text Available Mycophenolic acid (MPA is an active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil, a new immunosuppressive drug effective in the treatment of canine autoimmune diseases. The impact of MPA on immunity is ambiguous and its influence on the canine immune system is unknown. The aim of the study was to determine markers of changes in stimulated peripheral canine lymphocytes after treatment with MPA in vitro. Twenty nine healthy dogs were studied. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphocytes was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured with mitogens and different MPA concentrations- 1 μM (10-3 mol/m3, 10 μM or 100 μM. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD. The expression of antigens (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, forkhead box P3 [FoxP3] and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] was assessed with monoclonal antibodies. The proliferation indices were analyzed in carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE-labeled cells. All analyses were performed using flow cytometry. The influence of MPA on apoptosis was dependent on the mechanism of cell activation and MPA concentration. MPA caused a decrease in the expression of lymphocyte surface antigens, CD3, CD8 and CD25. Its impact on the expression of CD4 and CD21 was negligible. Its negative influence on the expression of FoxP3 was dependent on cell stimulation. MPA inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, MPA inhibited the activity of stimulated canine lymphocytes by blocking lymphocyte activation and proliferation. The influence of MPA on the development of immune tolerance-expansion of Treg cells and lymphocyte apoptosis-was ambiguous and was dependent on the mechanism of cellular activation. The concentration that MPA reaches in the blood may lead to inhibition of the functions of the canine immune system. The applied panel of markers can be used for evaluation of the effects of immunosuppressive compounds in the dog.

  18. Masting behaviour in a Mediterranean pine tree alters seed predator selection on reproductive output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, X; Abdala-Roberts, L; Zas, R; Merlo, E; Lombardero, M J; Sampedro, L; Mooney, K A

    2016-11-01

    Context-dependency in species interactions is widespread and can produce concomitant patterns of context-dependent selection. Masting (synchronous production of large seed crops at irregular intervals by a plant population) has been shown to reduce seed predation through satiation (reduction in rates of seed predation with increasing seed cone output) and thus represents an important source of context-dependency in plant-animal interactions. However, the evolutionary consequences of such dynamics are not well understood. Here we describe masting behaviour in a Mediterranean model pine species (Pinus pinaster) and present a test of the effects of masting on selection by seed predators on reproductive output. We predicted that masting, by enhancing seed predator satiation, could in turn strengthen positive selection by seed predators for larger cone output. For this we collected six-year data (spanning one mast year and five non-mast years) on seed cone production and seed cone predation rates in a forest genetic trial composed by 116 P. pinaster genotypes. Following our prediction, we found stronger seed predator satiation during the masting year, which in turn led to stronger seed predator selection for increased cone production relative to non-masting years. These findings provide evidence that masting can alter the evolutionary outcome of plant-seed predator interactions. More broadly, our findings highlight that changes in consumer responses to resource abundance represent a widespread mechanism for predicting and understanding context dependency in plant-consumer evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from selected cereal grains and legumes as influenced by food acidulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols in food are valued for their health-beneficial influences. Food acidulants lime juice and amchur used in Indian cookery were evaluated for their influence on polyphenol bioaccessibility from food grains. Lime juice increased bioaccessible flavonoids by 25% in roasted finger millet, while there was no change in total bioaccessible polyphenols in pressure-cooked, open-pan-boiled and roasted finger millet in the presence of food acidulants. Addition of amchur to pressure-cooked and microwave-heated pearl millet increased bioaccessible flavonoids by 30 and 53% respectively, while lime juice increased them by 46% in pressure-cooked pearl millet. Increased bioaccessibility of specific phenolic acids from finger millet and pearl millet was observed upon addition of these food acidulants. The presence of either lime juice or amchur increased bioaccessible flavonoids from both legumes studied. Addition of lime juice and amchur, however, exerted a negative effect on the bioaccessibility of several phenolic compounds from food grains in native state and under certain processing conditions. Thus food acidulants lime juice and amchur had a significant influence on the bioaccessibility of health-beneficial phenolic compounds from food grains. Use of food acidulants in food preparations could be a strategy to enhance the bioavailability of polyphenols, especially flavonoids from grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Using a fuzzy DEMATEL method for analyzing the factors influencing subcontractors selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Renata

    2016-06-01

    Subcontracting is a long-standing practice in the construction industry. This form of project organization, if manage properly, could provide the better quality, reduction in project time and costs. Subcontractors selection is a multi-criterion problem and can be determined by many factors. Identifying the importance of each of them as well as the direction of cause-effect relations between various types of factors can improve the management process. Their values could be evaluated on the basis of the available expert opinions with the application of a fuzzy multi-stage grading scale. In this paper it is recommended to use fuzzy DEMATEL method to analyze the relationship between factors affecting subcontractors selection.

  1. The influence of selection for protein stability on dN/dS estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Serohijos, Adrian W. R.; Kepp, Kasper Planeta;

    2014-01-01

    from the neutral theory as a null model. However, from biophysical considerations, mutations have non-negligible effects on the biophysical properties of proteins such as folding stability. In this work, we investigated how stability affects the rate of protein evolution in phylogenetic trees by using...... simulations that combine explicit protein sequences with associated stability changes. We first simulated myoglobin evolution in phylogenetic trees with a biophysically realistic approach that accounts for 3D structural information and estimates of changes in stability upon mutation. We then compared...... stability where protein evolution is neutral. At low folding stabilities and under mutation-selection balance, we observe deviations from neutrality (per gene dN/dS > 1 and dN/dS positive selection detect statistically...

  2. Influence of inoculum and anode surface properties on the selection of Geobacter-dominated biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commault, Audrey S; Barrière, Frédéric; Lapinsonnière, Laure; Lear, Gavin; Bouvier, Solène; Weld, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact of inoculum source and anode surface modification (carboxylate -COO(-) and sulfonamide -SO2NH2 groups) on the microbial composition of anode-respiring biofilms. These two factors have not previously been considered in detail. Three different inoculum sources were investigated, a dry aerobic soil, brackish estuarine mud and freshwater sediment. The biofilms were selected using a poised anode (-0.36 V vs Ag/AgCl) and acetate as the electron donor in a three-electrode configuration microbial fuel cell (MFC). Population profiling and cloning showed that all biofilms selected were dominated by Geobacter sp., although their electrochemical properties varied depending on the source inoculum and electrode surface modification. These findings suggest that Geobacter sp. are widespread in soils, even those that do not provide a continuously anaerobic environment, and are better at growing in the MFC conditions than other bacteria.

  3. Sleeping site selection by agile gibbons: the influence of tree stability, fruit availability and predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M; Höing, Andrea; Rinear, John; Sheeran, Lori K

    2012-01-01

    Primates spend a significant proportion of their lives at sleeping sites: the selection of a secure and stable sleeping tree can be crucial for individual survival and fitness. We measured key characteristics of all tree species in which agile gibbons slept, including exposure of the tree crown, root system, height, species and presence of food. Gibbons most frequently slept in Dipterocarpaceae and Fabaceae trees and preferentially chose trees taller than average, slept above the mean canopy height and showed a preference for liana-free trees. These choices could reflect avoidance of competition with other frugivores, but we argue these choices reflect gibbons prioritizing avoidance of predation. The results highlight that gibbons are actively selecting and rejecting sleeping trees based on several characteristics. The importance of the presence of large trees for food is noted and provides insight into gibbon antipredatory behaviour.

  4. State-selective influence of the Breit interaction on the angular distribution of emitted photons following dielectronic recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Pedro; Shah, Chintan; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; López-Urrutia, José R. Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2017-02-01

    We report a measurement of K L L dielectronic recombination in charge states from Kr+34 through Kr+28 in order to investigate the contribution of the Breit interaction for a wide range of resonant states. Highly charged Kr ions were produced in an electron-beam ion trap, while the electron-ion collision energy was scanned over a range of dielectronic recombination resonances. The subsequent K α x rays were recorded both along and perpendicular to the electron-beam axis, which allowed the observation of the influence of the Breit interaction on the angular distribution of the x rays. Experimental results are in good agreement with distorted-wave calculations. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that there is a strong state-selective influence of the Breit interaction that can be traced back to the angular and radial properties of the wave functions in the dielectronic capture.

  5. An Investigation into Factors Influencing the Sensory Properties of Selected Irish Grown Organic and Conventional Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Research studies conducted on organic produce have given conflicting results whether they have superior sensory qualities when compared to conventionally cultivated produce. The development and implementation of a reliable testing system is therefore required. In this study Irish grown organic and conventional carrots (cv. Nairobi), potatoes (cv. Orla) and tomatoes (cv. Amoroso) were selected for physicochemical (size, colour, dry matter, texture, sugars, oBrix & pH), volatile emissions and s...

  6. Membrane-plate transition in leaves as an influence on dietary selectivity and tooth form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Mauricio G; Sala, Enrico A; Carvalho, Barbara; Villani, Giovanna M; Lucas, Peter W; van Casteren, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Primates need accurate sensory signals about food quality to forage efficiently. Current evidence suggests that they target leaf foods based on color at long-range, reinforcing this with post-ingestive sensations relating to leaf toughness evoked during chewing. Selection against tough leaves effectively selects against high fiber content, which in turn gives a greater opportunity of acquiring protein. Here we consider a novel intermediate mechanical factor that could aid a folivore: leaves may transform mechanically from membranes (sheets that cannot maintain their shape under gravitational loads and thus 'flop') early on in development into plates (that can maintain their shape) as they mature. This transformation can be detected visually. Mechanical tests on two species of leaf eaten by southern muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) in Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, support a membrane-to-plate shift in turgid leaves during their development. A measure of this mechanical transition, termed lambda (λ), was found to correlate with both leaf color and toughness, thus supporting a potential role in leaf selection. Muriquis appear to select membranous leaves, but they also eat leaves that are plate-like. We attribute this to the degree of cresting of their molar teeth. A dietary choice restricted to membranous leaves might typify the type of 'fallback' leaf that even frugivorous primates will target because membranes of low toughness are relatively easily chewed. This may be relevant to the diets of hominins because these lack the bladed postcanine teeth seen in mammals with a specialized folivorous diet. We suggest that mammals with such dental adaptations can consume tougher leaf 'plates' than others.

  7. The influence of selection for protein stability on dN/dS estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Serohijos, Adrian W R; Kepp, Kasper P; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2014-10-28

    Understanding the relative contributions of various evolutionary processes-purifying selection, neutral drift, and adaptation-is fundamental to evolutionary biology. A common metric to distinguish these processes is the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (i.e., dN/dS) interpreted from the neutral theory as a null model. However, from biophysical considerations, mutations have non-negligible effects on the biophysical properties of proteins such as folding stability. In this work, we investigated how stability affects the rate of protein evolution in phylogenetic trees by using simulations that combine explicit protein sequences with associated stability changes. We first simulated myoglobin evolution in phylogenetic trees with a biophysically realistic approach that accounts for 3D structural information and estimates of changes in stability upon mutation. We then compared evolutionary rates inferred directly from simulation to those estimated using maximum-likelihood (ML) methods. We found that the dN/dS estimated by ML methods (ωML) is highly predictive of the per gene dN/dS inferred from the simulated phylogenetic trees. This agreement is strong in the regime of high stability where protein evolution is neutral. At low folding stabilities and under mutation-selection balance, we observe deviations from neutrality (per gene dN/dS > 1 and dN/dS dN/dS is robust to these deviations, ML tests for positive selection detect statistically significant per site dN/dS > 1. Altogether, we show how protein biophysics affects the dN/dS estimations and its subsequent interpretation. These results are important for improving the current approaches for detecting positive selection. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. New influence factor inducing difficulty in selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Mao, Ying-bo; Wen, Shu-ming; Liu, Jian; Xian, Yong-jun; Feng, Qi-cheng

    2015-02-01

    Selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfides has been proven to be difficult. Thus far, researchers have found no satisfactory way to separate Cu-Zn mixed sulfides by selective flotation, mainly because of the complex surface and interface interaction mechanisms in the flotation solution. Undesired activation occurs between copper ions and the sphalerite surfaces. In addition to recycled water and mineral dissolution, ancient fluids in the minerals are observed to be a new source of metal ions. In this study, significant amounts of ancient fluids were found to exist in Cu-Zn sulfide and gangue minerals, mostly as gas-liquid fluid inclusions. The concentration of copper ions released from the ancient fluids reached 1.02 × 10-6 mol/L, whereas, in the cases of sphalerite and quartz, this concentration was 0.62 × 10-6 mol/L and 0.44 × 10-6 mol/L, respectively. As a result, the ancient fluid is a significant source of copper ions compared to mineral dissolution under the same experimental conditions, which promotes the unwanted activation of sphalerite. Therefore, the ancient fluid is considered to be a new factor that affects the selective flotation separation of Cu-Zn mixed sulfide ores.

  9. Factors influencing student selection of marriage and family therapy graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertlein, Katherine M; Lambert-Shute, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To understand which factors students consider most important in choosing a marriage and family therapy (MFT) graduate program and how programs met or did not meet these expectations of students over the course of graduate study, we conducted an online mixed-method investigation. One hundred twelve graduate students in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education-accredited programs responded to an online survey assessing what factors led them to select a specific graduate program in MFT. In the quantitative portion, students ranked each factor (personal fit, faculty, funding, research, clinical work, and teaching) as well as characteristics of each factor in relation to its importance in their selection of an MFT program. Additionally, students indicated to what level their programs meet their expectations. In the qualitative portion, students described how they believed their chosen program was or was not meeting their expectations. Both doctoral and master's students ranked personal fit as the top factor affecting their choice of graduate program in MFT, but they differed on the characteristics of each of these factors and their importance in selecting an MFT program. Implications for this research include program evaluation and program advertising, and are consistent with the scientist-practitioner model.

  10. Influence of Rotational Nucleosome Positioning on Transcription Start Site Selection in Animal Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Giovanna; Bucher, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of RNA-Pol-II to the transcription start site (TSS) is an important step in gene regulation in all organisms. Core promoter elements (CPE) are conserved sequence motifs that guide Pol-II to the TSS by interacting with specific transcription factors (TFs). However, only a minority of animal promoters contains CPEs. It is still unknown how Pol-II selects the TSS in their absence. Here we present a comparative analysis of promoters’ sequence composition and chromatin architecture in five eukaryotic model organisms, which shows the presence of common and unique DNA-encoded features used to organize chromatin. Analysis of Pol-II initiation patterns uncovers that, in the absence of certain CPEs, there is a strong correlation between the spread of initiation and the intensity of the 10 bp periodic signal in the nearest downstream nucleosome. Moreover, promoters’ primary and secondary initiation sites show a characteristic 10 bp periodicity in the absence of CPEs. We also show that DNA natural variants in the region immediately downstream the TSS are able to affect both the nucleosome-DNA affinity and Pol-II initiation pattern. These findings support the notion that, in addition to CPEs mediated selection, sequence–induced nucleosome positioning could be a common and conserved mechanism of TSS selection in animals. PMID:27716823

  11. Catalytic conversion of alcohols--11. Influence of preparation and pretreatment on the selectivity of zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H. (Potomac State Coll. W. Va. Univ.); Ganesan, P.

    1979-09-01

    Conversion of 2-butanol, 2- and 3-pentanol, 2-hexanol, 2- and 4-octanol, and 4-methyl- and 4,4-dimethyl-2-pentanol at 235/sup 0/-290/sup 0/C and 1 atm alcohol for 4-6 hr over zirconia catalysts prepared from various zirconium salts by precipitation and thermally pretreated in hydrogen or air gave mixtures of the corresponding ketones and alkenes. Many samples pretreated in hydrogen were very selective for dehydration of secondary (but not tertiary) 2-alkanols to alkenes, and two of them showed over 95Vertical Bar3< selectivity for 1-alkenes; the oxygen-treated catalysts were nonselective in most cases. Some of the catalysts showed high dehydrogenation selectivities for the 3- and 4-alkanols. The same nonequilibrium mixture of 3- and 1-methylcyclohexene was obtained from the conversion of pure cis- or trans-2-methylcyclohexanol over this catalyst, suggesting a common intermediate for dehydration, dehydrogenation, and cis-trans isomerization of the alcohol. Over-all, zirconia catalysts resembled thoria, but were quite different from titania and hafnia.

  12. How action selection influences the sense of agency: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidarus, Nura; Vuorre, Matti; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-02-08

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions and, through them, of events in the outside world. One influential view claims that the SoA depends on retrospectively matching the expected and actual outcomes of action. However, recent studies have revealed an additional, prospective component to SoA, driven by action selection processes. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying prospective agency. Subliminal priming was used to manipulate the fluency of selecting a left or right hand action in response to a supraliminal target. These actions were followed by one of several coloured circles, after a variable delay. Participants then rated their degree of control over this visual outcome. Incompatible priming impaired action selection, and reduced sense of agency over action outcomes, relative to compatible priming. More negative ERPs immediately after the action, linked to post-decisional action monitoring, were associated with reduced agency ratings over action outcomes. Additionally, feedback-related negativity evoked by the outcome was also associated with reduced agency ratings. These ERP components may reflect brain processes underlying prospective and retrospective components of sense of agency respectively.

  13. The influence of extracellular compounds produced by selected Baltic cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates on growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Adam; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants could affect the growth and development of biological and agricultural systems. This natural process that occurs worldwide is known as allelopathy. The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of metabolites obtained from phytoplankton monocultures on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We selected 6 species occurring in the Baltic Sea from 3 different taxonomic groups: cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Planktothrix agardhii), diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana; Chaetoceros wighamii) and dinoflagellates (Alexandrium ostenfeldii; Prorocentrum minimum). In this study we have demonstrated that some of selected organisms caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. Both the negative and positive effects of collected cell-free filtrates on C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll a concentration and fluorescence parameters (OJIP, QY, NPQ) have been observed. No evidence has been found for the impact on morphology and viability of C. vulgaris cells.

  14. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne; Dornonville de la Cour, Kenn; Young, Alyssa; Brooks, Tim; Sesay, Tom; Salam, Alex P.; Mishra, Sharmistha; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis, suggesting a survival selection bias. Comparisons of case-fatality rates across ETCs and clinical management strategies should account for potential survival selection bias. PMID:28322693

  15. Predicting higher selection in elite junior Australian Rules football: The influence of physical performance and anthropometric attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous optimization of variables influencing selectivity and elution strength in micellar liquid chromatography. Effect of organic modifier and micelle concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasters, J K; Breyer, E D; Rodgers, A H; Khaledi, M G

    1990-07-06

    Previously, the simultaneous enhancement of separation selectivity with elution strength was reported in micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) using the hybrid eluents of water-organic solvent-micelles. The practical implication of this phenomenon is that better separations can be achieved in shorter analysis times by using the hybrid eluents. Since both micelle concentration and volume fraction of organic modifier influence selectivity and solvent strength, only an investigation of the effects of a simultaneous variation of these parameters will disclose the full separation capability of the method, i.e. the commonly used sequential solvent optimization approach of adjusting the solvent strength first and then improving selectivity in reversed-phase liquid chromatography is inefficient for the case of MLC with the hybrid eluents. This is illustrated in this paper with two examples: the optimization of the selectivity in the separation of a mixture of phenols and the optimization of a resolution-based criterion determined for the separation of a number of amino acids and small peptides. The large number of variables involved in the separation process in MLC necessitates a structured approach in the development of practical applications of this technique. A regular change in retention behavior is observed with the variation of the surfactant concentration and the concentration of organic modifier, which enables a successful prediction of retention times. Consequently interpretive optimization strategies such as the interative regression method are applicable.

  17. Influence of Process Parameters on the Quality of Aluminium Alloy EN AW 7075 Using Selective Laser Melting (SLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, N.; Imran, M.; Wischeropp, T. M.; Emmelmann, C.; Siddique, S.; Walther, F.

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process, forming the desired geometry by selective layer fusion of powder material. Unlike conventional manufacturing processes, highly complex parts can be manufactured with high accuracy and little post processing. Currently, different steel, aluminium, titanium and nickel-based alloys have been successfully processed; however, high strength aluminium alloy EN AW 7075 has not been processed with satisfying quality. The main focus of the investigation is to develop the SLM process for the wide used aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. Before process development, the gas-atomized powder material was characterized in terms of statistical distribution: size and shape. A wide range of process parameters were selected to optimize the process in terms of optimum volume density. The investigations resulted in a relative density of over 99%. However, all laser-melted parts exhibit hot cracks which typically appear in aluminium alloy EN AW 7075 during the welding process. Furthermore the influence of processing parameters on the chemical composition of the selected alloy was determined.

  18. Does medical student membership in the gold humanism honor society influence selection for residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Susan; Howard, Brian; Schlussel, Yvette R; Lazarus, Cathy J; Wong, Jeffrey G; Moutier, Christine; Savoia, Maria; Trooskin, Stanley; Wagoner, Norma

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of the Gold Humanism Honor Society (GHHS) in 2002, the Arnold P. Gold Foundation established a mechanism for recognizing medical students who demonstrate exemplary humanism/professionalism/communication skills. Currently, 80 medical schools have GHHS chapters. Selection is based on peer nomination using a validated tool. The objective of this survey was to assess the percentage of residency program directors (PDs) who are aware of and are using GHHS membership as a residency selection tool. Surgery (SURG) and internal medicine (IM) PDs in 4 United States regions were surveyed for familiarity with GHHS and perceived rank of GHHS membership relative to Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, class rank, medical student performance evaluation (MSPE), clerkship grade, and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) score, in evaluating an applicant's humanism/professionalism, service orientation, and fit with their program. Program demographics and familiarity with GHHS were also surveyed. The response rate was 56% (149 respondents). IM PDs rated GHHS membership higher than did SURG PDs when evaluating professionalism/humanism and service orientation. PDs familiar with GHHS ranked membership higher when considering professionalism/humanism (4.1 vs 3.2; p humanism F = 3.36; p humanism/professionalism/service orientation. PDs familiar with GHHS were from larger programs, were likely to know residents who were members, and were likely to think that GHHS membership predicted humanistic care. Membership in GHHS may set candidates apart from their peers and allow PDs to distinguish objectively the candidates who demonstrate compassionate medical care. Increased knowledge about the GHHS may therefore serve to be a useful adjunct for PDs when selecting medical students for their residency programs.

  19. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PINION CUTTING TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON KINEMATIC QUALITY OF SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga PISULA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluated the effect of selected process parameters on the accuracy of kinematic spiral bevel gear pair. The changes of technological parameters were analyzed using a proprietary, non-commercial support system for design bevel gears. The effect of the parameter changes were observed in the motion graph of the gear and pinion mesh with ratio 4:99. It has been shown that the modifications of technological parameters can produce a small positive effect on fluency of motion, but predominantly have a negative impact on the accuracy of kinematic.

  20. Influence of results phsycological - professional selection, physical and training preparations on success flying training of cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov F.I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of flying success is presented to beginning of the flying teaching of students. A prognosis is made on results a complex analysis phsycological - professional selection, physical and training preparation. Each of estimations individually does not give a reliable prediction. Facilities of physical preparation can be used for determination of level of development professionally of important qualities of future pilots. Professionally important qualities need periodic (not rarer than once in a year control after their dynamics the method of the repeated inspections.

  1. The influence of mechanical activation of chalcopyrite on the selective leaching of copper by sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achimovičová, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper chalcopyrite, CuFeS2, has been selective leached by H2SO4 as leaching agent (170 g/dm3 in procedure of hydrometallurgical production of copper. Mechanical activation of the chalcopyrite resulted in mechanochemical surface oxidation as well as in the mineral surface and bulk disordering. Furthermore, the formation of agglomerates during grinding was also occured. Surface changes of the samples using infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods were investigated before and after leaching. The leaching rate, specific surface area, structural disorder as well as copper extraction increased with the mechanical activation of mineral.

  2. The Influence of Pet Fibres Surface Enzymatic Modification on the Selected Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardas Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of changes in the surface structure of glossy polyester filaments from poly(ethylene terephthalate in terms of its micro-topography, molecular and supermolecular structure of the fibre surface layers on selected fibre surface and volumetric properties has been assessed. The performed tests and measurements have shown that the change in the general surface characteristics of PET fibres (micro-topography and hydrophilicity results in very beneficial changes in both their volumetric (dyeability and surface properties (wettability, pilling, oil-soil removal and electric properties.

  3. Selected neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral influences on subjective sleep quality in nurses: a structure equation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Huey Chung

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined relationships among neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral factors with regard to their effects on sleep quality. We used a structure equation model to investigate behavioral and psychological factors that influence neurophysiological regulation of sleep in shift workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we tested the model with a sample of 338 female nurses working rotating shifts at an urban regional hospital. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ and short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ were used to measure neurophysiological factors involved in morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress. The Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale (SHAPS and Profile of Mood States Short Form (POMS-SF were completed to measure behavioral factors of sleep hygiene practices and psychological factors of mood states. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI measured participant's self-reported sleep quality. The results revealed that sleep hygiene practices and mood states mediated the effects of morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress on sleep quality. Our findings provide support for developing interventions to enhance sleep hygiene and maintain positive mood states to reduce the influence of neurophysiological factors on sleep quality among shift workers.

  4. Selected neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral influences on subjective sleep quality in nurses: a structure equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Huey; Liu, Wen-I; Lee, Hui-Ling; Hsu, Nanly

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined relationships among neurophysiological, psychological, and behavioral factors with regard to their effects on sleep quality. We used a structure equation model to investigate behavioral and psychological factors that influence neurophysiological regulation of sleep in shift workers. Using a cross-sectional study design, we tested the model with a sample of 338 female nurses working rotating shifts at an urban regional hospital. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and short-form Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) were used to measure neurophysiological factors involved in morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress. The Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale (SHAPS) and Profile of Mood States Short Form (POMS-SF) were completed to measure behavioral factors of sleep hygiene practices and psychological factors of mood states. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) measured participant's self-reported sleep quality. The results revealed that sleep hygiene practices and mood states mediated the effects of morningness-eveningness and menstrual distress on sleep quality. Our findings provide support for developing interventions to enhance sleep hygiene and maintain positive mood states to reduce the influence of neurophysiological factors on sleep quality among shift workers.

  5. Selective Engagement of Cognitive Resources: Motivational Influences on Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M

    2014-07-01

    In this article, I present a framework for understanding the impact of aging-related declines in cognitive resources on functioning. I make the assumption that aging is associated with an increase in the costs of cognitive engagement, as reflected in both the effort required to achieve a specific level of task performance and the associated depletion or fatigue effects. I further argue that these costs result in older adults being increasingly selective in the engagement of cognitive resources in response to these declines. This selectivity is reflected in (a) a reduction in the intrinsic motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, which, in part, accounts for general reductions in engagement in such activities, and (b) greater sensitivity to the self-related implications of a given task. Both processes are adaptive if viewed in terms of resource conservation, but the former may also be maladaptive to the extent that it results in older adults restricting participation in cognitively demanding activities that could ultimately benefit cognitive health. I review supportive research and make the general case for the importance of considering motivational factors in understanding aging effects on cognitive functioning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  7. Influence of anode potentials on selection of Geobacter strains in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commault, Audrey S; Lear, Gavin; Packer, Michael A; Weld, Richard J

    2013-07-01

    Through their ability to directly transfer electrons to electrodes, Geobacter sp. are key organisms for microbial fuel cell technology. This study presents a simple method to reproducibly select Geobacter-dominated anode biofilms from a mixed inoculum of bacteria using graphite electrodes initially poised at -0.25, -0.36 and -0.42 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The biofilms all produced maximum power density of approximately 270 m Wm(-2) (projected anode surface area). Analysis of 16S rRNA genes and intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences found that the biofilm communities were all dominated by bacteria closely related to Geobacter psychrophilus. Anodes initially poised at -0.25 V reproducibly selected biofilms that were dominated by a strain of G. psychrophilus that was genetically distinct from the strain that dominated the -0.36 and -0.42 V biofilms. This work demonstrates for the first time that closely related strains of Geobacter can have very different competitive advantages at different anode potentials.

  8. Microcredit and domestic violence in Bangladesh: an exploration of selection bias influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Ashish; Amin, Sajeda

    2013-10-01

    This article explores the relationship between women's participation in microcredit groups and domestic violence in Bangladesh. Several recent studies have raised concern about microcredit programs by reporting higher levels of violence among women who are members. These results, however, may be attributable to selection bias because members might differ from nonmembers in ways that make them more susceptible to violence to begin with. Using a sample of currently married women from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) (N = 4,195), we use propensity score matching (PSM) as a way of exploring selection bias in this relationship. Results suggest that the previously seen strong positive association between membership and violence does not hold when an appropriate comparison group, generated using PSM, is used in the analyses. Additional analyses also suggest that levels of violence do not differ significantly between members and nonmembers and instead could depend on context-specific factors related to poverty. Members for whom a match is not found report considerably higher levels of violence relative to nonmembers in the unmatched group. The background characteristics of members and nonmembers who do not match suggest that they are more likely to be younger and from relatively well-to-do households.

  9. Influence of sildenafil on the anticonvulsant action of selected antiepileptic drugs against pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieoczym, Dorota; Socała, Katarzyna; Łuszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanisław J; Wlaz, Piotr

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, on threshold for clonic seizures in mice. In addition, the effects of sildenafil on the anticonvulsant activity of selected antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), i.e., clonazepam (CZP), valproate (VPA), phenobarbital (PB), ethosuximide (ETS) and tiagabine (TGB), were also evaluated. The subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test was used to determine the effects of sildenafil on convulsive susceptibility and the anticonvulsant activity of the studied AEDs in mice, while the acute side effects of sildenafil and its combinations with the studied AEDs were evaluated in the chimney test, step-through passive-avoidance task and grip-strength test in mice. Total brain concentrations of AEDs were also determined. Sildenafil (5–40 mg/kg) did not influence the threshold for PTZ-induced clonic seizures in mice, but increased the anticonvulsant activity of ETS in this test without any significant changes in the total brain concentration. The activity of the remaining AEDs was not significantly changed by sildenafil. Neither sildenafil alone nor its combinations with the studied AEDs produced any changes in the motor coordination, long-term memory and muscular strength in mice. Co-administration of sildenafil with ETS in male epileptic patients with co-existing erectile dysfunctions might lead to the pharmacodynamic interactions that may be beneficial for the patients. Combinations of sildenafil with CZP, VPA, PB and TGB appear to be neutral in terms of their influence on seizures.

  10. Interview Day Environment May Influence Applicant Selection of Emergency Medicine Residency Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the interview day affects applicant interactions with faculty and residents, which can influence the applicant’s rank list decision. We aimed to determine if there was a difference in matched residents between those interviewing on a day on which didactics were held and had increased resident and faculty presence (didactic day versus an interview day with less availability for applicant interactions with residents and faculty (non-didactic day. This was a retrospective study reviewing interview dates of matched residents from 2009-2015. Forty-two (61.8% matched residents interviewed on a didactic day with increased faculty and resident presence versus 26 (38.2% on a non-didactic interview day with less availability for applicant interactions (p = 0.04. There is an association between interviewing on a didactic day with increased faculty and resident presence and matching in our program.

  11. Practices and Factors Influencing the Use of Antibiotics in Selected Poultry Farms in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boamah, VE; Odoi, H; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many of the antibiotics employed in animal production also serve as essential medicines for use in humans. However, only a handful of studies address antibiotic use in animal husbandry in Ghana. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of essential antibiotics in poultry production in Ghana...... and to assess factors influencing farmers’ choice of antibiotics for use on their farms. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and semistructured interviews was conducted among 400 poultry farms in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Data was analysed using IBM SPSS...... and Microsoft Excel. Multivariate analyses were used to evaluate correlations between farm variables and the dependency of antibiotic use on internal and external farm characteristics. Farmers reported the use of 35 different antimicrobial agents for management of conditions such as Newcastle, fowl pox...

  12. Perceptions of Competence, Strength, and Age Influence Voters to Select Leaders with Lower-Pitched Voices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey A Klofstad

    Full Text Available Voters prefer leaders with lower-pitched voices because they are perceived as stronger, having greater physical prowess, more competent, and having greater integrity. An alternative hypothesis that has yet to be tested is that lower-pitched voices are perceived as older and thus wiser and more experienced. Here the relationships between candidate voice pitch, candidate age, and electoral success are examined with two experiments. Study 1 tests whether voters discriminate on candidate age. The results show that male and female candidates in their 40s and 50s, the time in the lifecycle when voice pitch is at its lowest, are preferred over candidates in their 30s, 60s, and 70s. Study 2 shows that the preference for leaders with lower-pitched voices correlates with the perception that speakers with lower voices are stronger, more competent, and older, but the influence of perception of age on vote choice is the weakest of the three.

  13. Influence of selected rare earth metals on structural characteristics of 42CrMo4 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drápala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rare earth metals (REM addition on solidification structure of the low-carbon 42CrMo4 steel was investigated. Alloys were prepared by means of a centrifugal casting. The addition of cerium, praseodymium or mischmetal in the steel produced greatly improved solidification structure with a suppressed columnar grain zone, finer grain size in the equiaxed grain zone. The additions occurred in the steel bath in the form of REM oxide and/or oxide-sulphide inclusions and as dissolved REM segregated along with other elements at prior grain boundaries and interdendritic spaces. Microstructure (light microscope, SEM/EDX chemical microanalysis, and TOF-SIMS analysis – mapping of elements in the structure of alloys were obtained.

  14. Factors influencing the selected body parameters and hippometric indexes in donkey’s population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kosťuková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of our work was to collect basic body measurements of donkey population in Czech republic and determine the factors that influence these body measurements and hipometric indexes. The following measurements were recorded: height at withers, chest circumference and metacarpus interference. Based on the collected data, we were able to calculate the hipometric indexes: index of boniness, skeleton strength index, body mass index and coup height index. From a total of 331 individuals of donkey species living in Czech republic we managed to collect 50 samples. These were subjected to a general linear model (GLM and multiplex comparison statistical analysis. We managed to prove a statistically significant difference between donkeys born in Czech republic and the ones born abroad for all the measurements. Specifically the metacarpus circumference the gender dependency was also proved, having its impact on the hipometric indexes as well; the boniness index and skeleton strength index were also proved to be gender – dependent.

  15. Propolis from Southwest of Parana produced by selected bees: Influence of seasonality and food supplementation on antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CALEGARI, MATHEUS A; PRASNIEWSKI, ANACLARA; SILVA, CLEIDIANE DA; SADO, RICARDO Y; MAIA, FABIANA M.C; TONIAL, LARISSA M.S; OLDONI, TATIANE L.C

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propolis produced by selected bees Apis mellifera were collected from March to June of 2013 and in March of 2015 and analyzed in order to evaluate the influence of climate, colony of origin...

  16. Feeding practice and influence on selected blood parameters in show jumping horses competing in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Liesegang, A; Weiss, S; Wichert, B

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional management of show jumping horses in practice with recommendations from the literature. Additionally, the effects of these feeding practices on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise were studied. Blood samples were collected in the field from 27 different horses at 71 trials on the level M1 to S2 show jumping competitions in Switzerland and questionnaires on feeding practice of the studied horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training and on tournament days horses received on average 3.1 kg of concentrate per day (min. 2.0 kg, max. 6.6 kg) divided into two to three meals. The horses were fed on average 6.9 kg of roughage per day (min. 4.0 kg, max. 13.0 kg). Additionally, it was observed that the horses received the last meal on average 6 h 10 min (min. 1 h 50 min, max. 12 h 30 min) before the start of the first show jumping turn, respectively, 7 h 30 min (min 1 h 50 min, max. 13 h 0 min) before the second turn. Seven horses (35%) had access to hay waiting in the trailer between two turns. The statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the concentrate feeding time point on lactate, triglyceride and insulin levels, but a significant influence on free fatty acids (FFA) and blood glucose concentrations. Roughage feeding of the show jumping horses 2-4 h prior to exercise revealed the most remarkable changes in blood parameters during the show jumping course. These results received under field conditions should be approved in future under standardized conditions.

  17. The influence of geographic variations on the muscular activity in selected sports movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, J P; Alewaeters, K; Zinzen, E

    2001-12-01

    Surface EMG (SEMG) has been used frequently to study motion techniques or skills, body positions, material or equipment used, training-methodology and learning processes in sports and ergonomics. Little if any information is available on the effect of the geographical environment on the neuromuscular control of an athlete or workman during his/her performance or effort. Motions were chosen in Alpine skiing and cycling. Thirty-one certified ski instructors and twelve professional road cyclists participated in the study of geographical variance and its impact on muscle activity. SEMG was measured from the agonists and antagonists of the upper- and lower limb. Skiers were measured on downhill slopes ranging from 19 to 51% while the cyclists performed with different saddle positions on 2, 7 and 12% slope inclinations, respectively. Verification of the variation of muscular intensity (IEMG) over the slope inclination during a simulated giant slalom indicated that the muscular activity increased with increasing slope angle and decreased with decreasing slope angle, while heart rate measured with short-range radio telemetry increased at a constant rate between start and finish independent of the geographical variations. In a direct descent on different slopes % levels the integrated EMG is well related to the inclination (r=0.82) confirming the findings of the giant slalom. In cycling we found that, regardless of the pelvis position, the muscular intensity of lower limb muscles increased with increasing slope inclination, while the muscular intensity of the arms decreased with the same increasing slope inclination. In addition the decreased intensity of the arm muscles remained significantly higher with the pelvis (saddle) fully forward. The geography of the terrain did influence the neuromuscular work and therewith probably the performance also. The influence however, varies with specific circumstances and is coupled with items of variability of the equipment used and

  18. Influence of periodic nitrogen functionality on the selective oxidation of alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E. [Universita di Milano, Italy; Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Kaiasam, Kamalakannan [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin); Adamczyk, Leslie A [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Thomas, Arne [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin)

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we attribute the enhancement in catalytic alcohol oxidation activity to the presence of nitrogen heteroatoms on the external surface of a support material surface. The same Pd particles (3.1 3.2 nm) were supported on polymeric carbon-nitrogen supports and used as catalysts to selectively oxidize benzyl alcohol. The polymeric carbon-nitrogen materials include covalent triazine frameworks (CTF) and carbon nitride (CN) materials with nitrogen content varying from 9 to 58 atomic percent N. Withcomparable metal exposure, via XPS, the activity of these catalysts correlates with the concentration of nitrogen species on the surface which enhanced the Lewis basicity of these moieties thus promoting alcoholate formation and subsequent hydride abstraction.

  19. Influence of oxygen and pH on the selective oxidation of ethanol on Pd catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbitts, David D.; Neurock, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The selective oxidation of ethanol on supported Pd is catalytically promoted by the presence of hydroxide species on the Pd surface as well as in solution. These hydroxide intermediates act as Brønsted bases which readily abstract protons from the hydroxyl groups of adsorbed or solution-phase alcohols. The C1AH bond of the resulting alkoxide is subsequently activated on the metal surface via hydride elimination to form acetaldehyde. Surface and solution-phase hydroxide intermediates can also readily react with the acetaldehyde via nucleophilic addition to form a germinal diol intermediate, which subsequently undergoes a second C1AH bond activation on Pd to form acetic acid. The role of O2 is to remove the electrons produced in the oxidation reaction via the oxygen reduction reaction over Pd. The reduction reaction also regenerates the hydroxide intermediates and removes adsorbed hydrogen that is produced during the oxidation.

  20. The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-02-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma ChE activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE pesticide exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow ( Spizella passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins ( Turdus migratorius) and gray catbirds ( Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species that are most appropriate.

  1. Habitat Heterogeneity Variably Influences Habitat Selection by Wild Herbivores in a Semi-Arid Tropical Savanna Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muposhi, Victor K.; Gandiwa, Edson; Chemura, Abel; Bartels, Paul; Makuza, Stanley M.; Madiri, Tinaapi H.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the habitat selection patterns by wild herbivores is critical for adaptive management, particularly towards ecosystem management and wildlife conservation in semi arid savanna ecosystems. We tested the following predictions: (i) surface water availability, habitat quality and human presence have a strong influence on the spatial distribution of wild herbivores in the dry season, (ii) habitat suitability for large herbivores would be higher compared to medium-sized herbivores in the dry season, and (iii) spatial extent of suitable habitats for wild herbivores will be different between years, i.e., 2006 and 2010, in Matetsi Safari Area, Zimbabwe. MaxEnt modeling was done to determine the habitat suitability of large herbivores and medium-sized herbivores. MaxEnt modeling of habitat suitability for large herbivores using the environmental variables was successful for the selected species in 2006 and 2010, except for elephant (Loxodonta africana) for the year 2010. Overall, large herbivores probability of occurrence was mostly influenced by distance from rivers. Distance from roads influenced much of the variability in the probability of occurrence of medium-sized herbivores. The overall predicted area for large and medium-sized herbivores was not different. Large herbivores may not necessarily utilize larger habitat patches over medium-sized herbivores due to the habitat homogenizing effect of water provisioning. Effect of surface water availability, proximity to riverine ecosystems and roads on habitat suitability of large and medium-sized herbivores in the dry season was highly variable thus could change from one year to another. We recommend adaptive management initiatives aimed at ensuring dynamic water supply in protected areas through temporal closure and or opening of water points to promote heterogeneity of wildlife habitats. PMID:27680673

  2. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  3. Factors influencing subject selection in upper secondary education (Key Stage 4 for males and females in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Vaughan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Research to date has investigated the potential factors that influence students’ decisions in opting to study certain subjects during their upper secondary education. Trends in subject selection at this level (Key Stage 4 have been maintained over time and have consistently displayed comparable differences for males and females. It is recognised that males typically opt for subjects such as physical education and science, while females are traditionally noted as favouring the arts and humanities. These educational decisions may impact on future occupational directions. In light of recent initiatives, such as the English Baccalaureate, it is of interest to explore whether such measures have had an influence on this noted gender gap. Participants and procedure The present study investigates the potential predictors of subject selection, while controlling for gender, offering a specific focus on the education system in England. Attention is given to students’ perceived academic ability and attitude toward school, and how such factors may guide subject choice. Participants (N = 276 were students currently in the process of selecting optional modules for Key Stage 4 study. Results The findings demonstrate that female students are less likely than their male counterparts to opt for physical education (PE and business studies/information and communication technology (ICT as preferred modules, in comparison to ‘creative and performance’ subjects (reference category. Higher levels of reported masculinity were also shown to relate to the up-take of PE at Key Stage 4. Conclusions The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to existing research and practical contributions to the educational arena.

  4. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien C Tully

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU, we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic "signatures" within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission.

  5. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Damien C.; Ogilvie, Colin B.; Batorsky, Rebecca E.; Bean, David J.; Power, Karen A.; Ghebremichael, Musie; Bedard, Hunter E.; Gladden, Adrianne D.; Seese, Aaron M.; Amero, Molly A.; Lane, Kimberly; McGrath, Graham; Bazner, Suzane B.; Tinsley, Jake; Lennon, Niall J.; Henn, Matthew R.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Norris, Philip J.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Jessen, Heiko; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Walker, Bruce D.; Altfeld, Marcus; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Allen, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX) transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU), we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic “signatures” within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27163788

  6. Habitat selection of two gobies (Microgobius gulosus, Gobiosoma robustum): influence of structural complexity, competitive interactions and presence of a predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Herein I compare the relative importance of preference for structurally complex habitat against avoidance of competitors and predators in two benthic fishes common in the Gulf of Mexico. The code goby Gobiosoma robustum Ginsburg and clown goby Microgobius gulosus (Girard) are common, ecologically similar fishes found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean. In Florida Bay, these fishes exhibit habitat partitioning: G. robustum is most abundant in seagrass-dominated areas while M. gulosus is most abundant in sparsely vegetated habitats. In a small-scale field survey, I documented the microhabitat use of these species where their distributions overlap. In a series of laboratory experiments, I presented each species with structured (artificial seagrass) versus nonstructured (bare sand) habitats and measured their frequency of choosing either habitat type. I then examined the use of structured versus nonstructured habitats when the two species were placed together in a mixed group. Finally, I placed a predator (Opsanus beta) in the experimental aquaria to determine how its presence influenced habitat selection. In the field, G. robustum was more abundant in seagrass and M. gulosus was more abundant in bare mud. In the laboratory, both species selected grass over sand in allopatry. However, in sympatry, M. gulosus occupied sand more often when paired with G. robustum than when alone. G. robustum appears to directly influence the habitat choice of M. gulosus: It seems that M. gulosus is pushed out of the structured habitat that is the preferred habitat of G. robustum. Thus, competition appears to modify the habitat selection of these species when they occur in sympatry. Additionally, the presence of the toadfish was a sufficient stimulus to provoke both M. gulosus and G. robustum to increase their selection for sand (compared to single-species treatments). Distribution patterns of M. gulosus and G. robustum

  7. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat structure on territory selection and size of an Afrotropical terrestrial insectivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Newmark, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ecological factors influencing territory selection and size in tropical insectivores is limited. Here we examine three prominent hypotheses relating food abundance, food dispersion (spatial arrangement of food items), and habitat structure to territoriality in the Usambara Thrush Turdus roehli. We first compared leaf-litter macro-invertebrate abundance and dispersion, and habitat structure between territories and random sites. We then examined the relation between these same ecological factors and territory size. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion were sparsely and evenly distributed across our study system and did not vary between territories and random sites. In contrast, habitat structure did vary between territories and random sites indicating the Usambara Thrush selects territories with open understorey and closed overstorey habitat. Invertebrate abundance and dispersion within territories of the Usambara Thrush were not associated with habitat structure. We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush’s preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior. Using information-theoretic model selection we found that invertebrate abundance was the highest-ranked predictor of territory size and was inversely related, consistent with food value theory of territoriality.

  8. Selection and drift influence genetic differentiation of insular Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) on Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Melanie B; Bowman, Jeff; Khidas, Kamal; Koen, Erin L; Row, Jeffrey R; Murray, Dennis L; Wilson, Paul J

    2017-05-01

    Island populations have long been important for understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of evolution in natural systems. While genetic drift is often strong on islands due to founder events and population bottlenecks, the strength of selection can also be strong enough to counteract the effects of drift. Here, we used several analyses to identify the roles of genetic drift and selection on genetic differentiation and diversity of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across eastern Canada, including the islands of Cape Breton and Newfoundland. Specifically, we assessed whether we could identify a genetic component to the observed morphological differentiation that has been reported across insular and mainland lynx. We used a dinucleotide repeat within the promoter region of a functional gene that has been linked to mammalian body size, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We found high genetic differentiation at neutral molecular markers but convergence of allele frequencies at the IGF-1 locus. Thus, we showed that while genetic drift has influenced the observed genetic structure of lynx at neutral molecular markers, natural selection has also played a role in the observed patterns of genetic diversity at the IGF-1 locus of insular lynx.

  9. The weight of the container influences expected satiety, perceived density, and subsequent expected fullness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2012-04-01

    We report a study designed to investigate the influence of the weight of the container on expected satiety prior to tasting the food within and on the perceived density of the food and any feelings of fullness expected to follow consumption (expected satiation). The results demonstrate that the contents of a heavier container are expected to be more satiating than when exactly the same contents are presented in a visually-identical, but physically lighter, container (even before the food has been tasted). In addition, we were able to validate a "weight-density" illusion, since the weight of the container was shown to influence the perceived density of the sample. Put simply, the heavier the container, the denser the food sample was perceived to be.

  10. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female. Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1

  11. Influence of Malfunctions of Selected Bus Subsystems on Bus Transportation Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojar Piotr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces division of transport systems into land transport systems (road and rail as well as land and water transport systems (inland and sea, depending on the type of environment in which these systems carry out their tasks. Such systems comprise the class of social engineering systems of the Man – Technological Object – Environment (M – TO – E type. Such systems are influenced by forcing factors, leading to changes in their condition. Such factors may be divided into operational, external and anthropotechnical and they cause the degradation of the system on various levels, including a decrease of the degree of its safety. The article attempts to evaluate the safety of the operation of transport systems on the basis of the evaluation of the safety of the transport process carried out over a defined time interval Δt. The evaluation of the safety of the implemented transport process was prepared on the basis of a set of calculated index values determined depending on the type of transport.

  12. Early Adolescent Substance Use in Mexican Origin Families: Peer Selection, Peer Influence, and Parental Monitoring*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because adolescents vary in their susceptibility to peer influence, the current study addresses potential reciprocal effects between associating with deviant peers and use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD), as well as the potential buffering role of parental monitoring on these reciprocal effects. Method 674 children of Mexican origin reported at fifth and seventh grade(10.4 years old at fifth grade)on the degree to which they associated with deviant peers, intended to use alcohol, tobacco or other drugs (ATOD) in the future, and had used controlled substances during the past year. Trained observers rated parental monitoring from video-recorded family interactions at the first assessment. Results Youth who intended to use ATODs during fifth grade experienced a relative increase in number of deviant peers by seventh grade, and youth with more deviant peers in fifth grade were more likely to use ATODs by seventh grade. Parental monitoring buffered (i.e., moderated) the reciprocal association between involvement with deviant peers and both intent to use ATODs and actual use of ATODs. Conclusions Parental monitoring can disrupt the reciprocal associations between deviant peers and ATOD use during the transition from childhood to adolescence PMID:26525416

  13. Factor Influences Selection of Islamic Banking: A Study on Malaysian Customer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of strong Islamic movements in last three decades has generated a renewed interest in Islamic economics, especially in Islamic interest free banking. Currently Islamic bank strategically offering high quality products and services to satisfy their customers due to the strong competition, customer expectation for high quality services and rapidly changes of technology. The purpose of this study is to investigate major factors that are reflecting to customers’ perception and satisfaction on Islamic banking. This study hope to analyze and determine the perception, quality of services, availability of services, confidence in bank and social and religious perspective about Islamic banking system. A Logit model is employed to anticipate the effects of the explanatory variables. The analysis confirms the significant positive relationship of quality of services, availability of services, social and religious perspective and confidence in bank with customers’ perception about Islamic bank. These factors are expected to have great role for influencing customer mind. In conclusion, customers can derive a better understanding of the activities that are undertaken by bank and how the way these activities are being dealt with.

  14. The influence of selected spraying parameters on two formulation of sulfonylurea herbicides effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata KIELOCH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the evaluation of spray volume and nozzle type effect on different formulation (water dispersible granules - WG and oil dispersion - OD of two sulfonylurea herbicides: the mixture iodosulfuron methyl sodium + amidosulfuron and iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl efficacy. There were investigated three levels of spray volume (125 l*ha-1, 250 l*ha-1 and 350 l*ha-1 and two types of nozzle (extended range flat nozzle TeeJet XR 11003-VS and drift guard flat nozzle TeeJet DG 11003-VS. Each herbicide was used at recommended dose and reduced by half. Spray volume and nozzle type did not affect activity of the mixture iodosulfuron methyl sodium + amidosulfuron, but differentiated the efficacy of OD formulation of iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl, when it was applied at lowered dose. As spray volume rose, herbicide efficacy decreased. Nozzle type influenced OD formulation of the mixture iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl, independently on dose. Significantly weaker efficacy was obtained when drift guard nozzle was used.

  15. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  16. Influence of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu on nematode communities in experimental soil microcosm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šalamún P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of arsenic, cadmium, copper and chromium treatments were examined on a nematode community structure and proportion of functional groups in the microcosm for 30 days. The toxic effects on the nematode community did not correspond with metals mobility (EDTA extraction in soil as it was expected. The most toxic element with a significant degradation of community structure was chromium (low mobile, which negatively affected almost all observed ecological parameters (abundance, diversity and ecological indices. On the other hand, cadmium and arsenic influence was negligible even in the plots treated with the highest concentrations and the communities resembled to the control samples. Copper showed a stimulative effect on the community under low concentration (40 mg.kg-1, while under higher concentrations the stimulation was replaced by stress responses. The widely used ecological indices, such as the Maturity Index 2-5, Structure Index, and Shannon-Weaver Index and c-p groups showed the best bioindication potential among nematode parameters.

  17. The influence of pomegranate by-product and punicalagins on selected groups of human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialonska, Dobroslawa; Ramnani, Priya; Kasimsetty, Sashi G; Muntha, Kesava R; Gibson, Glenn R; Ferreira, Daneel

    2010-06-15

    We have examined the gut bacterial metabolism of pomegranate by-product (POMx) and major pomegranate polyphenols, punicalagins, using pH-controlled, stirred, batch culture fermentation systems reflective of the distal region of the human large intestine. Incubation of POMx or punicalagins with faecal bacteria resulted in formation of the dibenzopyranone-type urolithins. The time course profile confirmed the tetrahydroxylated urolithin D as the first product of microbial transformation, followed by compounds with decreasing number of phenolic hydroxy groups: the trihydroxy analogue urolithin C and dihydroxylated urolithin A. POMx exposure enhanced the growth of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp., without influencing the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group and the C. histolyticum group. In addition, POMx increased concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) viz. acetate, propionate and butyrate in the fermentation medium. Punicalagins did not affect the growth of bacteria or production of SCFA. The results suggest that POMx oligomers, composed of gallic acid, ellagic acid and glucose units, may account for the enhanced growth of probiotic bacteria.

  18. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  19. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Paula A; Lemos, Madalena; Mergulhão, Filipe; Melo, Luís; Simões, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium) were exposed to surfactants (single and combined) in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium) with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L(-1). The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  20. Pathogen variation and urea influence selection and success of Streptomyces mixtures in biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto-Hanson, L K; Grabau, Z; Rosen, C; Salomon, C E; Kinkel, L L

    2013-01-01

    Success in biological control of plant diseases remains inconsistent in the field. A collection of well-characterized Streptomyces antagonists (n = 19 isolates) was tested for their capacities to inhibit pathogenic Streptomyces scabies (n = 15 isolates). There was significant variation among antagonists in ability to inhibit pathogen isolates and among pathogens in their susceptibility to inhibition. Only one antagonist could inhibit all pathogens, and antagonist-pathogen interactions were highly specific, highlighting the limitations of single-strain inoculum in biological control. However, the collection of pathogens could be inhibited by several combinations of antagonists, suggesting the potential for successful antagonist mixtures. Urea generally increased effectiveness of antagonists at inhibiting pathogens in vitro (increased mean inhibition zones) but its specific effects varied among antagonist-pathogen combinations. In greenhouse trials, urea enhanced the effectiveness of antagonist mixtures relative to individual antagonists in controlling potato scab. Although antagonist mixtures were frequently antagonistic in the absence of urea, all n= 2 and n = 3 antagonist-isolate combinations were synergistic in the presence of urea. This work provides insights into the efficacy of single- versus multiple-strain inocula in biological control and on the potential for nutrients to influence mixture success.

  1. Influence of Learning Environment on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Yobe State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Timothy Ado

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of learning environment on students' academic achievement in mathematics at senior secondary school level. Thus the study investigated some components of learning environment and their possible influence on students' academic achievement in mathematics. A sample of 337 randomly selected SS II…

  2. Selective influence of Sox2 on POU transcription factor binding in embryonic and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistri, Tapan Kumar; Devasia, Arun George; Chu, Lee Thean; Ng, Wei Ping; Halbritter, Florian; Colby, Douglas; Martynoga, Ben; Tomlinson, Simon R; Chambers, Ian; Robson, Paul; Wohland, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) identity is orchestrated by co-operativity between the transcription factors (TFs) Sox2 and the class V POU-TF Oct4 at composite Sox/Oct motifs. Neural stem cells (NSCs) lack Oct4 but express Sox2 and class III POU-TFs Oct6, Brn1 and Brn2. This raises the question of how Sox2 interacts with POU-TFs to transcriptionally specify ESCs versus NSCs. Here, we show that Oct4 alone binds the Sox/Oct motif and the octamer-containing palindromic MORE equally well. Sox2 binding selectively increases the affinity of Oct4 for the Sox/Oct motif. In contrast, Oct6 binds preferentially to MORE and is unaffected by Sox2. ChIP-Seq in NSCs shows the MORE to be the most enriched motif for class III POU-TFs, including MORE subtypes, and that the Sox/Oct motif is not enriched. These results suggest that in NSCs, co-operativity between Sox2 and class III POU-TFs may not occur and that POU-TF-driven transcription uses predominantly the MORE cis architecture. Thus, distinct interactions between Sox2 and POU-TF subclasses distinguish pluripotent ESCs from multipotent NSCs, providing molecular insight into how Oct4 alone can convert NSCs to pluripotency.

  3. Influence of Annealing on Mechanical Properties of Al-20Si Processed by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-20Si produced by selective laser melting (SLM are investigated for different heat treatment conditions. As a result of the high cooling rate during processing, the as-built SLM material displays a microstructure consisting of a supersaturated Al(Si solid solution along with heavily refined eutectic Si and Si particles. The Si particles become coarser, and the eutectic Si gradually changes its morphology from fibrous to plate-like shape with increasing annealing temperature. The microstructural variations occurring during heat treatment significantly affect the mechanical behavior of the samples. The yield and ultimate strengths decrease from 374 and 506 MPa for the as-built SLM material to 162 and 252 MPa for the sample annealed at 673 K, whereas the ductility increases from 1.6 to 8.7%. This offers the possibility to tune microstructure and corresponding properties of the Al-20Si SLM parts to meet specific requirements.

  4. Seed predation and selection exerted by a seed predator influence subalpine tree densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

    2008-10-01

    Strongly interacting species often have pronounced direct and indirect effects on other species. Here we focus of the effects of pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus spp.), which are a dominant pre-dispersal seed predator of many conifers including limber pines (Pinus flexilis) and whitebark pines (P. albicaulis). Pine squirrels depress seed abundance by harvesting most limber and whitebark pine cones on their territories. Pine squirrels further reduce seed availability for Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), the primary seed disperser of these pines, because selection exerted by pine squirrels has reduced the number of seeds per cone and causes seeds to be less accessible. We predicted that, if fewer seeds were available for dispersal by nutcrackers, pine recruitment should be suppressed in areas with pine squirrels. In support of this prediction, stand densities were about two times greater in areas where pine squirrels are absent than in areas where they are present. Alternative explanations that we considered do not account for these differences; however, precipitation may limit stand densities in the absence of seed limitation by pine squirrels. In sum, pine squirrels apparently depress limber and whitebark pine stand densities, with the potential for ecosystem impacts because these pines are foundation species within Western subalpine ecosystems.

  5. Does Sexual Selection Influence Ornamentation of Hemipenes in Old World Snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, Kostadin; Natchev, Nikolay; Kornilev, Yurii V; Tzankov, Nikolay

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated and documented the morphology of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes) in fifteen wide-ranging snake species. The species represent four families (Boidae, Colubridae, Lamprophiidae, and Viperidae) and ten genera. We applied the same preparation techniques for all species, successfully everting and expanding the organs completely. The detailed description of the general morphology of the male copulatory organs was based on 31 specimens. Our data were compared with published observations and we point out some incorrectly described details in previous investigations. We provide the first description of the hemipenial morphology for three ophidian species (Elaphe sauromates, Telescopus fallax, and Malpolon insignitus). In addition to the morphological characteristics of the hemipenes presented in the research, we propose the adoption of a standardized index describing the hemipenial proportions. The immense variation in hemipenial morphology presupposes its dynamic evolution, but we suggest that many of the significant structures observed here may have escaped previous researchers due to differing methodologies. Some of the highly ornamented morphologies that we describe are consistent with a locking mechanism during copulation. However, other morphologies may relate to the variety of mating behaviors observed. As a result, we propose that sexual selection is the major driver affecting the hemipenial ornamentation in snakes. Anat Rec, 300:1680-1694, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The influence of neighbouring species on ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt Kinga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L. were studied in the years 2011-2012, in the abandoned patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by small meadow species (Patch I, macroforbs (Patch II, largetussock grasses (Patch III, shrubs (Patch IV, as well as shrubs and trees (Patch V. The abundance of subpopulations and dimensions of aggregations of ramet clusters increased gradually from Patch I to Patch IV and subsequently declined in Patch V. During the whole study period, all subpopulations showed signs of senility due to the absence of individuals in prereproductive stages. The share of generative ramet clusters diminished, while contribution of senile and fragmentised ramet clusters increased substantially in consecutive patches. The dimensions of ramet clusters increased significantly in successive plots and years. The number and height of generative stems and production of flowers and fruits did not show the temporal variability. The abundance of generative stems was considerably lower in the plots dominated by small meadow species, than in the sites dominated by large-tussock grasses, shrubs or overgrown shrubs and trees. Both the height of flowering stems and production of flowers and fruits increased gradually from Patch I, via Patches II, III and IV, to Patch V. The augmentation of flower production might contribute to better visibility of inflorescences for pollinators, whereas an increase in the production of fruits may increase the chances for successful seed dispersal to new sites.

  7. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF BLOWING AGENT ON SELECTED PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED CELLULAR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a part of a more comprehensive research project, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the type and content of blowing agents in the polymeric materials being processed on the structure and selected physical and mechanical properties of the obtained extrusion parts. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2.0% by mass, fed into the processed polymer were adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the blowing agents of endothermic decomposition characteristics (Hydrocerol BIH 70, Hydrocerol BM 70 and the exothermic decomposition characteristics (PLC 751 occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.8 mm were used. Based on the results of investigating porosity, porous structure image analysis as well as microscopic examination of the structure, it has been found that the favorable content of the blowing agent in the polymeric material should be of up to 0.8% by mass. With such a content of the blowing agent in the polymeric material, favorable strength properties are retained in porous parts, the pore distribution is uniform and the pores have similar sizes.

  8. Influence of long-range interactions on strategy selection in crowd

    CERN Document Server

    Malarz, K; Kulakowski, K

    2013-01-01

    An order--disorder phase transition is observed for Ising-like systems even for arbitrarily chosen probabilities of spins flips [K. Malarz et al, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 22, 719 (2011)]. For such athermal dynamics one must define $(z+1)$ spin flips probabilities $w(n)$, where $z$ is a number of the nearest-neighbours for given regular lattice and $n=0,\\cdots,z$ indicates the number of nearest spins with the same value as the considered spin. Recently, such dynamics has been successfully applied for the simulation of a cooperative and competitive strategy selection by pedestrians in crowd [P. Gawro\\'nski et al, Acta Phys. Pol. A 123, 522 (2013)]. For the triangular lattice ($z=6$) and flips probabilities dependence on a single control parameter $x$ chosen as $w(0)=1$, $w(1)=3x$, $w(2)=2x$, $w(3)=x$, $w(4)=x/2$, $w(5)=x/4$, $w(6)=x/6$ the ordered phase (where most of pedestrians adopt the same strategy) vanishes for $x>x_C\\approx 0.429$. In order to introduce long-range interactions between pedestrians the bonds o...

  9. [Influence of diesel fuel on the number of selected soil microorganisms group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrot-Paw, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Among a range of xenobiotics, that are introduced into the environment, especially dangerous are petroleum substances. Microorganisms participating in their decomposition, may be a good effectiveness indicator of biodegradation process. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of soil contamination with diesel oil for changes in number of basic taxonomic groups of microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The study was carried out in two soils, loamy sand and sandy clay, which, apart from granulometric composition also differed in organic matter content. Two levels of diesel contamination was used: 5% and 15% w/w of soil d.m. The soil samples, not contaminated with diesel oil, was left as a experience control objects. The number of microorganisms were evaluated by automated method with measuring impedance in media, using the analyzer BacTrac 4100. In the studied soils the largest group of microorganisms were bacteria, significantly less was fungi and actinomycetes. Based on the results of research it was found a significant effect on the quantitative composition of microflora was both contamination dose and type of soil. Diesel fuel at a concentration of 5% stimulated the number of bacteria and fungi in sandy soil. In general, increase in concentration of pollutants adversely affect the microorganisms, especially in loamy soils. Soil contamination with diesel oil resulted in a reduction in the degree of microbial growth rate (55% in loamy sand and 39% in sandy clay), and thus have an impact on their fertility. The reduction of SR index was correlated with increasing dose of pollutants. Diesel oil affect the biological balance of soil and stimulates or reduces the number of different groups of microorganisms, depending on the amount of fuel. The presence of fuel decrease index of soil fertility, proportion to increase in the level of contamination.

  10. Evaluation of Factors Influencing the Outcomes of Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty in Primary Open-Angle Glaucom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necip Kara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To determine demographic and clinical factors that affect the outcomes of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the medical records of 54 eyes of 39 patients who underwent SLT treatment for POAG. Effects of demographic characteristics including age, sex, treated eyes, and family history of glaucoma on SLT success were investigated. Effects of clinical features including baseline intraocular pressure (IOP, baseline number of antiglaucomatous medications, baseline cup to disc ratio (c/d, trabecular meshwork (TM pigmentation, central corneal thickness, and number of laser spots on SLT success were also evaluated. Success was defined as a ≥ 20% reduction in IOP without additional medications, laser, or glaucoma surgery. Re sults: Overall, 1-year after SLT, the mean IOP reduction was 4.7±3.2 mmHg and the mean success rate was 59.3±6%. Among the all investigated factors, only baseline IOP was a significant predictor for the efficacy of SLT in POAG (p<0.001, r=570. The SLT success was 45±10% in patients with a baseline IOP values less than 21 mmHg and 72±8% in patients with a baseline IOP of 21 mmHg or higher (p=0.036. Other factors were not significantly associated with SLT treatment efficacy. Dis cus si on: SLT success is significantly predicted by baseline IOP value. However, age, sex, family history of glaucoma, treated eye, baseline number of medications, c/d, degree of TM pigmentation, CCT, and number of laser spots are not associated with SLT efficacy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 304-8

  11. Influence of aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected resin-based dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chladek, Grzegorz; Basa, Katarzyna; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Malara, Piotr; Nowak, Agnieszka J; Kasperski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different plasticizing aging solutions on wear resistance and hardness of selected universal resin-based dental composites. Three light cured (one nanofilled, two microhybride) and one hybride chemical cured composites were aged at 37 °C for 48 h in distillated water, ethyl alcohol solution or Listerine mouthwash. After aging the microhardness tests were carried out and then tribological tests were performed in the presence of aging solution at 37 °C. During wear testing coefficients of friction were determined. The maximal vertical loss in micrometers was determined with profilometer. Aging in all liquids resulted in a significant decrease in hardness of the test materials, with the largest values obtained successively in ethanol solution, mouthwash and water. The effect of the liquid was dependent on the particular material, but not the type of material (interpreted as the size of filler used). Introduction of mouthwash instead of water or ethanol solution resulted in a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction. The lowest wear resistance was registered after aging in ethanol and for the chemical cured hybrid composite, but the vertical loss was strongly material dependent. The effect of different aging solution, including commercial mouthrinse, on hardness and wear was material dependent, and cannot be deduced from their category or filler loading. There is no simple correlation between hardness of resin-based dental composites and their wear resistance, but softening of particular composites materials during aging leads to the reduction of its wear resistance.

  12. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  13. Selective endothelin B receptor blockade does not influence BNP-induced natriuresis in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zander, K; Houben, A J H M; Webb, D J; Udo, E; Kietselaer, B; Hofstra, L; De Mey, J G R; de Leeuw, P W

    2006-03-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) both exhibit natriuretic activity within the human kidney. Furthermore, they both act partly through activation of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway. Since ET-1 may cause vasodilation and natriuresis via stimulation of the ET-B receptor, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether renal ET-B receptors participate in the renal actions of BNP. In this placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused BNP (4 pmol/kg/min) or placebo (i.v.) for 1 h, with or without co-infusion of the ET-B receptor antagonist BQ-788 (50 nmol/min) for 15 min on 4 separate days, in 10 healthy subjects (mean age 54+/-6 years.). During infusion, we measured effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using PAH/inulin clearance. Cardiac output was measured before and after infusion, using echocardiography. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored as well. Urine and plasma samples were taken every hour to measure diuresis, natriuresis, cyclic 3',5' guanosine monophosphate, and ET-1 levels. BNP with or without ET-B receptor blockade increased natriuresis and diuresis. In addition, BNP alone increased GFR and filtered load, without changing ERPF. BQ-788 infusion did not affect renal hemodynamics or natriuresis. Neither BNP nor BQ-788 altered cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate. In conclusion, the present study shows that selective ET-B receptor blockade has no effect on the BNP-induced natriuresis and glomerular filtration rate.

  14. Maternal influence on feeding site selection of male and female lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, R L; Cibils, A F; Black-Rubio, C M; Pollak, E R; Utsumi, S A

    2014-06-01

    We conducted an experiment to determine whether early-life social learning of feeding site selection in lambs was sex-specific. Sixteen ewes and their new born lambs were used in a controlled experiment. Eight ewe-lamb pairs included a male lamb and the remaining eight a female lamb. All pairs were individually exposed to an experimental arena containing a safe and unsafe artificial feeding site (SFS, UFS) each consisting of nine bowls which contained either ground Bermuda grass hay (SFS) or ground alfalfa hay (UFS). The bowls in UFS were surrounded by bright orange traffic cones (visual cues). Half the ewes were trained with controlled electric shock to avoid UFS. Thus, pairs were randomly assigned to: (1) shock aversion training (SAT) to mothers of male lambs (MS); (2) SAT to mothers of female lambs (FS); (3) no aversion training (NAT, control) to mothers of male lambs (MC); and (4) NAT (control) to mothers of female lambs (FC). None of the lambs were subjected to SAT. During training, testing, extinction, and retraining ewe-lamb pairs were exposed to the arena together. Ewes were then removed from the experiment and two additional extinction phases were conducted with weaned lambs alone. Fear conditioning elicited UFS avoidance of both the trained ewes (means±s.e.m. % times observed in UFS during testing phase: FC=95.3±1.70; MC=94.4±4.87; FS=1.6±1.63; MS=0 ±0; Pstanding less often than ewes with daughters (FC=7.3±2.40%; MC=2.7±0.83%; FS=39.3±9.04%; MS=18.0±5.29%; P=0.06). This study suggests that social conditioning at an early age could be a viable tool to induce learning of feeding site avoidance in female and male lambs alike.

  15. Influence of monsoon-related riparian phenology on yellow-billed cuckoo habitat selection in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel; Van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis), a Neotropical migrant bird, is facing steep population declines in its western breeding grounds owing primarily to loss of native habitat. The favoured esting habitat for the cuckoo in the south-western United States is low-elevation riparian forests and woodlands. Our aim was to explore relationships between vegetation phenology patterns captured by satellite phenometrics and the distribution of the yellow-billed cuckoo, and to use this information to map cuckoo habitat. Location: Arizona, USA. Methods: Land surface phenometrics were derived from satellite Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), bi-weekly time-composite, ormalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for 1998 and 1999 at a resolution of 1 km. Fourier harmonics were used to analyse the waveform of the annual NDVI profile in each pixel. To create the models, we coupled 1998 satellite phenometrics with 1998 field survey data of cuckoo presence or absence and with point data that sampled riparian and cottonwood–willow vegetation types. Our models were verified and refined using field and satellite data collected in 1999. Results: The models reveal that cuckoos prefer areas that experience peak greenness 29 days later, are 36% more dynamic and slightly (cuckoos migrate northwards, following the greening of riparian corridors and surrounding landscapes in response to monsoon precipitation, but then select a nesting site based on optimizing the near-term foraging potential of the neighbourhood. Main conclusions: The identification of preferred phenotypes within recognized habitat can be used to refine future habitat models, inform habitat response to climate change, and suggest adaptation strategies. For example, models of phenotype preferences can guide management actions by identifying and prioritizing for conservation those landscapes that reliably exhibit highly preferred phenometrics on a consistent basis.

  16. Influence of model selection on the predicted distribution of the seagrass Zostera marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Anna-Leena; von Numers, Mikael; Boström, Christoffer

    2013-04-01

    There is an increasing need to model the distribution of species and habitats for effective conservation planning, but there is a paucity of models for the marine environment. We used presence (131) and absence (219) records of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina L. from the archipelago of SW Finland, northern Baltic Sea, to model its distribution in a 5400 km2 area. We used depth, slope, turbidity, wave exposure and distance to sandy shores as environmental predictors, and compared a presence-absence method: generalised additive model (GAM), with a presence only method: maximum entropy (Maxent). Models were validated using semi-independent data sets. Both models performed well and described the niche of Z. marina fairly consistently, although there were differences in the way the models weighted the environmental variables, and consequently the spatial predictions differed somewhat. A notable outcome from the process was that with relatively equal model performance, the area actually predicted in geographical space can vary by twofold. The area predicted as suitable for Z. marina by the ensemble was almost half of that predicted by the GAM model by itself. The ensemble of model predictions increased the model predictive capability marginally and clearly shifted the model towards a more conservative prediction, increasing specificity, but at the same time sacrificing sensitivity. The environmental predictors selected into the final models described the potential distribution of Z. marina well and showed that in the northern Baltic the species occupies a narrow niche, typically thriving in shallow and moderately exposed to exposed locations near sandy shores. We conclude that a prediction based on a combination of model results provides a more realistic estimate of the core area suitable for Z. marina and should be the modelling approach implemented in conservation planning and management.

  17. The influence of selecting the correlation model on soil parameters and bearing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczynska-Kozlowska, Joanna M.

    2016-04-01

    : what can be gained by modeling the soil strength parameters as random fields? How will the correlation model adopted in the field influence on the distribution of strength parameters? And finally, would it be visible an impact of the correlation model on the bearing capacity value? No significant relationships were found between bearing capacity of strip foundation and correlation model. Results show how the empirical correlation coefficient fit to different theoretical correlation functions according to adopted method. Further research is necessary in order to improve how correlation model affects different geotechnical construction.

  18. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the proper masticatory muscle in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Ju P; Kromin, A A

    2010-11-01

    Threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in starving and preliminary fed (satiated) rabbits in the absence of feed induces searching behavior associated with burst-like impulse activity of proper masticatory muscle with a bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals, what represents an anticipatory type of reaction. The increase in the level of food motivation during threshold stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in starving and satiated rabbits with the food offered led to successful food-procuring behavior, during which the frequency and amplitude of spike bursts in the proper masticatory muscle become comparable with those under conditions of natural foraging behavior stimulated by the need in nutrients. Motivational excitation and backward afferentation from food reward are addressed to the same neurons of the masticatory center in the medulla oblongata.

  19. The influence of selected design and operating parameters on the dynamics of the steam micro-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żywica, Grzegorz; Kiciński, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of the influence of selected design parameters and operating conditions on the radial steam micro-turbine, which was adapted to operate with low-boiling agent in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). In the following parts of this article the results of the thermal load analysis, the residual unbalance and the stiffness of bearing supports are discussed. Advanced computational methods and numerical models have been used. Computational analysis showed that the steam micro-turbine is characterized by very good dynamic properties and is resistant to extreme operating conditions. The prototype of micro-turbine has passed a series of test calculations. It has been found that it can be subjected to experimental research in the micro combined heat and power system.

  20. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  1. The Influence of Selective Laser Melting Parameters on Density and Mechanical Properties of AlSi10Mg

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    Raus A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the most effective powder bed technique in the additive Manufacturing (AM which able to fabricate functional metal parts directly from 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD file data. In this paper, the influence of SLM parameters, such as laser power, scanning speed and hatching distance on the density of AlSi10Mg samples are investigated using one factor at a time (OFAT. Furthermore, the optimum results are used to fabricate samples for hardness, tensile strength, and impact toughness test. It is revealed that AlSi10Mg parts fabricated by SLM achieving the best density of 99.13% at the value of 350 watts laser power, 1650 mm/s scanning speed and hatching distance 0.13mm, whereby resulted comparable and even better mechanical properties to those of conventionally HDPC A360F and HDPC A360T6 alloys although without any comprehensive post processing methods.

  2. Distribution and Potential Mobility of Selected Heavy Metals in a Fluvial Environment Under the Influence of Tanneries

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    Rodrigues M. L. K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the occurrence of heavy metals in a fluvial environment under the influence of tanneries – the Cadeia and Feitoria rivers basin (RS, south Brazil, highlighting the distribution and potential mobility of the selected elements. Every three months, over one year-period, selected heavy metals and ancillary parameters were analyzed in water and sediment samples taken at ten sites along the rivers. Water analyses followed APHA recommendations, and sediment analyses were based on methods from USEPA (SW846 and European Community (BCR sequential extraction. The determinations were performed by ICP/OES, except for Hg (CV/ETA. Statistical factor analysis was applied to water and sediment data sets, in order to obtain a synthesis of the environmental diagnosis. The results revealed that water quality decreased along the rivers, and mainly on the dry period (January, showing the influence of tannery plants vicinity and flow variations. Except for Fe, Al, and eventually Mn, heavy metal contents in water were in agreement with Brazilian standards. Concerning sediments, Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Ti, and Zn concentrations appeared to reflect the base levels, while Cr and Hg were enriched in the deposits from the lower part of the basin. The partition of heavy metals among the sediment geochemical phases showed higher mobility of Mn along the sampling sites, followed by Cr in the lower reach of the basin, most affected by tanneries. Since Cr was predominantly associated to the oxidizable fraction, its potential mobilization from contaminated sediments would be associated to redox conditions. The detection of Hg in the tissue of a bottom-fish species indicated that the environmental conditions are apparently favoring the remobilization of this metal from contaminated sediments.

  3. Factors influencing the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary opioids in substance abusers seeking treatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew S; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary drugs of abuse in opioid-dependent subjects (n = 3520) entering one of 160 drug treatment programs around the country. Anonymous, self-administered surveys and direct qualitative interviews were used to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, drug use patterns, and decision-related factors on primary opioid selection. Our results showed that oxycodone and hydrocodone were the drugs of choice in 75% of all patients. Oxycodone was the choice of significantly more users (44.7%) than hydrocodone (29.4%) because the quality of the high was viewed to be much better by 54% of the sample, compared to just 20% in hydrocodone users, who cited acetaminophen as a deterrent to dose escalation to get high and hence, its low euphoric rating. Hydrocodone users were generally risk-averse women, elderly people, noninjectors, and those who prefer safer modes of acquisition than dealers (ie, doctors, friends, or family members). In contrast, oxycodone was a much more attractive euphorigenic agent to risk-tolerant young, male users who prefer to inject or snort their drugs to get high and are willing to use more aggressive forms of diversion. Prevention and treatment approaches, and pain physicians, should benefit from these results because it is clear that not all drug abusers share the same characteristics, and the decision to use one drug over another is a complex one, which is largely attributable to individual differences (eg, personality, gender, age, and other factors).

  4. Radio-Frequency-Based NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Control: Studies on Temperature Dependency and Humidity Influences

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    Markus Dietrich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The upcoming more stringent automotive emission legislations and current developments have promoted new technologies for more precise and reliable catalyst control. For this purpose, radio-frequency-based (RF catalyst state determination offers the only approach for directly measuring the NH3 loading on selective catalytic reduction (SCR catalysts and the state of other catalysts and filter systems. Recently, the ability of this technique to directly control the urea dosing on a current NH3 storing zeolite catalyst has been demonstrated on an engine dynamometer for the first time and this paper continues that work. Therefore, a well-known serial-type and zeolite-based SCR catalyst (Cu-SSZ-13 was investigated under deliberately chosen high space velocities. At first, the full functionality of the RF system with Cu-SSZ-13 as sample was tested successfully. By direct RF-based NH3 storage control, the influence of the storage degree on the catalyst performance, i.e., on NOx conversion and NH3 slip, was investigated in a temperature range between 250 and 400 °C. For each operation point, an ideal and a critical NH3 storage degree was found and analyzed in the whole temperature range. Based on the data of all experimental runs, temperature dependent calibration functions were developed as a basis for upcoming tests under transient conditions. Additionally, the influence of exhaust humidity was observed with special focus on cold start water and its effects to the RF signals.

  5. Influence of sewage sludge on the yield and biometric traits of selected clones of willow (Salix viminalis L.

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    Anna Jama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Willow gives us a lot of possibilities of using it in the protection of the environment. Nowadays this plant is an object as an energetic plant and the plant used in phytoremediation and is characterized by fast growth, high production of wood and high tolerance to accumulate heavy metals. The influence of sewage sludge on the growth, morphological traits and yield of four selected clones of Salix viminalis and its halfbreeds is presented in the paper. The experiment with willow and sewage sludge was carried out at the Experimental-Didactic Station in Wrocław in 2008-2010. The experiment with the clones of willow was established in 2003. Split-plot method was applied in three repetitions with two changeable factors. Analysis showed a significant influence of weather conditions, various doses of sewage sludge and genetic properties of clones on yield, the number and length of shoots and diameter. The highest productivity of clones concerned the object with a double dose of sewage sludge. Clone 1054 was characterized by the highest productivity and was the best biometric traits.  

  6. Radio-Frequency-Based NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Control: Studies on Temperature Dependency and Humidity Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Markus; Hagen, Gunter; Reitmeier, Willibald; Burger, Katharina; Hien, Markus; Grass, Philippe; Kubinski, David; Visser, Jaco; Moos, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The upcoming more stringent automotive emission legislations and current developments have promoted new technologies for more precise and reliable catalyst control. For this purpose, radio-frequency-based (RF) catalyst state determination offers the only approach for directly measuring the NH3 loading on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and the state of other catalysts and filter systems. Recently, the ability of this technique to directly control the urea dosing on a current NH3 storing zeolite catalyst has been demonstrated on an engine dynamometer for the first time and this paper continues that work. Therefore, a well-known serial-type and zeolite-based SCR catalyst (Cu-SSZ-13) was investigated under deliberately chosen high space velocities. At first, the full functionality of the RF system with Cu-SSZ-13 as sample was tested successfully. By direct RF-based NH3 storage control, the influence of the storage degree on the catalyst performance, i.e., on NOx conversion and NH3 slip, was investigated in a temperature range between 250 and 400 °C. For each operation point, an ideal and a critical NH3 storage degree was found and analyzed in the whole temperature range. Based on the data of all experimental runs, temperature dependent calibration functions were developed as a basis for upcoming tests under transient conditions. Additionally, the influence of exhaust humidity was observed with special focus on cold start water and its effects to the RF signals. PMID:28704929

  7. Diversity of root associated microorganisms of selected medicinal plants and influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasi, S; Nanthakumar, K; Karthikeyan, K; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2008-01-01

    The total heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were enumerated from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of 50 selected locally available medicinal plants in and around Bharathiar University. In all the plants, population of microorganism were higher in the rhizosphere soil than in the non rhizosphere soil. Among the microorganisms, bacterial population was higher in number followed by fungus and actinomycetes. Of the medicinal plants, the maximum rhizosphere effect was observed in Annona squamosa and the minimum effect was seen in Eclipta alba and Cassia auriculata. Among the bacteria the dominant species was Bacillus followed by Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium, Micrococcus and Serratia. The Streptomyces species was found to be dominant followed by Deuteromycetes and Frankia among the actinomycetes. Among the fungal isolates Rhizopus was found to be higher in number followed by Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor and Fusarium. About 70.96% of the bacterial isolates were found to be nitrate reducers and 90.60% of the bacteria solubilised phosphate. The rhizosphere bacterial isolates were also capable of hydrolyzing starch, cellulose, casein, urea and gelatin. The isolates of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus were also able to produce phytohormone Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The maximum IAA production was recorded by Fusarium sp (5.8 mg/l). The rhizosphere bacterial isolates showed resistance to 14 commercially used antibiotics. In an attempt to check the influence of these plant growth promoting microorganisms on the antimicrobial property of Coriandrum sativum against Escherichia coli MTCC-443 and Aeromonas hydrophila MTCC-646, the results observed was not encouraging since the inoculants did not influence the antibacterial property. However extensive and in depth study is required to find out the influence of rhizomicroorganisms on the antibacterial property of medicinal plants. The other results clearly indicated that the rhizosphere

  8. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of selected sulfonamides and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Haliński, Łukasz P; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2016-05-05

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of salinity variations on the toxicity of sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris after exposure times of 48 and 72 h. In freshwater the EC50 values ranged from 0.98 to 123.22 mg L(-1) depending on the compound. The obtained results revealed that sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the most toxic, while trimethoprim was the least toxic pharmaceutical to the selected organism. Deviations between the nominal and real test concentrations were determined via instrumental analysis to support the interpretation of ecotoxicological data. The toxicity effects were also tested in saline water (3, 6 and 9 PSU). The tendency that the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals decreases with increasing salinity was observed. Higher salinity implies an elevated concentration of inorganic monovalent cations that are capable of binding with countercharges available on algal surfaces (hydroxyl functional groups). Hence it can reduce the permeability of pharmaceuticals through the algal cell walls, which could be the probable reason for the observed effect. Moreover, for the classification of the mode of toxic action, the toxic ratio concept was applied, which indicated that the effects of the investigated drugs towards algae are caused by the specific mode of toxic action.

  9. African diversity from the HLA point of view: influence of genetic drift, geography, linguistics, and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2001-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of different evolutionary factors on the patterns of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa, and between Africa, Europe, and East Asia. This is done by comparing the significance of several statistics computed on equivalent population data sets tested for two HLA class II loci, DRB1 and DPB1, which strongly differ from each other by the shape of their allelic distributions. Similar results are found for the two loci concerning highly significant correlations between geographic and genetic distances at the world scale, high levels of genetic diversity within sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, and low within Europe, and low genetic differentiations among the three broad continental areas, with no special divergence of Africa. On the other hand, DPB1 behaves as a neutral polymorphism, although a significant excess of heterozygotes is often observed for DRB1. Whereas the pattern observed for DPB1 is explained by geographic differentiations and genetic drift in isolated populations, balancing selection is likely to have prevented genetic differentiations among populations at the DRB1 locus. However, this selective effect did not disrupt the high correlation found between DRB1 and geography at the world scale, nor between DRB1 and linguistic differentiations at the African level.

  10. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of printing parameters on selected mechanical properties of FDM/FFF 3D-printed parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwikła, G.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Paprocka, I.; Ociepka, P.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid Prototyping technologies, especially 3D printing are becoming increasingly popular due to their usability and the constant decrease in price of printing equipment and materials. The article focuses on the study of selected mechanical strength properties of 3D-printed elements, which are not very important if the element is only a model for further manufacturing techniques, but which are important when 3D-printed elements will be a part of a functioning device, e.g. a part of unique scientific equipment. The research was carried out on a set of standardised samples, printed with low-cost standard materials (ABS), using a cheap 3D printer. The influence of parameters (such as the type of infill pattern, infill density, shell thickness, printing temperature, the type of material) on selected mechanical properties of the samples, were tested. The obtained results allows making conscious decisions on the printing of elements to be durable enough, either on a non-professional printer, or when to ordered by a professional manufacturer.

  12. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

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    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  13. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  14. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-10-02

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake-probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior.

  15. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment? Results for 50,824 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostev, Karel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Nowadays, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently prescribed antidepressants due to their superior clinical efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and safety as compared to tricyclic antidepressants or monoamino oxidase inhibitors. However, despite these advantages SSRIs are still associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, especially in the early stages of treatment, which may lead to premature discontinuation of therapy in some cases. The aim of the present study was to assess the most common adverse drug reactions of SSRIs as well as their impact on dropout rate in a large study population.Patients and methods: Data for 50,824 patients treated for major depressive disorder with SSRIs for the first time was accessed via the Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health, Germany, providing information on SSRI adverse drug reactions and their influence on premature treatment discontinuation calculated by regression analysis. The presence of certain co-morbidities was also registered. Results: The mean age was 54.5 ± 19 years, two-thirds of the study population being female. The adverse effects mentioned most frequently were: “discomfort” of the digestive system (10%, sleep disorders (8.6%, and heart rhythm disorders (4%; however, these were of tolerable severity as they did not significantly influence the dropout rate. Contrary to that, somnolence and younger age (≤50 years in particular increased the chance of premature treatment discontinuation, while patients suffering from cardiovascular risk factors or osteoporosis tended to adhere to the therapy.Conclusions: Overall, there is high tolerability for early SSRI treatment, whereas the occurrence of somnolence leads to discontinuation.

  16. Influence of the quality of mother plants on selected parameters of Fragaria x ananassa ‘Elsanta’ daughter plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Lisiecka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality planting material is the basis for good strawberry yields. The productivity of strawberry mother plants depends on many factors, but there is little published work on the effects of type and initial size of mother plants on the quality of daughter plants. In the presented study, strawberry mother plants (cultivar ‘Elsanta’ were grown in an unheated tunnel in plastic pots filled with peat-based substrate (5 dm3. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of type (fresh-dug plants and frigo and initial size (A and A+ plants of strawberry mother plants on selected parameters of daughter plants (crown diameter, fresh and dry weight as well as number and area of leaves. The study was carried out in 2006 and 2007. Strawberry mother plants were planted in the second decade of April and daughter plants were detached in the second decade of August. All measurements were performed on the second daughter plant on the mother plant runner. Statistical analysis showed that type of mother plants had a significant effect on number of leaves in daughter plants. Daughter plants obtained from mother plants established from fresh-dug plants had the highest number of leaves. The initial size of mother plants significantly influenced the fresh and dry weight of daughter plants. Smaller mother plants (“A-size” produced daughter plants with higher fresh and dry weight. The results obtained in the second year of the study were affected by high incidence of powdery mildew.

  17. Assessment of the influence of traffic-related particles in urban dust using sequential selective extraction and oral bioaccessibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinha, C; Durães, N; Sousa, P; Dias, A C; Reis, A P; Noack, Y; Ferreira da Silva, E

    2015-08-01

    Urban dust is a heterogeneous mix, where traffic-related particles can combine with soil mineral compounds, forming a unique and site-specific material. These traffic-related particles are usually enriched in potentially harmful elements, enhancing the health risk for population by inhalation or ingestion. Urban dust samples from Estarreja city and traffic-related particles (brake dust and white traffic paint) were studied to understand the relative contribution of the traffic particles in the geochemical behaviour of urban dust and to evaluate the long-term impacts of the metals on an urban environment, as well as the risk to the populations. It was possible to distinguish two groups of urban dust samples according to Cu behaviour: (1) one group with low amounts of fine particles (car brands (with more than 10 years old), composed by coarser wear particles; and (2) another group with greater amounts of fine particles (car brands (with less than 10 years old). The results obtained showed that there is no direct correlation between the geoavailability of metals estimated by sequential selective chemical extraction (SSCE) and the in vitro oral bioaccessibility (UBM) test. Thus, oral bioaccessibility of urban dust is site specific. Geoavailability was greatly dependent on particle size, where the bioaccessibility tended to increase with a reduction in particle diameter. As anthropogenic particles showed high metal concentration and a smaller size than mineral particles, urban dusts are of major concern to the populations' health, since fine particles are easily re-suspended, easily ingested, and show high metal bioaccessibility. In addition, Estarreja is a coastal city often influenced by winds, which favours the re-suspension of small-sized contaminated particles. Even if the risk to the population does not represent an acute case, it should not be overlooked, and this study can serve as baseline study for cities under high traffic influence.

  18. Preschoolers' influence on and help with beverage selection at the grocery store is linked to maternal responsiveness and child beverage intake: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Karina R; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Guzman, Melissa; Wakefield, Dorothy; Sisson, Susan B; Mayeux, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Children's involvement in beverage selection or purchase has seldom been investigated. The responsiveness dimension of parental feeding styles has been related to healthy maternal feeding practices. Assessing mothers' reports of responsiveness and demandingness in grocery stores may shed light on influences on purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and fruit juice (FJ). Study objectives were to explore whether (1) maternal responsiveness and demandingness were associated with preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases during grocery shopping and whether (2) preschoolers' a) help with selection of and b) influence on SSB and FJ purchases were associated with child intake of these beverages. Mothers of 3-to-5-year-old children (n=185) who co-shopped with the child completed the Caregiver Feeding Style Questionnaire, reported frequency of child help with selection and influence on beverage purchase via questionnaire, and provided a one-day weekend food recall for the child. In adjusted logistic regressions, responsiveness was associated with child help selecting FJ (OR=6.50, 95% CI[1.04, 40.75], pparenting behaviors associated with grocery shopping should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. influence the metabolic activity of selected CYP enzymes in the rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovrtělová, G; Nosková, K; Juřica, J; Turjap, M; Zendulka, O

    2015-01-01

    Safranal and crocin are biologically active compounds isolated from Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron. Clinical trials confirm that saffron has antidepressant effect, thus being a potential valuable alternative in the treatment of depression. The aim of the present study was to determine, whether systemic administration of safranal and crocin can influence the metabolic activity of CYP3A, CYP2C11, CYP2B, and CYP2A in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The experiments were carried out on male Wistar albino rats intragastrically administered with safranal (4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day) or with intraperitoneal injections of crocin (4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day). Our results demonstrate the ability of safranal and crocin to increase the total protein content and to change the metabolic activity of several CYP enzymes assessed as CYP specific hydroxylations of testosterone in RLM. Crocin significantly decreased the metabolic activity of all selected CYP enzymes, while safranal significantly increased the metabolic activity of CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A enzymes. Therefore, both substances could increase the risk of interactions with co-administered substances metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  20. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored.

  1. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for qPCR in kidney and hypothalamus of rats under testosterone influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Khadijeh; Loh, Su Yi; Salleh, Naguib; Lam, Sau Kuen; Hoe, See Ziau

    2017-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most reliable and accurate technique for analyses of gene expression. Endogenous reference genes are being used to normalize qPCR data even though their expression may vary under different conditions and in different tissues. Nonetheless, verification of expression of reference genes in selected studied tissue is essential in order to accurately assess the level of expression of target genes of interest. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to examine six commonly used reference genes in order to identify the gene being expressed most constantly under the influence of testosterone in the kidneys and hypothalamus. The reference genes include glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin beta (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2m), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT), peptidylprolylisomerase A (Ppia) and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (Hmbs). The cycle threshold (Ct) value for each gene was determined and data obtained were analyzed using the software programs NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper, and rank aggregation. Results showed that Hmbs and Ppia genes were the most stably expressed in the hypothalamus. Meanwhile, in kidneys, Hmbs and GAPDH appeared to be the most constant genes. In conclusion, variations in expression levels of reference genes occur in kidneys and hypothalamus under similar conditions; thus, it is important to verify reference gene levels in these tissues prior to commencing any studies.

  2. Activity and selectivity of palladium catalysts during the liquid-phase hydrogenation of phenol. Influence of temperature and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Velasco, J.R.; Gonzalez-Marcos, M.P.; Arnaiz, S.; Gutierrez-Ortiz, J.I.; Gutierrez-Ortiz, M.A. [Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)

    1995-04-01

    Two series of highly dispersed palladium catalysts supported on alumina have been prepared by adsorption from solution, with palladium contents varying from 0.25 to 2.0 wt %. The first series was calcined at 773 K for 4 h in air, whereas the second series was just heated at 423 K for 1 h in nitrogen, before reduction. Complete dispersion of the metal has been found for the calcined catalysts, and metal dispersion was favored with low palladium contents for the noncalcined catalysts. The kinetic behavior of the catalysts has been analyzed for the liquid-phase hydrogenation of phenol in a stirred tank reactor, ensuring a chemically controlled regime for stirring speed above 750 rpm and catalyst particle below 0.08--0.16 mm in the studied conditions. Despite their higher metallic dispersion, the calcined catalysts presented lower activity than their corresponding noncalcined catalysts. The influence of hydrogen partial pressure on activity showed a reaction order of 2. The apparent activation energy resulted in 56.8 kJ/mol. Selectivity to cyclohexanone was found to be very high for all experiments. Some conclusions on the kinetic reaction rate equations and the apparent activation energies of phenol to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol are given.

  3. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is already a very satiating food, the subjects were unable to differentiate between the 3 conditions.

  4. Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2016-05-18

    Beyond nutritional composition, food structure is increasingly recognized to play a role in food health potential, notably in satiety and glycemic responses. Food structure is also highly dependent on processing conditions. The hypothesis for this study is, based on a data set of 98 ready-to-eat foods, that the degree of food processing would correlate with the satiety index (SI) and glycemic response. Glycemic response was evaluated according to two indices: the glycemic index (GI) and a newly designed index, the glycemic glucose equivalent (GGE). The GGE indicates how a quantity of a certain food affects blood glucose levels by identifying the amount of food glucose that would have an effect equivalent to that of the food. Then, foods were clustered within three processing groups based on the international NOVA classification: (1) raw and minimally processed foods; (2) processed foods; and (3) ultra-processed foods. Ultra-processed foods are industrial formulations of substances extracted or derived from food and additives, typically with five or more and usually many (cheap) ingredients. The data were correlated by nonparametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient on quantitative data. The main results show strong correlations between GGE, SI and the degree of food processing, while GI is not correlated with the degree of processing. Thus, the more food is processed, the higher the glycemic response and the lower its satiety potential. The study suggests that complex, natural, minimally and/or processed foods should be encouraged for consumption rather than highly unstructured and ultra-processed foods when choosing weakly hyperglycemic and satiating foods.

  5. The Role of Sex of Peers and Gender-Typed Activities in Young Children's Peer Affiliative Networks: A Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had…

  6. Bankruptcy prediction: The influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines two aspects of bankruptcy prediction: the influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline. The results show that especially models

  7. How and When Accentuation Influences Temporally Selective Attention and Subsequent Semantic Processing during On-Line Spoken Language Comprehension: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-qing; Ren, Gui-qin

    2012-01-01

    An event-related brain potentials (ERP) experiment was carried out to investigate how and when accentuation influences temporally selective attention and subsequent semantic processing during on-line spoken language comprehension, and how the effect of accentuation on attention allocation and semantic processing changed with the degree of…

  8. Knowledge of Nativelike Selections in a L2. The Influence of Exposure, Memory, Age of Onset, and Motivation in Foreign Language and Immersion Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Pauline; Bolibaugh, Cylcia; Kotula, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that part of native speaker competence resides in knowledge of conventionalized word combinations, or nativelike selections (NLSs). This article reports an investigation into the receptive NLS knowledge of second language (L2) users of English in both the United Kingdom and Poland and the influence of a variety of…

  9. The Role of Sex of Peers and Gender-Typed Activities in Young Children's Peer Affiliative Networks: A Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had…

  10. Bankruptcy prediction: The influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, P.P.M.; Bilderbeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using large amounts of data from small and medium-sized industrial firms, this study examines two aspects of bankruptcy prediction: the influence of the year prior to failure selected for model building and the effects in a period of economic decline. The results show that especially models generate

  11. The Influence Of Variability Of Water Resources In Lowland Forests On Selected Parameters Describing The Condition Of Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Jan; Stolarek, Andrzej; Fronczak, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The influence of water conditions on the condition and growth of tree stands has been analysed in the context of the climatic and hydrological functions forest plays. Long observational series obtained for precipitation, outflow and depths below the surface of the water table have been put together with measured increases in the breast-height diameters of Scots pines and the severity of crown defoliation observable in selected tree species growing on the Polish Lowland, in order to determine the overall scope to the reaction stand condition manifests in the face of ongoing variability of water conditions within forest. An overall improvement in the condition of stands over the last 20 years does not disguise several-year cyclicity to changes capable of shaping the situation, i.a. departures from long-term mean values for precipitation totals and groundwater levels. The condition of stands is seen to worsen in both dry and wet years. Analysis of the degree to which pine, spruce and broadleaved stands experience defoliation points to spruce stands responding most to extreme hydro-climatic conditions. Extreme situations as regards water resources were seen to involve a response over two-year time intervals in the case of coniferous stands. Unsurprisingly, optimal growing-season (June-September) precipitation totals correspond with long-term average figures, while being slightly higher for spruce (at 384 mm), than for Scots pine or broadleaved species (375 mm). The relationships reported gain confirmation in analysis of periodic change in breast-height diameter increments characterising Scots pines, whose growth is seen to depend closely, not only on precipitation, but also above all on the depth of the water table in the summer half-year. Optimal depths of the water table proved to be different, being around 20 cm below ground in the case of marshy coniferous forest, 80 cm in wet habitats, and 135 cm in fresh habitats. Depending on the possibilities for water to soak

  12. Soft Landing of Mass-Selected Gold Clusters: Influence of Ion and Ligand on Charge Retention and Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Herein, we employ a combination of reduction synthesis in solution, soft landing of mass-selected precursor and product ions, and in situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to examine the influence of ion and the length of diphosphine ligands on the charge retention and reactivity of ligated gold clusters deposited onto self-assembled monolayer surfaces (SAMs). Product ions (Au10L42+, (10,4)2+, L = 1,3-bis(diphenyl-phosphino)propane, DPPP) were prepared through in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) and precursor ions [(8,4)2+, L = 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane, DPPH] were synthesized in solution for comparison to (11,5)3+ precursor ions ligated with DPPP investigated previously (ACS Nano 2012, 6, 573 and J. Phys. Chem. C. 2012, 116, 24977). Similar to (11,5)3+ precursor ions, the (10,4)2+ product ions are shown to retain charge on 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol monolayers (FSAMs). Additional abundant peaks at higher m/z indicative of reactivity are observed in the TOF-SIMS spectrum of (10,4)2+ product ions that are not seen for (11,5)3+ precursor ions. The abundance of (10,4)2+ on 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (COOH-SAMs) is demonstrated to be lower than on FSAMs, consistent with partial reduction of charge. The (10,4)2+ product ion on 1-dodecanethiol (HSAMs) exhibits peaks similar to those seen on the COOH-SAM. On the HSAM, higher m/z peaks indicative of reactivity are observed similar to those on the FSAM. The (8,4)2+ DPPH precursor ions are shown to retain charge on FSAMs similar to (11,5)3+ precursor ions prepared with DPPP. An additional peak corresponding to attachment of one gold atom to (8,4)2+ is observed at higher m/z for DPPH-ligated clusters. On the COOH-SAM, (8,4)2+ is less abundant than on the FSAM consistent with partial neutralization. The results indicate that although retention of charge by product ions generated by CID is similar to precursor ions their reactivity during analysis with SIMS is different

  13. When elders choose: Which factors could influence the decision-making among elderly in the selection of health tourism services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasović Mrčela, N; Borovac, J A; Vrdoljak, D; Grazio, S; Tikvica Luetić, A; Tomek-Roksandić, S

    2015-12-01

    Elderly beneficiaries (age 65+) exhibit specific characteristics that influence the distribution of health tourism market. High incidence of multiple morbidities and functional disability are hallmarks in this age group. For these reasons, elderly population requires different elements and diverse spectrum of services within health tourism, in comparison to younger beneficiaries. Thus, differences would occur within heterogeneous elderly population itself. A preliminary study that we conducted showed that the level of functional independence was one of the significant factors that guided decision-making among elderly beneficiaries when it came to their health tourism-related choices. Results suggested that beneficiaries recognized and appreciated the effect of the natural remedies and attractions available at the given destination. Maritime and continental health tourism are two different entities commonly selected by elderly beneficiaries for therapeutic purposes. We propose that the climate conditions, geographical location and availability of regional natural remedies are the key factors to why different services were elected by different groups of elderly. The model of Croatia, an established country in the field of health tourism was utilized for this purpose. Differences in the diagnostic categories of beneficiaries are expected due to effects of marine (sea, Mediterranean climate) and continental (thermal water, healing mud) health tourism. In addition, multitudes of mutually intertwined factors affect decision-making process among elderly regarding their health tourism choices. Such factors include the scale of preferences (with special emphasis on well-being and health), leisure opportunities, marketing influences, cost (price) and the availability/diversity of health tourism services within the particular region. Moreover, individual psychosocial and physical characteristics, disabilities and other debilitating conditions, examined in our preliminary

  14. Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Occupational Choice: The Selection of a Nursing Career by Ex-Soviet Immigrant Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Shifra; Liberman, Orly

    1997-01-01

    Data from 136 Soviet immigrants to Israel identified the sociocultural factors that influenced the choice of nursing as a career. Gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnic origin had less influence than parents, peers, and academic achievement. (JOW)

  15. Numerical investigation of influence on heat transfer characteristics to pneumatically conveyed dense phase flow by selecting models and boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Liu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Solids moving with a gas stream in a pipeline can be found in many industrial processes, such as power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and commodity transfer processes. A mass flow rate of the solids is important characteristic that is often required to be measured (and controlled) to achieve efficient utilization of energy and raw materials in pneumatic conveying systems. The methods of measuring the mass flow rate of solids in a pneumatic pipeline can be divided into direct and indirect (inferential) measurements. A thermal solids' mass flow-meter, in principle, should ideally provide a direct measurement of solids flow rate, regardless of inhomogeneities in solids' distribution and environmental impacts. One key issue in developing a thermal solids' mass flow-meter is to characterize the heat transfer between the hot pipe wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow. The Eulerian continuum modeling with gas-solid two phases is the most common method for pneumatic transport. To model a gas-solid dense phase flow passing through a heated region, the gas phase is described as a continuous phase and the particles as the second phase. This study aims to describe the heat transfer characteristics between the hot wall and the gas-solids dense phase flow in pneumatic pipelines by modeling a turbulence gas-solid plug passing through the heated region which involves several actual and crucial issues: selections of interphase exchange coefficient, near-wall region functions and different wall surface temperatures. A sensitivity analysis was discussed to identify the influence on the heat transfer characteristics by selecting different interphase exchange coefficient models and different boundary conditions. Simulation results suggest that sensitivity analysis in the choice of models is very significant. The simulation results appear to show that a combination of choosing the Syamlal-O'Brien interphase exchange coefficient model and the standard k-ɛ model along with

  16. Influence of selected demographic factors on traumas in persons over 65 years of age reporting to the Hospital Medical Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Andrzej Pytlak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Falls and traumas in elderly persons don’t only result in health problems, but they also involve social and economic, psychological and political consequences. The most frequent trauma mechanisms in the elderly include: falls and traffic accidents. ;b:Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess selected factors influencing the energy, type and area of a trauma incurred by elderly people. Material and methods. A group of 108 patients aged 65–93 treated at the SPSK 1 in Szczecin were tested by a diagnostic survey with the use of a questionnaire. The eligibility criteria included a trauma as a result of an accident, the age of the subject above 65 years of age and expressing written, voluntary and informed consent to participation in the study. Results. 177 traumas were recorded in the analysed group of 108 patients. The most frequent traumas included fractures and contusions and the lower limbs and the left arm were the most frequently injured body parts. Men were more often injured during low-energy events. Patients more often had their upper body and left leg injured during low-energy events than during high-energy ones. In persons over 65 years of age, usually one fracture occurred during a low-energy accident. Conclusions. The most common result of injuries among people aged 65+ admitted to the emergency department are fractures. With age the number of LE T increases and the number of HET decreases. It’s necessary therefore to create an appropriate health policy covering education for elderly people and their families to prevent injuries of low energy content.

  17. Tissue storage and primer selection influence pyrosequencing-based inferences of diversity and community composition of endolichenic and endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U'Ren, Jana M; Riddle, Jakob M; Monacell, James T; Carbone, Ignazio; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have provided unprecedented insights into fungal diversity and ecology. However, intrinsic biases and insufficient quality control in next-generation methods can lead to difficult-to-detect errors in estimating fungal community richness, distributions and composition. The aim of this study was to examine how tissue storage prior to DNA extraction, primer design and various quality-control approaches commonly used in 454 amplicon pyrosequencing might influence ecological inferences in studies of endophytic and endolichenic fungi. We first contrast 454 data sets generated contemporaneously from subsets of the same plant and lichen tissues that were stored in CTAB buffer, dried in silica gel or freshly frozen prior to DNA extraction. We show that storage in silica gel markedly limits the recovery of sequence data and yields a small fraction of the diversity observed by the other two methods. Using lichen mycobiont sequences as internal positive controls, we next show that despite careful filtering of raw reads and utilization of current best-practice OTU clustering methods, homopolymer errors in sequences representing rare taxa artificially increased estimates of richness c. 15-fold in a model data set. Third, we show that inferences regarding endolichenic diversity can be improved using a novel primer that reduces amplification of the mycobiont. Together, our results provide a rationale for selecting tissue treatment regimes prior to DNA extraction, demonstrate the efficacy of reducing mycobiont amplification in studies of the fungal microbiomes of lichen thalli and highlight the difficulties in differentiating true information about fungal biodiversity from methodological artefacts.

  18. Bismuth Molybdate Catalysts Prepared by Mild Hydrothermal Synthesis: Influence of pH on the Selective Oxidation of Propylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Schuh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of bismuth molybdate catalysts with relatively high surface area was prepared via mild hydrothermal synthesis. Variation of the pH value and Bi/Mo ratio during the synthesis allowed tuning of the crystalline Bi-Mo oxide phases, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The pH value during synthesis had a strong influence on the catalytic performance. Synthesis using a Bi/Mo ratio of 1/1 at pH ≥ 6 resulted in γ-Bi2MoO6, which exhibited a better catalytic performance than phase mixtures obtained at lower pH values. However, a significantly lower catalytic activity was observed at pH = 9 due to the low specific surface area. γ-Bi2MoO6 synthesized with Bi/Mo = 1/1 at pH = 6 and 7 exhibited relatively high surface areas and the best catalytic performance. All samples prepared with Bi/Mo = 1/1, except samples synthesized at pH = 1 and 9, showed better catalytic performance than samples synthesized with Bi/Mo = 2/3 at pH = 4 and 9 and γ-Bi2MoO6 synthesized by co-precipitation at pH = 7. At temperatures above 440 °C, the catalytic activity of the hydrothermally synthesized bismuth molybdates started to decrease due to sintering and loss of surface area. These results support that a combination of the required bismuth molybdate phase and a high specific surface area is crucial for a good performance in the selective oxidation of propylene.

  19. The influence of worm age, duration of exposure and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity for Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, T.S. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station; Farrar, J.D. [AScI Corp., Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The influence of worm age, duration of exposure, and endpoint selection on bioassay sensitivity were evaluated for Neanthes arenaceodentata. Worms were exposed to contaminated sediment collected from Black Rock Harbor (BRH) near Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. This sediment was diluted with clean control sediment to result in five experimental treatments: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% BRH. Three exposure scenarios were employed: (1) a 4-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-4w), (2) a 7-week exposure beginning with newly emerged juveniles (EJ-7w), and (3) a 4-week exposure beginning with 3-week-old juveniles (3WO-4w). Six measures of worm size were recorded at the conclusion of each exposure to evaluate differences among measurement endpoints. Survival was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level for the EJ-7w scenario and at the 100% BRH level for the EJ-4w and 3WO-4w scenarios. Growth was significantly reduced at the 25% BRH level in each exposure scenario. Estimates based on the calculated minimum detectable difference indicated that considerably lower concentrations of BRH (6--10%) should be distinguishable by measuring effects on Neanthes growth. Worm size measured in terms of projected area, dry weight, and ash-free dry weight provided the most sensitive measures of effects. Increasing the length of exposure from 4 to 7 weeks and initiating exposures with emergent juveniles rather than 3-week-old worms increased the sensitivity of the bioassay. The results of this study demonstrate that N. arenacedentata is sensitive to the presence of sediment-associated contaminants and that test animal age, duration of exposure, and choice of endpoint can have a large effect on the magnitude of the toxic response observed.

  20. Influence of select extracellular matrix proteins on mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic commitment in three-dimensional contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Bayona, Silvia; Guiza-Arguello, Viviana; Qu, Xin; Munoz-Pinto, Dany J; Hahn, Mariah S

    2012-12-01

    Growth factors have been shown to be powerful mediators of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) osteogenic differentiation. However, their use in tissue engineered scaffolds not only can be costly but also can induce undesired responses in surrounding tissues. Thus, the ability to specifically promote MSC osteogenic differentiation in the absence of exogenous growth factors via the manipulation of scaffold material properties would be beneficial. The current work examines the influence of select extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on MSC osteogenesis toward the goal of developing scaffolds with intrinsically osteoinductive properties. Fibrinogen (FG), fibronectin (FN) and laminin-1 (LN) were chosen for evaluation due to their known roles in bone morphogenesis or bone fracture healing. These proteins were conjugated into poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels and their effects on encapsulated 10T½ MSCs were evaluated. Specifically, following 1week of culture, mid-term markers of various MSC lineages were examined in order to assess the strength and specificity of the observed osteogenic responses. PEG-LN gels demonstrated increased levels of the osteogenic transcription factor osterix relative to day 0 levels. In addition, PEG-FG and PEG-LN gels were associated with increased deposition of bone ECM protein osteocalcin relative to PEG-FN gels and day 0. Importantly, the osteogenic response associated with FG and LN appeared to be specific in that markers for chondrocytic, smooth muscle cell and adipocytic lineages were not similarly elevated relative to day 0 in these gels. To gain insight into the integrin dynamics underlying the observed differentiation results, initial integrin adhesion and temporal alterations in cell integrin profiles were evaluated. The associated results suggest that α(2), α(v) and α(6) integrin subunits may play key roles in integrin-mediated osteogenesis.

  1. How International Students Select Offshore Programs: The Influence of Image, Attitude, Subject Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyao; Liu, Fang; Rojas-Méndez, José I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research studies identified country image as an important variable in international students' selection of onshore programs, and it is often perceived that there is little difference between onshore and offshore program selection. Looking at a sample of high school students in China and their selections of offshore programs (from a sample…

  2. Influence of alkali metal doping on surface properties and catalytic activity/selectivity of CaO catalysts in oxidative coupling of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.H.Rane; S.T.Chaudhari; V.R.Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    Surface properties (viz. surface area, basicity/base strength distribution, and crystal phases) of alkali metal doped CaO (alkali metal/Ca = 0.1 and 0.4) catalysts and their catalytic activity/selectivity in oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) to higher hydrocarbons at different reaction conditions (viz. temperature, 700 and 750 ℃; CH4/O2 ratio, 4.0 and 8.0 and space velocity, 5140-20550 cm3·g-1·h-1) have been investigated. The influence of catalyst calcination temperature on the activity/selectivity has also been investigated. The surface properties (viz. surface area, basicity/base strength distribution) and catalytic activity/selectivity of the alkali metal doped CaO catalysts are strongly influenced by the alkali metal promoter and its concentration in the alkali metal doped CaO catalysts. An addition of alkali metal promoter to CaO results in a large decrease in the surface area but a large increase in the surface basicity (strong basic sites) and the C2+ selectivity and yield of the catalysts in the OCM process. The activity and selectivity are strongly influenced by the catalyst calcination temperature. No direct relationship between surface basicity and catalytic activity/selectivity has been observed. Among the alkali metal doped CaO catalysts, Na-CaO (Na/Ca = 0.1, before calcination) catalyst (calcined at 750 ℃), showed best performance (C2+selectivity of 68.8% with 24.7% methane conversion), whereas the poorest performance was shown by the Rb-CaO catalyst in the OCM process.

  3. It's in the eye of the beholder: selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-03-20

    Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water. Brain activation during tasting largely overlapped between the three selective attention conditions and was found in the rolandic operculum, insula and overlying frontal operculum, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Brain activation was higher during selective attention to taste intensity compared to calories in the right middle OFC and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Intensity ratings correlated with brain activation during selective attention to taste intensity in the anterior insula and lateral OFC. Our data suggest that not only the anterior insula but also the middle and lateral OFC are involved in evaluating taste intensity. Furthermore, selective attention to pleasantness engaged regions associated with food reward. Overall, our results indicate that selective attention to food properties can alter the activation of gustatory and reward regions. This may underlie effects of food labels on the consumption experience of consumers.

  4. Influence of the dietary intake of medium chain triglycerides on body composition, energy expenditure and satiety: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Rego Costa

    Full Text Available Increased prevalence of obesity is associated with the growth of chronic degenerative diseases. One of the main factors associated with this increase is the change in nutritional status of individuals. Medium chain triglycerides (MCT are rapidly metabolized and less stored in the adipose tissue, being a possible tool for weight control. In order to analyze the influence of consumption of this lipid on satiety, body composition and energy expenditure (EE, a literature review was performed of controlled clinical studies reported in PUBMED and ELSEVIER between the years 2000 and 2010. Fourteen articles were selected presenting short and long-term intervention. Among these, six showed a decrease in body mass of individuals, with consequent loss of weight. Only one showed a positive effect on satiation and four showed an increase in EE. Thus the results are inconclusive and there is a need for further controlled studies with standardized amounts of MCT, so that its use can become an alternative for obesity nutritional treatment.

  5. Artificial selection on male longevity influences age-dependent reproductive effort in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John; Jennions, Michael D; Spyrou, Nicolle; Brooks, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Although the trade-off between reproductive effort and longevity is central to both sexual selection and evolutionary theories of aging, there has been little synthesis between these fields. Here, we selected directly on adult longevity of male field crickets Teleogryllus commodus and measured the correlated responses of age-dependent male reproductive effort, female lifetime fecundity, and several other life-history traits. Male longevity responded significantly to five generations of divergent selection. Males from downward-selected lines commenced calling sooner and reached their peak calling effort at a younger age. They called more per night and, despite living less than half as long, called more overall than males selected for increased longevity. Females from the downward-selected lines lived significantly shorter lives than females from the upward-selected lines but still produced the same number of offspring. Nymph survival, development time, and body size and weight at eclosion did not show significant correlated response to selection on male longevity, despite evidence for substantial genetic variation in each of these traits. Collectively, our findings directly support the antagonistic pleiotropy model of aging and suggest an important role for sexual selection in the aging process.

  6. Toward an Optimal Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Influence of Parental Psychopathology, Selective Attention, and Cognitive Coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present thesis was to explore wether parental psychopathology and threat-related selective attention were related to outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. Pre- to post-treatment changes of selective attention were also exam

  7. Determination of the Influence of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Selectivity Using Whey Protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each

  8. I'm hot, so i'd say you're not: the influence of objective physical attractiveness on mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew

    2008-10-01

    Four studies investigated the importance of objective and subjective attributes to mate selection. This research tested whether perceivers' objective physical attractiveness influenced how they evaluated the physical attractiveness of others and, if considered, may provide a parsimonious account for matching in mate selection. Study 1 (N = 102) demonstrated that ratings of targets' attractiveness decreased as perceivers' objective physical attractiveness increased. Studies 2 (N = 89) and 3 (N = 68) revealed that as perceivers' objective physical attractiveness increased, reductions in expected satisfaction and rejection were mediated by perceivers' reduced assessments of targets' attractiveness. Study 4 (N = 114) produced patterns of matching by finding that attractive perceivers expected to date more attractive targets while unattractive perceivers expected to date less attractive targets. This research emphasizes the importance of objective physical attractiveness to target evaluations and describes how matching results from the combined influence of objective and subjective attributes.

  9. Influence of dispersity on the activity, selectivity, and stability of Raney-Nickel catalyst during the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol into 1,4-butanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusina, S.V.; Litvin, E.F.; Kheifets, V.I.; Sharf, V.Z.

    1992-07-10

    Raney-nickel catalysts are widely used in the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol into 1,4-butanediol, an important intermediate for the preparation of thermostable resins, plasticizers, pharmaceutical preparations, and other compounds. The authors carried out the investigation of the influence of the dispersity of the Raney-nickel catalysts on their activity, selectivity, and stability in the hydrogenation reaction of 1,4-butynediol into 1,4-butanediol.

  10. The Role of Sex of Peers and Gender-Typed Activities in Young Children's Peer Affiliative Networks: A Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Kornienko, Olga; Schaefer, David R.; Hanish, Laura D.; Fabes, Richard A.; Goble, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic actor-based model was used to investigate the origins of sex segregation by examining how similarity in sex of peers and time spent in gender-typed activities affected affiliation network selection and how peers influenced children's ("N" = 292; "M"[subscript age] = 4.3 years) activity involvement. Gender had powerful effects on…

  11. Metabolic and Sensory Influences on Odor Sensitivity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Marielle G; Verhoef, Alard; Gort, Gerrit; Luning, Pieternel A; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-02-01

    Our olfactory sense plays an important role in eating behavior by modulating our food preferences and intake. However, hunger or satiety may also influence how we perceive odors. Albeit speculative, contradictory results found in the past may have resulted from confounding by type of meal that participants ate to induce satiety. We aimed to investigate the influence of hunger state on olfactory sensitivity, comparing hunger to satiety using 2 different types of lunch to control for sensory-specific satiety. Odor detection thresholds were measured in 2 groups of participants (39 per group, 18-40 years), under 3 conditions: when hungry (twice), after a sweet lunch, and after a savory lunch. One group had their detection thresholds tested for a sweet odor, whereas in the other group, sensitivity to a savory odor was measured. Differences in olfactory sensitivity conditions were analyzed using linear mixed models. Participants had higher scores on the odor sensitivity task in a hungry versus satiated state (P = 0.001). Within the satiated condition, there was no effect of type of lunch on odor sensitivity. In conclusion, hunger slightly enhances sensitivity to food odors, but did not significantly depend on the type of food participants ate, suggesting no clear influence of sensory-specific satiety.

  12. Strategic logistics service provider selection influenced by relationships, cost and market dynamics - a multi-factorial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Selection of logistics service providers (LSPs) is regarded critical and complex. Relationships tend to last for many years and have a critical role in the architecting of supply chains. Occasionally, relationships between buyer and LSP come to a crossroad of termination, extension or change...... in LSP selection. The study presents a tendering process as a fulcrum of "non-conformant‟ behaviour and unexpected outcome. Major findings are that contract-bound services and cost structures seem to drift into less transparent and informal patterns of interactions over time; this is wearing...... in logistics services....

  13. Influence of selected water quality characteristics on the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin to Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of suspended solids, dissolved organic carbon, and phytoplankton (as chlorophyll a) water quality characteristics on lambda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin aqueous toxicity to Hyalella azteca using natural water from 12 ponds and lakes in Mississipp...

  14. Influence of presence and spatial arrangement of belowground insects on host-plant selection of aboveground insects: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Schaper, S.V.; Bezemer, T.M.; Cortesero, A.M.; Hoffmeister, T.S.; Putten, van der W.H.; Vet, L.E.M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Several studies have shown that above- and belowground insects can interact by influencing each others growth, development, and survival when they feed on the same host-plant. In natural systems, however, insects can make choices on which plants to oviposit and feed. A field experiment was carrie

  15. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi–English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon’s choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication. PMID:28081136

  16. The Vocal Improviser-Educator: An Analysis of Selected American and Australian Educators' Influences and Pedagogical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2014-01-01

    Thirty vocal improviser-educators from Australia (n = 15) and the United States (n = 15) were surveyed for musical background, influences and pedagogical views, and assessed for personality type using the "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" ("MBTI"). The purpose was to both combine and compare the two groups to identify overall…

  17. The Vocal Improviser-Educator: An Analysis of Selected American and Australian Educators' Influences and Pedagogical Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2014-01-01

    Thirty vocal improviser-educators from Australia (n = 15) and the United States (n = 15) were surveyed for musical background, influences and pedagogical views, and assessed for personality type using the "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" ("MBTI"). The purpose was to both combine and compare the two groups to identify overall…

  18. Task Irrelevant External Cues Can Influence Language Selection in Voluntary Object Naming: Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Divya; Prasad, Seema Gorur; Sake, Kaushik; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We examined if external cues such as other agents' actions can influence the choice of language during voluntary and cued object naming in bilinguals in three experiments. Hindi-English bilinguals first saw a cartoon waving at a color patch. They were then asked to either name a picture in the language of their choice (voluntary block) or to name in the instructed language (cued block). The colors waved at by the cartoon were also the colors used as language cues (Hindi or English). We compared the influence of the cartoon's choice of color on naming when speakers had to indicate their choice explicitly before naming (Experiment 1) as opposed to when they named directly on seeing the pictures (Experiment 2 and 3). Results showed that participants chose the language indicated by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 3). Speakers also switched significantly to the language primed by the cartoon greater number of times (Experiment 1 and 2). These results suggest that choices leading to voluntary action, as in the case of object naming can be influenced significantly by external non-linguistic cues. Importantly, these symbolic influences can work even when other agents are merely indicating their choices and are not interlocutors in bilingual communication.

  19. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress.

  20. The influence of alewife year-class strength on prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, D.M.; Kiley, C.S.; Claramunt, R.M.; Clapp, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    We used growth and diet data from a fishery-independent survey of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, acoustic estimates of prey density and biomass, and statistical catch-at-age modeling to study the influence of the year-class strength of alewife Alosa pseudoharengus on the prey selection and abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in Lake Michigan during the years 1992-1996 and 2001-2005. Alewives age 2 or younger were a large part of age-1 Chinook salmon diets but were not selectively fed upon by age-1 Chinook salmon in most years. Feeding by age-1 Chinook salmon on alewives age 2 or younger became selective as the biomass of alewives in that young age bracket increased, and age-1 Chinook salmon also fed selectively on young bloaters Coregonus hoyi when bloater density was high. Selection of older alewives decreased at high densities of alewives age 2 or younger and, in some cases, high densities of bloater. The weight and condition of age-1 Chinook salmon were not related to age-1 Chinook salmon abundance or prey abundance, but the abundance of age-1 Chinook salmon in year t was positively related to the density of age-0 alewives in year t - 1. Our results suggest that alewife year-class strength exerts a positive bottom-up influence on age-1 Chinook salmon abundance, prey switching behavior by young Chinook salmon contributing to the stability of the predator-prey relationship between Chinook salmon and alewives. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  1. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IX. Host plant and population specific epicuticular hydrocarbon expression influences mate choice and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, J A; Etges, W J

    2013-03-01

    Sexual signals in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis include cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), contact pheromones that mediate female discrimination of males during courtship. CHCs, along with male courtship songs, cause premating isolation between diverged populations, and are influenced by genotype × environment interactions caused by different host cacti. CHC profiles of mated and unmated adult flies from a Baja California and a mainland Mexico population of D. mojavensis reared on two host cacti were assayed to test the hypothesis that male CHCs mediate within-population female discrimination of males. In multiple choice courtship trials, mated and unmated males differed in CHC profiles, indicating that females prefer males with particular blends of CHCs. Mated and unmated females significantly differed in CHC profiles as well. Adults in the choice trials had CHC profiles that were significantly different from those in pair-mated adults from no-choice trials revealing an influence of sexual selection. Females preferred different male CHC blends in each population, but the influence of host cactus on CHC variation was significant only in the mainland population indicating population-specific plasticity in CHCs. Different groups of CHCs mediated female choice-based sexual selection in each population suggesting that geographical and ecological divergence has the potential to promote divergence in mate communication systems.

  2. [Influence of distinct criteria for selecting patients for swabbing on estimation of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Baz, Iván; Guevara, Marcela; Elía, Fernando; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Fernández Alonso, Mirian; Castilla, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine under different criteria for selecting patients for swabbing. A case-control study was performed of laboratory-confirmed cases (n=909) and negative controls for influenza (n=732) in the 2010-2011 to 2012-2013 seasons in Navarre (Spain). The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was estimated by including all swabs from patients with influenza-like-illness and selecting only the first two cases per physician and week. The first two patients per physician and week were less frequently vaccinated against influenza (7.9% vs. 12.5%, p=0.021) and less often received confirmation of influenza (53.6% vs. 66.4%, p <0.001) than subsequent patients. These differences decreased after adjustment for covariates. The effectiveness of the influenza vaccine was 49% (95% CI: 23-66%) when all swabs were included and was 55% (95% CI: 27-72%) when we selected the first two swabs per week and physician. The selection of the first two patients per physician and week may bias assessment of the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, although this bias was small in the seasons analyzed. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. An Analysis of the Influence of Gender, Grade Level, and Teacher on the Selection of Mathematics Software by Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Pabst, Donna; Persichitte, Kay; Lohr, Linda; Pearman, Betsy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between gender, grade level, teachers, and the selection of mathematics software as measured by the type of mathematics software chosen, and time-on-task. Research data were collected from 202 third, fourth, and fifth grade students in a single elementary school located in northeastern…

  4. Influence of Leadership Styles on Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Case of Selected Primary Schools in Songea and Morogoro Districts, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Haruni J.; Kaitila, Mafwimbo M.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the kind of school leadership style that best suits for promoting teachers' job satisfaction in primary schools in Tanzania. The study employed cross sectional research design with samples of 200 teachers from 20 selected primary schools in Songea and Morogoro districts. Interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaires…

  5. The influence of selected litter and herd factors on treatments for lameness in suckling piglets from 35 Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.

    1996-01-01

    A hypothesis-generating analysis of risk factors associated with lameness in litters was performed. The overall proportion of litters treated for lameness in 7632 litters selected from the Health and Production Surveillance system database (HEPS-database) was 12.2%. The a priori hypotheses formed...

  6. The influence of the pressure force control signal on selected parameters of the vehicle continuously variable transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, A.; Graba, M.; Prażnowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of research on the effect of frequency control signal on the course selected operating parameters of the continuously variable transmission CVT. The study used a gear Fuji Hyper M6 with electro-hydraulic control system and proprietary software for control and data acquisition developed in LabView environment.

  7. Sensitivity to the satiating effects of Exendin 4 is decreased in obesity-prone Osborne-Mendel rats compared to obesity-resistant S5B/Pl rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Stefany D.; Barnes, Maria J.; Braymer, H. Douglas; Bray, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are prone to obesity when fed a high fat diet, while S5B/Pl (S5B) rats are resistant to diet-induced obesity when fed the same diet. OM rats have a decreased satiation response to fatty acids infused in the gastrointestinal tract, compared to S5B rats. One possible explanation is that OM rats are less sensitive to the satiating hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is produced in the small intestine and is released in response to a meal. The current experiments examined the role of GLP-1 in OM and S5B rats. Methods Experiment 1 examined preproglucagon mRNA expression in the ileum of OM and S5B rats fed a high fat (55% kcal) or low fat (10% kcal) diet. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of a 2h high fat meal following a 24h fast in OM and S5B rats on circulating GLP-1 (active) levels. Experiment 3 examined the effects of Exendin-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist) administration on the intake of a high fat or a low fat diet in OM and S5B rats. Results Preproglucagon mRNA levels were increased in the ileum of OM rats compared to S5B rats and were increased by high fat diet in OM and S5B rats. OM and S5B rats exhibited a similar meal-initiated increase in circulating GLP-1 (active) levels. Exendin-4 dose-dependently decreased food intake to a greater extent in S5B rats, compared to OM rats. The intake of low fat diet, compared to the intake of high fat diet, was more sensitive to the effects of Exendin-4 in these strains. Conclusions These results suggest that though OM and S5B rats have similar preproglucagon mRNA expression in the ileum and circulating GLP-1 levels, OM rats are less sensitive to the satiating effects of GLP-1. Therefore, dysregulation of the GLP-1 system may be a mechanism through which OM rats overeat and gain weight. PMID:20404826

  8. The Influence of the Material of the Transformer Core on Characteristics of the Selected DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Krzysztof; Zarębski, Janusz

    In the paper the influence of the ferromagnetic material used for the construction of the core of the impulse-transformer on the characteristics of a half-bridge converter is considered. The investigated network is described and some results of measurements are shown. On the basis of the obtained characteristics of the investigated converters some suggestions for the designers of such circuits are formulated.

  9. Soil bioindicators : how soil properties influence their responses and how to select them in function of the site issues ?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauget, Benjamin; Rougé, Laurence; Vaufleury, Annette De; Dequiedt, Samuel; Gattin, Isabelle; Grand, Cécile; Le Guédard, Marina; Hedde, Mickaël; Villenave, Cécile; Peres, Guenola

    2014-01-01

    Context - Despite no directive exists for soil protection, this key component of ecosystem needs to be protected. To fill the lack of tools to monitor the soil threats and to assess the impact of soil management, biological indicators have been developed in the French program Bioindicators 2 (ADEME). On the 47 plots of 13 sites (agricultural, industrial and forest), the influence of soil characteristics and soil use on the response of 80 biological parameters (fauna, flora and microorganisms)...

  10. Associations of collectivism with relationship commitment, passion, and mate selection: opposing roles of parental influence and family allocentrism

    OpenAIRE

    Bejanyan, Kathrine; Marshall, Tara C.; Ferenczi, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    In collectivist cultures, families tend to be characterized by respect for parental authority and strong, interdependent ties. Do these aspects of collectivism exert countervailing pressures on mate choices and relationship quality? In the present research, we found that collectivism was associated with greater acceptance of parental influence over mate choice, thereby driving relationship commitment down (Studies 1 and 2), but collectivism was also associated with stronger family ties (refer...

  11. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  12. Systematic assessment of factors influencing preferences of Crohn's disease patients in selecting an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent (CHOOSE TNF TRIAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Stephan R; Bentele, Nicoletta; Scharl, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; Zeitz, Jonas; Frei, Pascal; Straumann, Alex; Binek, Janek; Schoepfer, Alain M; Fried, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADA), and certolizumab pegol (CZP) have similar efficacy in induction and maintenance of clinical remission in Crohn's disease (CD). Given the comparable nature of these drugs, patient preferences may influence the choice of the product. We aimed to identify factors that may contribute to CD patients' decision in selecting one anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent over the others. A prospective survey was performed among anti-TNF-naïve CD patients. Prior to completion of a questionnaire, patients were provided with a written description of the three anti-TNF agents, focusing on indications, mode of administration, side effects, and scientific evidence of efficacy and safety for each drug. One hundred patients (47 females, mean age 45 ± 16 years, range 19-81) with an ileal, colonic, or ileocolonic (33%, 40%, and 27%, respectively) disease location completed the questionnaire. Based on the information provided, 36% of patients preferred ADA, 28% CZP, and 25% IFX, whereas 11% were undecided. The patients' decision in selecting a specific anti-TNF drug was influenced by the following factors: ease of use (69%), time required for therapy (34%), time interval between application of the drug (31%), scientific evidence for efficacy (19%), and fear of syringes (10%). The majority of patients preferred anti-TNF medications that were administered by subcutaneous injection rather than by intravenous infusion. Ease of use and time required for therapy were two major factors influencing the patients' selection of a specific anti-TNF drug. Patients' individual preferences should be taken into account when prescribing anti-TNF drugs. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  13. INFLUENCE OF CYCLIC FREEZING AND THAWING ON THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SELECTED AGGREGATES USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF GREEN ROOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Gwóżdź

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a green roof requires drainage which ought to be characterized by adequate hydraulic conductivity and be resistant to changing meteorological conditions during the winter period. A properly functioning drainage system guarantees the reliability of the entire green roof system. The article presents studies on the freeze-thaw durability and hydraulic conductivity of selected aggregates applied for constructing green roof drainage systems. The aggregates were subjected to a cyclic freezing and thawing process in 30 and 70 cycles. The obtained results indicate that the conductivity of aggregates studied using the constant head method decreases along with an increase in the number of freeze-thaw cycles they were subjected to. This means that the indicator of freeze-thaw durability can have an indicative nature in the assessment of the usefulness of selected aggregates for constructing drainage layers. The conducted studies indicate that the deciding parameter when selecting an aggregate ought to be its hydraulic conductivity, determined accounting for the changes taking place in the freeze-thaw cycles. The equations of changes in the conductivity of aggregates indicated by the authors make it possible to assess them for practical purposes.

  14. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croak, Benjamin M; Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features). Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed) sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major) preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii) preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  15. Picture Novelty Influences Response Selection and Inhibition: The Role of the In-Group Bias and Task-Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Artyom; Mahmud, Waich; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Al-Amin, Md. Mamun

    2016-01-01

    The human visual system prioritizes processing of novel information, leading to faster detection of novel stimuli. Novelty facilitates conflict resolution through the enhanced early perceptual processing. However, the role of novel information processing during the conflict-related response selection and inhibition remains unclear. Here, we used a face-gender classification version of the Simon task and manipulated task-difficulty and novelty of task-relevant information. The novel quality of stimuli was made task-irrelevant, and an in-group bias was tightly controlled by manipulation of a gender of picture stimuli. We found that the in-group bias modulated the role of novelty in executive control. Novel opposite-sex stimuli facilitated response inhibition only when the task was not demanding. By contrast, novelty enhanced response selection irrespective of the in-group factor when task-difficulty was increased. These findings support the in-group bias mechanism of visual processing, in cases when attentional resources are not limited by a demanding task. The results are further discussed along the lines of the attentional load theory and neural mechanisms of response-inhibition and locomotor activity. In conclusion, our data showed that processing of novel information may enhance executive control through facilitated response selection and inhibition. PMID:27788213

  16. Selective CO Methanation on Ru/TiO2 Catalysts: Role and Influence of Metal-Support Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Mageed, Ali M.; Widmann, D.; Olesen, Sine Ellemann

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at a detailed understanding of the role of metal-support interactions in the selective methanation of CO in CO2-rich reformate gases, we have investigated the catalytic performance of a set of Ru/TiO2 catalysts with comparable Ru loading, Ru particle size, and TiO2 phase composition but very...... different surface areas (ranging from 20 to 235 m2 g-1) in this reaction. The activity for CO methanation, under steady-state conditions, was found to strongly depend on the TiO2 support surface area, increasing first with increasing surface area up to a maximum activity for the Ru/TiO2 catalyst...... with a surface area of 121 m2 g-1 and then decreasing for an even higher surface area; however, the selectivity is mainly determined by the Ru particle size, which slightly decreases with increasing support surface area. This goes along with an increase in selectivity for CO methanation, in agreement...

  17. Water-quality characteristics and trends for selected wells possibly influenced by wastewater disposal at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1981-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Fisher, Jason C.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, analyzed water-quality data collected from 64 aquifer wells and 35 perched groundwater wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from 1981 through 2012. The wells selected for the study were wells that possibly were affected by wastewater disposal at the INL. The data analyzed included tritium, strontium-90, major cations, anions, nutrients, trace elements, total organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds. The analyses were performed to examine water-quality trends that might influence future management decisions about the number of wells to sample at the INL and the type of constituents to monitor.

  18. Differences in exercise intensity seems to influence the affective responses in self-selected and imposed exercise: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eOliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-selected exercise seems to promote positive affective responses due to the perceived autonomy associated with it. The objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of differences in Feeling Scale (FS responses during self-selected and imposed exercise sessions. The PRISMA Statement was adopted for this meta-analysis. The search used PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. A total of 10 studies that compared the effects of self-selected and imposed exercise sessions on acute FS responses were included. The screening strategy included: exclusion of studies that were duplicated between databases, abstract screening, and text screening. The standardized mean difference (SMD between self-selected and imposed exercise sessions categorized in five intensities (equal intensity: both exercises were performed at the same intensity, below lactate/ventilatory threshold (LT/VT: imposed exercise was performed at an intensity below the LT/VT, at LT/VT: imposed exercise was performed at the LT/VT intensity, above LT/VT: imposed exercise was performed at an intensity above the LT/VT, and different intensity: both exercises were performed at different intensities and the intensity of imposed session was not reported relative to LT/VT and an overall SMD were calculated. Self-selected exercise was used as the reference condition. The subtotal SMD values were as follows: -.10 (equal intensity, -.36 (below LT/VT, -.57 (at LT/VT, -1.30 (above LT/VT, and -.09 (different intensity. The overall SMD was -.41. These results have shown that the differences in the exercise intensity used in imposed exercise sessions influenced the affective responses considering that higher intensities of imposed session provided higher effect size in favor of self-selected exercise.

  19. Influence of Changing Rainfall Patterns on the Yield of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. and Selection of Genotypes in Known Drought-tolerant Fruit Species for Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablito M. Magdalita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In fruit crop production, rainfall, water stress, temperature, and wind are key variables for success, and the present changes in rainfall patterns could affect the flowering and yield of the rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Other fruit species like macopa (Syzygium samarangense, siniguelas (Spondias purpurea, and native santol or cotton fruit (Sandoricum koetjape remain productive despite extreme climatic changes. This study assessed the influence of rainfall on rambutan yield and evaluated and selected tree genotypes of known drought-tolerant fruit species. Rambutan yield in a selected farm in Calauan, Laguna, Philippines, dropped remarkably from 152.2 kg/tree in 2008 to 8.6 kg/tree in 2009. This reduction could be attributed to the high rainfall in April 2009 at 334.4 mm, and possibly other environmental factors like temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and strong wind. Furthermore, wet months in 2009 also inhibited the flowering of rambutan. However, a low yield obtained in 2010 at 45.5 kg/tree could be partly attributed to the very low rainfall in May 2010 at only 9.1 mm. On the other hand, in relation to changing climate, selection of tree genotypes for use as varieties in known drought- and flood-tolerant fruit species based on important fruit qualities like sweetness, juiciness, and high edible portion was done. Among 103 macopa genotypes, Mc-13, 43, and 91 were selected and the best (i.e. , Mc-13 had sweet (7.15 °Brix and crispy fruits weighing 49.44 g, creamy white (RHCC 155 A, and had high edible portion (EP, 93.22%. Among 114 siniguelas genotypes, Sg-41, 42 and 105 were selected and the best selection (i.e., Sg-41, had sweet (12.50 °Brix and juicy fruit weighing 20.42 g, ruby red (RHCC 59 A, and had high EP (83.27%. Among 101 native santol genotypes, Sn-47, 59, and 74 were selected and the best selection (i.e. , Sn-59 had relatively sweet (5.56 °Brix and juicy fruits weighing 51.96 g, maize yellow (RHCC 21 B, and had

  20. Influence of referral pathway on ebola virus disease case-fatality rate and effect of survival selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra...... Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis...

  1. Repression/depression of conjugative plasmids and their influence on the mutation-selection balance in static environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Raz, Yoav; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel David

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect that conjugation-mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) has on the mutation-selection balance of a population in a static environment. We consider a model whereby a population of unicellular organisms, capable of conjugation, comes to mutation-selection balance in the presence of an antibiotic, which induces a first-order death rate constant [Formula: see text] for genomes that are not resistant. We explicitly take into consideration the repression/de-repression dynamics of the conjugative plasmid, and assume that a de-repressed plasmid remains temporarily de-repressed after copying itself into another cell. We assume that both repression and de-repression are characterized by first-order rate constants [Formula: see text]and [Formula: see text], respectively. We find that conjugation has a deleterious effect on the mean fitness of the population, suggesting that HGT does not provide a selective advantage in a static environment, but is rather only useful for adapting to new environments. This effect can be ameliorated by repression, suggesting that while HGT is not necessarily advantageous for a population in a static environment, its deleterious effect on the mean fitness can be negated via repression. Therefore, it is likely that HGT is much more advantageous in a dynamic landscape. Furthermore, in the limiting case of a vanishing spontaneous de-repression rate constant, we find that the fraction of conjugators in the population undergoes a phase transition as a function of population density. Below a critical population density, the fraction of conjugators is zero, while above this critical population density the fraction of conjugators rises continuously to one. Our model for conjugation-mediated HGT is related to models of infectious disease dynamics, where the conjugators play the role of the infected (I) class, and the non-conjugators play the role of the susceptible (S) class.

  2. The influence of expert opinions on the selection of wastewater treatment alternatives: a group decision-making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbar, Pradip P; Karmakar, Subhankar; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2013-10-15

    The application of multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM) to real life decision problems suggests that avoiding the loss of information through scenario-based approaches and including expert opinions in the decision-making process are two major challenges that require more research efforts. Recently, a wastewater treatment technology selection effort has been made with a 'scenario-based' method of MADM. This paper focuses on a novel approach to incorporate expert opinions into the scenario-based decision-making process, as expert opinions play a major role in the selection of treatment technologies. The sets of criteria and the indicators that are used consist of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. The group decision-making (GDM) approach that is implemented for aggregating expert opinions is based on an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which is the most widely used MADM method. The pairwise comparison matrices (PCMs) for qualitative criteria are formed based on expert opinions, whereas, a novel approach is proposed for generating PCMs for quantitative criteria. It has been determined that the experts largely prefer natural treatment systems because they are more sustainable in any scenario. However, PCMs based on expert opinions suggest that advanced technologies such as the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) can also be appropriate for a given decision scenario. The proposed GDM approach is a rationalized process that will be more appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders with local and regional societal priorities are involved in the selection of treatment technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repression/depression of conjugative plasmids and their influence on the mutation-selection balance in static environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Atsmon-Raz

    Full Text Available We study the effect that conjugation-mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT has on the mutation-selection balance of a population in a static environment. We consider a model whereby a population of unicellular organisms, capable of conjugation, comes to mutation-selection balance in the presence of an antibiotic, which induces a first-order death rate constant [Formula: see text] for genomes that are not resistant. We explicitly take into consideration the repression/de-repression dynamics of the conjugative plasmid, and assume that a de-repressed plasmid remains temporarily de-repressed after copying itself into another cell. We assume that both repression and de-repression are characterized by first-order rate constants [Formula: see text]and [Formula: see text], respectively. We find that conjugation has a deleterious effect on the mean fitness of the population, suggesting that HGT does not provide a selective advantage in a static environment, but is rather only useful for adapting to new environments. This effect can be ameliorated by repression, suggesting that while HGT is not necessarily advantageous for a population in a static environment, its deleterious effect on the mean fitness can be negated via repression. Therefore, it is likely that HGT is much more advantageous in a dynamic landscape. Furthermore, in the limiting case of a vanishing spontaneous de-repression rate constant, we find that the fraction of conjugators in the population undergoes a phase transition as a function of population density. Below a critical population density, the fraction of conjugators is zero, while above this critical population density the fraction of conjugators rises continuously to one. Our model for conjugation-mediated HGT is related to models of infectious disease dynamics, where the conjugators play the role of the infected (I class, and the non-conjugators play the role of the susceptible (S class.

  4. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Michalcová; Marek Halenár; Eva Tušimová; Anton Kováčik; Ľubica Chrastinová; Ľubomír Ondruška; Rastislav Jurčík; Eduard Kolesár; Adriana Kolesarova

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w.) of...

  5. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the stomach in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenina, O Yu; Kromin, A A

    2012-10-01

    Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in preliminary fed animals in the presence of the food is associated with successful food-procuring behavior, accompanied by regular generation of high-amplitude slow electrical waves by muscles of the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity in the form of unimodal distribution of slow wave periods typical of satiation state. Despite increased level of food motivation caused by stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus, the additional food intake completely abolished the inhibitory effects of hunger motivation excitement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach of satiated rabbits. Changes in slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles in rabbits deprived of food over 24 h and offered food and associated food-procuring behavior during electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus have a two-phase pattern. Despite food intake during phase I of electrical stimulation, the downstream inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of stomach abolishes the stimulating effect of food reinforcement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach. During phase II of electrical stimulation, the food reinforcement decreases inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature that paces maximal rhythm of slow electrical waves for muscles activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which is reflected by unimodal distribution of slow electrical wave periods. Our results indicated that the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles reflects convergent interactions of food motivation and reinforcement excitations on the dorsal vagal complex neurons in medulla oblongata.

  6. Genetic variation in the odorant receptors family 13 and the mhc loci influence mate selection in a multiple sclerosis dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Stephen L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When selecting mates, many vertebrate species seek partners with major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes different from their own, presumably in response to selective pressure against inbreeding and towards MHC diversity. Attempts at replication of these genetic results in human studies, however, have reached conflicting conclusions. Results Using a multi-analytical strategy, we report validated genome-wide relationships between genetic identity and human mate choice in 930 couples of European ancestry. We found significant similarity between spouses in the MHC at class I region in chromosome 6p21, and at the odorant receptor family 13 locus in chromosome 9. Conversely, there was significant dissimilarity in the MHC class II region, near the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes. We also found that genomic regions with significant similarity between spouses show excessive homozygosity in the general population (assessed in the HapMap CEU dataset. Conversely, loci that were significantly dissimilar among spouses were more likely to show excessive heterozygosity in the general population. Conclusions This study highlights complex patterns of genomic identity among partners in unrelated couples, consistent with a multi-faceted role for genetic factors in mate choice behavior in human populations.

  7. Influence of the selective EDTA derivative phenyldiaminetetraacetic acid on the speciation and extraction of heavy metals from a contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Hang; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Xia, Bing; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Cheng-Yong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-08-01

    The development of more selective chelators for the washing of heavy metal contaminated soil is desirable in order to avoid excessive dissolution of soil minerals. Speciation and mobility of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni in a contaminated soil washed with phenyldiaminetetraacetic acid (PDTA), a derivative of EDTA, were investigated by batch leaching test using a range of soil washing conditions followed by sequential extraction. With appropriate washing conditions, PDTA significantly enhanced extraction of Cu from the contaminated soil. The primary mechanisms of Cu extraction by PDTA were complexation-promoted dissolution of soil Cu and increased dissolution of soil organic matter (SOM). PDTA showed high selectivity for Cu(II) over soil component cations (Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Al(III)), especially at lower liquid-to-soil ratios under PDTA deficiency, thus avoiding unwanted dissolution of soil minerals during the soil washing process which can degrade soil structure and interfere with future land use. PDTA-enhanced soil washing increased the exchangeable fractions of Cu, Zn, and Pb and decreased their residual fractions, compared to their levels in unwashed soil.

  8. Purifying selection in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein influences variation in envelope glycoprotein 5 glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally R; Abrahante, Juan E; Johnson, Craig R; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2013-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein is encoded in an alternate open reading frame upstream of the major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) in subgenomic mRNA5. Bioinformatic analysis of 3466 type 2 PRRSV sequences showed that the two proteins have co-evolved through a fine balance of purifying codon usage to maintain a conserved RQ-rich motif in ORF5a protein, while eliciting a variable N-linked glycosylation motif in the alternative GP5 reading frame. Conservation of the ORF5a protein RQ-motif also explains an anomalous uracil desert in GP5 hypervariable glycosylation region. The N-terminus of the mature GP5 protein was confirmed to start with amino acid 32, the hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Since GP5 glycosylation variability is assumed to result from immunological selection against neutralizing antibodies, these findings show that an alternative possibility unrelated to immunological selection not only exists, but provides a foundation for investigating previously unsuspected aspects of PRRSV biology. Understanding functional consequences of subtle nucleotide sequence modifications in the region responsible for critical function in ORF5a protein and GP5 glycosylation is essential for rational design of new vaccines against PRRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible Influence of Resistance to Malaria in Clinical Presentation of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Biological Significance of Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bonilla-Abadía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a common autoimmune disease that affects all ethnic groups. Genetic factors, mainly HLA alleles, are highly associated with increased risk to develop RA. However, there are few available data about the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the prevalence or severity of RA in the Afrodescendant population, who have evolutionarily and by natural selection developed mutations that allowed them to acquire resistance to infectious diseases like malaria. Some of the mechanisms, by which this resistance was developed as a product of natural selection, are involved in different forms of immunological response, many of them of a well-known importance in the pathophysiology of RA. This paper focuses on presenting the known mechanisms of resistance to malaria and their possible contribution to the pathophysiology of RA, including “loss-of-function” mutations, lack of expression of chemokine receptors, decrease of immune complexes clearance by asplenia, or increase of immune reactivity mediated by B cells, among other mechanisms in this special group of patients.

  10. The influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moa-Liberty Alausa Waheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a sample size of 300 National Youth Service Corp members were randomly selected in the five divisions of Lagos State with ages ranging from 18 to 30. Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and t-tests. The results show that there is a significant joint influence of sex, age, ethnicity and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions (r2 = 0.90; P <.01]; male participants are more susceptible to entrepreneurial intentions than their female counterparts [t = 26.46, P <.01] and that Youth Corp members with a high self-efficacy rate significantly higher on entrepreneurial intentions (t = 25.09, P <.01]. Based on these findings, the study recommended that a self-efficacy programme should be included in the school curriculum so as to enhance entrepreneurial intentions among fresh graduates and, by so doing, reducing the high rate of unemployment in society. It was also recommended that future studies should use a larger sample and explore experimental methods so as to see if a causal relationship can be established among variables.

  11. Scoping of material response under DEMO neutron irradiation: comparison with fission and influence of nuclear library selection

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, M R

    2016-01-01

    Predictions of material activation inventories will be a key input to virtually all aspects of the operation, safety and environmental assessment of future fusion nuclear plants. Additionally, the neutron-induced transmutation (change) of material composition (inventory) with time, and the creation and evolution of configurational damage from atomic displacements, require precise quantification because they can lead to significant changes in material properties, and thus influence reactor-component lifetime. A comprehensive scoping study has been performed to quantify the activation, transmutation (depletion and build-up) and immediate damage response under neutron irradiation for all naturally occurring elements from hydrogen to bismuth. The resulting database provides a global picture of the response of a material, covering the majority of nuclear technological space, but focussing specifically on typical conditions expected for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO). Results from fusion are compared aga...

  12. The influence of different dietary energy content and feeding regimes on growth and feed utilization of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in aquaculture underlines the need to optimize the feeding strategy for this fish species. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary energy content and feeding regime on growth performance, feed uti- lization and feeding costs for European sea bass. Seven hundreds and forthyfourfish(averageinitial forthyfourfish(averageinitial four fish ( average initial body weight 68g were randomly allocated into twelve tanks 800 l in a closed recirculation system (water temperature: 22°C; dissolved oxygen ≥90% of saturation. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein extruded diets were formulated with different lipid levels i.e. 16% (diet D16, 24% (diet D24 and 32% (diet D32 and each diet was fed at two different feeding regimes (satiation and 80% satiation accord- ing to a bifactorial experimental design. Feed intake (FI was recorded daily. After 77 days, fish were bulk weighed and growth, SGR and FCR were calculated. Feedingregimesaffectedall theanalysed Feeding regimes affected all the analysed parameters (P<0.05, whereas diet influenced only FCR, FI, protein and lipid intake and the economic efficiency ratio (EER. Fish fed the lowest energy content diet (D16 to satiation resulted in the highest feed intake, a FCR similar to that of fish fed diets D24 and D32 and in the lowest EER.

  13. Selection and geographic isolation influence hummingbird speciation: genetic, acoustic and morphological divergence in the wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornelas Juan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world, yet we are far from understanding the geologic history and the processes driving population divergence and speciation for most endemic taxa. In species with highly differentiated populations selective and/or neutral factors can induce rapid changes to traits involved in mate choice, promoting reproductive isolation between allopatric populations that can eventually lead to speciation. We present the results of genetic differentiation, and explore drift and selection effects in promoting acoustic and morphological divergence among populations of Campylopterus curvipennis, a lekking hummingbird with an extraordinary vocal variability across Mesoamerica. Results Analyses of two mitochondrial genes and ten microsatellite loci genotyped for 160 individuals revealed the presence of three lineages with no contemporary gene flow: C. c. curvipennis, C. c. excellens, and C. c. pampa disjunctly distributed in the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Tuxtlas region and the Yucatan Peninsula, respectively. Sequence mtDNA and microsatellite data were congruent with two diversification events: an old vicariance event at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (c. 1.4 Ma, and a more recent Pleistocene split, isolating populations in the Tuxtlas region. Hummingbirds of the excellens group were larger, and those of the pampa group had shorter bills, and lineages that have been isolated the longest shared fewer syllables and differed in spectral and temporal traits of a shared syllable. Coalescent simulations showed that fixation of song types has occurred faster than expected under neutrality but the null hypothesis that morphological divergence resulted from drift was not rejected. Conclusions Our phylogeographic analyses uncovered the presence of three Mesoamerican wedge-tailed sabrewing lineages, which diverged at different time scales. These results highlight the importance of the

  14. Influence of pesticides and herbicides presence on phosphatase activity and selected bacterial microbiota of a natural lake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, L; Pozo, C; Rodelas, B; Calvo, C; González-López, J

    2006-07-01

    Phosphatase activities (cell-bounded phosphatases "BP" and freely dissolved phosphatases "D P") in water samples from a natural lake "Laguna Grande" (Antequera, Málaga, Spain) amended with 50 microg/ml of selected insecticides, herbicides and fungicide captan were studied under laboratory controlled conditions (temperature and agitation). Our data show that dissolved alkaline phosphatase was the enzymatic activity that contributed in higher proportion to total lake water samples phosphatase status. The presence of organochlorinated insecticides (aldrin and lindane), organophosphorous insecticides (dimetoate, methidation and methyl-parathion), herbicide atrazine and fungicide captan significantly increased phosphatase activities after 28 days of incubation. However, these activities were not affected as a consequence of the addition of the herbicide simazine to the water samples. Heterotrophic mesophilic and psychrophilic aquatic bacteria counts as well as culturable phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, increased when the pesticides were added to lake water samples with herbicide simazine exception.

  15. Influence of ROI selection on Resting Functional Connectivity: An Individualized Approach for Resting fMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seunghyun Sohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The differences in how our brain is connected are often thought to reflect the differences in our individual personalities and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in brain connectivity has long been recognized in the neuroscience community however it has yet to manifest itself in the methodology of resting state analysis. This is evident as previous studies use the same region of interest (ROIs for all subjects. In this paper we demonstrate that the use of ROIs which are standardized across individuals leads to inaccurate calculations of functional connectivity. We also show that this problem can be addressed by taking an individualized approach by using subject-specific ROIs. Finally we show that ROI selection can affect the way we interpret our data by showing different changes in functional connectivity with ageing.

  16. Diversity and nest site selection of social wasps along Guianese forest edges: assessing the influence of arboreal ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbara, Bruno; Carpenter, J M; Céréghino, R; Leponce, M; Gibernau, M; Dejean, Alain

    2009-05-01

    We examined 424 nests belonging to 61 wasp species along 5 km of rainforest edges in French Guiana (ca. 15,235 plants monitored), and estimate that we recorded up to 73% of the local social wasp fauna. This baseline study was complemented by a long-term survey of the same area and the examination of isolated trees (permitting us to record two additional species, resulting in a total of 63 wasp species). Our results form a continuum from species avoiding nesting on any plant (6.5% of the wasp species) to species nesting on plants but avoiding those sheltering ant nests (82%), to, finally, wasps nesting in association with arboreal ants known to divert army ant raids (11.5%). Consequently, this study documents that most wasp species select plants possibly repulsive to arboreal ants, while associations with arboreal ants, although confirmed here, have been overrepresented in the literature.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INSTALLATION METHOD ON THE SELECTED PROPERTIES OF BIODEGRADABLE GEOTEXTILES USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Beata Grzybowska-Pietras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the engineering constructions there are used biodegradable geotextiles, that are performing primarily a function of surface anti-erosion protection. Their biodegradability supports the development of vegetation, and protects the surface of the slope from the moment of installation in the ground. In order to achieve this functionality there are used mainly biononwovens and woven fabrics made of natiral fibers. In the paper there are presented results of studies on the effect of the instalation of the biononwoven (Maliwatt type with grass seeds applied in real conditions at a specified time (from November to June, on the selected physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties , and the development of vegetation (grasses. The experiment adopted two versions of instalation of nonwovens. In the first case geotextile was mounted directly on the ground, in the second additionally have been covered with a layer of native soil.

  18. Influence of crystallite size and shape of zeolite ZSM-22 on its activity and selectivity in the catalytic cracking of n-octane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, F.; Ernst, S. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    Light olefins belong to the major building blocks for the petrochemical industry, particularly for the production of polymers. It has become necessary to increase the production of light olefins specifically in the case for propene with so called 'on-purpose propene' technologies. One possible route is to increase the amount of propene that can be obtained from Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) by optimizing the catalyst through introducing new additives, which offer a high selectivity to propene. Zeolite ZSM-22 samples with different crystallite sizes and morphologies have been synthesized via hydrothermal syntheses and characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The zeolites in the Broensted-acid form have been tested as catalysts in the catalytic cracking of n-octane as a model hydrocarbon. Clear influences of the crystallite size on the deactivation behavior have been observed. Larger crystals of zeolite ZSM-22 produce an increased amount of coke deposits resulting in a faster deactivation of the catalyst. The experimental results suggest that there is probably some influence of pore diffusion on the catalytic activity of the ZSM-22 sample with the large crystallite size. However a noticeable influence on the general product distribution could not be observed. (orig.)

  19. Influence of inositol hexaphosphate on the expression of selected proliferation markers in IL-1β-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Małgorzata; Sośnicki, Stanisław; Wawszczyk, Joanna; Węglarz, Ludmiła

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of IP6, a naturally occurring phytochem- ical, on the expression of genes coding for proliferation markers, i.e., cyclin D1 (CCND1) and histone H3 in IL-1β-stimulated intestinal cancer cell line Caco-2. Quantification of genes expression was carried out using real time RT-QPCR technique in Caco-2 cells after treatment with IL-1β, 1 and 2.5 mM of IP6 for 3, 6 and 12 h. In separate cultures, cells were incubated with IL-1β for the indicated times. The untreated Caco-2 cells were used as the control. In a time course experiment, stimulation of cells with IL-1β only resulted in an overex- pression of both CCND1 and histone H3 mRNAs as compared with control. IP6 had no influence on IL-1β-stimulated CCND1 expression for 3 and 6 h. After 12 h, statistically significant decrease in CCND1 mRNA was observed in cells exposed to IL-1β and IP6 (1 and 2.5 mM) in relation to cells treated with IL-1β only. The levels of H3 mRNA in IL-1β-stimulated cells and cells treated with IL-1β and IP6 revealed no statistically significant differences after 3 h. IP6 at 1 and 2.5 mM enhanced IL1β-stimulated transcription of H3 gene after 6 h. Subsequently (12 h), the combination of IP6 and IL-1β decreased H3 mRNA level compared to IL1β-treated cells. In conclusion, pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β up-regulates CCND1 and histone H3 mRNAs expression in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that the ability of IP6 to inhibit colon cancer cells proliferation may be mediated through downregulation of genes encoding cyclin D1 and histone H3 at the mRNA level.

  20. Evaluating the Influence of Motor Control on Selective Attention through a Stochastic Model: The Paradigm of Motor Control Dysfunction in Cerebellar Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Veneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention allows us to selectively process the vast amount of information with which we are confronted, prioritizing some aspects of information and ignoring others by focusing on a certain location or aspect of the visual scene. Selective attention is guided by two cognitive mechanisms: saliency of the image (bottom up and endogenous mechanisms (top down. These two mechanisms interact to direct attention and plan eye movements; then, the movement profile is sent to the motor system, which must constantly update the command needed to produce the desired eye movement. A new approach is described here to study how the eye motor control could influence this selection mechanism in clinical behavior: two groups of patients (SCA2 and late onset cerebellar ataxia LOCA with well-known problems of motor control were studied; patients performed a cognitively demanding task; the results were compared to a stochastic model based on Monte Carlo simulations and a group of healthy subjects. The analytical procedure evaluated some energy functions for understanding the process. The implemented model suggested that patients performed an optimal visual search, reducing intrinsic noise sources. Our findings theorize a strict correlation between the “optimal motor system” and the “optimal stimulus encoders.”