WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellites field campaign

  1. Integrated Stewardship of NASA Satellite and Field Campaign Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, J.; Tsontos, V. M.; Hardman, S. H.

    2016-02-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is NASA's archive, steward and distributor for physical oceanographic satellite data. Those data are typically organized along the lines of single parameters, such as Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Winds, Salinity, etc. However there is a need supplement satellite data with in situ and various other remote sensing data to provide higher spatial and temporal sampling and information on physical processes that the satellites are not capable of measuring. This presentation will discuss how PO.DAAC is creating a stewardship and distribution plan that will accommodate satellite, in situ and other remote sensing data that can be used to solve a more integrated approach to data access and utilization along thematic lines in support of science and applications, specifically those posed by Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) and Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) projects. SPURS used shipboard data, moorings and in situ instruments to investigate changes in salinity and how that information can be used in explaining the water cycle. OMG is studying ice melt in Greenland and how it contributes to changes in sea level through shipboard measurements, airborne and a variety of in situ instruments. PO.DAAC plans on adapting to stewarding and distributing these varieties of data through applications of file format and metadata standards (so data are discoverable and interoperable), extend the internal data system (to allow for better archiving, collection generation and querying of in situ and airborne data) and integration into tools (visualization and data access). We are also working on Virtual Collections with ESDWG, which could provide access to relevant data across DAACs/Agencies along thematic lines. These improvements will improve long-term data management and make it easier for users of various background, regardless if remote sensing or in situ, to discover and use the data.

  2. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  3. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate

  4. Vicarious calibration of the solar reflection channels of radiometers onboard satellites through the field campaigns with measurements of refractive index and size distribution of aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, K.

    A comparative study on vicarious calibration for the solar reflection channels of radiometers onboard satellite through the field campaigns between with and without measurements of refractive index and size distribution of aerosols is made. In particular, it is noticed that the influence due to soot from the cars exhaust has to be care about for the test sites near by a heavy trafficked roads. It is found that the 0.1% inclusion of soot induces around 10% vicarious calibration error so that it is better to measure refractive index properly at the test site. It is found that the vicarious calibration coefficients with the field campaigns at the different test site, Ivanpah (near road) and Railroad (distant from road) shows approximately 10% discrepancy. It seems that one of the possible causes for the difference is the influence due to soot from cars exhaust.

  5. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  6. Coordinated Field Campaigns in Chesapeake Bay and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Novak, Michael; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission concept recommended by the U.S. National Research Council (2007) focuses on measurements of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols and aquatic coastal ecology and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit (35,786 km altitude). Two GEO-CAPE-sponsored multi-investigator ship-based field campaigns were conducted to coincide with the NASA Earth Venture Suborbital project DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaigns: (1) Chesapeake Bay in July 2011 and (2) northwestern Gulf of Mexico in September 2013. Goal: to evaluate whether GEO-CAPE coastal mission measurement and instrument requirements are optimized to address science objectives while minimizing ocean color satellite sensor complexity, size and cost - critical mission risk reduction activities. NASA continues to support science studies related to the analysis of data collected as part of these coordinated field campaigns and smaller efforts.

  7. A Study of the Oklahoma City Urban Heat Island Effect Using a WRF/Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model, a Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign, and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island effect (UHI for inner land regions was investigated using satellite data, ground observations, and simulations with an Single-Layer Urban Canopy Parameterization (SLUCP coupled into the regional Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF, http://wrf-model.org/index.php. Specifically, using the satellite-observed surface skin temperatures (Tskin, the intensity of the UHI was first compared for two inland cities (Xi’an City, China, and Oklahoma City (OKC, which have different city populations and building densities. The larger population density and larger building density in Xi’an lead to a stronger skin-level UHI by 2 °C. However, the ground observed 2 m surface air temperature (Tair observations showed an urban cooling island effect (UCI over the downtown region in OKC during the daytime of 19 July 2003, from a DOE field campaign (Joint Urban 2003. To understand this contrast between satellite-based Tskin and ground-based Tair, a sensitivity study using WRF/SLUCP was analyzed. The model reproduced a UCI in OKC. Furthermore, WRF/Noah/SLUCM simulations were also compared with the Joint Urban 2003 ground observations, including wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes. Although the WRF/SLUCM model failed to simulate these variables accurately, it reproduced the diurnal variations of surface temperatures, wind speeds, wind directions, and energy fluxes reasonably well.

  8. OLYMPEX Counterflow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Counterflow Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Olympic Mountain Experiment (OLYMPEX). The field campaign took place from November 12 through December 19, 2015, over the Olympic Mountains and coastal waters of Washington State as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the NASA Aerosol-Cloud Ecosystem (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA Lockheed Earth Resources (ER-2) aircraft. ACE funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program.

  9. GLM Post Launch Testing and Airborne Science Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Padula, F.; Koshak, W. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a wholly new instrument that provides a capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes). The first satellite in the GOES-R series, now GOES-16, was launched in November 2016 followed by in-orbit post launch testing for approximately 12 months before being placed into operations replacing the GOES-E satellite in December. The GLM will map total lightning continuously throughout day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. The total lightning is very useful for identifying hazardous and severe thunderstorms, monitoring storm intensification and tracking evolution. Used in tandem with radar, satellite imagery, and surface observations, total lightning data has great potential to increase lead time for severe storm warnings, improve aviation safety and efficiency, and increase public safety. In this paper we present initial results from the post-launch in-orbit performance testing, airborne science field campaign conducted March-May, 2017 and assessments of the GLM instrument and science products.

  10. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  11. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  12. A report from YMC Sumatra field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, K.; Yokoi, S.; Mori, S.; Nasuno, T.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Yasunaga, K.; Haryoko, U.; Nurhayati, N.; Syamsudin, F.

    2017-12-01

    Years of the Maritime Continent (YMC) is a two-year international field campaign from July 2017 through the early 2020. It aims at enhancing our knowledge of weather-climate systems over the Maritime Continent and its relation to higher latitudes through observations and numerical modeling. YMC field observations consist of several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) and routine basis long-term observations done by local agencies. One of IOPs is a joint effort done by Japanese and Indonesian research groups and we call it YMC-Sumatra, which studies precipitation mechanism along the west coast of Sumatra Island (Bengkulu city) especially focusing on a relationship between diurnal cycle convection and large-scale disturbances such as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Observations will be carried out from November 16, 2017 through January 15, 2018. Since it is known that diurnally developed convection over the coast propagates offshore in the night time, we will deploy a ship off the coast in addition to the land-based site in Bengkulu meteorological station. From both sides, we conduct scanning weather radars, 3-hourly radiosonde soundings, and continuous surface meteorological measurements. Ocean surface is also intensively measured by 3-hourly CTD, ADCP, turbulent sensor, and so on from the ship. In addition, two types of forecast run (global 7-/14-km mesh for 14-/30-day forecast) using NICAM will be performed. Since this campaign in Sumatra is being done during the AGU meeting, a preliminary live report will be provided, so that scientific results as well as logistics information can be used for further IOPs.

  13. IceBridge: Bringing a Field Campaign Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J.; Beck, J.; Bartholow, S.

    2015-12-01

    IceBridge, a six-year NASA mission, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. It will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice. Data collected during IceBridge will help scientists bridge the gap in polar observations between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) -- in orbit since 2003 -- and ICESat-2, planned for 2017. ICESat stopped collecting science data in 2009, making IceBridge critical for ensuring a continuous series of observations. IceBridge will use airborne instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year at a minimum, with new campaigns being developed during the Arctic melt season. IceBridge flights are conducted in the spring and summer for the Arctic and in the fall over Antarctica. Other smaller airborne surveys around the world are also part of the IceBridge campaign. IceBridge actively engages the public and educators through a variety of outlets ranging from communications strategies through social media outlets, to larger organized efforts such as PolarTREC. In field activities include blog posts, photo updates, in flight chat sessions, and more intensive live events to include google hangouts, where field team members can interact with the public during a scheduled broadcast. The IceBridge team provides scientists and other team members with the training and support to become communicators in their own right. There is an exciting new initiative where IceBridge will be collaborating with Undergraduate and Graduate students to integrate the next generation of scientists and communicators into the Science Teams. This will be explored through partnerships with institutions that are interested in mentoring through project based initiatives.

  14. Environmental Testing Campaign and Verification of Satellite Deimos-2 at INTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daniel; Vazquez, Mercedes; Anon, Manuel; Olivo, Esperanza; Gallego, Pablo; Morillo, Pablo; Parra, Javier; Capraro; Luengo, Mar; Garcia, Beatriz; Villacorta, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the environmental test campaign and verification of the DEIMOS-2 (DM2) satellite will be presented and described. DM2 will be ready for launch in 2014.Firstly, a short description of the satellite is presented, including its physical characteristics and intended optical performances. DEIMOS-2 is a LEO satellite for earth observation that will provide high resolution imaging services for agriculture, civil protection, environmental issues, disasters monitoring, climate change, urban planning, cartography, security and intelligence.Then, the verification and test campaign carried out on the SM and FM models at INTA is described; including Mechanical test for the SM and Climatic, Mechanical and Electromagnetic Compatibility tests for the FM. In addition, this paper includes Centre of Gravity and Moment of Inertia measurements for both models, and other verification activities carried out in order to ensure satellite's health during launch and its in orbit performance.

  15. GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Marentette, Christina; Bujosa, Robert; Taylor, Jessica; Lewis, Preston

    2016-01-01

    During the spring of 2016, from April 4 - May 27, sixteen GLOBE schools participated in the GLOBE Aerosol Field Campaign - U.S. Pilot Study. Thirteen teachers from these schools had previously participated in the NASA LEARN program (Long-term Experience in Authentic Research with NASA) where they were GLOBE trained in Atmosphere protocols, and engaged in 1-3 years of research under the mentorship of NASA scientists. Each school was loaned two aerosol instruments for the Campaign duration, either 2 GLOBE sun photometers, 2 Calitoo sun photometers, or 1 of each. This allowed for students to make measurements side-by-side and in the case of the Calitoos, to compare AOT results immediately with each other for better consistency in data collection. Additionally, as part of the Field Campaign evaluation, multiple instruments allow for an assessment of the ease of use of each instrument for grade level of students, whether in middle school or high school. Before the Campaign, all GLOBE and Calitoo instruments were 'checked out' against an AERONET, then checked again upon return after the Campaign. By examining all data, before, during and after the Campaign, this gives an indication of instrument performance and proficiency obtained by the students. Support was provided to each teacher and their students at the level requested, via email, phone or video conferencing.

  16. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  17. Teaching environmental physics with a field measurement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Johan; Dynefors, Bertil; Kuehlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    With 15 years of experience of teaching environmental physics, we still need to develop our curriculum. In this paper we present our findings from teaching environmental physics in close association with mathematical statistics in an applied field measurement campaign. Here not only environmental physics is taught, but also the concept of experimental planning, design, implementation, and evaluation of a field measurement campaign. The field measurement gives the students the opportunity to follow the whole process starting from experimental planning, including formulating the questions to answer, through design of the experiment, sample collection, analysis, and evaluation, together with the writing of a final report. All possible aspects of the problem that the students are working on can be carefully investigated, but the emphasis has been on understanding the whole process of carrying out a field campaign. This holistic view gives the students more interest in and better motivation for exploring the subject. This course gave the students insight into the field of interdisciplinary environmental research, promoted their creativity, and also gave the teachers a feeling of satisfaction

  18. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Helmlinger, M. C.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international project investigating the earth atmosphere -human system in southern Africa. The programme was conducted over a two year period from March 1999 to March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-September 2000) was the most intensive activity involved over 200 scientist from eighteen countries. The main objectives were to characterize and quantify biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate NASA's Earth Observing System's Satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft-- two South African Weather Service Aeorcommanders, the University of Washington's CV-880, the U.K. Meteorological Office's C-130, and NASA's ER-2 --with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses, that had moved downwind of the subcontinent, was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple Observations were made in various geographical sections under different synoptic conditions. Airborne missions were designed to optimize the value of synchronous over-flights of the Terra Satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller scale ground validation activities took place throughout the subcontinent during the campaign period.

  19. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [University of North Dakota

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (ARM AAF) counter-flow spectrometer and impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX). The field campaign took place during May and June of 2014 over North Carolina and its coastal waters as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, which is a civilian version of the Air Force’s U2-S reconnaissance platform. The ACE program funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the Atmospheric System Research program sponsored by DOE.

  20. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  1. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, Geraint [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    The last field campaign held at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (PNG), was conducted in February 2014 as part of the Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign. This campaign was a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the United Kingdom’s (UK) Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to study the composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the impact of deep convection on this composition. There are three main areas of interest: i) transport of trace gases in the tropical atmosphere (especially short-lived halogenated compounds that can be lifted rapidly into the TTL, where they augment the stratospheric loading of these species); ii) formation of cirrus and its impact on the TTL; and iii) the upper-atmosphere water vapor budget. Overall, the aim was to improve understanding of the dynamical, radiative, and chemical role of the TTL. The Manus operation was a joint experiment between the Universities of Manchester and Cambridge and the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). It consisted of two elements: an ozonesonde campaign to measure ozone vertical profiles through the TTL, and ground-based monitoring of ozone, halogenated hydrocarbons, and greenhouse gases to determine the composition of lower-boundary-layer air in the Warm Pool region. Thanks to the support from the ARM Climate Research Facility and the exemplary collaboration of ARM staff in the region, the campaign was very successful.

  2. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, L Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  3. AMF3 CloudSat Overpasses Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matrosov, Sergey [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hardin, Joseph [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Boer, Gijs [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Shupe, Matthew [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Maahn, Maximillian [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Williams, Christopher [University of Colorado, Boulder; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2017-10-15

    Synergy between ground-based and satellite radar observations of clouds and precipitation is important for refining the algorithms to retrieve hydrometeor microphysical parameters, improvements in the retrieval accuracy, and better understanding the advantages and limitations of different retrieval approaches. The new dual-frequency (Ka- and W-band, 35 GHz and 94 GHz) fully polarimetric scanning U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility cloud radars (SACRs-2) are advanced sensors aimed to significantly enhance remote sensing capabilities (Kollias et al. 2016). One of these radars was deployed as part of the third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) at Oliktok Point, Alaska (70.495o N, 149.886oW). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) CloudSat satellite, which is part of the polar-orbiting A-train satellite constellation, passes over the vicinity of the AMF3 location (typically within 0-7 km depending on a particular overpass) on a descending orbit every 16 days at approximately 13:21 UTC. The nadir pointing W-band CloudSat cloud profiling radar (CPR) provides vertical profiles of reflectivity that are then used for retrievals of hydrometeor parameters (Tanelli et al. 2008). The main objective of the AMF3 CloudSat overpasses intensive operating period (IOP) campaign was to collect approximately collocated in space and time radar data from the SACR-2 and the CloudSat CPR measurements for subsequent joint analysis of radar variables and microphysical retrievals of cloud and precipitation parameters. Providing the reference for the SACR-2 absolute calibration from the well-calibrated CloudSat CPR was another objective of this IOP. The IOP objectives were achieved by conducting seven special SACR-2 scans during the 10.5-min period centered at the exact time of the CloudSat overpass over the AMF3 (~1321 UTC) on six dates of the CloudSat overpasses during the three-month period allocated to this IOP. These six days

  4. Magnetic field experiment on the SUNSAT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Langenhoven, B.; Risbo, T.

    2002-03-01

    On Tuesday 23 February 1999, at 10:29 UTC, SUNSAT was launched into an 857×655 km, 96.47° polar orbit on a Boeing-Delta II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, USA. Both SUNSAT and Ørsted were NASA-sponsored secondary payloads accompanying the USA Air Force Argos satellite. In the process it became South Africa's (and Africa's) first satellite in space. Although sponsored by several private industrial organisations, it is essentially a student project with more than 96 graduate students in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Stellenbosch providing the majority of SUNSAT's engineering development and operation since 1992. This paper reports on the magnetic field experiment on board the Sunsat satellite, consisting of two fluxgate magnetometers, called Orimag and Scimag, both built and calibrated by the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory. Orimag is mainly used for orientation control purposes on SUNSAT, while Scimag, mounted on a boom of 2.2 m is designed to perform geomagnetic field observations, employing standard navigation fluxgate technology.

  5. Aerosol Properties Downwind of Biomass Burns Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, Peter R [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We determined the morphological, chemical, and thermal properties of aerosol particles generated by biomass burning during the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) campaign during the wildland fire season in the Pacific Northwest from July to mid-September, 2013, and in October, 2013 from prescribed agricultural burns in the lower Mississippi River Valley. BBOP was a field campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The morphological information was both two-dimensional, as is typical of most microscopy images and that have many of the characteristic of shadows in that they lack depth data, and three-dimensional (3D). The electron tomographic measurements will provided 3D data, including the presence and nature of pores and interstices, and whether the individual particles are coated by or embedded within other materials. These microphysical properties were determined for particles as a function of time and distance from the respective sources in order to obtain detailed information regarding the time evolution of changes during aging.

  6. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  7. Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Uncertainty Characterized based on Field Campaign Data over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derin, Y.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Anagnostou, M.; Kalogiros, J. A.; Casella, D.; Marra, A. C.; Panegrossi, G.; Sanò, P.

    2017-12-01

    Difficulties in representation of high rainfall variability over mountainous areas using ground based sensors make satellite remote sensing techniques attractive for hydrologic studies over these regions. Even though satellite-based rainfall measurements are quasi global and available at high spatial resolution, these products have uncertainties that necessitate use of error characterization and correction procedures based upon more accurate in situ rainfall measurements. Such measurements can be obtained from field campaigns facilitated by research quality sensors such as locally deployed weather radar and in situ weather stations. This study uses such high quality and resolution rainfall estimates derived from dual-polarization X-band radar (XPOL) observations from three field experiments in Mid-Atlantic US East Coast (NASA IPHEX experiment), the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State (NASA OLYMPEX experiment), and the Mediterranean to characterize the error characteristics of multiple passive microwave (PMW) sensor retrievals. The study first conducts an independent error analysis of the XPOL radar reference rainfall fields against in situ rain gauges and disdrometer observations available by the field experiments. Then the study evaluates different PMW precipitation products using the XPOL datasets (GR) over the three aforementioned complex terrain study areas. We extracted matchups of PMW/GR rainfall based on a matching methodology that identifies GR volume scans coincident with PMW field-of-view sampling volumes, and scaled GR parameters to the satellite products' nominal spatial resolution. The following PMW precipitation retrieval algorithms are evaluated: the NASA Goddard PROFiling algorithm (GPROF), standard and climatology-based products (V 3, 4 and 5) from four PMW sensors (SSMIS, MHS, GMI, and AMSR2), and the precipitation products based on the algorithms Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) for SSMIS and Passive microwave Neural network

  8. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  9. Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Craig R [University at Albany, State University of New York; Santanello, Joseph A [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Gentine, Pierre [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This document presents initial analyses of the enhanced radiosonde observations obtained during the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies Field Campaign (ESLCS), which took place at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) from June 15 to August 31, 2015. During ESLCS, routine 4-times-daily radiosonde measurements at the ARM-SGP CF were augmented on 12 days (June 18 and 29; July 11, 14, 19, and 26; August 15, 16, 21, 25, 26, and 27) with daytime 1-hourly radiosondes and 10-minute ‘trailer’ radiosondes every 3 hours. These 12 intensive operational period (IOP) days were selected on the basis of prior-day qualitative forecasts of potential land-atmosphere coupling strength. The campaign captured 2 dry soil convection advantage days (June 29 and July 14) and 10 atmospherically controlled days. Other noteworthy IOP events include: 2 soil dry-down sequences (July 11-14-19 and August 21-25-26), a 2-day clear-sky case (August 15-16), and the passing of Tropical Storm Bill (June 18). To date, the ESLCS data set constitutes the highest-temporal-resolution sampling of the evolution of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) using radiosondes at the ARM-SGP. The data set is expected to contribute to: 1) improved understanding and modeling of the diurnal evolution of the PBL, particularly with regard to the role of local soil wetness, and (2) new insights into the appropriateness of current ARM-SGP CF thermodynamic sampling strategies.

  10. Vicarious calibration campaign in Argentina for radiometric calibration of a multispectral imager onboard sumbandila satellite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, DJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Espaciales (CONAE), Centro de Investigaciones ?pticas (CIOP), from Consejo Nacional deInvestigaciones Cient?ficas y T?cnicas (CONICET) and Comisi?n de Investigaciones Cient?ficas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y... Cient?ficas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (FCAyF, UNLP) in Argentina for help in our Argentina field campaign. The authors thank the CSIR, DST and CONAE for funding...

  11. EPIC Calibration/Validation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Steven E [National Severe Storm Laboratory/NOAA; Chilson, Phillip [University of Oklahoma; Argrow, Brian [University of Colorado

    2017-03-15

    A field exercise involving several different kinds of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and supporting instrumentation systems provided by DOE/ARM and NOAA/NSSL was conducted at the ARM SGP site in Lamont, Oklahoma on 29-30 October 2016. This campaign was part of a larger National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) UAS Program Office program awarded to the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL). named Environmental Profiling and Initiation of Convection (EPIC). The EPIC Field Campaign (Test and Calibration/Validation) proposed to ARM was a test or “dry-run” for a follow-up campaign to be requested for spring/summer 2017. The EPIC project addresses NOAA’s objective to “evaluate options for UAS profiling of the lower atmosphere with applications for severe weather.” The project goal is to demonstrate that fixed-wing and rotary-wing small UAS have the combined potential to provide a unique observing system capable of providing detailed profiles of temperature, moisture, and winds within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to help determine the potential for severe weather development. Specific project objectives are: 1) to develop small UAS capable of acquiring needed wind and thermodynamic profiles and transects of the ABL using one fixed-wing UAS operating in tandem with two different fixed rotary-wing UAS pairs; 2) adapt and test miniaturized, high-precision, and fast-response atmospheric sensors with high accuracy in strong winds characteristic of the pre-convective ABL in Oklahoma; 3) conduct targeted short-duration experiments at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in northern Oklahoma concurrently with a second site to be chosen in “real-time” from the Oklahoma Mesonet in coordination with the (National Weather Service (NWS)-Norman Forecast Office; and 4) gain valuable experience in pursuit of NOAA’s goals for determining the value of airborne, mobile observing systems for monitoring rapidly evolving high-impact severe weather

  12. EUREC4A: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Couplings Between Clouds, Convection and Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Ament, Felix; Bigorre, Sebastien; Chazette, Patrick; Crewell, Susanne; Delanoë, Julien; Emanuel, Kerry; Farrell, David; Flamant, Cyrille; Gross, Silke; Hirsch, Lutz; Karstensen, Johannes; Mayer, Bernhard; Nuijens, Louise; Ruppert, James H.; Sandu, Irina; Siebesma, Pier; Speich, Sabrina; Szczap, Frédéric; Totems, Julien; Vogel, Raphaela; Wendisch, Manfred; Wirth, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Trade-wind cumuli constitute the cloud type with the highest frequency of occurrence on Earth, and it has been shown that their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions will critically influence the magnitude and pace of future global warming. Research over the last decade has pointed out the importance of the interplay between clouds, convection and circulation in controling this sensitivity. Numerical models represent this interplay in diverse ways, which translates into different responses of trade-cumuli to climate perturbations. Climate models predict that the area covered by shallow cumuli at cloud base is very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, while process models suggest the opposite. To understand and resolve this contradiction, we propose to organize a field campaign aimed at quantifying the physical properties of trade-cumuli (e.g., cloud fraction and water content) as a function of the large-scale environment. Beyond a better understanding of clouds-circulation coupling processes, the campaign will provide a reference data set that may be used as a benchmark for advancing the modelling and the satellite remote sensing of clouds and circulation. It will also be an opportunity for complementary investigations such as evaluating model convective parameterizations or studying the role of ocean mesoscale eddies in air-sea interactions and convective organization.

  13. EUREC4A: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Couplings Between Clouds, Convection and Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Ament, Felix; Bigorre, Sebastien; Chazette, Patrick; Crewell, Susanne; Delanoë, Julien; Emanuel, Kerry; Farrell, David; Flamant, Cyrille; Gross, Silke; Hirsch, Lutz; Karstensen, Johannes; Mayer, Bernhard; Nuijens, Louise; Ruppert, James H.; Sandu, Irina; Siebesma, Pier; Speich, Sabrina; Szczap, Frédéric; Totems, Julien; Vogel, Raphaela; Wendisch, Manfred; Wirth, Martin

    Trade-wind cumuli constitute the cloud type with the highest frequency of occurrence on Earth, and it has been shown that their sensitivity to changing environmental conditions will critically influence the magnitude and pace of future global warming. Research over the last decade has pointed out the importance of the interplay between clouds, convection and circulation in controling this sensitivity. Numerical models represent this interplay in diverse ways, which translates into different responses of tradecumuli to climate perturbations. Climate models predict that the area covered by shallow cumuli at cloud base is very sensitive to changes in environmental conditions, while process models suggest the opposite. To understand and resolve this contradiction, we propose to organize a field campaign aimed at quantifying the physical properties of tradecumuli (e.g., cloud fraction and water content) as a function of the large-scale environment. Beyond a better understanding of clouds-circulation coupling processes, the campaign will provide a reference data set that may be used as a benchmark for advancing the modelling and the satellite remote sensing of clouds and circulation. It will also be an opportunity for complementary investigations such as evaluating model convective parameterizations or studying the role of ocean mesoscale eddies in air-sea interactions and convective organization.

  14. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Daniel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Bromwich, David H [Ohio State University; Vogelmann, Andrew M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Russell, Lynn M [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) is the most technologically advanced atmospheric and climate science campaign yet fielded in Antarctica. AWARE was motivated be recent concern about the impact of cryospheric mass loss on global sea level rise. Specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is now the second largest contributor to rising sea level, after the Greenland Ice Sheet. As steadily warming ocean water erodes the grounding lines of WAIS components where they meet the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the retreating grounding lines moving inland and downslope on the underlying terrain imply mechanical instability of the entire WAIS. There is evidence that this point of instability may have already been reached, perhaps signifying more rapid loss of WAIS ice mass. At the same time, the mechanical support provided by adjacent ice shelves, and also the fundamental stability of exposed ice cliffs at the ice sheet grounding lines, will be adversely impacted by a warming atmosphere that causes more frequent episodes of surface melting. The surface meltwater damages the ice shelves and ice cliffs through hydrofracturing. With the increasing concern regarding these rapid cryospheric changes, AWARE was motivated by the need to (a) diagnose the surface energy balance in West Antarctica as related to both summer season climatology and potential surface melting, and (b) improve global climate model (GCM) performance over Antarctica, such that future cryospheric projections can be more reliable.

  15. Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.

  16. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Ernie R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign, which deployed the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship Spirit as it ran its regular route between Los Angeles, California and Honolulu, Hawaii, measured properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, radiation, and atmospheric, meteorological, and oceanic conditions with the goal of obtaining statistics of these properties to achieve better understanding of the transition between stratocumulus and cumulus cloud regimes that occur in that region. This Sc-Cu transition is poorly represented in models, and a major reason for this is the lack of high-quality and comprehensive data that can be used to constrain, validate, and improve model representation of the transition. MAGIC consisted of 20 round trips between Los Angeles and Honolulu, and thus over three dozen transects through the transition, totaling nearly 200 days at sea between September, 2012 and October, 2013. During this time MAGIC collected a unique and unprecedented data set, including more than 550 successful radiosonde launches. An Intensive Observational Period (IOP) occurred in July, 2013 during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure were made. MAGIC was very successful in its operations and overcame numerous logistical and technological challenges, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of a marine AMF2 deployment and the ability to make accurate measurements of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and radiation while at sea.

  17. HI-SCALE Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Stark, Harald [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Browne, Eleanor [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hanson, David [Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-06-15

    From 21 August to 27 September, 2016, during the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) of the Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecoystems (HI-SCALE) field campaign, a suite of instruments were placed in the Guest Instrument Facility (GIF) at the Central Facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, Oklahoma. The goal of these measurements was to fully characterize the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosol particles through measurements of gas-phase precursor and ambient nanoparticle composition. Specifically, we sought to: 1. investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new-particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; 2. investigate the contribution of other surface-area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth, such as the uptake of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs); 3. evaluate the performance of a new instrument being developed with funding from the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program for measuring gas-phase amines and related compounds; and 4. together with colleagues measuring on the ground and onboard the ARM Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during HI-SCALE, create a comprehensive data set related to new particle formation and growth that can be used in modeling efforts by the research team as well as DOE collaborators.

  18. Lightning climatology over Jakarta, Indonesia, based on long-term surface operational, satellite, and campaign observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shuichi; Wu, Peiming; Yamanaka, Manabu D.; Hattori, Miki; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Arbain, Ardhi A.; Lestari, Sopia; Sulistyowati, Reni; Syamsudin, Fadli

    2016-04-01

    Lightning frequency over Indonesian Maritime Continent (MC) is quite high (Petersen and Rutledge 2001, Christian et al. 2003, Takayabu 2006, etc). In particular, Bogor (south of Jakarta, west Jawa) had 322 days of lightning in one year (Guinness Book in 1988). Lightning causes serious damage on nature and society over the MC; forest fore, power outage, inrush/surge currents on many kinds of electronics. Lightning climatology and meso-scale characteristics of thunderstorm over the MC, in particular over Jakarta, where social damage is quite serious, were examined. We made Statistical analysis of lightning and thunderstorm based on TRMM Lightning Image Sensor (LIS) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) together with long-term operational surface observation data (SYNOP) in terms of diurnal, intraseasonal, monsoonal, and interannual variations. In addition, we carried out a campaign observation in February 2015 in Bogor to obtain meso-scale structure and dynamics of thunderstorm over Jakarta to focus on graupel and other ice phase particles inside by using an X-band dual-polarimetric (DP) radar. Recently, Virts et al. (2013a, b) showed comprehensive lightning climatology based on the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). However, they also reported problems with its detection efficiency (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI (Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research) grant number 25350515 and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 7th Research Announcement (RA).

  19. Observation Impact over the Antarctic During the Concordiasi Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullot, Nathalie; Rabier, Florence; Langland, Rolf; Gelaro, Ron; Cardinali, Carla; Guidard, Vincent; Bauer, Peter; Doerenbecher, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The impact of observations on analysis uncertainty and forecast performance was investigated for Austral Spring 2010 over the Southern polar area for four different systems (NRL, GMAO, ECMWF and Meteo-France), at the time of the Concordiasi field experiment. The largest multi model variance in 500 hPa height analyses is found in the southern sub-Antarctic oceanic region, where there are strong atmospheric dynamics, rapid forecast error growth, and fewer upper air wind observation data to constrain the analyses. In terms of data impact the most important observation components are shown to be AMSU, IASI, AIRS, GPS-RO, radiosonde, surface and atmospheric motion vector observations. For sounding data, radiosondes and dropsondes, one can note a large impact of temperature at low levels and a large impact of wind at high levels. Observing system experiments using the Concordiasi dropsondes show a large impact of the observations over the Antarctic plateau extending to lower latitudes with the forecast range, with a large impact around 50 to 70deg South. These experiments indicate there is a potential benefit of better using radiance data over land and sea-ice and innovative atmospheric motion vectors obtained from a combination of various satellites to fill the current data gaps and improve NWP in this region.

  20. The impact of mass communication campaigns in the health field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, R

    1983-01-01

    This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs.

  1. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buchard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2 is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5 model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  2. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  3. Radiation Isotope Identification Device (RIIDs) Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher Hodge, Raymond Keegan

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  4. ECHIDNA LIDAR Campaigns: Forest Canopy Imagery and Field Data, U.S.A., 2007-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains forest canopy scan data from the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI) and field measurements data from three campaigns conducted in...

  5. Multi-satellite observations of magnetic fields in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Bythrow, P.F.; Erlandson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The most common method of detecting electric currents in space has been by virtue of the magnetic perturbations they produce. A satellite can pass through a field-aligned ''Birkeland'' current and measure the in-situ magnetic perturbations. Satellite-borne magnetic field experiments may also be used to observe characteristics of resonant oscillations of the Earth's magnetic field at ULF frequencies. Examples of such measurements with magnetic field experiments on the Viking, AMPTE/CCE, and DMSP-F7 satellites will be presented. The Viking satellite, launched in February, 1986, is Sweden's first satellite and is in a polar orbit with 3.1 R/sub e/ apogee. AMPTE/CCE was launched in August, 1984, with satellites from West Germany and the United Kingdom, for the purpose of creating artificial comets in space. It is in an equatorial orbit with a 8.8 R/sub e/ apogee. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)-F7 satellite was launched in October, 1983 into an 800 km circular sun-synchronous orbit in the 0830-2030 magnetic local time plane. Viking and AMPTE/CCE observed harmonic ULF pulsations when they were near the same flux tube, but separated by about 10 R/sub e/. These unique observations are used to investigate the characteristics and sources of multiple field line resonances of Alfven waves. On another occasion, Viking and DMSP-F7 observed similar magnetic perturbations at widely separated locations. The authors interpret these perturbations as due to a complicated system of large-scale stable Birkeland currents in the morning sector. This multi-satellite data set is in the early stages of exploration, but already confirms the usefulness of coordinated multi-position observations of magnetic fields in space

  6. Satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The literature associated with the Magsat mission has evaluated the capabilities and limitations of satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field, and demonstrated that there exists a 300-3000 km magnetic field, related to major features in the earth's crust, which is primarily caused by induction. Due to its scale and sensitivity, satellite data have been useful in the development of models for such large crustal features as subduction zones, submarine platforms, continental accretion boundaries, and rifts. Attention is presently given to the lack of agreement between laboratory and satellite estimates of lower crustal magnetization.

  7. Personal Radiation Detector Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chris A. Hodge, Ding Yuan, Raymond P. Keegan, Michael A. Krstich

    2007-01-01

    Following the success of the Anole test of portable detection system, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office organized a test and evaluation campaign for personal radiation detectors (PRDs), also known as 'Pagers'. This test, 'Bobcat', was conducted from July 17 to August 8, 2006, at the Nevada Test Site. The Bobcat test was designed to evaluate the performance of PRDs under various operational scenarios, such as pedestrian surveying, mobile surveying, cargo container screening, and pedestrian chokepoint monitoring. Under these testing scenarios, many operational characteristics of the PRDs, such as gamma and neutron sensitivities, positive detection and false alarm rates, response delay times, minimum detectable activities, and source localization errors, were analyzed. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies used to test this equipment for the DHS

  8. Risk-Based, Hypothesis-Driven Framework for Hydrological Field Campaigns with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, B.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    There are several stages in any hydrological modeling campaign, including: formulation and analysis of a priori information, data acquisition through field campaigns, inverse modeling, and prediction of some environmental performance metric (EPM). The EPM being predicted could be, for example, contaminant concentration or plume travel time. These predictions often have significant bearing on a decision that must be made. Examples include: how to allocate limited remediation resources between contaminated groundwater sites or where to place a waste repository site. Answering such questions depends on predictions of EPMs using forward models as well as levels of uncertainty related to these predictions. Uncertainty in EPM predictions stems from uncertainty in model parameters, which can be reduced by measurements taken in field campaigns. The costly nature of field measurements motivates a rational basis for determining a measurement strategy that is optimal with respect to the uncertainty in the EPM prediction. The tool of hypothesis testing allows this uncertainty to be quantified by computing the significance of the test resulting from a proposed field campaign. The significance of the test gives a rational basis for determining the optimality of a proposed field campaign. This hypothesis testing framework is demonstrated and discussed using various synthetic case studies. This study involves contaminated aquifers where a decision must be made based on prediction of when a contaminant will arrive at a specified location. The EPM, in this case contaminant travel time, is cast into the hypothesis testing framework. The null hypothesis states that the contaminant plume will arrive at the specified location before a critical amount of time passes, and the alternative hypothesis states that the plume will arrive after the critical time passes. The optimality of different field campaigns is assessed by computing the significance of the test resulting from each one

  9. Geomagnetic field models for satellite angular motion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Penkov, V. I.; Roldugin, D. S.; Pichuzhkina, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    Four geomagnetic field models are discussed: IGRF, inclined, direct and simplified dipoles. Geomagnetic induction vector expressions are provided in different reference frames. Induction vector behavior is compared for different models. Models applicability for the analysis of satellite motion is studied from theoretical and engineering perspectives. Relevant satellite dynamics analysis cases using analytical and numerical techniques are provided. These cases demonstrate the benefit of a certain model for a specific dynamics study. Recommendations for models usage are summarized in the end.

  10. Measurements of O3, NO2 and BrO during the INDOEX campaign using ground based DOAS and GOME satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX was an international, multi-platform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air masses from South and South-East-(SE Asia towards the Indian Ocean. During the dry monsoon season between January and March 1999, local measurements were carried out from ground based platforms and were compared with satellite based data. The objective of this study was to characterise stratospheric and tropospheric trace gas amounts in the equatorial region, and to investigate the impact of air pollution at this remote site. For the characterisation of the chemical composition of the outflow from the S-SE-Asian region, we performed ground based dual-axis-DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy measurements at the KCO (Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory in the Maldives (5.0° N, 73.5° E. The measurements were conducted using two different observation modes (off-axis and zenith-sky. This technique allows the separation of the tropospheric and stratospheric columns for different trace gases like O3 and NO2. These dual-axis DOAS data were compared with O3-sonde measurements performed at KCO and satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring Experiment data during the intensive measuring phase of the INDOEX campaign in February and March 1999. From GOME observations, tropospheric and stratospheric columns for O3 and NO2 were retrieved. In addition, the analysis of the O3-sonde measurements allowed the determination of the tropospheric O3 amount. The comparison shows that the results of all three measurement systems agree within their error limits. During the INDOEX campaign, mainly background conditions were observed, but in a single case an increase of tropospheric NO2 during a short pollution event was observed from the ground and the impact on the vertical columns was calculated. GOME measurements showed evidence for small tropospheric contributions to the BrO budget, probably located in the free troposphere and

  11. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  12. Integrated fiber optic sensors for hot spot detection and temperature field reconstruction in satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, S; Baier, H

    2010-01-01

    Large satellites are often equipped with more than 1000 temperature sensors during the test campaign. Hundreds of them are still used for monitoring during launch and operation in space. This means an additional mass and especially high effort in assembly, integration and verification on a system level. So the use of fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors is investigated as they offer several advantages. They are lightweight, small in size and electromagnetically immune, which fits well in space applications. Their multiplexing capability offers the possibility to build extensive sensor networks including dozens of sensors of different types, such as strain sensors, accelerometers and temperature sensors. The latter allow the detection of hot spots and the reconstruction of temperature fields via proper algorithms, which is shown in this paper. A temperature sensor transducer was developed, which can be integrated into satellite sandwich panels with negligible mechanical influence. Mechanical and thermal vacuum tests were performed to verify the space compatibility of the developed sensor system. Proper reconstruction algorithms were developed to estimate the temperature field and detect thermal hot spots on the panel surface. A representative hardware demonstrator has been built and tested, which shows the capability of using an integrated fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor network for temperature field reconstruction and hot spot detection in satellite structures

  13. First Transmitted Hyperspectral Light Measurements and Cloud Properties from Recent Field Campaign Sampling Clouds Under Biomass Burning Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, S.; Redemann, Jens; Shinozuka, Yohei; Flynn, Connor J.; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe Shenandoah; Pistone, Kristina Marie Myers; Schmidt, Sebastian; Cochrane, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We present a first view of data collected during a recent field campaign aimed at measuring biomass burning aerosol above clouds from airborne platforms. The NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign recently concluded its first deployment sampling clouds and overlying aerosol layer from the airborne platform NASA P3. We present results from the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR), in conjunction with the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR). During this deployment, 4STAR sampled transmitted solar light either via direct solar beam measurements and scattered light measurements, enabling the measurement of aerosol optical thickness and the retrieval of information on aerosol particles in addition to overlying cloud properties. We focus on the zenith-viewing scattered light measurements, which are used to retrieve cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and thermodynamic phase of clouds under a biomass burning layer. The biomass burning aerosol layer present above the clouds is the cause of potential bias in retrieved cloud optical depth and effective radius from satellites. We contrast the typical reflection based approach used by satellites to the transmission based approach used by 4STAR during ORACLES for retrieving cloud properties. It is suspected that these differing approaches will yield a change in retrieved properties since light transmitted through clouds is sensitive to a different cloud volume than reflected light at cloud top. We offer a preliminary view of the implications of these differences in sampling volumes to the calculation of cloud radiative effects (CRE).

  14. ILEWG EuroMoonMars Research, Technology, and Field Simulation Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Lillo, A.; Evellin, P.; Kołodziejczyk, A.; Heinicke, C.; Harasymczuk, M.; Authier, L.; Blanc, A.; Chahla, C.; Tomic, A.; Mirino, M.; Schlacht, I.; Hettrich, S.; Pacher, T.; Maller, L.; Decadi, A.; Villa-Massone, J.; Preusterink, J.; Neklesa, A.; Barzilay, A.; Volkova, T.

    2017-10-01

    ILEWG developed since 2008, "EuroMoonMars" pilot research with a Robotic Test Bench (ExoGeoLab) and a Mobile Laboratory Habitat (ExoHab) at ESTEC. Field campaigns were e.g. in ESTEC, EAC, at Utah MDRS, Eifel, and LunAres base at Pila Poland in 2017.

  15. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  16. Rapid core field variations during the satellite era: Investigations using stochastic process based field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to tradition...... physical hypotheses can be tested by asking questions of the entire ensemble of core field models, rather than by interpreting any single model.......We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to traditional...... regularization methods based on minimizing the square of second or third time derivative. We invert satellite and observatory data directly by adopting the external field and crustal field modelling framework of the CHAOS model, but apply the stochastic process method of Gillet et al. (2013) to the core field...

  17. Geomagnetic core field models in the satellite era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesur, Vincent; Olsen, Nils; Thomson, Alan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of the theoretical basis and difficulties that modelers are facing, we present three recent models of the geomagnetic field originating in the Earth’s core. All three modeling approaches are using recent observatory and near-Earth orbiting survey satellite data. In each case...

  18. Global gravity field from recent satellites (DTU15) - Arctic improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Kenyon, S.

    2017-01-01

    Global marine gravity field modelling using satellite altimetry is currently undergoing huge improvement with the completion of the Jason-1 end-of-life geodetic mission, but particularly with the continuing Cryosat-2 mission. These new satellites provide three times as many geodetic mission...... altimetric sea surface height observations as ever before. The impact of these new geodetic mission data is a dramatic improvement of particularly the shorter wavelength of the gravity field (10-20 km) which is now being mapped at significantly higher accuracy. The quality of the altimetric gravity field...... is in many places surpassing the quality of gravity fields derived using non-commercial marine gravity observations. Cryosat-2 provides for the first time altimetry throughout the Arctic Ocean up to 88°N. Here, the huge improvement in marine gravity mapping is shown through comparison with high quality...

  19. Intercomparison of Satellite Dust Retrieval Products over the West African Sahara During the Fennec Campaign in June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, J.R.; Brindley, H. E.; Flamant, C.; Garay, M. J.; Hsu, N. C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Klueser, L.; Sayer, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Dust retrievals over the Sahara Desert during June 2011 from the IASI, MISR, MODIS, and SEVIRI satellite instruments are compared against each other in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each retrieval approach. Particular attention is paid to the effects of meteorological conditions, land surface properties, and the magnitude of the dust loading. The period of study corresponds to the time of the first Fennec intensive measurement campaign, which provides new ground-based and aircraft measurements of the dust characteristics and loading. Validation using ground-based AERONET sunphotometer data indicate that of the satellite instruments, SEVIRI is most able to retrieve dust during optically thick dust events, whereas IASI and MODIS perform better at low dust loadings. This may significantly affect observations of dust emission and the mean dust climatology. MISR and MODIS are least sensitive to variations in meteorological conditions, while SEVIRI tends to overestimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) under moist conditions (with a bias against AERONET of 0.31), especially at low dust loadings where the AODproperties on the retrievals is also investigated. Over elevated surfaces IASI retrieves AODs which are most consistent with AERONET observations, while the AODs retrieved by MODIS tend to be biased low. In contrast, over the least emissive surfaces IASI significantly underestimates the AOD (with a bias of -0.41), while MISR and SEVIRI show closest agreement.

  20. Comparison of Ground- and Space-based Radar Observations with Disdrometer Measurements During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. D.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.

    2015-12-01

    Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) was a large field campaign that studied nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), convective initiation, bores, and low-level jets across the central plains in the United States. MCSs are responsible for over half of the warm-season precipitation across the central U.S. plains. The rainfall from deep convection of these systems over land have been observed to be underestimated by satellite radar rainfall-retrieval algorithms by as much as 40 percent. These algorithms have a strong dependence on the generally unmeasured rain drop-size distribution (DSD). During the campaign, our group measured rainfall DSDs, precipitation fall velocities, and total precipitation in the convective and stratiform regions of MCSs using Ott Parsivel optical laser disdrometers. The disdrometers were co-located with mobile pod units that measured temperature, wind, and relative humidity for quality control purposes. Data from the operational NEXRAD radar in LaCrosse, Wisconsin and space-based radar measurements from a Global Precipitation Measurement satellite overpass on July 13, 2015 were used for the analysis. The focus of this study is to compare DSD measurements from the disdrometers to radars in an effort to reduce errors in existing rainfall-retrieval algorithms. The error analysis consists of substituting measured DSDs into existing quantitative precipitation estimation techniques (e.g. Z-R relationships and dual-polarization rain estimates) and comparing these estimates to ground measurements of total precipitation. The results from this study will improve climatological estimates of total precipitation in continental convection that are used in hydrological studies, climate models, and other applications.

  1. Coincident Aerosol and H2O Retrievals versus HSI Imager Field Campaign ReportH2O Retrievals versus HSI Imager Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gail P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Cipar, John [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Armstrong, Peter S. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); van den Bosch, J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Two spectrally calibrated tarpaulins (tarps) were co-located at a fixed Global Positioning System (GPS) position on the gravel antenna field at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Their placement was timed to coincide with the overflight of a new hyperspectral imaging satellite. The intention was to provide an analysis of the data obtained, including the measured and retrieved spectral albedos for the calibration tarps. Subsequently, a full suite of retrieved values of H2O column, and the aerosol overburden, were to be compared to those determined by alternate SGP ground truth assets. To the extent possible, the down-looking cloud images would be assessed against the all-sky images. Because cloud contamination above a certain level precludes the inversion processing of the satellite data, coupled with infrequent targeting opportunities, clear-sky conditions were imposed. The SGP site was chosen not only as a target of opportunity for satellite validation, but as perhaps the best coincident field measurement site, as established by DOE’s ARM Facility. The satellite team had every expectation of using the information obtained from the SGP to improve the inversion products for all subsequent satellite images, including the cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance assessment for subsequent and historic image collections. Coordinating with the SGP onsite team, four visits, all in 2009, to the Central Facility occurred: • June 6-8 (successful exploratory visit to plan tarp placements, etc.) • July 18-24 (canceled because of forecast for heavy clouds) • Sep 9-12 (ground tarps placed, onset of clouds) • Nov 7-9 (visit ultimately canceled because of weather predictions). As noted, in each instance, any significant overcast prediction precluded image collection from the satellite. Given the long task-scheduling procedures

  2. Report of second LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R; Colao, F; Fantoni, R; Palucci, A; Ribezzo, S [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipt. Sviluppo Tecnologie di Punta

    1993-09-15

    The second European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Oberpfaffenhofen (D) (30 Jun-9 Jul 1992) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR Project. Italian groups, from ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment), CNR (Italian National Research Council) and Viterbo University participated in this campaign together with German, French and Swedish groups from different institutes. On the occasion of this campaign, the lidar (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at ENEA Frascati for the remote sensing of water and territory was improved, on the basis of the former field experience on plant fluorescence remote detection gained during the first LASFLEUR campaign held in Viterbo, and carried out on-site by means of a movable container. The new version of the set-up is presented here, together with the measurements performed on the available targets (spruce, maple, elm and cornel trees, and mais plants). Data analysis is discussed in detail, attempting to correlate the present spectral domain measurements with the plant photosynthetic activity under different weather and (nutrition or water) stress conditions. Several correlations were found between different pigment concentrations in various vegetables and spectrally resolved remote sensed data on the same species. It was demonstrated that the measurements, when performed from an airborne platform, would allow for a remote vegetation recognition across large areas (monitoring cultivations or forests). Part of the campaign was dedicated to the inter-calibration of different lidar systems operating in the spectrally resolved mode: this point is discussed here as well. Some conclusions drawn at the end of the LASFLEUR project Phase 1 are presented at the end of this report, as discussed during the last Project Workshop held in Florence from October 22nd to 26th, 1992.

  3. Report of first LASFLEUR field campaign for remote sensing of vegetation health: ENEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.

    1992-11-01

    The first European joint field campaign for the remote sensing of vegetation health was held in Viterbo (October 6 to 18, 1991) within the framework of the EUREKA/LASFLEUR project. Italian groups, from universities, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) and CNR (Italian National Research Council), participated in this campaign together with several German groups from different institutes. The LIDAR (light detection and ranging) fluorosensor system built at the ENEA Frascati Research Center for the remote sensing of water and land was modified to detect fluorescence from trees in a field experiment. The new version of the set-up is presented in this paper together with the spectral and time resolved measurements that were performed. Results are discussed in view of correlating present data with the plant photosynthesis activity under different weather conditions and water stresses

  4. Deployment and Performance of the NASA D3R During the GPM OLYMPEx Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Beauchamp, Robert M.; Chen, Haonan; Vega, Manuel; Schwaller, Mathew; Willie, Delbert; Dabrowski, Aaron; Kumar, Mohit; Petersen, Walter; Wolff, David

    2016-01-01

    The NASA D3R was successfully deployed and operated throughout the NASA OLYMPEx field campaign. A differential phase based attenuation correction technique has been implemented for D3R observations. Hydrometeor classification has been demonstrated for five distinct classes using Ku-band observations of both convection and stratiform rain. The stratiform rain hydrometeor classification is compared against LDR observations and shows good agreement in identification of mixed-phase hydrometeors in the melting layer.

  5. Air Quality and Meteorological Boundary Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Arriaga, J.; Vega, E.; Magaña, V.; Caetano, E.; de Foy, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Zaragoza, J.; Martínez, A. P.; Márquez, C.; Cárdenas, B.; Lamb, B.; Velasco, E.; Allwine, E.; Pressley, S.; Westberg, H.; Reyes, R.

    2004-12-01

    A comprehensive field campaign to characterize photochemical smog in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was conducted during April 2003. An important number of equipment was deployed all around the urban core and its surroundings to measure gas and particles composition from the various sources and receptor sites. In addition to air quality measurements, meteorology variables were also taken by regular weather meteorological stations, tethered balloons, radiosondes, sodars and lidars. One important issue with regard to the field campaign was the characterization of the boundary conditions in order to feed meteorological and air quality models. Four boundary sites were selected to measure continuously criteria pollutants, VOC and meteorological variables at surface level. Vertical meteorological profiles were measured at three other sites : radiosondes in Tacubaya site were launched every six hours daily; tethered balloons were launched at CENICA and FES-Cuautitlan sites according to the weather conditions, and one sodar was deployed at UNAM site in the south of the city. Additionally to these measurements, two fixed meteorological monitoring networks deployed along the city were available to complement these measurements. In general, we observed that transport of pollutants from the city to the boundary sites changes every day, according to the coupling between synoptic and local winds. This effect were less important at elevated sites such as Cerro de la Catedral and ININ, where synoptic wind were more dominant during the field campaign. Also, local sources nearby boundary sites hide the influence of pollution coming from the city some days, particularly at the La Reforma site.

  6. Appendix I1-2 to Wind HUI Initiative 1: Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Zack; Deborah Hanley; Dora Nakafuji

    2012-07-15

    This report is an appendix to the Hawaii WindHUI efforts to dev elop and operationalize short-term wind forecasting and wind ramp event forecasting capabilities. The report summarizes the WindNET field campaign deployment experiences and challenges. As part of the WindNET project on the Big Island of Hawaii, AWS Truepower (AWST) conducted a field campaign to assess the viability of deploying a network of monitoring systems to aid in local wind energy forecasting. The data provided at these monitoring locations, which were strategically placed around the Big Island of Hawaii based upon results from the Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS) observational targeting study (Figure 1), provided predictive indicators for improving wind forecasts and developing responsive strategies for managing real-time, wind-related system events. The goal of the field campaign was to make measurements from a network of remote monitoring devices to improve 1- to 3-hour look ahead forecasts for wind facilities.

  7. Magsat - A new satellite to survey the earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, F. F.; Eckard, L. D.; Fountain, G. H.; Ousley, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Magsat satellite was launched on Oct. 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit, of 97 deg inclination, 350 km perigee, and 550 km apogee. It contains a precision vector magnetometer and a cesium-vapor scalar magnetometer at the end of a 6-m long graphite epoxy scissors boom. The magnetometers are accurate to 2 nanotesla. A pair of star cameras are used to define the body orientation to 10 arc sec rms. An 'attitude transfer system' measures the orientation of the magnetometer sensors relative to the star cameras to approximately 5 arc sec rms. The satellite position is determined to 70 meters rms by Doppler tracking. The overall objective is to determine each component of the earth's vector magnetic field to an accuracy of 6 nanotesla rms. The Magsat satellite gathers a complete picture of the earth's magnetic field every 12 hours. The vector components are sampled 16 times per second with a resolution of 0.5 nanotesla. The data will be used by the U.S. Geological Survey to prepare 1980 world magnetic field charts and to detect large-scale magnetic anomalies in the earth's crust for use in planning resource exploration strategy.

  8. An Overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-11-01

    In the summer of 1983 a group of scientists working in the fields of meteorology, biology, and remote sensing met to discuss methods for modeling and observing land-surface—atmosphere interactions on regional and global scales. They concluded, first, that the existing climate models contained poor representations of the processes controlling the exchanges of energy, water, heat, and carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere and, second, that satellite remote sensing had been underutilized as a means of specifying global fields of the governing biophysical parameters. Accordingly, a multiscale, multidisciplinary experiment, FIFE, was initiated to address these two issues. The objectives of FIFE were specified as follows: (1) Upscale integration of models: The experiment was designed to test the soil-plant-atmosphere models developed by biometeorologists for small-scale applications (millimeters to meters) and to develop methods to apply them at the larger scales (kilometers) appropriate to atmospheric models and satellite remote sensing. (2) Application of satellite remote sensing: Even if the first goal were achieved to yield a "perfect" model of vegetation-atmosphere exchanges, it would have very limited applications without a global observing system for initialization and validation. As a result, the experiment was tasked with exploring methods for using satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. The experiment was centered on a 15 × 15 km grassland site near Manhattan, Kansas. This area became the focus for an extended monitoring program of satellite, meteorological, biophysical, and hydrological data acquisition from early 1987 through October 1989 and a series of 12- to 20-day intensive field campaigns (IFCs), four in 1987 and one in 1989. During the IFCs the fluxes of heat, moisture, carbon dioxide, and radiation were measured with surface and airborne equipment in coordination with measurements of surface

  9. Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite during the CADRE/MALTED campaign 1. Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-11-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alca‸ntara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guará Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3°S) and magnetic (~0.5°S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the CUPRI 50

  10. Equatorial Dynamics Observed by Rocket, Radar, and Satellite During the CADRE/MALTED Campaign. 1; Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alcantara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guard Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3 deg S) and magnetic (approx. 0.5 deg S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the

  11. Electric field measurements in a NLC/PMSE region during the MASS/ECOMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shimogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present results of electric field measurements made during the MASS rocket campaign in Andøya, Norway into noctilucent clouds (NLC and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE on 3 August 2007. The instrument used high input-impedance preamps to measure vertical and horizontal electric fields. No large-amplitude geophysical electric fields were detected in the cloud layers, but significant levels of electric field fluctuations were measured. Within the cloud layer, the probe potentials relative to the rocket skin were driven negative by incident heavy charged aerosols. The amplitude of spikes caused by probe shadowing were also larger in the NLC/PMSE region. We describe a method for calculating positive ion conductivities using these shadowing spike amplitudes and the density of heavy charged aerosols.

  12. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  13. Multi-angle polarimeter inter-comparison: the PODEX and ACEPOL field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Tan, Q.; Redemann, J.; Cairns, B.; Diner, D. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; van Harten, G.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Martins, J. V.; Yorks, J. E.; Seidel, F. C.

    2017-12-01

    A multi-angle polarimeter has been proposed for the NASA Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission, recommended by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. Such instruments are uncommon in orbit, and there is a great diversity of prototype instrument characteristics. For that reason, NASA funded two field campaigns where airborne polarimeter prototypes were deployed on the high altitude ER-2 aircraft. The first field campaign, POlarimeter DEfinition EXperiment (PODEX), was carried out in southern California in early 2013. Three polarimeters participated: the Airborne Multi-angle SpectroPolarimeter Imager (AirMSPI), the Passive Aerosol and Cloud Suite (PACS) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). PACS, on its first deployment, suffered detector problems, while AirMSPI and RSP performed within expectations. Initial comparisons of AirMSPI and RSP observations found Degree of Linear Polarization (DoLP) biases. Following corrections to both instrument's calibration and/or geolocation techniques, these issues have improved. We will present the details of this comparison. The recent ACEPOL mission returned to southern California in October-November with a larger compliment of multi-angle polarimeters. This included AirMSPI and RSP, like in PODEX. Additional polarimetric instruments included AirHARP (Airborne HyperAngular Rainbow Polarimeter, a successor to PACS) and SPEX Airborne (SPectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration). Two Lidars were also deployed: The High Spectral Resolution Lidar -2 (HSRL-2) and the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL). While data processing is still underway, we will describe the objectives of this campaign and give a preview of what to expect in subsequent analysis.

  14. Linking Publications to Instruments, Field Campaigns, Sites and Working Groups: The ARM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, D.; Cialella, A. T.; Gregory, L.; Lazar, K.; Liang, M.; Ma, L.; Tilp, A.; Wagener, R.

    2017-12-01

    For the past 25 years, the ARM Climate Research Facility - a US Department of Energy scientific user facility - has been collecting atmospheric data in different climatic regimes using both in situ and remote instrumentation. Configuration of the facility's components has been designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols. Placing a premium on long-term continuous data collection resulted in terabytes of data having been collected, stored, and made accessible to any interested person. All data is accessible via the ARM.gov website and the ARM Data Discovery Tool. A team of metadata professionals assign appropriate tags to help facilitate searching the databases for desired data. The knowledge organization tools and concepts are used to create connections between data, instruments, field campaigns, sites, and measurements are familiar to informatics professionals. Ontology, taxonomy, classification, and thesauri are among the customized concepts put into practice for ARM's purposes. In addition to the multitude of data available, there have been approximately 3,000 journal articles that utilize ARM data. These have been linked to specific ARM web pages. Searches of the complete ARM publication database can be done using a separate interface. This presentation describes how ARM data is linked to instruments, sites, field campaigns, and publications through the application of standard knowledge organization tools and concepts.

  15. Field campaign for the comparison of SOUSY radar wind measurements with rawinsonde and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steinhagen

    Full Text Available A field campaign was carried out from 26 October to 7 November 1992, using the SOUSY-VHF radar and a mobile rawinsonde system installed and operated nearby to produce vertical wind profiles. The purpose of this campaign was to compare the two types of wind measurements with one another and with results from forecast models. Numerical algorithms were developed and applied to the radar data in order to eliminate random errors, correct for velocity aliasing, and calculate the effective zenith angle of the off-vertical beams. Differences between wind profiler data and rawinsonde or model results depend not only upon the errors of the different systems, but also on temporal and spatial variations of the wind field. Therefore, methods for the comparison of radar and rawinsonde data were developed which take into consideration these variations. The practical potential of these methods is demonstrated by comparisons of rawinsonde and radar wind profiles. The comparison of radar data and model output shows excellent agreement in the direction and in the speed of the wind at virtually all altitudes. An evaluation of the quality of wind profiler measurements is possible using the estimation of variance and variability of wind components.

  16. Field campaign for the comparison of SOUSY radar wind measurements with rawinsonde and model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Steinhagen

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign was carried out from 26 October to 7 November 1992, using the SOUSY-VHF radar and a mobile rawinsonde system installed and operated nearby to produce vertical wind profiles. The purpose of this campaign was to compare the two types of wind measurements with one another and with results from forecast models. Numerical algorithms were developed and applied to the radar data in order to eliminate random errors, correct for velocity aliasing, and calculate the effective zenith angle of the off-vertical beams. Differences between wind profiler data and rawinsonde or model results depend not only upon the errors of the different systems, but also on temporal and spatial variations of the wind field. Therefore, methods for the comparison of radar and rawinsonde data were developed which take into consideration these variations. The practical potential of these methods is demonstrated by comparisons of rawinsonde and radar wind profiles. The comparison of radar data and model output shows excellent agreement in the direction and in the speed of the wind at virtually all altitudes. An evaluation of the quality of wind profiler measurements is possible using the estimation of variance and variability of wind components.

  17. Partnering Students, Scientists, and the Local Community in a Regionally-focused Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. W.; Lemone, M. A.; Seavey, M. M.; Washburne, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    The GLOBE Program (www.globe.gov) involves students and scientists in a worldwide environmental data collection effort. The GLOBE ONE field campaign (www.globe.gov/globeone) represents a model for a focused implementation of GLOBE via a geographically-specific project. The campaign, which occurred in Black Hawk County, Iowa from February 2004 to February 2006, was developed by GLOBE Principal Investigators (PIs), the GLOBE Program Office, and GLOBE Iowa. The central scientific objective was to compare quantitatively the environmental effects of various soil tillage techniques. In addition, student research projects were supported that spanned a variety of Earth science topics. The campaign established a partnership between students and scientists to collect a structured, multidisciplinary data set and also increase GLOBE visibility. The fact that GLOBE ONE occurred in a focused geographic area made it necessary to form a network for local support. This started with choosing an active GLOBE partner, namely the Iowa Academy of Science, who had the ability to oversee the local implementation of such a project. Once this partner was chosen, additional local groups needed to be recruited to support the project. The local network included K-12 schools, the County Conservation Board, the University of Northern Iowa, Hawkeye Community College, and community volunteers. This network collected data via automated instrumentation, first-hand observations, and through special events organized with a focus on a specific measurement. The first major step in supporting student research was a teacher training workshop held in March of 2006 that helped to provide tools for, and increase comfort levels with, promoting scientific inquiry in the classroom. Student-scientists interactions were promoted via scientist visits, video conferences, letters, and email exchanges. The culminating event was a Student Research Symposium held in February 2006 which gave students and scientists a

  18. Photochemical and Meteorological Conditions during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; de Foy, B.; Molina, M. J.; Caetano, E.; Magana, V.; Zitacuaro, A.; Ramos, R.; Retama, A.; Cardenas, B.; Martinez, A.; Reyes, R.; Sosa, G.

    2004-12-01

    MCMA-2003 was a major field campaign of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in April of 2003. April is in the transition from the dry to the wet season with predominant westerly synoptic winds and intense radiation heating leading to strong thermal mountain flows. Three basic types of meteorological conditions were identified: "Cold Surge", "O3-North" and "O3-South", corresponding to cloudy days associated with "Norte" events, peak ozone in the north of the city, and peak ozone in the south. The circulation associated with these is described both at the regional and local level, as high concentrations of both ozone and primary pollutants for each category make them equally relevant to chemical analyses of the basin. Modified wind roses (time roses) based on time of day categories instead of wind speed categories are used to identify shifts in wind directions associated with slope flows inside the basin and sea breeze flows outside of it. The photochemical episodes are compared with historical data from the RAMA monitoring network to assess the representativeness of MCMA-2003. The analysis of the episodes during the campaign shows the existence of one-day episodes where no build-up of pollutants is needed in order to attain very highly localized concentrations but where multi-day events lead to peaks covering a much larger geographic area.

  19. A field campaign for measurement of benzene in urban area of Venice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, I.; Febo, A.; Giliberti, C.; Giusto, M.; Montagnoli, M.

    1996-01-01

    A field campaign for the measurement of benzene and toluene in urban areas has been planned by the city of Venice in collaboration with CNR during the period June-July 1994. The measurements were provided by three automatic systems, available from the companies Chrompack, Elecos and Perkin-Elmer. The main aims of this campaign were to collect information on spatial and temporal distribution of these pollutants, in order to estimate the exposure risk for people in an urban polluted environment, and to identify the most reliable and accurate systems to measure this pollutant. From the comparison between the temporal trend of benzene and natural radioactivity it can be deduced that the concentration levels of primary pollutants at ground state are not simply linked to emissions, but they are strongly modulated by atmospheric diffusion processes. The reliability of the experimental results was demonstrated by a statistical treatment, and it was shown that it is necessary to carry out measurements at sufficiently high frequencies to represent the real environmental situation

  20. Attribution and evolution of ozone from Asian wild fires using satellite and aircraft measurements during the ARCTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dupont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We use ozone and carbon monoxide measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES, model estimates of Ozone, CO, and ozone pre-cursors from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS, and data from the NASA DC8 aircraft to characterize the source and dynamical evolution of ozone and CO in Asian wildfire plumes during the spring ARCTAS campaign 2008. On the 19 April, NASA DC8 O3 and aerosol Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL observed two biomass burning plumes originating from North-Western Asia (Kazakhstan and South-Eastern Asia (Thailand that advected eastward over the Pacific reaching North America in 10 to 12 days. Using both TES observations and RAQMS chemical analyses, we track the wildfire plumes from their source to the ARCTAS DC8 platform. In addition to photochemical production due to ozone pre-cursors, we find that exchange between the stratosphere and the troposphere is a major factor influencing O3 concentrations for both plumes. For example, the Kazakhstan and Siberian plumes at 55 degrees North is a region of significant springtime stratospheric/tropospheric exchange. Stratospheric air influences the Thailand plume after it is lofted to high altitudes via the Himalayas. Using comparisons of the model to the aircraft and satellite measurements, we estimate that the Kazakhstan plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios by approximately 6.4 ppbv and 38 ppbv in the lower troposphere (height of 2 to 6 km, and the Thailand plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios of approximately 11 ppbv and 71 ppbv in the upper troposphere (height of 8 to 12 km respectively. However, there are significant sources of uncertainty in these estimates that point to the need for future improvements in both model and satellite observations. For example, it is challenging to characterize the fraction of air parcels from the stratosphere versus those from the

  1. Quantifying Fire Impact on Alaskan Tundra from Satellite Observations and Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, T. V.; Chen, D.; He, J.; Jenkins, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfire is a major disturbance agent in Alaskan tundra. The frequency and extent of fire events obtained from paleo, management, and satellite records may yet underestimate the scope of tundra fire impact. Field measurements, collected within the NASA's ABoVE campaign, revealed unexpectedly shallow organic soils ( 15 cm) across all sampled sites of the Noatak valley with no significant difference between recently burned and unburned sites. In typical small and medium-sized tundra burns vegetation recovers rapidly and scars are not discernable in 30 m optical satellite imagery by the end of the first post-fire season. However, field observations indicate that vegetation and subsurface characteristics within fire scars of different ages vary across the landscape. In this study we develop linkages between fire-induced changes to tundra and satellite-based observations from optical, thermal, and microwave imagers to enable extrapolation of in-situ observations to cover the full extent of Alaskan tundra. Our results show that recent ( 30 years) fire history can be reconstructed from optical observations (R2 0.65, pfire history can be determined for 4 years post fire primarily due to increased soil moisture at burned sites. Field measurements suggest that the relatively quick SAR signal dissipation results from more even distribution of surface moisture through the soil column with increases in Active Layer Thickness (ALT). Similar to previous long-term field studies we find an increase in shrub fraction and shrub height within burns over time at the landscape scale; however, the strength and significance of the relationship between shrub fraction and time since fire is governed by burn severity with more severe burns predictably (p post-fire shrub cover. Although reasonably well-correlated to each other when adjusted for topography (R2 0.35, p < 0.001), neither ALT nor soil temperature can be directly linked to optical or thermal brightness observations with acceptable

  2. Magnetic field observations on the Akebono (KXOS-D) satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Fujii, R.; Kokubum, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Akebono (EXOS-D) satellite carries triaxial fluxgate and search coil magnetometers with sensors mounted on 5-and 3m masts, respectively. The fluxgate magnetometer has four automatically switchable ranges from ±1024 to ±65536 nT (full scale), and resolutions commensurate with a 16-bit A/D converter in each range (0.031 to 2 nT). The rate of sampling is 32 vectors per second. The triaxial search coil magnetometer has a frequency response up to 800 Hz. Signals in the frequency range higher than 100 Hz are used for VLF plasma wave experiments, while signals less than 100 Hz are used for magnetic field experiments. Both magnetometers have been operating consinuously since the 3- and 5-m masts were extended on March 7 and 8, 1989, respectively. Intense small-scale field-aligned currents embedded in the large-scale field-aligned current system were always observed at 1-2 Re altitudes in all local time regions. The region 0 currents which flow in the poleward region adjacent to the region 1 currents were also frequently observed. The search coil magnetometers measured ion cyclotron waves at 1-2 Re altitudes near the equator. (N.K.)

  3. Aerosol Optical Properties at the Ground Sites during the 2010 CARES Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. B.; Radney, J. G.; Harworth, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary results from the ground sites at the 2010 CARES field campaign (T0 near Sacramento, CA and T1 near Cool, CA) will be presented. A number of aerosol optical properties were measured at high time resolution for the four week study period using custom instruments. The aerosol extinction coefficient was measured at T0 using a cavity ring-down transmissometer (CRDT) at two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm) and the aerosol scattering coefficient was measured at 532 nm using a Radiance Research M903 nephelometer. At T1, a new CRDT instrument was deployed that measured the extinction coefficient at three wavelengths (355, 532, and 1064 nm) for sub-10 μm (nominal) and sub-2.5 μm aerosols at ambient, elevated, and reduced relative humidity. A new type of custom nephelometer that measures the aerosol scattering coefficient at 532 nm using an array detector was also deployed at T1.

  4. Recent results from milagro field campaign 2006 in the mexico megacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, I.T.; Madronich, S.; Gaffney, J.S.; Singh, H.B.; Gosa, S.

    2009-01-01

    The air quality in large urbanized regions represents one of the major threats to the public and the ecosystems health. A number of harmful compounds emitted to the atmosphere from the various human activities increase the risk of having undesired illnesses, and possible death. Secondary air pollutants in both, air and aerosol phase, contribute to worsening this situation. on the other hand, there is an increasing recognition that air quality and climate change are strongly connected. Ozone plays an important role in this connection, apart from being by itself a greenhouse gas. This interaction is expected to evolve in response to changes in man-made emissions of gas precursors and to changes in physical climate. In this paper, a general scheme of the tropospheric ozone formation will be presented, as well as the current results from the MILAGRO field campaign took place in the Mexico Mega city in 2006. (author)

  5. Assessment of MFLL column CO2 measurements obtained during the ACT-America field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B.; Browell, E. V.; Kooi, S. A.; Dobler, J. T.; Campbell, J.; Fan, T. F.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C. W.; Obland, M. D.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Kochanov, R. V.; DiGangi, J. P.; Davis, K. J.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 with airborne and space-based lidar systems such as those used during the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) field campaigns and proposed for the NASA ASCENDS mission would improve our knowledge of CO2 distributions and variations on both regional and global scales, reduce the uncertainties in atmospheric CO2 transport and fluxes, and increase confidence in predictions of future climate changes. To reach these scientific goals, atmospheric column CO2 (XCO2) measurements of the Harris Corporation's Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) obtained during the first two ACT-America flight campaigns have been thoroughly investigated by the ACT-America lidar measurement group. MFLL is an intensity-modulated continuous-wave lidar operating in the 1.57-mm CO2 absorption band. Atmospheric XCO2 amounts are retrieved based on the integrated path differential absorption of the lidar signals at online and offline wavelengths between the aircraft and the ground. NASA Langley Research Center and Harris have been collaborating in the development and evaluation of this CO2 lidar approach for a number of years. To gain insights into the lidar performance, the measurement group has collected all possible lidar measurements with corresponding in-situ atmospheric profile information from the first two ACT-America field campaigns, including the data from several flight legs dedicated to lidar calibration. Initially large differences (-1 to 2 %) were found between lidar measured CO2 optical depths and those derived from in-situ observations and spectroscopy from HITRAN2008. When an improved spectroscopic model (Pre-HITRAN2016) was applied, the large systematic errors were much more consistent leading to the development of an empirical linear correction of measured optical depth based on the calibration flight data. This correction accounts for remaining uncertainties in spectroscopic models, environmental conditions, such as

  6. Field Investigation of Surface-Lake Processes on Ice Shelves: Results of the 2015/16 Field Campaign on McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAyeal, Doug; Banwell, Alison; Willis, Ian; Macdonald, Grant

    2016-04-01

    Ice-shelf instability and breakup of the style exhibited by Larsen B Ice Shelf in 2002 remains the most difficult glaciological process of consequence to observe in detail. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain, thereby changing the surface loads the ice-shelf must adjust to. Our model suggest that these fractures resulted in a chain-reaction style drainage of >2750 surface lakes on the Larsen B in the days prior to its demise. To validate this and other models, we began a field project on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 austral summer. Advantages of the MIS study site are: there is considerable surface melting during 3-6 weeks of the summer season, the ice is sufficiently thin (logistical support (McMurdo Station). Here we show initial results from the field campaign, including GPS and water-depth observations of a lake that has filled and drained over multiple week timescales in previous austral summers. We also report on the analysis of high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery from several summers that reveals the complexity of surface meltwater movement in channels and subsurface void spaces. Initial reconnaissance of the largest surface-lake features reveal that they have a central circular depression surrounded by an uplifted ring, which supports one of the central tenets of our ice-shelf flexure theory. A second field season is anticipated for the 2016/17 austral summer.

  7. AirSWOT flights and field campaigns for the 2017 Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Pavelsky, T.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Gleason, C. J.; Pietroniro, A.; Applejohn, A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Bjella, K.; Carter, T.; Chao, R.; Cooley, S. W.; Cooper, M. G.; Cretaux, J. F.; Douglass, T.; Faria, D.; Fayne, J.; Fiset, J. M.; Goodman, S.; Hanna, B.; Harlan, M.; Langhorst, T.; Marsh, P.; Moreira, D. M.; Minear, J. T.; Onclin, C.; Overstreet, B. T.; Peters, D.; Pettit, J.; Pitcher, L. H.; Russell, M.; Spence, C.; Topp, S.; Turner, K. W.; Vimal, S.; Wilcox, E.; Woodward, J.; Yang, D.; Zaino, A.

    2017-12-01

    Some 50% of Canada and 80% of Alaska is thought to be underlain by permafrost, influencing the hydrology, ecology and carbon cycles of Arctic-Boreal landscapes. This influence includes enhanced presence of millions of lakes and wetlands, which release trace gases while supporting critical ecosystems and traditional subsistence economies. Permafrost is challenging to infer from remote sensing and difficult to sample in the field. A series of 2017 AirSWOT flights flown for the NASA Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will study whether small variations in water surface elevations (WSEs) of Arctic-Boreal lakes are sensitive to presence and/or disturbance of permafrost. AirSWOT is an experimental NASA airborne radar designed to map WSE and a precursor to SWOT, a forthcoming NASA/CNES/CSA satellite mission to map WSE globally with launch in 2021. The ABoVE AirSWOT flight experiments adopted long flight lines of the broader ABoVE effort to traverse broad spatial gradients of permafrost, climate, ecology, and geology. AirSWOT acquisitions consisted of long (1000s of kilometers) strips of Ka-band interferometric radar imagery, and high resolution visible/NIR imagery and DEMs from a digital Cirrus CIR camera. Intensive AirSWOT mapping and ground-based GPS field surveys were conducted at 11 field sites for eight study areas of Canada and Alaska: 1) Saint-Denis, Redberry Lake, North Saskatchewan River (Saskatchewan); 2) Peace-Athabasca Delta (Alberta); 3) Slave River Delta (N.W.T.); 4) Canadian Shield (Yellowknife area, Daring Lake, N.W.T.); 5) Mackenzie River (Inuvik-Tuktoyaktuk corridor, N.W.T.); 6) Old Crow Flats (Yukon Territory); 7) Sagavanirktok River (Alaska); 8) Yukon Flats (Alaska). Extensive ground campaigns were conducted by U.S. and Canadian collaborators to collect high quality surveys of lake WSE, river WSE and discharge, and shoreline locations. Field experiments included traditional and novel GPS surveying methods, including custom-built GPS buoys

  8. DACCIWA Cloud-Aerosol Observations in West Africa Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J Christine [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Blanchard, Yann [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Hill, Peter [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, Laurie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Interactions between aerosols and clouds, and their effects on radiation, precipitation, and regional circulations, are one of the largest uncertainties in understanding climate. With reducing uncertainties in predictions of weather, climate, and climate impacts in mind, the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, funded by the European Commission, set out to improve our understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions in southern West Africa. This region is ideal for studying cloud-aerosol interactions because of its rich mix of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and diverse clouds, and because of the strong dependence on the regional and global climate of the sensitive West African monsoon. The overview of DACCIWA is described in Knippertz et al. 2015. The interdisciplinary DACCIWA team includes not only several European and African universities, but also Met Centres in the UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Benin, Ghana, and Nigeria. One of the crucial research activities in DACCIWA is the major field campaign in southern West Africa from June to July 2016, comprising a benchmark data set for assessing detailed processes on natural and anthropogenic emissions; atmospheric composition; air pollution and its impacts on human and ecosystem health; boundary layer processes; couplings between aerosols, clouds, and rainfall; weather systems; radiation; and the monsoon circulation. Details and highlights of the campaign can be found in Flamant et al. 2017. To provide aerosol/cloud microphysical and optical properties that are essential for model evaluations and for the linkage between ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne observations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility loaned two sun photometers to the DACCWIA team for the campaign from June 8 to July 29, 2016. The first sun photometer was deployed at Kumasi, Ghana (6.67962°N, 1.56019°W) by the University of Leeds

  9. Aerosol Retrievals Over Land and Water using Deep Blue Algorithm from SeaWiFS and MODIS during UAE2 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N.

    2005-12-01

    The environment in Southwest Asia exhibits one of the most complex situations for aerosol remote sensing from space. Several air masses with different aerosol characteristics commonly converge in this region. In particular, there are often fine mode pollution particles generated from oil industry activities in the Persian Gulf colliding with coarse mode dust particles lifted from desert sources in the surrounding areas. During the course of the UAE field campaign (August-October, 2004), we provided near-real time information, calculated using the Deep Blue algorithm, of satellite aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent over the Southwest Asia region, including the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and part of north Africa. In this paper, we will present results of aerosol characteristics retrieved from SeaWiFS and MODIS over the Arabian Peninsula, Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea during the UAE experiment. The spectral surface reflectance data base constructed using satellite reflectance from MODIS and SeaWiFS employed in our algorithm will be discussed. We will also compare the resulting satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent with those obtained from the ground based sun photometers from AERONET in the region. Finally, we will discuss the changes in shortwave and longwave fluxes at the top of atmosphere in response to changes in aerosol optical thickness (i.e. aerosol forcing).

  10. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  11. Field Testing of a Pneumatic Regolith Feed System During a 2010 ISRU Field Campaign on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Santoro, Chris; Carlson, Lee; Maksymuk, Michael; Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) consists of a number of tasks starting with mining of lunar regolith, followed by the transfer of regolith to an oxygen extraction reactor and finally processing the regolith and storing of extracted oxygen. The transfer of regolith from the regolith hopper at the ground level to an oxygen extraction reactor many feet above the surface could be accomplished in different ways, including using a mechanical auger, bucket ladder system or a pneumatic system. The latter system is commonly used on earth when moving granular materials since it offers high reliability and simplicity of operation. In this paper, we describe a pneumatic regolith feed system, delivering feedstock to a Carbothermal reactor and lessons learned from deploying the system during the 2010 ISRU field campaign on the Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  12. First highlights of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Knippertz, P.; Flamant, C.; Adon, J.; Akpo, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Assamoi, E.; Baeza, A.; Julien, B.; Bedou, M.; Brooks, B. J.; Chiu, J. Y. C.; Chiron, C.; Coe, H.; Danuor, S.; Djossou, J.; Evans, M. J.; Fayomi, B.; Fink, A. H.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Gardrat, E.; Jegede, O.; Kalthoff, N.; Kedote, M.; Keita, S.; Kouame, K.; Konare, A.; Leon, J. F.; Mari, C. H.; Lohou, F.; Roblou, L.; Schlager, H.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Toure, E. N.; Veronique, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) is investigating the relationship between weather, climate, air pollution and health in southern West Africa. The air over the coastal region of West Africa is a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquids and particles, emitted in an environment, in which multi-layer cloud decks frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, which has never been studied in detail over West Africa: this information is currently not included in the majority of weather and climate models. For the first time, the entire chain of impacts of natural and manmade emissions on the West African atmosphere was investigated in a coordinated field campaign. As part of this campaign, three research aircraft (Falcon 20, Twin Otter and ATR) based in Lomé (Togo) flew targeted 50 missions over West Africa from 27 June to 16 July 2016. In that campaign also, three highly instrumented measuring sites inland were set up with weather balloons launched several times a day across the region. The main objective was to build robust statistics of cloud properties in southern West Africa in different chemical landscapes (background state, ship/flaring emissions, polluted megacities, agricultural and forest areas, dust from the Sahel/Sahara). In addition, DACCIWA scientists working on measurements of urban emissions, air pollution, and health have set up four urban sites in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Cotonou (Benin) focusing on main specific regional combustion sources (domestic fires, traffic and waste burning). Long-term measurements of gases and particles and census of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases were started in January 2015 and will continue until March 2017 to determine the links between human health and air pollution. Intensive measurement periods took place in July 2015, January 2016, and July 2016 (a final one is planned for January 2017) in

  13. Data rescue of NASA First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) aerial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Boyer, A.; Deb, D.; Beaty, T.; Wei, Y.; Wei, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) for biogeochemical dynamics is one of the NASA Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data centers. ORNL DAAC (https://daac.ornl.gov) is responsible for data archival, product development and distribution, and user support for biogeochemical and ecological data and models. In particular, ORNL DAAC has been providing data management support for NASA's terrestrial ecology field campaign programs for the last several decades. Field campaigns combine ground, aircraft, and satellite-based measurements in specific ecosystems over multi-year time periods. The data collected during NASA field campaigns are archived at the ORNL DAAC (https://daac.ornl.gov/get_data/). This paper describes the effort of the ORNL DAAC team for data rescue of a First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) dataset containing airborne and satellite data observations from the 1980s. The data collected during the FIFE campaign contain high resolution aerial imageries collected over Kansas. The data rescue workflow was prepared to test for successful recovery of the data from a CD-ROM and to ensure that the data are usable and preserved for the future. The imageries contain spectral reflectance data that can be used as a historical benchmark to examine climatological and ecological changes in the Kansas region since the 1980s. Below are the key steps taken to convert the files to modern standards. Decompress the imageries using custom compression software provided with the data. The compression algorithm created for MS-DOS in 1980s had to be set up to run on modern computer systems. Decompressed files were geo-referenced by using metadata information stored in separate compressed header files. Standardized file names were applied (File names and details were described in separate readme documents). Image files were converted to GeoTIFF format with embedded georeferencing information. Leverage Open Geospatial

  14. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoux, N.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Lefèvre, F.; Durry, G.; Jones, R. L.; Rozanov, A.; Dhomse, S.; Burrows, J. P.; Morel, B.; Bencherif, H.

    2009-07-01

    Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February-March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA), a surface acoustic wave (SAW) and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ) on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%), followed by SAGE II (7%), MIPAS (10%), SAOZ (20-25%) and SCIAMACHY (35%), all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20-25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1-100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%). In the lower stratosphere between 16-20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes) both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16-18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4-5 ppmv observed by the μSDLA. Differences

  15. Networked Thermodynamic Boundary Layer Profiling with AERIs during the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, P. J.; Turner, D. D.; Hackel, D.; Phillips, C.; Smith, N.; Wagner, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) campaign was a large-scale field experiment in the Great Plains region of the U.S. that was conducted in June-July 2015. Nocturnal storms provide the majority of the precipitation in the Great Plains, yet the initiation and evolution of nocturnal convection is not understood to the same level as daytime surface-based convection, and thus provides significant challenges for operational weather forecasters. PECAN's objectives were to study elevated nocturnal convection initiation and the lifecycle of nocturnal convection. Specific research areas that were studied were the evolution of mesoscale convective systems, the structure and evolution of nocturnal low-level jets, atmospheric bores, and elevated convection initiation. A broad range of fixed and mobile observing systems were deployed by several agencies and organizations in a domain centered around Kansas. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures downwelling infrared radiance from the atmosphere. AERI observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor in the lowest 3 km of the troposphere, as well as measurements of the concentration of various trace gases and microphysical and optical properties of clouds and aerosols. A network of eight AERIs was deployed in the domain during PECAN, with six at fixed sites and two in mobile facilities. One of the goals of the campaign was a demonstration of the use of real-time high-temporal-resolution boundary layer profiles from the network of AERIs for characterizing the mesoscale environment and its evolution during the weather events sampled during PECAN. If successful, a future network could be implemented across CONUS and thermodynamic profiles in the boundary layer data assimilated to help improve numerical weather prediction. We present an overview of the AERI deployments, a summary of the technique used to retrieve

  16. ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (AS-PECAN) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D. D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Silver Spring, MD (United States); Geerts, B. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was a large multi-agency/multi-institutional experiment that targeted nighttime convection events in the central plains of the United States in order to better understand a range of processes that lead to the initiation and upscale growth of deep convection. Both weather and climate models struggle to properly represent the timing and intensity of precipitation in the central United States in their simulations. These models must be able to represent the interactions between the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL), the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), and a reservoir of convectively available potential energy (CAPE) that frequently exists above the SBL. Furthermore, a large fraction of the nocturnal precipitation is due to the organization of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). In particular, there were four research foci for the PECAN campaign: •The initiation of elevated nocturnal convection focus seeks to elucidate the mesoscaleenvironmental characteristics and processes that lead to convection initiation (CI) and provide baseline data on the early evolution of mesoscale convective clusters. •The dynamics and internal structure and microphysics of nocturnal MCSs focus will investigatethe transition from surface-based to elevated storm structure, the interaction of cold pools generated by MCSs with the nocturnal stable boundary layer, and how the organization and evolution of elevated convection is influenced by the SBL and the vertical profile of wind and stability above the LLJ. •The bores and wave-like disturbances focus seeks to advance knowledge of the initiation of boredisturbances by convection, how the vertical profile of stability and winds modulate bore structure, the role of these disturbances in the initiation, maintenance, and organization of deep convection, and their impact on the LLJ and SBL. •The LLJ focus seeks to understand the processes that influence the spatial and

  17. Earth Expeditions: Telling the stories of eight NASA field campaigns by focusing on the human side of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Earth Right Now communication team kicked off an ambitious multimedia campaign in March 2016 to tell the stories of eight major field campaigns studying regions of critical change from the land, sea and air. Earth Expeditions focused on the human side of science, with live reporting from the field, behind-the-scenes images and videos, and extended storytelling over a six-month period. We reported from Greenland to Namibia, from the eastern United States to the South Pacific. Expedition scientists explored ice sheets, air quality, coral reefs, boreal forests, marine ecosystems and greenhouse gases. All the while the campaign communications team was generating everything from blog posts and social media shareables, to Facebook Live events and a NASA TV series. We also participated in community outreach events and pursued traditional media opportunities. A massive undertaking, we will share lessons learned, best practices for social media and some of our favorite moments when science communication touched our audience's lives.

  18. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  19. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17-50 μm as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm -1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40 o 49' N, 15 o 27' E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band

  20. The Gravity Field of Mercury After the Messenger Low-Altitude Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gary A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    The final year of the MESSENGER mission was designed to take advantage of the remaining propellant onboard to provide a series of lowaltitude observation campaigns and acquire novel scientific data about the innermost planet. The lower periapsis altitude greatly enhances the sensitivity to the short-wavelength gravity field, but only when the spacecraft is in view of Earth. After more than 3 years in orbit around Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft was tracked for the first time below 200-km altitude on 5 May 2014 by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). Between August and October, periapsis passages down to 25-km altitude were routinely tracked. These periods considerably improved the quality of the data coverage. Before the end of its mission, MESSENGER will fly at very low altitudes for extended periods of time. Given the orbital geometry, however the periapses will not be visible from Earth and so no new tracking data will be available for altitudes lower than 75 km. Nevertheless, the continuous tracking of MESSENGER in the northern hemisphere will help improve the uniformity of the spatial coverage at altitudes lower than 150 km, which will further improve the overall quality of the Mercury gravity field.

  1. A meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June–July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Knippertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In June and July 2016 the Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA project organised a major international field campaign in southern West Africa (SWA including measurements from three inland ground supersites, urban sites in Cotonou and Abidjan, radiosondes, and three research aircraft. A significant range of different weather situations were encountered during this period, including the monsoon onset. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the large-scale setting for the campaign as well as synoptic and mesoscale weather systems affecting the study region in the light of existing conceptual ideas, mainly using objective and subjective identification algorithms based on (re-analysis and satellite products. In addition, it is shown how the described synoptic variations influence the atmospheric composition over SWA through advection of mineral dust, biomass burning and urban pollution plumes.The boreal summer of 2016 was characterised by Pacific La Niña, Atlantic El Niño and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions, whose competing influences on precipitation led to an overall average rainy season. During the relatively dusty pre-onset Phase 1 (1–21 June 2016, three westward-propagating coherent cyclonic vortices between 4 and 13° N modulated winds and rainfall in the Guinea coastal area. The monsoon onset occurred in connection with a marked extratropical trough and cold surge over northern Africa, leading to a breakdown of the Saharan heat low and African easterly jet and a suppression of rainfall. During this period, quasi-stationary low-level vortices associated with the trough transformed into more tropical, propagating disturbances resembling an African easterly wave (AEW. To the east of this system, moist southerlies penetrated deep into the continent. The post-onset Phase 2 (22 June–20 July 2016 was characterised by a significant increase in low-level cloudiness, unusually dry conditions

  2. Movements, Markets and Fields: The Effects of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns on U.S. Firms, 1993-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Tim; Child, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    How do social movements influence corporations? Recent work suggests that movements can inflict material damage on their targets and shape categories of evaluation in organizational fields. Extending these ideas, we examine the effects of anti-sweatshop campaigns on sales, stock performance, reputation and specialized ratings of U.S. firms, using…

  3. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma irregularities in the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu 2 (SEEK-2 campaign, field-aligned irregularities (FAIs associated with midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers were observed with two backscatter radars, the Lower Thermosphere Profiler Radar (LTPR and the Frequency Agile Radar (FAR, which were located 40 km apart in Tanegashima, Japan. We conducted observations of FAI echoes from 31 July to 24 August 2002, and the radar data were used to determine launch timing of two sounding rockets on 3 August 2002. Our comparison of echoes obtained by the LTPR and the FAR revealed that echoes often appeared at the FAR about 10min earlier than they did at the LTPR and were well correlated. This indicates that echoing regions drift with a southward velocity component that maintains the spatial shape. Interferometry observations that were conducted with the LTPR from 3 to 8 August 2002, revealed that the quasi-periodic (QP striations in the Range-Time-Intensity (RTI plots were due to the apparent motion of echoing regions across the radar beam including both main and side lobes. In most cases, the echo moved to the east-southeast at an almost constant altitude of 100–110 km, which was along the locus of perpendicularity of the radar line-of-sight to the geomagnetic field line. We found that the QP pattern on the RTI plot reflects the horizontal structure and motion of the (Es layer, and that echoing regions seemed to be in one-dimensionally elongated shapes or in chains of patches. Neutral wind velocities from 75 to 105 km altitude were simultaneously derived with meteor echoes from the LTPR. This is the first time-continuous simultaneous observation FAIs and neutral wind with interferometry measurements. Assuming that the echoing regions were drifting with an ambient neutral wind, we found that the echoing region was aligned east-northeast-west-southwest in eight out of ten QP echo events during the SEEK-2 campaign. A range rate was

  4. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Berg, L. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burleyson, C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fan, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Feng, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hagos, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guenther, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Laskin, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ovchinnikov, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shilling, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shrivastava, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xiao, H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zaveri, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zelenyuk-Imre, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, J. [University of California-Irvine; Turner, D. [National Severe Storms Laboratory; Gentine, P. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in land surface, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. Some of the land-atmosphere-cloud interactions that can be studied using HI-SCALE data are shown in Figure 1. HI-SCALE consisted of two 4-week intensive operation periods (IOPs), one in the spring (April 24-May 21) and the other in the late summer (August 28-September 24) of 2016, to take advantage of different stages of the plant lifecycle, the distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, and aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. As expected, satellite measurements indicated that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was much “greener” in the vicinity of the SGP site during the spring IOP than the late summer IOP as a result of winter wheat maturing in the spring and being harvested in the early summer. As shown in Figure 2, temperatures were cooler than average and soil moisture was high during the spring IOP, while temperatures were warmer than average and

  5. Orbit Determination of the SELENE Satellites Using Multi-Satellite Data Types and Evaluation of SELENE Gravity Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    The SELENE mission, consisting of three separate satellites that use different terrestrial-based tracking systems, presents a unique opportunity to evaluate the contribution of these tracking systems to orbit determination precision. The tracking data consist of four-way Doppler between the main orbiter and one of the two sub-satellites while the former is over the far side, and of same-beam differential VLBI tracking between the two sub-satellites. Laser altimeter data are also used for orbit determination. The contribution to orbit precision of these different data types is investigated through orbit overlap analysis. It is shown that using four-way and VLBI data improves orbit consistency for all satellites involved by reducing peak values in orbit overlap differences that exist when only standard two-way Doppler and range data are used. Including laser altimeter data improves the orbit precision of the SELENE main satellite further, resulting in very smooth total orbit errors at an average level of 18m. The multi-satellite data have also resulted in improved lunar gravity field models, which are assessed through orbit overlap analysis using Lunar Prospector tracking data. Improvements over a pre-SELENE model are shown to be mostly in the along-track and cross-track directions. Orbit overlap differences are at a level between 13 and 21 m with the SELENE models, depending on whether l-day data overlaps or I-day predictions are used.

  6. Aircraft and ground-based measurements of hydroperoxides during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Nunnermacker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixing ratios of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide were determined aboard the US Department of Energy G-1 Research Aircraft during the March, 2006 MILAGRO field campaign in Mexico. Ground measurements of total hydroperoxide were made at Tecámac University, about 35 km NW of Mexico City. In the air and on the ground, peroxide mixing ratios near the source region were generally near 1 ppbv. Strong southerly flow resulted in transport of pollutants from Mexico City to two downwind surface sites on several flight days. On these days, it was observed that peroxide concentrations slightly decreased as the G-1 flew progressively downwind. This observation is consistent with low or negative net peroxide production rates calculated for the source region and is due to the very high NOx concentrations in the Mexico City plateau. However, relatively high values of peroxide were observed at takeoff and landing near Veracruz, a site with much higher humidity and lower NOx concentrations.

  7. First Impressions of a Scintrex CG-6 Portable Gravimeter in an Extensive Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westrum, D.; Kanney, J.

    2017-12-01

    First Impressions of a Scintrex CG-6 Portable Gravimeter in an Extensive Field Campaign AGU Fall Meeting 2017 Derek van Westrum and Jeff Kanney NOAA's National Geodetic Survey conducted its third and final Geoid Slope Validation Survey (GSVS) this past summer in the rugged mountains of southern Colorado. In addition to leveling, long period GPS, and defelction of vertical observations, absolute gravity and vertical gravity gradients were measured at 235 bench marks (approximately 1.5 km spacing) along US-160 between Durango and Walsenburg, Colorado. In previous surveys (Texas-2011 and Iowa-2014), an A10 absolute gravimeter was used to measure graivty at approximately 10-15% of the bench marks. The remaining marks were determined by using LaCoste & Romberg relative gravimeters. The same relative instruments were also used to measure two-tier (linear) vertical gravity gradients at the A10 sites. In the current work - becuase of the rapidly changing terrain in the Rocky Mountains - it was decided to employ the A10 at all 235 bench marks, and acquire three-tier (quadratic) gradients at every bench mark using the new Scintrex CG-6 Autograv relative gravimeter. Using these results, we will provide a real worldsummary of the CG-6's behavior by examining noise levels, repeatability, and acquisition rates. In addition, the coincident A10 absolute data set allows us to evaluate the CG-6's accuracy, and allows us to simulate and discuss various relative gravity survey designs.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-07-01

    Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  9. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  10. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  11. Biomass Burning Research Using DOE ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lewis, Ernie [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this laboratory study was to investigate the chemical and optical properties, and the detection efficiencies, of tar balls generated in the laboratory using the same instruments deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study, during which tar balls were observed in wildland biomass burning particulate emissions. Key goals of this laboratory study were: (a) measuring the chemical composition of tar balls to provide insights into the atmospheric processes that form (evaporation/oxidation) and modify them in biomass burning plumes, (b) identifying whether tar balls contain refractory black carbon, (c) determining the collection efficiencies of tar balls impacting on the 600oC heated tungsten vaporizer in the Aerodyne Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) (i.e., given the observed low volatilities, AMS measurements might underestimate organic biomass burning plume loadings), and (d) measuring the wavelength-dependent, mass-specific absorption cross-sections of brown carbon components of tar balls. This project was funded primarily by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program, and the ARM Facility made their single-particle soot photometer (SP2) available for September 1-September 31, 2016 in the Aerodyne laboratories. The ARM mentor (Dr. Sedlacek) requested no funds for mentorship or data reduction. All ARM SP2 data collected as part of this project are archived in the ARM Data Archive in accordance with established protocols. The main objectives of the ARM Biomass Burning Observation Period (BBOP, July-October, 2013) field campaign were to (1) assess the impact of wildland fires in the Pacific Northwest on climate, through near-field and regional intensive measurement campaigns, and (2) investigate agricultural burns to determine how those biomass burn plumes differ from

  12. A lithospheric magnetic field model derived from the Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulot, G.; Thebault, E.; Vigneron, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Swarm constellation of satellites was launched in November 2013 and has since then delivered high quality scalar and vector magnetic field measurements. A consortium of several research institutions was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to provide a number of scientific products which will be made available to the scientific community. Within this framework, specific tools were tailor-made to better extract the magnetic signal emanating from Earth's the lithospheric. These tools rely on the scalar gradient measured by the lower pair of Swarm satellites and rely on a regional modeling scheme that is more sensitive to small spatial scales and weak signals than the standard spherical harmonic modeling. In this presentation, we report on various activities related to data analysis and processing. We assess the efficiency of this dedicated chain for modeling the lithospheric magnetic field using more than one year of measurements, and finally discuss refinements that are continuously implemented in order to further improve the robustness and the spatial resolution of the lithospheric field model.

  13. The urban boundary-layer field campaign in marseille (ubl/clu-escompte): set-up and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, P.G.; Durand, P.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Benech, B.; Campistron, B.; Coppalle, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dousset, B.; Drobinski, P.; Druilhet, A.; Frejafon, E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Groleau, D.; Irvine, M.; Kergomard, C.; Kermadi, S.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Long, N.; Masson, V.; Moppert, C.; Noilhan, J.; Offerle, B.; Oke, T.R.; Pigeon, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Roberts, S.; Rosant, J.-M.; Sanid, F.; Salmond, J.; Talbaut, M.; Voogt, J.

    The UBL/CLU (urban boundary layer/couche limite urbaine) observation and modelling campaign is a side-project of the regional photochemistry campaign ESCOMPTE. UBL/CLU focuses on the dynamics and thermodynamics of the urban boundary layer of Marseille, on the Mediterranean coast of France. The objective of UBL/CLU is to document the four-dimensional structure of the urban boundary layer and its relation to the heat and moisture exchanges between the urban canopy and the atmosphere during periods of low wind conditions, from June 4 to July 16, 2001. The project took advantage of the comprehensive observational set-up of the ESCOMPTE campaign over the Berre-Marseille area, especially the ground-based remote sensing, airborne measurements, and the intensive documentation of the regional meteorology. Additional instrumentation was installed as part of UBL/CLU. Analysis objectives focus on (i) validation of several energy balance computational schemes such as LUMPS, TEB and SM2-U, (ii) ground truth and urban canopy signatures suitable for the estimation of urban albedos and aerodynamic surface temperatures from satellite data, (iii) high resolution mapping of urban land cover, land-use and aerodynamic parameters used in UBL models, and (iv) testing the ability of high resolution atmospheric models to simulate the structure of the UBL during land and sea breezes, and the related transport and diffusion of pollutants over different districts of the city. This paper presents initial results from such analyses and details of the overall experimental set-up.

  14. Implementing the Mars Science Laboratory Terminal Descent Sensor Field Test Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, James F.; Bodie, James H.; Brown, Joseph D.; Chen, Allen; Chen, Curtis W.; Essmiller, John C.; Fisher, Charles D.; Goldberg, Hannah R.; Lee, Steven W.; Shaffer, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will deliver a 900 kg rover to the surface of Mars in August 2012. MSL will utilize a new pulse-Doppler landing radar, the Terminal Descent Sensor (TDS). The TDS employs six narrow-beam antennas to provide unprecedented slant range and velocity performance at Mars to enable soft touchdown of the MSL rover using a unique sky crane Entry, De-scent, and Landing (EDL) technique. Prior to use on MSL, the TDS was put through a rigorous verification and validation (V&V) process. A key element of this V&V was operating the TDS over a series of field tests, using flight-like profiles expected during the descent and landing of MSL over Mars-like terrain on Earth. Limits of TDS performance were characterized with additional testing meant to stress operational modes outside of the expected EDL flight profiles. The flight envelope over which the TDS must operate on Mars encompasses such a large range of altitudes and velocities that a variety of venues were neces-sary to cover the test space. These venues included an F/A-18 high performance aircraft, a Eurocopter AS350 AStar helicopter and 100-meter tall Echo Towers at the China Lake Naval Air Warfare Center. Testing was carried out over a five year period from July 2006 to June 2011. TDS performance was shown, in gen-eral, to be excellent over all venues. This paper describes the planning, design, and implementation of the field test campaign plus results and lessons learned.

  15. Pollutant transport over complex terrain: Flux and budget calculations for the pollumet field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehning, Michael; Richner, Hans; Kok, Gregory L.

    Especially over complex terrain, transport processes dominate the local pollutant concentrations observed. The data gathered during the POLLUMET measuring campaign in 1993 allow a quantitative analysis of the pollutant fluxes and the pollutant budgets. The data include airborne measurements by NCAR's King Air, radio soundings, radar wind profiles, and data from meteorological ground stations. The regions of interest were the rather densely populated Swiss Plateau, which is embedded between the Alps and the Jura Mountains, and a box south of the Alps covering the south Ticino region and parts of northern Italy. An interpolation scheme was developed to reconstruct the wind field from all available measurements. From the wind field and the reconstruction of the concentration field the fluxes into and out of a box with fixed boundaries are calculated. The pollutant budgets are obtained from the sum of the fluxes and considering a mean vertical velocity. To assess the uncertainties introduced through the interpolation of the measurements, an extensive sensitivity analysis is included. The Swiss Plateau exports ozone and nitrogen oxides. The export rates can be interpreted as an ozone accumulation or fraction of 'homemade pollution' between 3 and 10% and require a net production rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. Accumulation of nitrogen oxides amounts to 20-60%. The box south of the Alps imports polluted air from northern Italy. Thus, oxidized nitrogen is not exported but a net production of ozone still occurs at a rate of 1-2 ppb h -1. The interpolated flow and concentration fields are decomposed into the mean over a box-boundary and the deviation from that mean. This allows isolation of the contribution of local circulations and large-scale turbulence to the total flux. It is shown how the local thermotopographic circulations increasingly dominate the transport as typical Alpine topography is approached. Even over the Swiss Plateau, approximately 20 km away from Alpine topography

  16. Probing the earth's gravity field by means of satellite-to-satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    Two satellite-to-satellite tracking (sst) tests are described in detail: (1) the ATS-6/Geos-3 and (2) the ATS-6/Apollo-Soyuz experiment. The main purpose of these two experiments was to track via ATS-6 the Geos-3, as well as the Apollo-Soyuz and to use these tracking data to determine both of the orbits at the same time, each of the orbits alone, and to test the two sst links to study local gravity anomalies. A second purpose was to test communications, command and data transmission from the ground via ATS-6 to these spacecraft and back again to the ground.

  17. Hydroxyl and Hydroperoxy Radical Chemistry during the MCMA-2006 Field Campaign: Measurement and Model Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Vimal, D.; Stevens, P. S.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) field campaign, held in March 2006, was a unique opportunity to collect data in one of the most polluted megacities in the world. Such environments exhibit a complex oxidation chemistry involving a strong coupling between odd hydrogen radicals (HOX=OH+HO2) and nitrogen oxides species (NOX=NO+NO2). High levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOX control the HOX budget and lead to elevated tropospheric ozone formation. The HOX-NOX coupling can be investigated by comparing measured and model-predicted HOx concentrations. Atmospheric HOX concentrations were measured by the Indiana University laser-induced fluorescence instrument and data were collected at the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo between 14 and 31 March. Measured hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations are comparable to that measured in less polluted urban environments and suggest that the OH concentrations are highly buffered under high NOX conditions. In contrast, hydroperoxy radical (HO2) concentrations are more sensitive to the NOX levels and are highly variable between different urban sites. Enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals were observed on several days between 9h30-11h00 AM and suggest an additional HOX source for the morning hours and/or a fast HOX cycling under the high NOX conditions of the MCMA. A preliminary investigation of the HOX chemistry occurring in the MCMA urban atmosphere was performed using a photochemical box model based on the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM). Model comparisons will be presented and the agreement between measured and predicted HOX concentrations will be discussed.

  18. Ice nucleation properties of atmospheric aerosol particles collected during a field campaign in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanova, Petya; Maier, Stefanie; Lang-Yona, Naama; Tamm, Alexandra; Meusel, Hannah; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, including desert and soil dust as well as marine aerosols, are well known to act as ice nuclei (IN) and thus have been investigated in numerous ice nucleation studies. Based on their cloud condensation nuclei potential and their impacts on radiative properties of clouds (via scattering and absorption of solar radiation), aerosol particles may significantly affect the cloud and precipitation development. Atmospheric aerosols of the Eastern Mediterranean have been described to be dominated by desert dust, but only little is known on their composition and ice nucleating properties. In this study we investigated the ice nucleating ability of total suspended particles (TSP), collected at the remote site Agia Marina Xyliatou on Cyprus during a field campaign in April 2016. Airborne TSP samples containing air masses of various types such as African (Saharan) and Arabian dust and European and Middle Eastern pollution were collected on glass fiber filters at 24 h intervals. Sampling was performed ˜5 m above ground level and ˜521 m above sea level. During the sampling period, two major dust storms (PM 10max 118 μg/m3 and 66 μg/m3) and a rain event (rainfall amount: 3.4 mm) were documented. Chemical and physical characterizations of the particles were analyzed experimentally through filtration, thermal, chemical and enzyme treatments. Immersion freezing experiments were performed at relatively high subzero temperatures (-1 to -15˚ C) using the mono ice nucleation array. Preliminary results indicate that highest IN particle numbers (INPs) occurred during the second dust storm event with lower particle concentrations. Treatments at 60˚ C lead to a gradual IN deactivation, indicating the presence of biological INPs, which were observed to be larger than 300 kDa. Additional results originating from this study will be shown. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the DFG Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT).

  19. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 Terrestrial Ecosystem Project (Geco) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Kolby [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility GoAmazon campaign, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science (TES)-funded Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon 2014/15) terrestrial ecosystem project (Geco) was designed to: • evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of leaf-level algorithms for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Amazon forests near Manaus, Brazil, and • conduct mechanistic field studies to characterize biochemical and physiological processes governing leaf- and landscape-scale tropical forest BVOC emissions, and the influence of environmental drivers that are expected to change with a warming climate. Through a close interaction between modeling and observational activities, including the training of MS and PhD graduate students, post-doctoral students, and technicians at the National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA), the study aimed at improving the representation of BVOC-mediated biosphere-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks under a warming climate. BVOCs can form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that influence precipitation dynamics and modify the quality of down welling radiation for photosynthesis. However, our ability to represent these coupled biosphere-atmosphere processes in Earth system models suffers from poor understanding of the functions, identities, quantities, and seasonal patterns of BVOC emissions from tropical forests as well as their biological and environmental controls. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), the current BVOC sub-model of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), was evaluated to explore mechanistic controls over BVOC emissions. Based on that analysis, a combination of observations and experiments were studied in forests near Manaus, Brazil, to test existing parameterizations and algorithm structures in MEGAN. The model was actively modified as needed to improve tropical BVOC emission simulations on

  20. An Assessment of the Need for Standard Variable Names for Airborne Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, A. L., III; Chen, G.; Northup, E. A.; Kusterer, J.; Quam, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Earth Venture Program has led to a dramatic increase in airborne observations, requiring updated data management practices with clearly defined data standards and protocols for metadata. An airborne field campaign can involve multiple aircraft and a variety of instruments. It is quite common to have different instruments/techniques measure the same parameter on one or more aircraft platforms. This creates a need to allow instrument Principal Investigators (PIs) to name their variables in a way that would distinguish them across various data sets. A lack of standardization of variables names presents a challenge for data search tools in enabling discovery of similar data across airborne studies, aircraft platforms, and instruments. This was also identified by data users as one of the top issues in data use. One effective approach for mitigating this problem is to enforce variable name standardization, which can effectively map the unique PI variable names to fixed standard names. In order to ensure consistency amongst the standard names, it will be necessary to choose them from a controlled list. However, no such list currently exists despite a number of previous efforts to establish a sufficient list of atmospheric variable names. The Atmospheric Composition Variable Standard Name Working Group was established under the auspices of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) to solicit research community feedback to create a list of standard names that are acceptable to data providers and data users This presentation will discuss the challenges and recommendations of standard variable names in an effort to demonstrate how airborne metadata curation/management can be improved to streamline data ingest, improve interoperability, and discoverability to a broader user community.

  1. ULF fluctuations of the geomagnetic field and ionospheric sounding measurements at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ULF geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign (29 March-3 April 2004. During the whole campaign, mainly in the prenoon sector, a moderate Pc3-4 pulsation activity is observed, clearly related to interplanetary upstream waves. On 3 April, in correspondence to the Earth's arrival of a coronal mass ejection, two SIs are observed whose waveforms are indicative of a contribution of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to the low-latitude ground field. During the following geomagnetic storm, low frequency (Pc5 waves are observed at discrete frequencies. Their correspondence with the same frequencies detected in the radial components of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed suggests that Alfvénic solar wind fluctuations may act as direct drivers of magnetospheric fluctuations. A cross-phase analysis, using different pairs of stations, is also presented for identifying field line resonant frequencies and monitoring changes in plasmaspheric mass density. Lastly, an analysis of ionospheric vertical soundings, measured at the Rome ionosonde station (41.8° N, 12.5° E, and vertical TEC measurements deduced from GPS signals within an European network shows the relation between the ULF resonances in the inner magnetosphere and thermal plasma density variations during geomagnetically quiet conditions, in contrast to various storm phases at the end of the CAWSES campaign.

  2. The use of fair-weather cases from the ACT-America Summer 2016 field campaign to better constrain regional biogenic CO2 surface fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, B. J.; Davis, K. J.; DiGangi, J. P.; Feng, S.; Hoffman, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lauvaux, T.; McGill, M. J.; Miles, N.; Pal, S.; Pauly, R.; Richardson, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) study is a multi-year NASA-funded project designed to increase our understanding of regional-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes over North America through aircraft, satellite, and tower-based observations. This is being accomplished through a series of field campaigns that cover three focus regions (Mid-Atlantic, Gulf Coast, and Midwest), and all four seasons (summer, winter, fall, and spring), as well as a variety of meteorological conditions. While constraints on GHG fluxes can be derived on the global scale (through remote-site concentration measurements and global flux inversion models) and the local scale (through eddy-covariance flux tower measurements), observational constraints on the intermediate scales are not as readily available. Biogenic CO2 fluxes are particularly challenging because of their strong seasonal and diurnal cycles and large spatial variability. During the summer 2016 ACT field campaign, fair weather days were targeted for special flight patterns designed to estimate surface fluxes at scales on the order of 105 km2 using a modified mass-balance approach. For some onshore flow cases in the Gulf Coast, atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flight transects were performed both inland and offshore when it could be reasonably inferred that the homogeneous Gulf air provided the background GHG field for the inland transect. On other days, two-day flight sequences were performed, where the second-day location of the flight patterns was designed to encompass the air mass that was sampled on the first day. With these flight patterns, the average regional flux can be estimated from the ABL CO2 concentration change. Direct measurements of ABL depth from both aircraft profiles and high-resolution airborne lidar will be used, while winds and free-tropospheric CO2 can be determined from model output and in situ aircraft observations. Here we will present examples of this flux estimation for both Gulf

  3. Development of an online analyzer of atmospheric H 2O 2 and several organic hydroperoxides for field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S.; Sowka, I.; Monod, A.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Laugier, J. M.; Wortham, H.

    2005-03-01

    An online automated instrument was developed for atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides with separation and quantification of H 2O 2 and several organic hydroperoxides. Samples were trapped in aqueous solutions in a scrubbing glass coil. Analyses were performed on an HPLC column followed by para-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (POPHA) acetic acid and peroxidase derivatization and fluorescence detection. Analytical and sampling tests were performed on different parameters to obtain optimum signal-to-noise ratios, high resolution and collection efficiencies higher than 95% for H 2O 2 and organic hydroperoxides. The obtained performances show large improvements compared to previous studies. The sampling and analytical devices can be coupled providing an online analyzer. The device was used during two field campaigns in the Marseilles area in June 2001 (offline analyzer) and in July 2002 (online analyzer) at rural sites at low and high altitudes, respectively, during the ESCOMPTE and BOND campaigns. During the ESCOMPTE campaign, H 2O 2 was detected occasionally, and no organic hydroperoxides was observed. During the BOND campaign, substantial amounts of H 2O 2 and 1-HEHP+MHP were often detected, and two other organic hydroperoxides were occasionally detected. These observations are discussed.

  4. KEGS Discovery of 9 Supernova Candidates in the K2 Campaign 17 field with Pan-STARRS PS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. W.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Margheim, S.; Kasen, D.; Olling, R.; Shaya, E.; Narayan, G.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Mushotzky, R.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris; Dotson, J. L.; Barentsen, G.; Gully-Santiago, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Wright, D. E.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Schultz, A.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Bulger, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    We report the following transients discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler Campaign 17 field as part of the K2 Extragalactic Survey (KEGS) for Transients (see http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/kegs/ ) Information on the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients is available at http://star.pst.qub.ac.uk/ps1threepi/ (see Huber et al. ATel #7153).

  5. Probing the earth's gravity field using Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1976-01-01

    Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tests, namely: (a) the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and (b) the ATS-6/Apollo-Soyuz experiment and some of the results obtained are described. The main purpose of these two experiments was first to track via ATS-6 the GEOS-3 as well as the Apollo-Soyuz and to use these tracking data to determine (a) both orbits, that is, ATS-6, GEOS-3 and/or the Apollo-Soyuz orbits at the same time; (b) each of these orbits alone; and (c) test the ATS-6/GEOS-3 and/or Apollo-Soyuz SST link to study local gravity anomalies; and, second, to test communications, command, and data transmission from the ground via ATS-6 to these spacecraft and back again to the ground. The Apollo-Soyuz Geodynamics Experiment is discussed in some detail.

  6. Drag-Free Motion Control of Satellite for High-Precision Gravity Field Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Bent Lindvig; Blanke, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    High precision mapping of the geoid and the Earth's gravity field are of importance to a wide range of ongoing studies in areas like ocean circulation, solid Earth physics and ice sheet dynamics. Using a satellite in orbit around the Earth gives the opportunity to map the Earth's gravity field in 3...... will compromise measurement accuracy, unless they are accurately compensated by on-board thrusters. The paper concerns the design of a control system to performing such delicate drag compensation. A six degrees-of-freedom model for the satellite is developed with the model including dynamics of the satellite...

  7. Evaluation of AirMSPI photopolarimetric retrievals of smoke properties with in-situ observations collected during the ImPACT-PM field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Seidel, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Bates, K. H.; Kong, W.; Kenseth, C.; Cappa, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce and evaluate an approach for obtaining closure between in situ and polarimetric remote sensing observations of smoke properties obtained during the collocated CIRPAS Twin Otter and ER-2 aircraft measurements of the Lebec fire event on July 8, 2016. We investigate the utility of multi-angle, spectropolarimetric remote sensing imagery to evaluate the relative contribution of organics, non-organic and black carbon particles to smoke particulate composition. The remote sensing data were collected during the Imaging Polarimetric and Characterization of Tropospheric Particular Matter (ImPACT-PM) field campaign by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI), which flew on NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The ImPACT-PM field campaign was a joint JPL/Caltech effort to combine measurements from the Terra Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), AirMSPI, in situ airborne measurements, and a chemical transport model to validate remote sensing retrievals of different types of airborne particulate matter with a particular emphasis on carbonaceous aerosols. The in-situ aerosol data were collected with a suite of Caltech instruments on board the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and included the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2). The CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft was also equipped with the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), nephelometer, a particle counter, and meteorological sensors. We found that the multi-angle polarimetric observations are capable of fire particulate emission monitoring by particle type as inferred from the in-situ airborne measurements. Modeling of retrieval sensitivities show that the characterization of black carbon is the most challenging. The work aims at evaluating multi-angle, spectropolarimetric capabilities for particulate matter characterization in support of the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) satellite investigation

  8. Surveys and Analysis of RFI in Preparation for SMOS: Results from Airborne Campaigns and First Impressions from Satellite Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Jan E.; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2011-01-01

    Several soil moisture and sea salinity campaigns, including airborne L-band radiometer measurements, have been carried out in preparation for the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. The radiometer used in this context is fully polarimetric and is capable......, other detection methods have been investigated as well. In particular, inspection of the third and fourth Stokes parameters shows promising results—possibly as a complement to the kurtosis method. The kurtosis method, however, cannot be used with SMOS data. Since SMOS is fully polarimetric, the third...... and fourth Stokes parameter method is an option, and a first assessment using a fully polarimetric SMOS data set looks promising. Finally, a variable incidence angle signature algorithm is introduced, and the possibility of using this as an RFI indicator is discussed....

  9. Identification of High-Variation Fields based on Open Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob Høxbroe; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    . The categorization is based on vegetation indices derived from Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. A case study on 7678 winter wheat fields is presented, which employs open data and open source software to analyze the satellite imagery. Furthermore, the method can be automated to deliver categorizations at every update......This paper proposes a simple method for categorizing fields on a regional level, with respect to intra-field variations. It aims to identify fields where the potential benefits of applying precision agricultural practices are highest from an economic and environmental perspective...

  10. Evaluation of Latent Heat Flux Fields from Satellites and Models during SEMAPHORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourras, Denis; Liu, W. Timothy; Eymard, Laurence; Tang, Wenqing

    2003-02-01

    Latent heat fluxes were derived from satellite observations in the region of Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE), which was conducted near the Azores islands in the North Atlantic Ocean in autumn of 1993. The satellite fluxes were compared with output fields of two atmospheric circulation models and in situ measurements. The rms error of the instantaneous satellite fluxes is between 35 and 40 W m-2 and the bias is 60-85 W m-2. The large bias is mainly attributed to a bias in satellite-derived atmospheric humidity and is related to the particular shape of the vertical humidity profiles during SEMAPHORE. The bias in humidity implies that the range of estimated fluxes is smaller than the range of ship fluxes, by 34%-38%. The rms errors for fluxes from models are 30-35 W m-2, and the biases are smaller than the biases in satellite fluxes (14-18 W m-2). Two case studies suggest that the satellites detect horizontal gradients of wind speed and specific humidity if the magnitude of the gradients exceeds a detection threshold, which is 1.27 g kg-1 (100 km)-1 for specific humidity and between 0.35 and 0.82 m s-1 (30 km)-1 for wind speed. In contrast, the accuracy of the spatial gradients of bulk variables from models always varies as a function of the location and number of assimilated observations. A comparison between monthly fluxes from satellites and models reveals that satellite-derived flux anomaly fields are consistent with reanalyzed fields, whereas operational model products lack part of the mesoscale structures present in the satellite fields.

  11. Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides and aldehydes during field campaigns : new results due to improvement of measurements techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, S.; Sowka, I.; Poulain, L.; Monod, A.; Wortham, H.

    2003-04-01

    Hydroperoxides and aldehydes are considered as atmospheric reservoirs of OH, HO_2 and RO_2 radicals and can reflect the oxidizing levels of the atmosphere. They are considered as important gas phase photo-oxidants present in the atmosphere. However, the atmospheric role of these compounds can vary from one species to another, therefore it is essential to investigate their measurement and speciation in the atmosphere. Atmospheric measurements were realized during two different field campaigns in the Marseilles area (France). Hydroperoxides were trapped in aqueous phase, with a glass coil and analyzed by HPLC/fluorescence detector with post column derivatization. Aldehydes were trapped in a liquid phase containing 2-4 DNPH, with a mist chamber and analyzed by HPLC/UV. The analytical techniques provided individual separation and quantification of seven hydroperoxides (hydrogen peroxide, hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, bis(hydroxymethyl) peroxide, 1-hydroxyethyl hydroperoxide, methyl hydroperoxide, ethyl hydroperoxide and peroxyacetic acid) and eleven volatile aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, valeraldehyde and methylglyoxal). The first field campaign was part of the ESCOMPTE project (June 4th to July 16th 2001). During this campaign five different sampling sites, at low altitudes (<= 285 m), were investigated (maritime, urban, sub-industrial, biogenic and rural sites) and atmospheric measurements were realized during photochemical air pollution events. The second field campaign was part of the BOND project (July 2nd to July 14th 2002). Atmospheric measurements of hydroperoxides were carried out on one biogenic site, at altitude 690 m. The measurement system was improved allowing online sampling and analysis. During these field campaigns collection efficiencies were better than 96% for hydroperoxides, and from 78% to 96% for aldehydes. Detection limits were between 7,3× 10-3

  12. Satellite-borne study of seismic phenomena by low frequency magnetic field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Magnes, Werner; Xuhui, Shen; Wang, Jindong; Pollinger, Andreas; Hagen, Christian; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans-Ulrich; Wolbang, Daniel; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Rozhnoi, Alexander A.; Zhang, Tielong

    2015-04-01

    A combined scalar-vector magnetic field experiment will be flown on the upcoming CSES mission (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite). Magnetic field data from DC to 30 Hz will be measured with an accuracy of about 10 pT. A fluxgate instrument will provide the 3 magnetic field components and a new type of an optically pumped magnetometer [see Pollinger, 2010] will measure the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field. The satellite will operate in a Sun synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of about 500 km and with an inclination of 97°. We present a model of magnetic field fluctuations in the upper ionosphere based on previous satellite observations and on a model of the lithospheric-atmospheric-ionospheric coupling. Pollinger et al., CDSM-a new scalar magnetometer, EGU General Assembly 2010

  13. Modeling of discharge-triggered electric field redistribution on the interior components of a satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.; Horvath, E.B.

    1999-01-01

    This work examines an electrostatic charging/discharging cycle of a populated circuit board inside an equipment housing of a satellite at GEO. Component potentials and electric field strengths are examined before and after a common ground discharge event. Field reversal after the discharge suggests that favourable conditions exist for charge dissipation from dielectrics. (authors)

  14. An orbit determination algorithm for small satellites based on the magnitude of the earth magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorski, P.; Gallina, A.; Rachucki, J.; Moczala, B.; Zietek, S.; Uhl, T.

    2018-06-01

    Autonomous attitude determination systems based on simple measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field and the Sun direction are commonly used in very small satellites. However, those systems always require knowledge of the satellite position. This information can be either propagated from orbital elements periodically uplinked from the ground station or measured onboard by dedicated global positioning system (GPS) receiver. The former solution sacrifices satellite autonomy while the latter requires additional sensors which may represent a significant part of mass, volume, and power budget in case of pico- or nanosatellites. Hence, it is thought that a system for onboard satellite position determination without resorting to GPS receivers would be useful. In this paper, a novel algorithm for determining the satellite orbit semimajor-axis is presented. The methods exploit only the magnitude of the Earth magnetic field recorded onboard by magnetometers. This represents the first step toward an extended algorithm that can determine all orbital elements of the satellite. The method is validated by numerical analysis and real magnetic field measurements.

  15. External field characterization using CHAMP satellite data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical conductivity of the subsurface can be investigated ... the field components have greater power in dusk ... Figure 3. Rotational transformation from GSM to SM frame. ..... second generation of the GFZ reference internal magnetic.

  16. Increasing the dose of television advertising in a national antismoking media campaign: results from a randomised field trial

    OpenAIRE

    McAfee, Tim; Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Alexander, Robert; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background While antismoking media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness, less is known about the country-level effects of increased media dosing. The 2012 US Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign generated approximately 1.6 million quit attempts overall; however, the specific dose?response from the campaign was only assessed by self-report. Objective Assess the impact of higher ad exposure during the 2013 Tips campaign on quit-related behaviours and intentions, campaign awareness, com...

  17. Biogenic Aerosols—Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseev, Dmitri [University of Helsinki

    2016-04-01

    The snowfall measurement campaign took place during deployment of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Finland. The campaign focused on understanding snowfall microphysics and characterizing performance of surface-based snowfall measurement instruments. This was achieved by combining triple frequency (X, Ka, W-band) radar observations of vertical structure of the precipitation, microwave radiometer observations of liquid water path (LWP), and lidar measurements of supercooled water layers with surface-based observations of snowfall rate and particle size distributions. To facilitate accurate surface measurements of snowfall properties, a double-fence intercomparison reference wind protection for the weighing precipitation gauge and two-dimensional (2D)-video disdrometer was built on site. Due to the duplication of some instruments, namely the 2D-video disdrometer and the weighing gauge, we were able to characterize their measurement errors as a function of wind speed, thus aiming at providing a correction procedure for the other ARM sites.

  18. Insights on the Feasibility, Modeling and Field Testing of Cirrus Cloud Thinning from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    cirrus De-T relationships with those corresponding to het cirrus (at similar latitudes). In this way the potential cooling from CCT in the Northern Hemisphere will be estimated. If a field campaign was ever conducted for testing the efficacy of CCT, this CALIPSO retrieval could be used to help determine whether the seeded hom cirrus were transformed into het cirrus.

  19. A scalable satellite-based crop yield mapper: Integrating satellites and crop models for field-scale estimation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Food security will be challenged over the upcoming decades due to increased food demand, natural resource degradation, and climate change. In order to identify potential solutions to increase food security in the face of these changes, tools that can rapidly and accurately assess farm productivity are needed. With this aim, we have developed generalizable methods to map crop yields at the field scale using a combination of satellite imagery and crop models, and implement this approach within Google Earth Engine. We use these methods to examine wheat yield trends in Northern India, which provides over 15% of the global wheat supply and where over 80% of farmers rely on wheat as a staple food source. In addition, we identify the extent to which farmers are shifting sow date in response to heat stress, and how well shifting sow date reduces the negative impacts of heat stress on yield. To identify local-level decision-making, we map wheat sow date and yield at a high spatial resolution (30 m) using Landsat satellite imagery from 1980 to the present. This unique dataset allows us to examine sow date decisions at the field scale over 30 years, and by relating these decisions to weather experienced over the same time period, we can identify how farmers learn and adapt cropping decisions based on weather through time.

  20. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the application of interactive 3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and forecast wind field resolution. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (three to seven days before take-off).

  1. Satellite Power System (SPS): an Overview of Prospective Organizational Structures in the Solar Satellite Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    A literature survey, interviews with acknowledged experts in the fields of organizational entities, space, solar energy, and the SPS concept, and an analysis of these inputs to identify the organizational alternatives and make judgments as to their feasibility to serve as patterns for a future SPS entity are presented. Selection and evaluation criteria were determined to include timeliness, reliability, and adequacy to contribute meaningfully to the U.S. supply; political feasibility (both national and international) and cost-effectiveness (including environmental and other external costs). Based on these criteria, four organizational alternatives are discussed which offer reasonable promise as potential options for SPS. These included three domestic alternatives and one international alternative.

  2. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finnamore, W [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, P [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Gao, Rushan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hock, T [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) campaign was proposed with two central goals; to obtain scientifically relevant measurements of quantities related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation, including profiles of temperature, humidity, and aerosol particles, the structure of the arctic atmosphere during transitions between clear and cloudy states, measurements that would allow us to evaluate the performance of retrievals from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility remote sensors in the Arctic atmosphere, and information on the spatial variability of heat and moisture fluxes from the arctic surface; and to demonstrate unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities in obtaining measurements relevant to the ARM and ASR programs, particularly for improving our understanding of Arctic clouds and aerosols.

  3. Evaluation of the lake model FLake over a coastal lagoon during the THAUMEX field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Le Moigne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The THAUMEX measurement campaign, carried out during the summer of 2011 in Thau, a coastal lagoon in southern France, focused on episodes of marine breezes. During the campaign, three intensive observation periods (IOPs were conducted and a large amount of data were collected. Subsequently, standalone modelling using the FLake lake model was used, first to assess the surface temperature and the surface energy balance, and second to determine the energy budget of the water column at the measurement site. Surface fluxes were validated against in situ measurements, and it was determined that heat exchanges are dominated by evaporation. We also demonstrated that the model was sensitive to the light extinction coefficient at Thau, due to its shallowness and clarity nature. A heat balance was calculated, and the inclusion of a radiative temperature has improved it, especially by reducing the nocturnal evaporation. The FLake lake model was then evaluated in three-dimensional numerical simulations performed with the Meso-NH mesoscale model, in order to assess the changing structure of the boundary layer above the lagoon during the IOPs more accurately. We highlighted the first time ever when Meso-NH and FLake were coupled and proved the ability of the coupled system to forecast a complex phenomenon but also the importance of the use of the FLake model was pointed out. We demonstrated the impact of the lagoon and more precisely the Lido, a sandy strip of land between the lagoon and the Mediterranean Sea, on the vertical distribution of turbulent kinetic energy, evidence of the turbulence induced by the breeze. This study showed the complementarities between standalone and coupled simulations.

  4. Preliminary Findings from the One-Year Electric Field Study in the North Slope of Alaska (OYES-NSA), Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, T.; Liu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on the comparison of the measured electric field to the physical properties of global electrified clouds have been conducted almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere. The One-Year Electric Field Study-North Slope of Alaska (OYES-NSA) aims to establish a long-running collection of this valuable electric field data in the Northern Hemisphere. Presented here is the six-month preliminary data and results of the OYES-NSA Atmospheric Radiation Mission (ARM) field campaign. The local electric field measured in Barrow, Alaska using two CS110 reciprocating shutter field meters, has been compared to simultaneous measurements from the ARM Ka-Band zenith radar, to better understand the influence and contribution of different types of clouds on the local electric field. The fair-weather electric field measured in Barrow has also been analyzed and compared to the climatology of electric field at Vostok Station, Antarctica. The combination of the electric field dataset in the Northern Hemisphere, alongside the local Ka cloud radar, global Precipitation Feature (PF) database, and quasi-global lightning activity (55oN-55oS), allows for advances in the physical understanding of the local electric field, as well as the Global Electric Circuit (GEC).

  5. Sources, Composition, and Properties of Newly Formed and Regional Organic Aerosol in a Boreal Forest during the Biogenic Aerosol: Effects on Clouds and Climate Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Joel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Thornton Laboratory participated in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Biogenic Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) campaign in Finland by deploying our mass spectrometer. We then participated in environmental simulation chamber studies at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Thereafter, we analyzed the results as demonstrated in the several presentations and publications. The field campaign and initial environmental chamber studies are described below.

  6. Evaluation of the Precision of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Cornillon, P. C.; Guan, L.

    2016-02-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on the temporal accuracy of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) fields with little attention being given to their spatial precision. Specifically, the primary measure of the quality of SST fields has been the bias and variance of selected values minus co-located (in space and time) in situ values. Contributing values, determined by the location of the in situ values and the necessity that the satellite-derived values be cloud free, are generally widely separated in space and time hence provide little information related to the pixel-to-pixel uncertainty in the retrievals. But the main contribution to the uncertainty in satellite-derived SST retrievals relates to atmospheric contamination and because the spatial scales of atmospheric features are, in general, large compared with the pixel separation of modern infra-red sensors, the pixel-to-pixel uncertainty is often smaller than the accuracy determined from in situ match-ups. This makes selection of satellite-derived datasets for the study of submesoscale processes, for which the spatial structure of the upper ocean is significant, problematic. In this presentation we present a methodology to characterize the spatial precision of satellite-derived SST fields. The method is based on an examination of the high wavenumber tail of the 2-D spectrum of SST fields in the Sargasso Sea, a low energy region of the ocean close to the track of the MV Oleander, a container ship making weekly roundtrips between New York and Bermuda, with engine intake temperatures sampled every 75 m along track. Important spectral characteristics are the point at which the satellite-derived spectra separate from the Oleander spectra and the spectral slope following separation. In this presentation a number of high resolution 375 m to 10 km SST datasets are evaluated based on this approach.

  7. The DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field from double retracked satellite altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Berry, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has been monitoring the earth's oceans from space for several decades. However, only the GEOSAT and ERS-1 geodetic mission data recorded more than a decade ago provide altimetry with adequate spatial coverage to derive a high-resolution marine gravity field. The original...

  8. Phenocams bridge the gap between field and satellite observations in an arid grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near surface (i.e., camera) and satellite remote sensing metrics have become widely used indicators of plant growing seasons. While robust linkages have been established between field metrics and ecosystem exchange in many land cover types, assessment of how well remotely-derived season start and en...

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ULF FIELD ONBOARD THE MAGION-4 SATELLITE: ULF EXPERIMENT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Pavel; Vojta, Jaroslav; Czapek, Alexandr; Chum, Jaroslav; Teodosiev, D.; Galev, G.; Shibaev, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2003), s. 47-53 ISSN 0861-1432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : Satellite * measurement * electromagnetic field * ULF Subject RIV: JV - Space Technology http://www.space.bas.bg/astro/eng.html

  10. Earth's lithospheric magnetic field determined to spherical harmonic degree 90 from CHAMP satellite measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maus, S.; Rother, M.; Hemant, K.

    2006-01-01

    of the lithospheric field down to an altitude of about 50 km at lower latitudes, with reduced accuracy in the polar regions. Crustal features come out significantly sharper than in previous models. In particular, bands of magnetic anomalies along subduction zones become visible by satellite for the first time....

  11. Characterization of pollution in the arctic troposphere: use of airborne and satellite data as part of the IPY/POLARCAT campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommier, M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvements in observing systems and numerical models in recent decades, it remains difficult to reproduce the observed pollution episodes in the Arctic especially in summertime. One possible explanation is the underestimation of modelled ozone (O 3 ) production in forest fires plumes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is often used as a tracer of pollution transport due to its relatively long lifetime of several weeks in the troposphere. It is a reactive gas, mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation burning. Moreover, since its main sink is reaction with OH radical, CO has an important role in the oxidizing power of the atmosphere it also plays an important role in the assessment of tropospheric ozone. The purpose of my thesis has been to contribute to a better understanding of transport and of the chemical mechanisms of pollutants formation in the Arctic troposphere. A combination of the new CO measurements from the IASI satellite instrument, launched in October 2006 aboard the MetOp-A and aircraft data collected during the POLARCAT campaigns of the International Polar Year, in spring and summer 2008 were used. IASI CO observations were first validated by comparison with in situ airborne measurements showing its ability to detect the evolution of high CO signatures plume as close to sources regions. The second part of the thesis used assimilation of daily IASI CO measurements (Kalman filter) in the LMDz-INCA global model to improve our understanding about sources of pollution impacting the Arctic troposphere and their transport pathways. The assimilation has improved the modelling of CO pollution episodes in the Arctic free troposphere. Model results were also evaluated using POLARCAT observations and used to examine the sensitivity of Arctic pollutant concentrations (namely the overestimation of O 3 distribution and the underestimation of peroxy acetyl nitride - PAN - distribution) to emissions from different regions and in particular the

  12. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    One of the major issues confronting aerosol climate simulations of the Arctic and Antarctic cryospheres is the lack of detailed data on the vertical and spatial distribution of aerosols with which to test these models. This is due, in part, to the inherent difficulty of conducting such measurements in extreme environments. However given the pronounced sensitivity of the polar regions to radiative balance perturbations, it is incumbent upon our community to better understand and quantify these perturbations, and their unique feedbacks, so that robust model predictions of this region can be realized. One class of under-measured radiative forcing agents in the polar region is the absorbing aerosol—black carbon and brown carbon. Black carbon (BC; also referred to as light-absorbing carbon [LAC], refractory black carbon [rBC], and soot) is second only to CO2 as a positive forcing agent. Roughly 60% of BC emissions can be attributed to anthropogenic sources (fossil fuel combustion and open-pit cooking), with the remaining fraction being due to biomass burning. Brown carbon (BrC), a major component of biomass burning, collectively refers to non-BC carbonaceous aerosols that typically possess minimal light absorption at visible wavelengths but exhibit pronounced light absorption in the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. Both species can be sourced locally or be remotely transported to the Arctic region and are expected to perturb the radiative balance. The work conducted in this field campaign addresses one of the more glaring deficiencies currently limiting improved quantification of the impact of BC radiative forcing in the cryosphere: the paucity of data on the vertical and spatial distributions of BC. By expanding the Gulfstream aircraft (G-1) payload for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility-sponsored ACME-V campaign to include the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2)) and leveraging the ACME-V campaign

  13. Light-absorbing Aerosol Properties in the Kathmandu Valley during SusKat-ABC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kim, J.; Cho, C.; Jung, J.

    2013-12-01

    Light-absorbing aerosols, such as black carbon (BC), are major contributors to the atmospheric heating and the reduction of solar radiation reaching at the earth's surface. In this study, we investigate light-absorption and scattering properties of aerosols (i.e., BC mass concentration, aerosol solar-absorption/scattering efficiency) in the Kathmandu valley during Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu valley (SusKat)-ABC campaign, from December 2012 to February 2013. Kathmandu City is among the most polluted cities in the world. However, there are only few past studies that provide basic understanding of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, which is not sufficient for designing effective mitigation measures (e.g., technological, financial, regulatory, legal and political measures, planning strategies). A distinct diurnal variation of BC mass concentration with two high peaks observed during wintertime dry monsoon period. BC mass concentration was found to be maximum around 09:00 and 20:00 local standard time (LST). Increased cars and cooking activities including substantial burning of wood and other biomass in the morning and in the evening contributed to high BC concentration. Low BC concentrations during the daytime can be explain by reduced vehicular movement and cooking activities. Also, the developmements of the boundary layer height and mountain-valley winds in the Kathmandu Valley paly a crucial role in the temproal variation of BC mass concentrations. Detailed radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols will be presented.

  14. Harvard Bounce Apparatus GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Martin, Scott T. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the physical state of particulate matter during the GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign was investigated through the use of particle rebound (or lack thereof) during impaction. The physics governing particle rebound have been previously modeled and can be attributed to the surface and material properties. The physical state of secondary organic material is regulated by several factors, including the local RH, the recent RH history in the case of hysteresis, and chemical composition. Across the range of atmospheric RH, hygroscopic water uptake can occur and transitions from higher to lower viscosity phases are possible. By varying the particulate matter water content and observing particle rebound as a function of RH, the phase state of the organic material under investigation can be determined. Custom-made impactors were employed to study the effects of RH (up to 95%) on the particle physical state. Results inferred from the particle rebound measurements indicate that, under ambient conditions (RH >80%), particulate matter in Amazonia can be considered in a liquid phase state. However, during certain time periods, a fraction (10 to 30%) of particulate matter is found to rebound during the highest RH conditions, which indicates the presence of hydrophobic particles. The source of the hydrophobic particulates appears to be anthropogenic, from either biomass burning or the Manaus plume.

  15. Lidar Comparison for GoAmazon 2014/15 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Henrique MJ [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Barja, B [Universidade de Sao Paulo; Landulfo, E [Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2016-04-01

    The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) experiment uses the city of Manaus, Amazonas (AM), Brazil, in the setting of the surrounding green ocean as a natural laboratory for understanding the effects of present and future anthropogenic pollution on the aerosol and cloud life cycle in the tropics. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supported this experiment through the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s first Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the city of Manacapuru, which is 100 km downwind of Manaus, from January 1 2014 to December 31 2015. During the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) from August 15 to October 15 2014, three lidar systems were operated simultaneously at different experimental sites, and an instrument comparison campaign was carried out during the period October 4 to 10, during which the mobile lidar system from Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares-Universidade de São Paulo was brought from the T2 site (Iranduba) to the other sites (T3 [Manacapuru] and then T0e-Embrapa). In this report we present the data collected by the mobile lidar system at the DOE-ARM site and compare its measurements with those from the micro-pulse lidar system running at that site.

  16. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  17. The INCOMPASS project field and modelling campaign: Interaction of Convective Organization and Monsoon Precipitation, Atmosphere, Surface and Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Bhat, Ganapati; Evans, Jonathan; Madan, Ranju; Marsham, John; Martin, Gill; Mitra, Ashis; Mrudula, Gm; Parker, Douglas; Pattnaik, Sandeep; Rajagopal, En; Taylor, Christopher; Tripathi, Sachchida

    2017-04-01

    The INCOMPASS project uses data from a field and aircraft measurement campaign during the 2016 monsoon onset to better understand and predict monsoon rainfall. The monsoon supplies the majority of water in South Asia, however modelling and forecasting the monsoon from days to the season ahead is limited by large model errors that develop quickly. Likely problems lie in physical parametrizations such as convection, the boundary layer and land surface. At the same time, lack of detailed observations prevents more thorough understanding of monsoon circulation and its interaction with the land surface; a process governed by boundary layer and convective cloud dynamics. From May to July 2016, INCOMPASS used a modified BAe-146 jet aircraft operated by the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM), for the first project of this scale in India. The India and UK team flew around 100 hours of science sorties from bases in northern and southern India. Flights from Lucknow in the northern plains took measurements to the west and southeast to allow sampling of the complete contrast from dry desert air to the humid environment over the north Bay of Bengal. These routes were repeated in the pre-monsoon and monsoon phases, measuring contrasting surface and boundary layer structures. In addition, flights from the southern base in Bengaluru measured contrasts from the Arabian Sea, across the intense rains of the Western Ghats mountains, over the rain shadow in southeast India and over the southern Bay of Bengal. Flight planning was performed with the aid of forecasts from a new UK Met Office 4km limited area model. INCOMPASS also installed a network of surface flux towers, as well as operating a cloud-base ceilometer and performing intensive radiosonde launches from a supersite in Kanpur. Here we will outline preliminary results from the field campaign including new observations of the surface, boundary layer structure and atmospheric profiles from aircraft data. We

  18. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

  19. Viking satellite program - preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Erlandson, R.E.; Gustafsson, G.; Acuna, M.H.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1986-01-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed

  20. The role of satellite altimetry in gravity field modelling in coastal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    global uniform gravity information with very high resolution, and these global marine gravity fields are registered on a two by two minute grid corresponding to 4 by 4 kilometres at the equator. In this presentation several coastal complications in deriving the marine gravity field from satellite...... altimetry will be investigated using the KMS98 gravity field. Comparison with other sources of gravity field information like airborne and marine gravity observations will be carried out and two fundamentally different test areas (Azores and Skagerak) will be studied to investigated the different role...

  1. North Slope of Alaska Snow Intensive Operational Period Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Mary Jane [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cherry, Jessica [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Ritsche, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The campaign was motivated by the need to improve the quantification of measurements of ice-phase precipitation in the Arctic and was by the acquisition and deployment of the new X- and Ka/W-band radars. These radars opened up an opportunity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility to obtain spatial estimates of snowfall rates using the polarimetric X-band measurements and dual-frequency measurements (using different combinations of the three wavelengths). However, calculations of X- and Ka-band radar back-scattering of ice crystal aggregates with their complex structure suggest that the commonly used T-matrix approach (Matrosov et al. 2007) for modeling the radar back-scattering underestimates the reflectivity by several decibels, with errors increasing with increasing radar frequency (Botta et al. 2010, 2011). Moreover, the X-band polarimetric measurements and the Ka/W-band measurements are sensitive to the assumed shape of the snow (Botta et al. 2011). One of the five ARM two-dimensional video disdrometers (manufactured by Joanneum Research) were deployed in Barrow at the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site from 1 October, 2011 to 31 May, 2012 in an attempt to use the instrument in a novel way. The instrument was originally designed to measure the drop size distribution of rain but it seemed worthwhile to explore its capability to quantify ice precipitation particle size and shape distributions in the cold north for scattering calculations and precipitation estimations. Furthermore, this deployment gave us an opportunity to see how reliable it could be in arctic conditions.

  2. Modeling studies on the formation of Hurricane Helene: the impact of GPS dropwindsondes from the NAMMA 2006 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Pasken, Robert W.; Chiao, Sen; Dunion, Jason; Halverson, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations, using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model in concert with GPS dropwindsondes released during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses 2006 Field Campaign, were conducted to provide additional insight on SAL-TC interaction. Using NCEP Final analysis datasets to initialize the WRF, a sensitivity test was performed on the assimilated (i.e., observation nudging) GPS dropwindsondes to understand the effects of individual variables (i.e., moisture, temperature, and winds) on the simulation and determine the extent of improvement when compared to available observations. The results suggested that GPS dropwindsonde temperature data provided the most significant difference in the simulated storm organization, storm strength, and synoptic environment, but all of the variables assimilated at the same time give a more representative mesoscale and synoptic picture.

  3. POGO satellite orbit corrections: an opportunity to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Reto; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We present an attempt to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) satellite missions in the late 1960s. Inaccurate satellite positions are believed to be a major source of errors for using the magnetic observations for field...... modelling. To improve the data, we use aniterative approach consisting of two main parts: one is a main field modelling process to obtain the radial fieldgradient to perturb the orbits and the other is the state-of-the-art GPS orbit modelling software BERNESE to calculatenew physical orbits. We report....... With this approach, weeliminate the orbit discontinuities at midnight but only tiny quality improvements could be achieved forgeomagnetically quiet data. We believe that improvements to the data are probably still possible, but it would require the original tracking observations to be found....

  4. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15. CHUVA Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, L. A. T. [National Inst. for Space Research, Sao Jose (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    The physical processes inside clouds are one of the most unknown components of weather and climate systems. A description of cloud processes through the use of standard meteorological parameters in numerical models has to be strongly improved to accurately describe the characteristics of hydrometeors, latent heating profiles, radiative balance, air entrainment, and cloud updrafts and downdrafts. Numerical models have been improved to run at higher spatial resolutions where it is necessary to explicitly describe these cloud processes. For instance, to analyze the effects of global warming in a given region it is necessary to perform simulations taking into account all of the cloud processes described above. Another important application that requires this knowledge is satellite precipitation estimation. The analysis will be performed focusing on the microphysical evolution and cloud life cycle, different precipitation estimation algorithms, the development of thunderstorms and lightning formation, processes in the boundary layer, and cloud microphysical modeling. This project intends to extend the knowledge of these cloud processes to reduce the uncertainties in precipitation estimation, mainly from warm clouds, and, consequently, improve knowledge of the water and energy budget and cloud microphysics.

  5. Testing the gravitational interaction in the field of the Earth via satellite laser ranging and the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchesi, D M; Peron, R; Visco, M; Anselmo, L; Pardini, C; Bassan, M; Pucacco, G

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the Laser Ranged Satellites Experiment (LARASE) is presented. This is a research program that aims to perform new refined tests and measurements of gravitation in the field of the Earth in the weak field and slow motion (WFSM) limit of general relativity (GR). For this objective we use the free available data relative to geodetic passive satellite lasers tracked from a network of ground stations by means of the satellite laser ranging (SLR) technique. After a brief introduction to GR and its WFSM limit, which aims to contextualize the physical background of the tests and measurements that LARASE will carry out, we focus on the current limits of validation of GR and on current constraints on the alternative theories of gravity that have been obtained with the precise SLR measurements of the two LAGEOS satellites performed so far. Afterward, we present the scientific goals of LARASE in terms of upcoming measurements and tests of relativistic physics. Finally, we introduce our activities and we give a number of new results regarding the improvements to the modelling of both gravitational and non-gravitational perturbations to the orbit of the satellites. These activities are a needed prerequisite to improve the forthcoming new measurements of gravitation. An innovation with respect to the past is the specialization of the models to the LARES satellite, especially for what concerns the modelling of its spin evolution, the neutral drag perturbation and the impact of Earth's solid tides on the satellite orbit. (paper)

  6. An Assessment of the Evolving Common Metadata Repository Standards for Airborne Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northup, E. A.; Chen, G.; Early, A. B.; Beach, A. L., III; Walter, J.; Conover, H.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Venture Program has led to a dramatic increase in airborne observations, requiring updated data management practices with clearly defined data standards and protocols for metadata. While the current data management practices demonstrate some success in serving airborne science team data user needs, existing metadata models and standards such as NASA's Unified Metadata Model (UMM) for Collections (UMM-C) present challenges with respect to accommodating certain features of airborne science metadata. UMM is the model implemented in the Common Metadata Repository (CMR), which catalogs all metadata records for NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). One example of these challenges is with representation of spatial and temporal metadata. In addition, many airborne missions target a particular geophysical event, such as a developing hurricane. In such cases, metadata about the event is also important for understanding the data. While coverage of satellite missions is highly predictable based on orbit characteristics, airborne missions feature complicated flight patterns where measurements can be spatially and temporally discontinuous. Therefore, existing metadata models will need to be expanded for airborne measurements and sampling strategies. An Airborne Metadata Working Group was established under the auspices of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Working Group (ESDSWG) to identify specific features of airborne metadata that can not be currently represented in the UMM and to develop new recommendations. The group includes representation from airborne data users and providers. This presentation will discuss the challenges and recommendations in an effort to demonstrate how airborne metadata curation/management can be improved to streamline data ingest and discoverability to a broader user community.

  7. Rocket and satellite observations of electric fields and ion convection in the dayside auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.; Heelis, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Electric field observations from two high-altitude rocket flights in the polar cusp have been combined with satellite observations of ion drifts to infer details of the electric field and convection pattern of the dayside auroral ionosphere. A region of shear flow reversal can be inferred from the electric field observations on one flight near 15.30 MLT 20 minutes after the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite crossed through the same region. The drift patterns observed by the two spacecrafts were very similar although shifted by 0.5 degrees, a shift which is expected from the observed change in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B(sub)Z component during this time. A region of rotational flow reversal was covered by the other flight shortly after magnetic noon, at the same time the DE-2 satellite travelled along roughly the dawn-dusk meridian. By joining points of equal potential, integrated from the two datasets and assuming the reversal boundary to be an equipotential, the instantaneous convection pattern could be drawn showing crescent-shaped convection contours in the dusk cell and more circular shaped contours in the dawn cell. (author)

  8. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at Landsat spatial scales during the BEAREX'08 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust spatial information about environmental water use at field scales and daily to seasonal timesteps will benefit many applications in agriculture and water resource management. This information is particularly critical in arid climates where freshwater resources are limited or expensive, and g...

  9. Aerosol and cloud properties derived from hyperspectral transmitted light in the southeast Atlantic sampled during field campaign deployments in 2016 and 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, S. E.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Pistone, K.; Karol, Y.; Schmidt, S.; Cochrane, S.; Chen, H.; Meyer, K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    We present aerosol and cloud properties collected from airborne remote-sensing measurements in the southeast Atlantic during the recent NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign. During the biomass burning seasons of September 2016 and August 2017, we sampled aerosol layers which overlaid marine stratocumulus clouds off the southwestern coast of Africa. We sampled these aerosol layers and the underlying clouds from the NASA P3 airborne platform with the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). Aerosol optical depth (AOD), along with trace gas content in the atmospheric column (water vapor, NO2, and O3), is obtained from the attenuation in the sun's direct beam, measured at the altitude of the airborne platform. Using hyperspectral transmitted light measurements from 4STAR, in conjunction with hyperspectral hemispheric irradiance measurements from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), we also obtained aerosol intensive properties (asymmetry parameter, single scattering albedo), aerosol size distributions, cloud optical depth (COD), cloud particle effective radius, and cloud thermodynamic phase. Aerosol intensive properties are retrieved from measurements of angularly resolved skylight and flight level spectral albedo using the inversion used with measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) that has been modified for airborne use. The cloud properties are obtained from 4STAR measurements of scattered light below clouds. We show a favorable initial comparison of the above-cloud AOD measured by 4STAR to this same product retrieved from measurements by the MODIS instrument on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites. The layer AOD observed above clouds will also be compared to integrated aerosol extinction profile measurements from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2).

  10. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  11. Exploring the vertical profile of atmospheric organic aerosol: comparing 17 aircraft field campaigns with a global model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Heald

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global organic aerosol (OA budget is highly uncertain and past studies suggest that models substantially underestimate observed concentrations. Few of these studies have examined the vertical distribution of OA. Furthermore, many model-measurement comparisons have been performed with different models for single field campaigns. We synthesize organic aerosol measurements from 17 aircraft campaigns from 2001–2009 and use these observations to consistently evaluate a GEOS-Chem model simulation. Remote, polluted and fire-influenced conditions are all represented in this extensive dataset. Mean observed OA concentrations range from 0.2–8.2 μg sm−3 and make up 15 to 70% of non-refractory aerosol. The standard GEOS-Chem simulation reproduces the observed vertical profile, although observations are underestimated in 13 of the 17 field campaigns (the median observed to simulated ratio ranges from 0.4 to 4.2, with the largest model bias in anthropogenic regions. However, the model is best able to capture the observed variability in these anthropogenically-influenced regions (R2=0.18−0.57, but has little skill in remote or fire-influenced regions. The model bias increases as a function of relative humidity for 11 of the campaigns, possibly indicative of missing aqueous phase SOA production. However, model simulations of aqueous phase SOA suggest a pronounced signature in the mid-troposphere (2–6 km which is not supported in the observations examined here. Spracklen et al. (2011 suggest adding ~100 Tg yr−1 source of anthropogenically-controlled SOA to close the measurement-model gap, which we add as anthropogenic SOA. This eliminates the model underestimate near source, but leads to overestimates aloft in a few regions and in remote regions, suggesting either additional sinks of OA or higher volatility aerosol at colder temperatures. Sensitivity simulations indicate that fragmentation of organics upon

  12. An Equivalent Source Method for Modelling the Lithospheric Magnetic Field Using Satellite and Airborne Magnetic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Hammer, Magnus Danel; Finlay, Chris

    . Advantages of the equivalent source method include its local nature and the ease of transforming to spherical harmonics when needed. The method can also be applied in local, high resolution, investigations of the lithospheric magnetic field, for example where suitable aeromagnetic data is available......We present a technique for modelling the lithospheric magnetic field based on estimation of equivalent potential field sources. As a first demonstration we present an application to magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite during the period 2009-2010. Three component vector field...... for the remaining lithospheric magnetic field consists of magnetic point sources (monopoles) arranged in an icosahedron grid with an increasing grid resolution towards the airborne survey area. The corresponding source values are estimated using an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm that includes model...

  13. Field experimental vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and their effectiveness in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Ramírez, Esther; Castro, Francisca; Ferreras, Pablo; Alves, Paulo Célio; Redpath, Steve; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-11-23

    We conducted a field experiment in SW Spain to test the efficacy of a myxomatosis vaccine, a viral disease strongly affecting wild rabbit populations, by assessing individual survival and antibody seroprevalence of monthly live-trapped, vaccinated (N=466) and unvaccinated (N=558) juvenile wild rabbits, between April and October 2007. Eight percent of all juveniles caught from April to June showed maternal antibodies against myxomatosis, whereas all animals were seropositive to the disease after the outbreak. Juveniles vaccinated before the outbreak showed 17% higher survival (31% vs. 14%) and an increased mortality probability of 8% after the outbreak. Results suggest that only a costly and systematic vaccination performed before the annual myxomatosis outbreak, would improve the survival of juvenile rabbits, a premise not always accomplished that compromises its efficacy in the field.

  14. Turbulence influence on urban air pollution in a hot spot in Madrid: comparison of winter and summer field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Maqueda, Gregorio; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artiñano, Begoña; Díaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in the city of Madrid during weak synoptic forcing, since the presence of atmospheric stability conditions often develops night surface-based thermal inversions and subsidence inversions during daytime for several consecutive days, reaching high levels of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) concentration. In this context, the TECNAIRE-CM (Innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) research project has developed two field campaigns along 2015 (winter and summer) in a hot spot in the city of Madrid (Fernández Ladreda square). This hot spot includes one important intersection of different streets and also the start of the A42 motorway, which crosses down the square through a tunnel of about 150 m length. Besides, the location has numerous traffic lights and a lot of pedestrians walking in the vicinity. In addition to direct measurements related to air quality, data from different meteorological variables were recorded in order to characterize the atmospheric conditions. Moreover, two sonic anemometers where deployed to carry out a micrometeorological assessment of physical processes that take place in the urban atmospheric surface layer (TKE, friction velocity and sensible heat flux were evaluated). The evolution of the turbulence will be analyzed and compared for both campaigns (winter and summer), searching for the key seasonal differences as well as the importance of the different scales influencing the diffusion of pollutants (from multi resolution flux decomposition -MRFD- analysis). Specific case studies corresponding to high levels of pollution will be studied in detailed, to understand local pollution dynamics under the influence of both high traffic density and low turbulence situations. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  15. A SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN APPLICATION IN A MARKETING FIELD EXPERIENCE COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Ucok Hughes

    2014-01-01

    Most university students today use social media daily, are knowledgeable about a myriad of applications, and can navigate numerous platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter. Despite their affinity for social media, however, it is not clear whether or not they understand how social media can be used to create effective marketing strategies. This paper describes a social media assignment that was incorporated into a marketing field experience course for undergraduate students. The aim of the pape...

  16. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  17. Measurement of quasi-static and low frequency electric fields on the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.; Faelthammar, C.G.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.; Mozer, F.S.; Pedersen, A.

    1987-03-01

    The instrument for measurement of quasi-static and low frequency (dc and slow varying) electric fields on the Viking satellite is described. The instrument uses three spherical probe pairs to measure the full three-dimensional electric field vector with 18.75 ms time resolution. The probes are kept near plasma potential by means of a controllable bias current. A guard covering part of the booms is biased to a negative voltage to prevent photoelectrons escaping from the probes from reaching the satellite body. Current-voltage sweeps are performed to determine the plasma density and temperature and to select the optimal bias current. The bias currents to the probes and the voltage offset on the guards as well as the current-voltage sweeps are controlled by an on-board microprocessor which can be programmed from the ground and allows great flexibility. (authors)

  18. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  19. Internal and external potential-field estimation from regional vector data at varying satellite altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Alain; Simons, Frederik J.

    2017-10-01

    When modelling satellite data to recover a global planetary magnetic or gravitational potential field, the method of choice remains their analysis in terms of spherical harmonics. When only regional data are available, or when data quality varies strongly with geographic location, the inversion problem becomes severely ill-posed. In those cases, adopting explicitly local methods is to be preferred over adapting global ones (e.g. by regularization). Here, we develop the theory behind a procedure to invert for planetary potential fields from vector observations collected within a spatially bounded region at varying satellite altitude. Our method relies on the construction of spatiospectrally localized bases of functions that mitigate the noise amplification caused by downward continuation (from the satellite altitude to the source) while balancing the conflicting demands for spatial concentration and spectral limitation. The `altitude-cognizant' gradient vector Slepian functions (AC-GVSF) enjoy a noise tolerance under downward continuation that is much improved relative to the `classical' gradient vector Slepian functions (CL-GVSF), which do not factor satellite altitude into their construction. Furthermore, venturing beyond the realm of their first application, published in a preceding paper, in the present article we extend the theory to being able to handle both internal and external potential-field estimation. Solving simultaneously for internal and external fields under the limitation of regional data availability reduces internal-field artefacts introduced by downward-continuing unmodelled external fields, as we show with numerical examples. We explain our solution strategies on the basis of analytic expressions for the behaviour of the estimation bias and variance of models for which signal and noise are uncorrelated, (essentially) space- and band-limited, and spectrally (almost) white. The AC-GVSF are optimal linear combinations of vector spherical harmonics

  20. Gravity field modeling at the sea areas using satellite altimetry observations Case study: Gravity field modeling at the Coastal Fars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomegi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, satellite altimetry observations had made it possible to determine sea surface variations, in the global scale, to high degree of precision. Using satellite altimetry observations, Mean Sea Level (MSL) can be determined, which by Kowing Sea Surface Topography (SST), can be converted into high-resolution marine geoid. In this paper we are proposing a method for computation of the Earth's gravity field at the sea areas, which is different from usual methods. Indeed, our method is based on conversion of geoidal heights into gravity potential values at the reference ellipsoid 2 Ea,b , by using ellipsoidal Brun's formula, and forward application of solution of Fixed-Free Two Boundary Value Problem (FFTBVP), previously proposed by the authors for the geoid computations without application of Stokes formula. Numerical results of application of the proposed method at the test area of CoastalFars (at southern part of Iran) show the success of the method. Considering the low cost and high precision of satellite altimetry observations, the proposed method suggests an efficient substitution to shipborne gravity observations for gravity field molding at the sea areas

  1. Numerical Simulations of an Inversion Fog Event in the Salt Lake Valley during the MATERHORN-Fog Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2018-01-01

    An advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is employed to simulate a wintertime inversion fog event in the Salt Lake Valley during the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program (MATERHORN) field campaign during January 2015. Simulation results are compared to observations obtained from the field program. The sensitivity of numerical simulations to available cloud microphysical (CM), planetary boundary layer (PBL), radiation, and land surface models (LSMs) is evaluated. The influence of differing visibility algorithms and initialization times on simulation results is also examined. Results indicate that the numerical simulations of the fog event are sensitive to the choice of CM, PBL, radiation, and LSM as well as the visibility algorithm and initialization time. Although the majority of experiments accurately captured the synoptic setup environment, errors were found in most experiments within the boundary layer, specifically a 3° warm bias in simulated surface temperatures compared to observations. Accurate representation of surface and boundary layer variables are vital in correctly predicting fog in the numerical model.

  2. Modelling the Earth's Main Magnetic Field by the spinning Astrid-2 satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Jose Maria Garcia; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Risbo, T.

    1999-01-01

    and therefore the mapping of the Earth's magnetic field may be possible. The spinning of the spacecraft about a certain axis makes the stabilisation in space possible. This fact and the well distributed data over the globe makes the magnetic data well suited for the estimation of the magnetic field model......The Swedish micro-satellite Astrid-2 was successfully launched into a near polar orbit last December 98. Despite the fact that its primary mission was the research of Auroral phenomena, the magnetic instrumentation has been designed to accomplish high resolution vector field magnetic measurements...... at the spacecraft altitude (circa 1000km). Several methods for field modelling are presented in this paper with the assumption that the direction of the spin axis is nearly constant. In any case the orientation of the magnetometer is to bedetermined simultaneously with the instrument calibration and main field...

  3. Magnetospheric Multiscale Satellites Observations of Parallel Electric Fields Associated with Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Wilder, F. D.; Holmes, J. C.; Stawarz, J. E.; Eriksson, S.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Usanova, M. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Hesse, M.; Chen, L. J.; Lapenta, G.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Mozer, F. S.; Drake, J.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Nakamura, R.; Marklund, G.

    2016-06-01

    We report observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale satellites of parallel electric fields (E∥ ) associated with magnetic reconnection in the subsolar region of the Earth's magnetopause. E∥ events near the electron diffusion region have amplitudes on the order of 100 mV /m , which are significantly larger than those predicted for an antiparallel reconnection electric field. This Letter addresses specific types of E∥ events, which appear as large-amplitude, near unipolar spikes that are associated with tangled, reconnected magnetic fields. These E∥ events are primarily in or near a current layer near the separatrix and are interpreted to be double layers that may be responsible for secondary reconnection in tangled magnetic fields or flux ropes. These results are telling of the three-dimensional nature of magnetopause reconnection and indicate that magnetopause reconnection may be often patchy and/or drive turbulence along the separatrix that results in flux ropes and/or tangled magnetic fields.

  4. Potential fields & satellite missions: what they tell us about the Earth's core?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandea, M.; Panet, I.; Lesur, V.; de Viron, O.; Diament, M.; Le Mouël, J.

    2012-12-01

    Since the advent of satellite potential field missions, the search to find information they can carry about the Earth's core has been motivated both by an interest in understanding the structure of dynamics of the Earth's interior and by the possibility of applying new space data analysis. While it is agreed upon that the magnetic field measurements from space bring interesting information on the rapid variations of the core magnetic field and flows associated with, the question turns to whether the core process can have a signature in the space gravity data. Here, we tackle this question, in the light of the recent data from the GRACE mission, that reach an unprecedented precision. Our study is based on eight years of high-resolution, high-accuracy gravity and magnetic satellite data, provided by the GRACE and CHAMP satellite missions. From the GRACE CNES/GRGS geoid solutions, we have emphasized the long-term variability by using a specific post-processing technique. From the CHAMP magnetic data we have computed models for the core magnetic field and its temporal variations, and the flow at the top of the core. A correlation analysis between the gravity and magnetic gridded series indicates that the inter-annual changes in the core magnetic field - under a region from the Atlantic to Indian Oceans - coincide with similar changes in the gravity field. These results should be considered as a constituent when planning new Earth's observation space missions and future innovations relevant to both gravity (after GRACE Follow-On) and magnetic (after Swarm) missions.

  5. University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleissl, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Urquhart, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ghonima, M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Dahlin, E. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Nguyen, A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Kurtz, B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Chow, C. W. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Mejia, F. A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    During the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager Cloud Position Study, two University of California, San Diego Sky Imagers (USI) (Figure 1) were deployed the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains SGP) research facility. The UCSD Sky Imagers were placed 1.7 km apart to allow for stereographic determination of the cloud height for clouds over approximately 1.5 km. Images with a 180-degree field of view were captured from both systems during daylight hours every 30 seconds beginning on March 11, 2013 and ending on November 4, 2013. The spatial resolution of the images was 1,748 × 1,748, and the intensity resolution was 16 bits using a high-dynamic-range capture process. The cameras use a fisheye lens, so the images are distorted following an equisolid angle projection.

  6. Mixing Ratios and Photostationary State of NO and NO2 Observed During the POPCORN Field Campaign at a Rural Site in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrer, F.; Brüning, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H.; Neubert, R.; Schüßler, W.; Levin, I.

    1998-01-01

    Ambient mixing ratios of NO, NO2, and O3 were determined together with the photolysis frequency of NO2, JNO2, at a rural, agricultural site in Germany. The data were collected during the POPCORN-campaign from August 1 to August 24, 1994, in a maize field 6 m above ground. The medians of the NO, NO2,

  7. Assessment of the Aerosol Optics Component of the Coupled WRF-CMAQ Model usingCARES Field Campaign data and a Single Column Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), a field campaign held in central California in June 2010, provides a unique opportunity to assess the aerosol optics modeling component of the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) – Community Multisc...

  8. Relationship between PC index and magnetospheric field-aligned currents measured by Swarm satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troshichev, О.; Sormakov, D.; Behlke, R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between the magnetospheric field-aligned currents (FAC) monitored by the Swarm satellites and the magnetic activity PC index (which is a proxy of the solar wind energy incoming into the magnetosphere) is examined. It is shown that current intensities measured in the R1...... between the PC index and the intensity of field-aligned currents in the R1 dawn and dusk layers: increase of FAC intensity in the course of substorm development is accompanied by increasing the PC index values. Correlation between PC and FAC intensities in the R2 dawn and dusk layers is also observed...

  9. CHAOS-2-a geomagnetic field model derived from one decade of continuous satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have derived a model of the near-Earth's magnetic field using more than 10 yr of high-precision geomagnetic measurements from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C. This model is an update of the two previous models, CHAOS (Olsen et al. 2006) and xCHAOS (Olsen & Mandea 2008). Data...... by minimizing the second time derivative of the squared magnetic field intensity at the core-mantle boundary. The CHAOS-2 model describes rapid time changes, as monitored by the ground magnetic observatories, much better than its predecessors....

  10. Field Observation of the Green Ocean Amazon. Neutral Cluster Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaja, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Backman, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manninen, H. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wimmer, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The neutral cluster and air ion spectrometer (NAIS) was deployed to the T3 site for Intensive Operations Periods 1 and 2 (IOP1 and IOP2). The NAIS is an instrument that measures aerosol particle and ion number size distributions in the mobility diameter range of 0.8 to 42 nm, corresponding to electrical mobility range between 3.2 and 0.0013 cm2 V-1 s-1. New particle formation (NPF) events were detected using the NAIS at the T3 field site during IOP1 and IOP2. Secondary NPF is a globally important source of aerosol number. To fully explain atmospheric NPF and subsequent growth, we need to directly measure the initial steps of the formation processes in different environments, including rain forest. Particle formation characteristics, such as formation and growth rates, were used as indicators of the relevant processes and participating compounds in the initial formation. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we estimated the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation.

  11. Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP): Ground-Based Radiation and Aerosol Validation Using the NOAA Mobile SURFRAD Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Joseph [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Lantz, Kathy [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is preparing for the launch of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-Series (GOES-R) satellite in 2015. This satellite will feature higher time (5-minute versus 30-minute sampling) and spatial resolution (0.5 km vs 1 km in the visible channel) than current GOES instruments provide. NOAA’s National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service has funded the Global Monitoring Division at the Earth System Research Laboratory to provide ground-based validation data for many of the new and old products the new GOES instruments will retrieve specifically related to radiation at the surface and aerosol and its extensive and intensive properties in the column. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) had an emphasis on aerosol; therefore, we asked to be involved in this campaign to de-bug our new instrumentation and to provide a new capability that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Mobile Facilities (AMF) did not possess, namely surface albedo measurement out to 1625 nm. This gave us a chance to test remote operation of our new multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer/multi-filter radiometer (MFRSR/MFR) combination. We did not deploy standard broadband shortwave and longwave radiation instrumentation because ARM does this as part of every AMF deployment. As it turned out, the ARM standard MFRSR had issues, and we were able to provide the aerosol column data for the first 2 months of the campaign covering the summer flight phase of the deployment. Using these data, we were able to work with personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to retrieve not only aerosol optical depth (AOD), but single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, as well.

  12. Boundary-layer processes: key findings from MATERHORN-X field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabatino, Silvana; Leo, Laura S.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Fernando, Harindra JS

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of atmospheric boundary-layer processes in complex terrain continues to be an active area of research considering its profound implications on numerical weather prediction (WP). It is largely recognized that nocturnal circulation, non-stationary processes involved in evening and morning transitions as well gusty conditions near mountains are poorly captured by current WP models. The search for novel understanding of boundary-layer phenomena especially in critical conditions for WP models has been one of the goals of the interdisciplinary Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program (2011-2016). The program developed with four main pillars: modelling (MATERHORN-M), experiments (MATERHORN-X), technology (MATERHORN-T), and parameterizations (MATERHORN-P), all synergistically working to meet new scientific challenges, address them effectively through dedicated field and laboratory studies, and transfer the acquired knowledge for model improvements. Specifically, MATERHORN-X is at the core of the MATERHORN program. It was built upon two major field experiments carried out in 31 September-October 2012 and in May 2013 at the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Science Testbed 32 (GMAST) of the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). In this talk we will focus on results of data analyses from MATERHORN-X with emphasis on several aspects of the nocturnal circulation under low synoptic forcing when stable stratification occurs. The first part of the talk will discuss the evolution of nocturnal flows including both evening transitions on slopes and valleys as well as the occurrence of isolated flow bursts under very stable conditions. As far as the former is concerned we report on our latest understanding of mechanisms leading to evening transitions (e.g. shadow front, slab flow, and transitional front). As far as the latter is concerned, it is hypothesized that a link exists between isolated bursts in turbulent kinetic energy and low-level jets

  13. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  14. Field campaign LINEX 96/1 - possibilities of water vapor observation in the free atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhagen, H.; Dier, H.; Engelbart, D.; Goersdorf, U.; Lehmann, V.; Leiterer, U.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium; Bakan, S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Boesenberg, J.; Jansen, F.; Wulfmeyer, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften; Gendt, G. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany); Gueldner, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Potsdam (Germany). Meteorologisches Observatorium

    1998-12-01

    LINEX 96/1 was a field experiment to assess information content, accuracy, and availability for different remote sensing techniques measuring water vapor. An important goal of LINEX 96/1 was the test of a new differential absorption lidar (DIAL) developed by the MPI fuer meteorologie Hamburg. Comparisons of DIAL with rawinsonde and tethersonde measurements showed an excellent accuracy of the DIAL method in the determination of water vapor with high vertical and temporal resolution. The operation of the microwave radiometer WVR-1100 showed a high availability of water vapor and liquid water column content measurements except during rain. Microwave radiometers are reliable systems to measure the precipitable water vapor and liquid water content under unattended operational conditions with high accuracy and temporal resolution. Measurements of the water vapor column content by ground-based GPS receivers proved highly reliable. Comparisons with corresponding values of the microwave radiometer showed a bias less than 0.6 mm and a standard deviation less than 0.9 mm. The main problem of an operational use of this new information is that the evaluated data are not available in real-time because, at present, the data have to be postprocessed in a ground control center. During LINEX 96/1, possibilities for estimation of water vapor column content from sun and star photometer measurements were also demonstrated. The comparison of the precipitable water vapor content measurements of sun and star photometers, microwave radiometer, and rawinsondes RS 80 showed a good agreement. Unfortunately, the use of optical methods like sun and star photometers is restricted by cloudy conditions. 28 refs.

  15. FIREX-Related Biomass Burning Research Using ARM Single-Particle Soot Photometer Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onasch, Timothy B [Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The scientific focus of this study was to investigate and quantify the mass loadings, chemical compositions, and optical properties of biomass burning particulate emissions generated in the laboratory from Western U.S. fuels using a similar instrument suite to the one deployed on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field study (Kleinman and Sedlacek, 2013). We deployed the single-particle soot photometer (SP2) to make measurements of biomass burning refractory black carbon (rBC) mass loadings and size distributions to correlate with non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM; i.e., HR-AMS) and rBC (SP-AMS) measurements as a function of photo-oxidation processes in an environmental chamber. With these measurements, we will address the following scientific questions: 1. What are the emission indices (g/kg fuel) of rBC from various wildland fuels from the Pacific Northwest (i.e., relevant to BBOP analysis) as a function of combustion conditions and simulated atmospheric processing in an environmental chamber? 2. What are the optical properties (e.g., mass-specific absorption cross-section [MAC], single-scattering albedo [SSA], and absorption Angstrom exponent [AAE)] of rBC emitted from various wildland fuels and how are they impacted by atmospheric processing? 3. How does the mixing state of rBC in biomass-burning plumes relate to the optical properties? 4. How does the emitted rBC affect radiative forcing?

  16. Preliminary analysis of columnar aerosol properties in relation to surface PM measurements in the DAMOCLES 2006 field campaign (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, V.; Esteve, A.; Pey, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Utrillas, M. P.; Querol, X.; de La Rosa, J.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Gangoiti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The DAMOCLES network is a Spanish thematic network, started in 2004, whose main objective is the establishment of a link among the different groups that perform research on atmospheric aerosols in Spain. Under the DAMOCLES coordination, a field campaign was held in summer 2006 at the INTA installations (El Arenosillo, Huelva) for the intercomparison of different kind of instruments devoted to in - situ and columnar aerosol measurement. During this field campaign, two daily meteorological soundings were carried out at noon and midnight for characterization of the atmospheric condition. A plane was also flown by the National Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA) to carry airborne sensors for measuring different atmospheric factors: meteorological parameters, ozone with a 2BTech analyzer, and aerosol particle size distributions in the range (0.01-2) microns, by using a PCASP probe. The columnar aerosol properties were measured by seven CIMEL CE318 sun photometers. For in situ aerosol characterization, high volume collectors (DIGITEL and MCV) with DIGITEL for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement were used, with two cascade impactors for particulate matter measurement in 7 -8 granulometric fractions. For the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement, quartz fibre filters of 150 mm diameter were adapted. Other in situ deployed instruments were a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Model 3936), two Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS Model 3321) and one Grimm Spectrometer (Model #190). For characterization of the aerosol scattering at ground level, three integrating nephelometers TSI-3563 were used. For the columnar profiling we deployed five LIDAR instruments. In this study we have related the columnar aerosol measurements retrieved with one CE318 sun photometer to the surface PM measurements, mainly in some interesting situations where nearby pollution sources were influencing the local atmosphere. For the sun photometric analysis, we have applied the EuroSkyRad package (ESR

  17. TEST BED FOR THE SIMULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF LOW EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gallina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a test bed designed to simulate magnetic environment experienced by a spacecraft on low Earth orbit. It consists of a spherical air bearing located inside a Helmholtz cage. The spherical air bearing is used for simulating microgravity conditions of orbiting bodies while the Helmholtz cage generates a controllable magnetic field resembling the one surrounding a satellite during its motion. Dedicated computer software is used to initially calculate the magnetic field on an established orbit. The magnetic field data is then translated into current values and transmitted to programmable power supplies energizing the cage. The magnetic field within the cage is finally measured by a test article mounted on the air bearing. The paper provides a description of the test bed and the test article design. An experimental test proves the good performance of the entire system.

  18. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-01-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  19. Latent Heating Profiles Derived from ARM Radar Observations in MC3E and GoAmazon Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Li, R.; Mu, Z.; Giangrande, S. E.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere latent heating (LH) is released through water phase change processes in the atmosphere. There is a physical connection between LH rate and updraft velocity (ω) inside clouds. In this study, we develop a new LH algorithm based on a quantified LH-ω relationship found in cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. The self-consistency check with CRM simulations shows that the retrievals correctly replicate the main features of LH profiles, including their total and individual components (i.e. condensation-evaporation heating rate, deposition-sublimation heating rate, and freezing-melting heating rate). Further, the algorithm is applied to real cases from the DOE-ARM MC3E and GoAmazon2014/6 Field Campaigns using available UHF (915 and 1290 MHz) zenith radar retrievals of vertical velocity and rain rate as input. The retrieved LH profiles in the deep convective rains show positive heating throughout the column, the LH profiles in the stratiform rains with well-defined bright-band showing clear dipole patterns with positive heating above and negative cooling below the freezing level. The altitudes of maximum heating in the widespread stratiform regimes are clearly higher than those found within deep convective regions. Overall, these Latent heating rate profiles, as an important geophysical quantity of interest, can provide useful climate diagnostic data, and ultimately, constraints for model-based analyses of large-scale heating distributions.

  20. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  1. Assessing Field-Specific Risk of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Using Satellite Imagery in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Li, X; Chen, C; Kyveryga, P; Yang, X B

    2016-08-01

    Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery from 2004 to 2013 were used to assess the field-specific risks of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme in Iowa. Fields with a high frequency of significant decrease (>10%) of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) observed in late July to middle August on historical imagery were hypothetically considered as high SDS risk. These high-risk fields had higher slopes and shorter distances to flowlines, e.g., creeks and drainages, particularly in the Des Moines lobe. Field data in 2014 showed a significantly higher SDS level in the high-risk fields than fields selected without considering NDVI information. On average, low-risk fields had 10 times lower F. virguliforme soil density, determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, compared with other surveyed fields. Ordinal logistic regression identified positive correlations between SDS and slope, June NDVI, and May maximum temperature, but high June maximum temperature hindered SDS. A modeled SDS risk map showed a clear trend of potential disease occurrences across Iowa. Landsat imagery was analyzed similarly, to discuss the ability to utilize higher spatial resolution data. The results demonstrated the great potential of both MODIS and Landsat imagery for SDS field-specific risk assessment.

  2. Moisture convergence using satellite-derived wind fields - A severe local storm case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. J.; Vonder Haar, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    Five-minute interval 1-km resolution SMS visible channel data were used to derive low-level wind fields by tracking small cumulus clouds on NASA's Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System. The satellite-derived wind fields were combined with surface mixing ratios to derive horizontal moisture convergence in the prestorm environment of April 24, 1975. Storms began developing in an area extending from southwest Oklahoma to eastern Tennessee 2 h subsequent to the time of the derived fields. The maximum moisture convergence was computed to be 0.0022 g/kg per sec and areas of low-level convergence of moisture were in general indicative of regions of severe storm genesis. The resultant moisture convergence fields derived from two wind sets 20 min apart were spatially consistent and reflected the mesoscale forcing of ensuing storm development. Results are discussed with regard to possible limitations in quantifying the relationship between low-level flow and between low-level flow and satellite-derived cumulus motion in an antecedent storm environment.

  3. A Laboratory of Extremophiles: Iceland Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX Field Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hänsch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence of life in extreme environments has been known for a long time, and their habitants have been investigated by different scientific disciplines for decades. However, reports of multidisciplinary research are uncommon. In this paper, we report an interdisciplinary three-day field campaign conducted in the framework of the Coordination Action for Research Activities on Life in Extreme Environments (CAREX FP7EU program, with participation of experts in the fields of life and earth sciences. In situ experiments and sampling were performed in a 20 m long hot springs system of different temperature (57 °C to 100 °C and pH (2 to 4. Abiotic factors were measured to study their influence on the diversity. The CO2 and H2S concentration varied at different sampling locations in the system, but the SO2 remained the same. Four biofilms, mainly composed by four different algae and phototrophic protists, showed differences in photosynthetic activity. Varying temperature of the sampling location affects chlorophyll fluorescence, not only in the microbial mats, but plants (Juncus, indicating selective adaptation to the environmental conditions. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR, DNA microarray and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE-based analysis in laboratory showed the presence of a diverse microbial population. Even a short duration (30 h deployment of a micro colonizer in this hot spring system led to colonization of microorganisms based on ribosomal intergenic spacer (RISA analysis. Polyphasic analysis of this hot spring system was possible due to the involvement of multidisciplinary approaches.

  4. High-Accuracy Spherical Near-Field Measurements for Satellite Antenna Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2017-01-01

    The spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is unique in combining several distinct advantages and it generally constitutes the most accurate technique for experimental characterization of radiation from antennas. From the outset in 1970, spherical near-field antenna measurements have...... matured into a well-established technique that is widely used for testing antennas for many wireless applications. In particular, for high-accuracy applications, such as remote sensing satellite missions in ESA's Earth Observation Programme with uncertainty requirements at the level of 0.05dB - 0.10d......B, the spherical near-field antenna measurement technique is generally superior. This paper addresses the means to achieving high measurement accuracy; these include the measurement technique per se, its implementation in terms of proper measurement procedures, the use of uncertainty estimates, as well as facility...

  5. Increasing the dose of television advertising in a national antismoking media campaign: results from a randomised field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Tim; Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul; Patel, Deesha; Alexander, Robert; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    While antismoking media campaigns have demonstrated effectiveness, less is known about the country-level effects of increased media dosing. The 2012 US Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign generated approximately 1.6 million quit attempts overall; however, the specific dose-response from the campaign was only assessed by self-report. Assess the impact of higher ad exposure during the 2013 Tips campaign on quit-related behaviours and intentions, campaign awareness, communication about campaign, and disease knowledge. A 3-month national media buy was supplemented within 67 (of 190) randomly selected local media markets. Higher-dose markets received media buys 3 times that of standard-dose markets. We compared outcomes of interest using data collected via web-based surveys from nationally representative, address-based probability samples of 5733 cigarette smokers and 2843 non-smokers. In higher-dose markets, 87.2% of smokers and 83.9% of non-smokers recalled television campaign exposure versus 75.0% of smokers and 73.9% of non-smokers in standard-dose markets. Among smokers overall, the relative quit attempt rate was 11% higher in higher-dose markets (38.8% vs 34.9%; pmedia campaign compared standard and higher doses by randomisation of local media markets. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a higher dose for engaging non-smokers and further increasing quit attempts among smokers, especially African-Americans. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Modelling of charged satellite motion in Earth's gravitational and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Bar, S. E.; Abd El-Salam, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work Lagrange's planetary equations for a charged satellite subjected to the Earth's gravitational and magnetic force fields are solved. The Earth's gravity, and magnetic and electric force components are obtained and expressed in terms of orbital elements. The variational equations of orbit with the considered model in Keplerian elements are derived. The solution of the problem in a fully analytical way is obtained. The temporal rate of changes of the orbital elements of the spacecraft are integrated via Lagrange's planetary equations and integrals of the normalized Keplerian motion obtained by Ahmed (Astron. J. 107(5):1900, 1994).

  7. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  8. What can we learn about Mars from satellite magnetic field measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschhauser, A.; Mittelholz, A.; Thomas, P.; Vervelidou, F.; Grott, M.; Johnson, C.; Lesur, V.; Lillis, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars orbiters MGS and MAVEN provide vector magnetic field data for Mars at a variety of altitudes, locations, and local times. In spite of the abundance of data, there are many open questions concerning the crustal magnetic field of Mars. In this contribution, we present our efforts to estimate the shutdown time of the Martian core dynamo and to estimate Martian paleopole locations, using magnetic field satellite data and models derived from these data [1]. Models are primarily based on MGS data, and we shortly present our recent advances to include MAVEN data. There exists some controversy concerning the timing of the Martian core dynamo shutdown [e.g., 2-5]. We address this question by studying the so-called visible magnetization [6-7] of impact craters larger than 400 km in diameter, and conclude that the dynamo ceased to operate in the Noachian period [8]. Further, paleopole locations have been used to constrain the dynamics of the Martian core dynamo [e.g. 4-5, 9]. However, such estimates are limited by the inherent non-uniqueness of inferring magnetization from magnetic field measurements. Here, we discuss how estimated paleopoles are influenced by this non-uniqueness and the limited signal-to-noise ratio of satellite measurements [6]. Furthermore, we discuss how paleopole locations may still be obtained from satellite magnetic field measurements. In this context, we present some new paleopole estimates for Mars including estimates of uncertainties. References: [1] A. Morschhauser et al. (2014), JGR, doi: 10.1002/2013JE004555 [2] R.J. Lillis et al. (2015), JGR, doi: 10.1002/2014je004774 [3] L.L. Hood et al. (2010), Icarus, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2010.01.009 [4] C. Milbury et al. (2012), JGR, doi: 10.1029/2012JE004099 [5] B. Langlais and M. Purucker (2007), PSS, 10.1016/j.pss.2006.03.008 [6] F. Vervelidou et al., On the accuracy of paleopole estimations from magnetic field measurements, GJI, under revision 2017 [7] D. Gubbins et al. (2011), GJI, doi: 10

  9. EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique, F-75014 Paris (France); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furlanetto, Steven R., E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ∼ 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ≅ 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15σ, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ∼ 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ≅ 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ∝(1 + z) {sup s}, we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30{sup +0.12}{sub -0.14} over z ∼ 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L{sub z=3}. The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies.

  10. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Intrieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1 mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean–ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  11. Observation of the Spectrally Invariant Properties of Clouds in Cloudy-to-Clear Transition Zones During the MAGIC Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weidong; Marshak, Alexander; McBride, Patrick; Chiu, J. Christine; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Flynn, Connor; Lewis, Ernie R.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-01-01

    We use the spectrally invariant method to study the variability of cloud optical thickness tau and droplet effective radius r(sub eff) in transition zones (between the cloudy and clear sky columns) observed from Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) and Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith (SASZe) during the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. The measurements from the SSFR and the SASZe are different, however inter-instrument differences of self-normalized measurements (divided by their own spectra at a fixed time) are small. The spectrally invariant method approximates the spectra in the cloud transition zone as a linear combination of definitely clear and cloudy spectra, where the coefficients, slope and intercept, characterize the spectrally invariant properties of the transition zone. Simulation results from the SBDART (Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model demonstrate that (1) the slope of the visible band is positively correlated with the cloud optical thickness t while the intercept of the near-infrared band has high negative correlation with the cloud drop effective radius r(sub eff)even without the exact knowledge of tau; (2) the above relations hold for all Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) and for cloud-contaminated skies. In observations using redundant measurements from SSFR and SASZe, we find that during cloudy-to-clear transitions, (a) the slopes of the visible band decrease, and (b) the intercepts of the near-infrared band remain almost constant near cloud edges. The findings in simulations and observations suggest that, while the optical thickness decreases during the cloudy-to-clear transition, the cloud drop effective radius does not change when cloud edges are approached. These results support the hypothesis that inhomogeneous mixing dominates near cloud edges in the studied cases.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE SIZES OF GALAXIES OVER 7 < z < 12 REVEALED BY THE 2012 HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Curtis-Lake, Emma; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Stark, Daniel P.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Charlot, Stephane; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the redshift- and luminosity-dependent sizes of dropout galaxy candidates in the redshift range z ∼ 7-12 using deep images from the 2012 Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF12) campaign, which offers two advantages over that used in earlier work. First, we utilize the increased signal-to-noise ratio offered by the UDF12 imaging to provide improved measurements for known galaxies at z ≅ 6.5-8 in the HUDF. Second, because the UDF12 data have allowed the construction of the first robust galaxy sample in the HUDF at z > 8, we have been able to extend the measurement of average galaxy size out to higher redshifts. Restricting our measurements to sources detected at >15σ, we confirm earlier indications that the average half-light radii of z ∼ 7-12 galaxies are extremely small, 0.3-0.4 kpc, comparable to the sizes of giant molecular associations in local star-forming galaxies. We also confirm that there is a clear trend of decreasing half-light radius with increasing redshift, and provide the first evidence that this trend continues beyond z ≅ 8. Modeling the evolution of the average half-light radius as a power law, ∝(1 + z) s , we obtain a best-fit index of s=-1.30 +0.12 -0.14 over z ∼ 4-12. A clear size-luminosity relation is evident in our dropout samples. This relation can be interpreted in terms of a constant surface density of star formation over a range in luminosity of 0.05-1.0 L z=3 . The average star formation surface density in dropout galaxies is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that found in extreme starburst galaxies, but is comparable to that seen today in the centers of normal disk galaxies

  13. Single-Column Modeling of Convection During the CINDY2011/DYNAMO Field Campaign With the CNRM Climate Model Version 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lathif, Ahmat Younous; Roehrig, Romain; Beau, Isabelle; Douville, Hervé

    2018-03-01

    A single-column model (SCM) approach is used to assess the CNRM climate model (CNRM-CM) version 6 ability to represent the properties of the apparent heat source (Q1) and moisture sink (Q2) as observed during the 3 month CINDY2011/DYNAMO field campaign, over its Northern Sounding Array (NSA). The performance of the CNRM SCM is evaluated in a constrained configuration in which the latent and sensible heat surface fluxes are prescribed, as, when forced by observed sea surface temperature, the model is strongly limited by the underestimate of the surface fluxes, most probably related to the SCM forcing itself. The model exhibits a significant cold bias in the upper troposphere, near 200 hPa, and strong wet biases close to the surface and above 700 hPa. The analysis of the Q1 and Q2 profile distributions emphasizes the properties of the convective parameterization of the CNRM-CM physics. The distribution of the Q2 profile is particularly challenging. The model strongly underestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep moistening profiles, which likely involve misrepresentation of the shallow and congestus convection. Finally, a statistical approach is used to objectively define atmospheric regimes and construct a typical convection life cycle. A composite analysis shows that the CNRM SCM captures the general transition from bottom-heavy to mid-heavy to top-heavy convective heating. Some model errors are shown to be related to the stratiform regimes. The moistening observed during the shallow and congestus convection regimes also requires further improvements of this CNRM-CM physics.

  14. Estimating Field Scale Crop Evapotranspiration using Landsat and MODIS Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A.; Jin, Y.; Snyder, R. L.; Daniele, Z.; Gao, F.

    2016-12-01

    Irrigation accounts for 80% of human freshwater consumption, and most of it return to the atmosphere through Evapotranspiration (ET). Given the challenges of already-stressed water resources and ground water regulation in California, a cost-effective, timely, and consistent spatial estimate of crop ET, from the farm to watershed level, is becoming increasingly important. The Priestley-Taylor (PT) approach, calibrated with field data and driven by satellite observations, shows great promise for accurate ET estimates across diverse ecosystems. We here aim to improve the robustness of the PT approach in agricultural lands, to enable growers and farm managers to tailor irrigation management based on in-field spatial variability and in-season variation. We optimized the PT coefficients for each crop type with available ET measurements from eddy covariance towers and/or surface renewal stations at six crop fields (Alfalfa, Almond, Citrus, Corn, Pistachio and Rice) in California. Good agreement was found between satellite-based estimates and field measurements of net radiation, with a RMSE of less than 36 W m-2. The crop type specific optimization performed well, with a RMSE of 30 W m-2 and a correlation of 0.81 for predicted daily latent heat flux. The calibrated algorithm was used to estimate ET at 30 m resolution over the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region for 2015 water year. It captures well the seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution of ET in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. A continuous monitoring of the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of canopy and consumptive water use at a field scale, will help the growers to be well prepared and informed to adaptively manage water, canopy, and grove density to maximize the yield with the least amount of water.

  15. The Vector Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Bromund, K.; Fourre, R.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; McCarthy, M.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. VEFI is a NASA GSFC instrument designed 1) to investigate the role of the ambient electric fields in initiating nighttime ionospheric density depletions and turbulence; 2) to determine the electric fields associated with abrupt, large amplitude, density depletions and 3) to quantify the spectrum of the wave electric fields and plasma densities (irregularities) associated with density depletions or Equatorial Spread-F. The VEFI instrument includes a vector electric field double probe detector, a Langmuir trigger probe, a flux gate magnetometer, a lightning detector and associated electronics. The heart of the instrument is the set of double probe detectors designed to measure DC and AC electric fields using 6 identical, mutually orthogonal, deployable 9.5 m booms tipped with 10 cm diameter spheres containing embedded preamplifiers. A description of the instrument and its sensors will be presented. If available, representative measurements will be provided.

  16. Magnetic-field fluctuations from 0 to 26 Hz observed from a polar-orbiting satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Potemra, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    The polar orbit of the Viking satellite provides a unique opportunity to obtain observations of magnetic fluctuations at mid-altitudes on the dayside of the magnetosphere and in the polar-cusp region. One type of magnetic-field fluctuation, observed in the dayside magnetosphere, was Pc 1 waves. Pc 1 waves are in the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron mode and are generated by anisotropies in energetic ion distributions. The waves are thought to be generated near the equator and to propagate large distances along magnetic-field lines. Most observations of Pc 1 waves have been obtained near the equator using geosynchronous satellites and on the surface of the earth. The Viking observations provide an opportunity to observe Pc 1 waves at mid-latitudes above the ionosphere and to determine the spectral structure and polarization of the waves. ULF/ELF broadband noise represents a second type of magnetic fluctuation acquired by Viking. This type of magnetic fluctuation was observed at high latitudes near the polar cusp and may be useful in the identification of polar-cusp boundaries. Thirdly, electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves have also been observed in the polar-cusp region. These waves occur only during an unusually high level of magnetic activity and appear to be generated locally

  17. Estimation of Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency Using Satellite and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Quick, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    Structure and function of terrestrial plant communities bring about intimate relations between water, energy, and carbon exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Total evaporation, which is the sum of transpiration, soil evaporation and evaporation of intercepted water, couples water and energy balance equations. The rate of transpiration, which is the major fraction of total evaporation over most of the terrestrial land surface, is linked to the rate of carbon accumulation because functioning of stomata is optimized by both of these processes. Thus, quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the transpiration efficiency (which is defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon accumulation and transpiration), and water use efficiency (defined as the ratio of the rate of carbon accumulation and total evaporation), and evaluation of modeling results against observations, are of significant importance in developing a better understanding of land surface processes. An approach has been developed for quantifying spatial and temporal variations of transpiration, and water-use efficiency based on biophysical process-based models, satellite and field observations. Calculations have been done using concurrent meteorological data derived from satellite observations and four dimensional data assimilation for four consecutive years (1987-1990) over an agricultural area in the Northern Great Plains of the US, and compared with field observations within and outside the study area. The paper provides substantive new information about interannual variation, particularly the effect of drought, on the efficiency values at a regional scale.

  18. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  19. Campaigns Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    and the external efficacy increase over the course of the campaign, with gains found across different demographic groups, particularly narrowing the gaps in internal efficacy. The news media play a crucial role, as increased knowledge and efficacy are partly driven by media use, although tabloids actually decrease...... external efficacy. The findings suggest that positive campaign effects are universal across various media and party systems.......Election campaigns are more than simple competitions for votes; they also represent an opportunity for voters to become politically knowledgeable and engaged. Using a large-scale web panel (n≈5,000), we track the development of political knowledge, internal efficacy and external efficacy among...

  20. Impact of large field angles on the requirements for deformable mirror in imaging satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jun; Mueller, Mark; Martinez, Ty; Agrawal, Brij

    2018-04-01

    For certain imaging satellite missions, a large aperture with wide field-of-view is needed. In order to achieve diffraction limited performance, the mirror surface Root Mean Square (RMS) error has to be less than 0.05 waves. In the case of visible light, it has to be less than 30 nm. This requirement is difficult to meet as the large aperture will need to be segmented in order to fit inside a launch vehicle shroud. To reduce this requirement and to compensate for the residual wavefront error, Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) deformable mirrors can be considered in the aft optics of the optical system. MEMS deformable mirrors are affordable and consume low power, but are small in size. Due to the major reduction in pupil size for the deformable mirror, the effective field angle is magnified by the diameter ratio of the primary and deformable mirror. For wide field of view imaging, the required deformable mirror correction is field angle dependant, impacting the required parameters of a deformable mirror such as size, number of actuators, and actuator stroke. In this paper, a representative telescope and deformable mirror system model is developed and the deformable mirror correction is simulated to study the impact of the large field angles in correcting a wavefront error using a deformable mirror in the aft optics.

  1. Polar-Orbiting Satellite (POES) Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from camera systems or radiometer instruments on satellites in orbit around the poles. Satellite campaigns include...

  2. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  3. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting model in the Durance Valley complex terrain during the KASCADE field campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalverla, P.C.; Duine, Gert-Jan; Steeneveld, G.J.; Hedde, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the winter of 2012-2013, the KASCADE observational campaign was
    carried out in southeast France in order to characterize the wind and thermodynamic structure of the (stable) planetary boundary layer (PBL). Data were
    collected with two micro-meteorological towers, a SODAR, a tethered

  4. The IPAC-NC field campaign: a pollution and oxidization pool in the lower atmosphere over Huabei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, regional air pollution characterized by photochemical smog and grey haze-fog has become a severe environmental problem in China. To investigate this, a field measurement campaign was performed in the Huabei region, located between 32–42° N latitude in eastern China, during the period 2 April–16 May 2006 as part of the project "Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China" (IPAC-NC. It appeared that strong pollution emissions from urban and industrial centers tend to accumulate in the lower atmosphere over the central area of Huabei. We observed widespread, very high SO2 mixing ratios, about 20–40 ppbv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude and 10–30 ppbv at 1.5–3.0 km altitude. Average CO mixing ratios were 0.65–0.7 ppmv at 0.5–1.5 km altitude, and very high CO around 1 ppmv was observed during some flights, and even higher levels at the surface. We find the high pollution concentrations to be associated with enhanced levels of OH and HO2 radicals, calculated with a chemical box model constrained by the measurements. In the upper part of the boundary layer and in the lower free troposphere, high CO and SO2 compete with relatively less NO2 in reacting with OH, being efficiently recycled through HO2, preventing a net loss of HOx radicals. In addition to reactive hydrocarbons and CO, the oxidation of SO2 causes significant ozone production over Huabei (up to ~13% or 2.0 ppbv h−1 at 0.8 km altitude. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere over Huabei is not only strongly polluted but also acts as an oxidation pool, with pollutants undergoing very active photochemistry over this part of China.

  5. Observations of Saharan dust microphysical and optical properties from the Eastern Atlantic during NAMMA airborne field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the international project entitled "African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA", NAMMA (NASA AMMA aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between the African Easterly Waves (AEWs, the Sahara Air Layer (SAL, and tropical cyclogenesis. The NAMMA airborne field campaign was based out of the Cape Verde Islands during the peak of the hurricane season, i.e., August and September 2006. Multiple Sahara dust layers were sampled during 62 encounters in the eastern portion of the hurricane main development region, covering both the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the western Saharan desert (i.e., 5–22° N and 10–35° W. The centers of these layers were located at altitudes between 1.5 and 3.3 km and the layer thickness ranged from 0.5 to 3 km. Detailed dust microphysical and optical properties were characterized using a suite of in-situ instruments aboard the NASA DC-8 that included a particle counter, an Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, a nephelometer, and a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer. The NAAMA sampling inlet has a size cut (i.e., 50% transmission efficiency size of approximately 4 μm in diameter for dust particles, which limits the representativeness of the NAMMA observational findings. The NAMMA dust observations showed relatively low particle number densities, ranging from 268 to 461 cm−3, but highly elevated volume density with an average at 45 μm3 cm−3. NAMMA dust particle size distributions can be well represented by tri-modal lognormal regressions. The estimated volume median diameter (VMD is averaged at 2.1 μm with a small range of variation regardless of the vertical and geographical sampling locations. The Ångström Exponent assessments exhibited strong wavelength dependence for absorption but a weak one for scattering. The single scattering albedo was estimated at 0.97 ± 0.02. The imaginary part of the refractive

  6. Cloud Occurrence Measurements Over Sea during the 2nd 7 Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) Field Campaign in Palawan Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Uy, S. N.; Caballa, K.; Lagrosas, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ground based sky imaging cameras have been used to measure cloud cover over an area to aid in radiation budget models. During daytime, certain clouds tend to help decrease atmospheric temperature by obstructing sunrays in the atmosphere. Thus, the detection of clouds plays an important role in the formulation of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a wide angled sky imager (GoPro Hero 2) was brought on board M/Y Vasco to detect and quantity cloud occurrence over sea during the 2nd 7SEAS field campaign. The camera is just a part of a number of scientific instruments used to measure weather, aerosol chemistry and solar radiation among others. The data collection started during the departure from Manila Bay on 05 September 2012 and went on until the end of the cruise (29 September 2012). The camera was placed in a weather-proof box that is then affixed on a steel mast where other instruments are also attached during the cruise. The data has a temporal resolution of 1 minute, and each image is 500x666 pixels in size. Fig. 1a shows the track of the ship during the cruise. The red, blue, hue, saturation, and value of the pixels are analysed for cloud occurrence. A pixel is considered to "contain" thick cloud if it passes all four threshold parameters (R-B, R/B, R-B/R+B, HSV; R is the red pixel color value, blue is the blue pixel color value, and HSV is the hue saturation value of the pixel) and considered thin cloud if it passes two or three parameters. Fig. 1b shows the daily analysis of cloud occurrence. Cloud occurrence here is quantified as the ratio of the pixels with cloud to the total number of pixels in the data image. The average cloud cover for the days included in this dataset is 87%. These measurements show a big contrast when compared to cloud cover over land (Manila Observatory) which is usually around 67%. During the duration of the cruise, only one day (September 6) has an average cloud occurrence below 50%; the rest of the days have

  7. Simulation of Mexico City plumes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign using the WRF-Chem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of tropospheric O3 production in the downwind of the Mexico City plume is a major objective of the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. We used a regional chemistry-transport model (WRF-Chem to predict the distribution of O3 and its precursors in Mexico City and the surrounding region during March 2006, and compared the model with in-situ aircraft measurements of O3, CO, VOCs, NOx, and NOy concentrations. The comparison shows that the model is capable of capturing the timing and location of the measured city plumes, and the calculated variability along the flights is generally consistent with the measured results, showing a rapid increase in O3 and its precursors when city plumes are detected. However, there are some notable differences between the calculated and measured values, suggesting that, during transport from the surface of the city to the outflow plume, ozone mixing ratios are underestimated by about 0–25% during different flights. The calculated O3-NOx, O3-CO, and O3-NOz correlations generally agree with the measured values, and the analyses of these correlations suggest that photochemical O3 production continues in the plume downwind of the city (aged plume, adding to the O3 already produced in the city and exported with the plume. The model is also used to quantify the contributions to OH reactivity from various compounds in the aged plume. This analysis suggests that oxygenated organics (OVOCs have the highest OH reactivity and play important roles for the O3 production in the aging plume. Furthermore, O3 production per NOx molecule consumed (O3 production efficiency is more efficient in the aged plume than in the young plume near the city. The major contributor to the high O3 production efficiency in the aged plume is the

  8. The Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Acuna, M.; Kujawski, J.; Fourre, R.; Uribe, P.; Hunsaker, F.; Rowland, D.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Maynard, N.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. VEFI is a NASA/GSFC instrument funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory whose main objectives are to: 1) investigate the role of the ambient electric fields in initiating nighttime ionospheric density depletions and turbulence; 2) determine the quasi-DC electric fields associated with abrupt, large amplitude, density depletions, and 3) quantify the spectrum of the wave electric fields and plasma densities (irregularities) associated with density depletions typically referred to as equatorial spread-F. The VEFI instrument includes a vector electric field double probe detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux-gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics. The heart of the instrument is the set of detectors designed to measure DC and AC electric fields using 6 identical booms that provide 3 axis, 20-m tip-to-tip orthogonal double probes. Each probe extends a 10 cm diameter sphere containing an embedded preamplifier. VEFI also includes a burst memory that enables snapshots of data from 1-8 channels of selected instruments to be sampled at rates of up to 32 kHz each. The bursts may be triggered by the detection of density depletions, intense electric field wave activity in a given band, lightning detector pulses, or an event at a pre-determined time or location. All VEFI instrument components are working exceptionally well. A description of the instrument, its sensors, and their sampling frequencies and sensitivities will be presented. Representative measurements will be shown.

  9. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  10. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning

  11. Marsh dieback, loss, and recovery mapped with satellite optical, airborne polarimetric radar, and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Chi, Zhaohui; Jones, Cathleen E.; Bannister, Terri

    2014-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite based optical sensors, NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle synthetic aperture radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric SAR (PolSAR), and field data captured the occurrence and the recovery of an undetected dieback that occurred between the summers of 2010, 2011, and 2012 in the Spartina alterniflora marshes of coastal Louisiana. Field measurements recorded the dramatic biomass decrease from 2010 to 2011 and a biomass recovery in 2012 dominated by a decrease of live biomass, and the loss of marsh as part of the dieback event. Based on an established relationship, the near-infrared/red vegetation index (VI) and site-specific measurements delineated a contiguous expanse of marsh dieback encompassing 6649.9 ha of 18,292.3 ha of S. alterniflora marshes within the study region. PolSAR data were transformed to variables used in biophysical mapping, and of this variable suite, the cross-polarization HV (horizontal send and vertical receive) backscatter was the best single indicator of marsh dieback and recovery. HV backscatter exhibited substantial and significant changes over the dieback and recovery period, tracked measured biomass changes, and significantly correlated with the live/dead biomass ratio. Within the context of regional trends, both HV and VI indicators started higher in pre-dieback marshes and exhibited substantially and statistically higher variability from year to year than that exhibited in the non-dieback marshes. That distinct difference allowed the capturing of the S. alterniflora marsh dieback and recovery; however, these changes were incorporated in a regional trend exhibiting similar but more subtle biomass composition changes.

  12. Studying Vegetation Salinity: From the Field View to a Satellite-Based Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinization of irrigated lands in the semi-arid Jezreel Valley, Northern Israel results in soil-structure deterioration and crop damage. We formulated a generic rule for estimating salinity of different vegetation types by studying the relationship between Cl/Na and different spectral slopes in the visible–near infrared–shortwave infrared (VIS–NIR–SWIR spectral range using both field measurements and satellite imagery (Sentinel-2. For the field study, the slope-based model was integrated with conventional partial least squares (PLS analyses. Differences in 14 spectral ranges, indicating changes in salinity levels, were identified across the VIS–NIR–SWIR region (350–2500 nm. Next, two different models were run using PLS regression: (i using spectral slope data across these ranges; and (ii using preprocessed spectral reflectance. The best model for predicting Cl content was based on continuum removal reflectance (R2 = 0.84. Satisfactory correlations were obtained using the slope-based PLS model (R2 = 0.77 for Cl and R2 = 0.63 for Na. Thus, salinity contents in fresh plants could be estimated, despite masking of some spectral regions by water absorbance. Finally, we estimated the most sensitive spectral channels for monitoring vegetation salinity from a satellite perspective. We evaluated the recently available Sentinel-2 imagery’s ability to distinguish variability in vegetation salinity levels. The best estimate of a Sentinel-2-based vegetation salinity index was generated based on a ratio between calculated slopes: the 490–665 nm and 705–1610 nm. This index was denoted as the Sentinel-2-based vegetation salinity index (SVSI (band 4 − band 2/(band 5 + band 11.

  13. A model of Earth’s magnetic field derived from 2 years of Swarm satellite constellation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    More than 2 years of magnetic field data taken by the three-satellite constellation mission Swarm are used to derive a model of Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation. This model is called SIFMplus. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites...... the North–South gradient. The SIFMplus model provides a description of the static lithospheric field that is very similar to models determined from CHAMP data, up to at least spherical harmonic degree n=75. Also the core field part of SIFMplus, with a quadratic time dependence for n≤6 and a linear time...... with the model of the core, lithospheric and large-scale magnetospheric fields, a magnetic potential that depends on quasi-dipole latitude and magnetic local time....

  14. Determining the Pixel-to-Pixel Uncertainty in Satellite-Derived SST Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary measure of the quality of sea surface temperature (SST fields obtained from satellite-borne infrared sensors has been the bias and variance of matchups with co-located in-situ values. Because such matchups tend to be widely separated, these bias and variance estimates are not necessarily a good measure of small scale (several pixels gradients in these fields because one of the primary contributors to the uncertainty in satellite retrievals is atmospheric contamination, which tends to have large spatial scales compared with the pixel separation of infrared sensors. Hence, there is not a good measure to use in selecting SST fields appropriate for the study of submesoscale processes and, in particular, of processes associated with near-surface fronts, both of which have recently seen a rapid increase in interest. In this study, two methods are examined to address this problem, one based on spectra of the SST data and the other on their variograms. To evaluate the methods, instrument noise was estimated in Level-2 Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR SST fields of the Sargasso Sea. The two methods provided very nearly identical results for AVHRR: along-scan values of approximately 0.18 K for both day and night and along-track values of 0.21 K for day and night. By contrast, the instrument noise estimated for VIIRS varied by method, scan geometry and day-night. Specifically, daytime, along-scan (along-track, spectral estimates were found to be approximately 0.05 K (0.08 K and the corresponding nighttime values of 0.02 K (0.03 K. Daytime estimates based on the variogram were found to be 0.08 K (0.10 K with the corresponding nighttime values of 0.04 K (0.06 K. Taken together, AVHRR instrument noise is significantly larger than VIIRS instrument noise, along-track noise is larger than along-scan noise and daytime levels are higher than nighttime levels. Given the similarity of

  15. Study of an integral field spectrograph for the SNAP satellite. Prototype, simulation and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, Marie-Helene

    2007-01-01

    The SNAP (Supernovae/Acceleration Probe) project plans to measure very precisely the cosmological parameters and to determine the nature of dark energy by observations of type Ia supernovae and weak lensing. The SNAP instrument consists in a 2-meter telescope with a one square-degree imager and a spectrograph in the visible and infrared range. A dedicated optimized integral field spectrograph based on an imager slicer technology has been developed. To test and validate the performances, two approaches have been developed: a complete simulation of the complete instrument at the pixel level and the manufacturing and test of a spectrograph prototype operating at room temperature and in cryogenic environment. In this thesis we will test the optical and functional performances of the SNAP spectrograph: especially diffraction losses, stray-light and spectro-photometric calibration. We present an original approach for the spectro-photometric calibration adapted for the slicer and the optical performances resulting from the first measurement campaign in the visible range. (author) [fr

  16. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20–21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios of 350–400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv and ozone (O3 levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1–1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July. The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic layers in the lower atmosphere (<2–3 km over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80–90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy, specifically nitric

  17. Highlights from 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network)-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyperspectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT). From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy's TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) I & II campaigns, and NASA's SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea & Ice Experiment) campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2 (High Spectral Resolution Lidar), and from in situ measurements.

  18. 4STAR Sky-Scanning Retrievals of Aerosol Intensive Optical Properties from Multiple Field Campaigns with Detailed Comparisons of SSA Reported During SEAC4RS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Connor; Dahlgren, R. P.; Dunagan, S.; Johnson, R.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Segal Rozenhaimer, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) with AERONET-like sky-scanning capability and adds state-of-the-art fiber-coupled grating spectrometry to yield hyper spectral measurements of direct solar irradiance and angularly resolved sky radiance. The combination of sun-tracking and sky-scanning capability enables retrievals of wavelength-dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), mode-resolved aerosol size distribution (SD), asphericity, and complex refractive index, and thus also the scattering phase function, asymmetry parameter, single-scattering albedo (SSA), and absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT).From 2012 to 2014 4STAR participated in four major field campaigns: the U.S. Dept. of Energy TCAP I II campaigns, and NASAs SEAC4RS and ARISE campaigns. Establishing a strong performance record, 4STAR operated successfully on all flights conducted during each of these campaigns. Sky radiance spectra from scans in either constant azimuth (principal plane) or constant zenith angle (almucantar) were interspersed with direct beam measurements during level legs. During SEAC4RS and ARISE, 4STAR airborne measurements were augmented with flight-level albedo from the collocated Shortwave Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) providing improved specification of below-aircraft radiative conditions for the retrieval. Calibrated radiances and retrieved products will be presented with particular emphasis on detailed comparisons of ambient SSA retrievals and measurements during SEAC4RS from 4STAR, AERONET, HSRL2, and from in situ measurements.

  19. Combining CHAMP and Swarm Satellite Data to Invert the Lithospheric Magnetic Field in the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yaodong; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Bingbing; Li, Fupeng; Guo, Fei

    2017-01-26

    CHAMP and Swarm satellite magnetic data are combined to establish the lithospheric magnetic field over the Tibetan Plateau at satellite altitude by using zonal revised spherical cap harmonic analysis (R-SCHA). These data are integrated with geological structures data to analyze the relationship between magnetic anomaly signals and large-scale geological tectonic over the Tibetan Plateau and to explore the active tectonic region based on the angle of the magnetic anomaly. Results show that the model fitting error is small for a layer 250-500 km high, and the RMSE of the horizontal and radial geomagnetic components is better than 0.3 nT. The proposed model can accurately describe medium- to long-scale lithospheric magnetic anomalies. Analysis indicates that a negative magnetic anomaly in the Tibetan Plateau significantly differs with a positive magnetic anomaly in the surrounding area, and the boundary of the positive and negative regions is generally consistent with the geological tectonic boundary in the plateau region. Significant differences exist between the basement structures of the hinterland of the plateau and the surrounding area. The magnetic anomaly in the Central and Western Tibetan Plateau shows an east-west trend, which is identical to the direction of the geological structures. The magnetic anomaly in the eastern part is arc-shaped and extends along the northeast direction. Its direction is significantly different from the trend of the geological structures. The strongest negative anomaly is located in the Himalaya block, with a central strength of up to -9 nT at a height of 300 km. The presence of a strong negative anomaly implies that the Curie isotherm in this area is relatively shallow and deep geological tectonic activity may exist.

  20. Field survey report and satellite image interpretation of the 2013 Super Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, E.; Bricker, J.; Kure, S.; Adriano, B.; Yi, C.; Suppasri, A.; Koshimura, S.

    2015-04-01

    Three weeks after the deadly Bohol earthquake of Mw 7.2, which claimed at least 222 victims, another disaster struck the Philippines. This time, Super Typhoon Haiyan, also known as Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines, devastated the Eastern Visayas islands on 8 November 2013. Its classification as a super typhoon was based on its maximum sustained 1 min surface wind speed of 315 km h-1, which is equivalent to a strong Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale. This was one of the deadliest typhoon events in the Philippines' history, after the 1897 and 1912 tropical cyclones. At least 6268 individuals have been reported dead and 1061 people are missing. In addition, a wide area of destruction was observed in the Eastern Visayas, on Samar and Leyte islands. The International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) at Tohoku University in Sendai, Japan, has deployed several teams for damage recognition, relief support and collaboration with regard to this disaster event. One of the teams, the hazard and damage evaluation team, visited the affected areas in the Eastern Visayas in mid-January 2014. In this paper, we summarize the rapid damage assessment from satellite imagery conducted days after the event and report on the inundation measurements and the damage surveyed in the field. Damage interpretation results by satellite images were qualitatively confirmed for the Tacloban city area on Leyte Island, the most populated city in the Eastern Visayas. During the survey, significant damage was observed from wind and storm surges on poorly designed housing on the east coast of Leyte Island. Damage, mainly from surface waves and winds, was observed on the east coast of Samar Island.

  1. Aerosol optical properties derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign, and implications for a single-channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth in spring from Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON-northeast (NE Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD from a Meteorological Imager (MI on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS. This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 ± 0.04 in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 ± 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May. After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 ± 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 ± 0.40 to 2.14 ± 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT with the new aerosol model

  2. Aerosol Optical Properties Derived from the DRAGON-NE Asia Campaign, and Implications for a Single-Channel Algorithm to Retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth in Spring from Meteorological Imager (MI) On-Board the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Hong, H.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J.; Song, C.; Lee, S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    An aerosol model optimized for northeast Asia is updated with the inversion data from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON)-northeast (NE) Asia campaign which was conducted during spring from March to May 2012. This updated aerosol model was then applied to a single visible channel algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from a Meteorological Imager (MI) on-board the geostationary meteorological satellite, Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). This model plays an important role in retrieving accurate AOD from a single visible channel measurement. For the single-channel retrieval, sensitivity tests showed that perturbations by 4 % (0.926 +/- 0.04) in the assumed single scattering albedo (SSA) can result in the retrieval error in AOD by over 20 %. Since the measured reflectance at the top of the atmosphere depends on both AOD and SSA, the overestimation of assumed SSA in the aerosol model leads to an underestimation of AOD. Based on the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion data sets obtained over East Asia before 2011, seasonally analyzed aerosol optical properties (AOPs) were categorized by SSAs at 675 nm of 0.92 +/- 0.035 for spring (March, April, and May). After the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign in 2012, the SSA during spring showed a slight increase to 0.93 +/- 0.035. In terms of the volume size distribution, the mode radius of coarse particles was increased from 2.08 +/- 0.40 to 2.14 +/- 0.40. While the original aerosol model consists of volume size distribution and refractive indices obtained before 2011, the new model is constructed by using a total data set after the DRAGON-NE Asia campaign. The large volume of data in high spatial resolution from this intensive campaign can be used to improve the representative aerosol model for East Asia. Accordingly, the new AOD data sets retrieved from a single-channel algorithm, which uses a precalculated look-up table (LUT) with the new aerosol model, show

  3. Television campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.

  4. Feasibility of a Constellation of Miniature Satellites for Performing Measurements of the Magnetic Field of the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the requirements for a small constellation of satellites to perform measurements of the magnetic field of the Earth and a payload and boom design for such a mission is discussed. After studying communication, power and mass requirements it is found that it is feasible to develop...

  5. The relationship of field burn severity measures to satellite-derived Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Carter Stone; Pete Robichaud; Terrie Jain; Jess Clark

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from ongoing research on spatial variability of fire effects on soils and vegetation from the Black Mountain Two and Cooney Ridge wildfires, which burned in western Montana during the 2003 fire season. Extensive field fractional cover data were sampled to assess the efficacy of quantitative satellite image-derived indicators of burn...

  6. Assessing the accuracy of hyperspectral and multispectral satellite imagery for categorical and quantitative mapping of salinity stress in sugarcane fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamzeh, Saied; Naseri, Abd Ali; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Bartholomeus, Harm; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility of hyperspectral and multispectral satellite imagery for categorical and quantitative mapping of salinity stress in sugarcane fields located in the southwest of Iran. For this purpose a Hyperion image acquired on September 2, 2010 and a Landsat7 ETM+ image

  7. Feedback mechanisms between snow and atmospheric mercury: Results and observations from field campaigns on the Antarctic plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Angot, Hélène; Roman, Marco; Dommergue, Aurélien; Scarchilli, Claudio; Vardè, Massimiliano; Del Guasta, Massimo; Pedeli, Xanthi; Varin, Cristiano; Sprovieri, Francesca; Magand, Olivier; Legrand, Michel; Barbante, Carlo; Cairns, Warren R L

    2018-04-01

    The Antarctic Plateau snowpack is an important environment for the mercury geochemical cycle. We have extensively characterized and compared the changes in surface snow and atmospheric mercury concentrations that occur at Dome C. Three summer sampling campaigns were conducted between 2013 and 2016. The three campaigns had different meteorological conditions that significantly affected mercury deposition processes and its abundance in surface snow. In the absence of snow deposition events, the surface mercury concentration remained stable with narrow oscillations, while an increase in precipitation results in a higher mercury variability. The Hg concentrations detected confirm that snowfall can act as a mercury atmospheric scavenger. A high temporal resolution sampling experiment showed that surface concentration changes are connected with the diurnal solar radiation cycle. Mercury in surface snow is highly dynamic and it could decrease by up to 90% within 4/6 h. A negative relationship between surface snow mercury and atmospheric concentrations has been detected suggesting a mutual dynamic exchange between these two environments. Mercury concentrations were also compared with the Br concentrations in surface and deeper snow, results suggest that Br could have an active role in Hg deposition, particularly when air masses are from coastal areas. This research presents new information on the presence of Hg in surface and deeper snow layers, improving our understanding of atmospheric Hg deposition to the snow surface and the possible role of re-emission on the atmospheric Hg concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Auto Mission Planning System Design for Imaging Satellites and Its Applications in Environmental Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yongming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite hardware has reached a level of development that enables imaging satellites to realize applications in the area of meteorology and environmental monitoring. As the requirements in terms of feasibility and the actual profit achieved by satellite applications increase, we need to comprehensively consider the actual status, constraints, unpredictable information, and complicated requirements. The management of this complex information and the allocation of satellite resources to realize image acquisition have become essential for enhancing the efficiency of satellite instrumentation. In view of this, we designed a satellite auto mission planning system, which includes two sub-systems: the imaging satellite itself and the ground base, and these systems would then collaborate to process complicated missions: the satellite mainly focuses on mission planning and functions according to actual parameters, whereas the ground base provides auxiliary information, management, and control. Based on the requirements analysis, we have devised the application scenarios, main module, and key techniques. Comparison of the simulation results of the system, confirmed the feasibility and optimization efficiency of the system framework, which also stimulates new thinking for the method of monitoring environment and design of mission planning systems.

  9. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  10. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX – North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off.

  11. Determination Gradients of the Earth's Magnetic Field from the Measurements of the Satellites and Inversion of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Kis; Taylor, Patrick T.; Geza, Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We computed magnetic field gradients at satellite altitude, over Europe with emphasis on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). They were calculated using the CHAMP satellite total magnetic anomalies. Our computations were done to determine how the magnetic anomaly data from the new ESA/Swarm satellites could be utilized to determine the structure of the magnetization of the Earths crust, especially in the region of the KMA. Since the ten years of 2 CHAMP data could be used to simulate the Swarm data. An initial East magnetic anomaly gradient map of Europe was computed and subsequently the North, East and Vertical magnetic gradients for the KMA region were calculated. The vertical gradient of the KMA was determined using Hilbert transforms. Inversion of the total KMA was derived using Simplex and Simulated Annealing algorithms. Our resulting inversion depth model is a horizontal quadrangle with upper 300-329 km and lower 331-339 km boundaries.

  12. Planar attitude motion of a satellite with a variable mass distribution in field of gravity of attracting center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexander; Kosenko, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Dynamics of a spacecraft with a variable mass distribution in a central field of Newtonian attraction is considered. Using another viewpoint one can regard sufficiently compact formation instead of a spacecraft. This formation can vary distances between its particular spacecrafts thus implementing pulsing motions of the system as a whole. Within the so-called "satellite approximation" the equations of spatial attitude motion are obtained. Rules of the mass redistribution providing prescribed in advance attitude motions are indicated. For classes of relative equilibria previously found and existing under appropriate rules of the mass redistribution, stability study is performed. The investigation splits into two topics: (a) general dynamical consideration for the planar attitude satellite motion with use of the KAM theory; (b) constructing the families of periodic solutions represented by means of convergent series in powers of eccentricity and describing satellite motions emanating from its relative equilibria.

  13. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  14. Overview of the field measurement campaign in Hyytiälä, August 2001 in the framework of the EU project OSOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the OSOA (Origin and formation of Secondary Organic Aerosols project, two intensive field campaigns were conducted in Melpitz, Germany and Hyytiälä, Finland. This paper gives an overview of the measurements made during the Hyytiälä campaign, which was held between 1 and 16 August 2001. Various instrumental techniques were used to achieve physical and chemical characterisation of aerosols and to investigate possible precursor gases. During the OSOA campaign in Hyytiälä, particle formation was observed on three consecutive days at the beginning of the campaign (1 to 3 August 2001 and on three days later on. The investigation of the meteorological situation divided the campaign into two parts. During the first three days of August, relatively cold and clean air masses from northwest passed over the station (condensation sink – CS: -1, NOx: -3 were observed. After this period, warmer and more polluted air from south-west to south-east arrived at the station (CS: 0.002–0.01 s-1, NOx: 0.5–4 ppb and during these 13 days only three events were observed. These events were not as apparent as those that occurred during the earlier period of the campaign. The chemical analyses from different institutes of PM2, PM2.5 and PM10 particles confirmed the assumption that organic matter from the oxidation of various terpenes contributed to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA. Concerning these conclusions among others, the ratio between formic (oxidation product of isoprene and monoterpenes by ozone and acetic acid (increased by anthropogenic emissions (ratio=1 to 1.5 and concentration of different carboxylic acids (up to 62 ngm-3 were investigated. Gas/particle partitioning of five photo-oxidation products from α- and β-pinene resulted in higher concentrations of pinonic, nor pinonic and pinic acids in the particle phase than in the gas phase, which indicates a preference to the particle phase for these compounds. The average

  15. Do social marketing campaigns in health work? A critical analysis of four UK campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Coope, David

    2007-01-01

    This management project looks at four recent social marketing campaigns in the field of health in the UK to determine whether such campaigns work. The project critically analyses the marketing campaigns used, and aims to determine the range of factors that create a successful social marketing campaign in health. There is analysis of four case studies undertaken after secondary research into social marketing campaigns run by a range of different organisations. The case studies are the ...

  16. Development and field testing of satellite-linked fluorometers for marine mammals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset includes telemetry data related to the development and testing of an animal-borne satellite-linked fluorometer tag, used on northern fur seals and...

  17. Radhealth campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Tony.

    1985-01-01

    The report by the National Radiological Protection Board in the Medical Research Council's study of some of the UKAEA workers is criticized. It is argued that the cancer risk estimates of the International Commission on Radiological Protection are seriously wrong, and that as they are used as a basis for radiation protection standards in the UK, these standards now need revising. The subject is discussed under the headings: broad-based campaign; all radiation is a hazard; building networks (of scientific and medical expertise). (U.K.)

  18. Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba: New insights from recent satellite-marine potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Khalid A.; Mahmud, Syed A.

    2018-01-01

    Previous models and interpretations of crustal geometry and the nature of the crust under the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba have generally been based on a local or small scale and have been limited due to a lack of data. The few studies that present larger scale crustal and uppermost mantle structure were dependent on one type of data with no consideration of other geological and/or geophysical features. Satellite-marine potential field data provide for the first time a full coverage dataset of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba as well as the Sinai area at the same scale which allows for a better understanding of crustal domains and geometry and the interplay between tectonic events. To that end, our forward models of magnetic and gravity data constrained by seismic data and available geological information in this area suggest that the crustal domains in the Gulf of Aqaba are more complicated than those in the Gulf of Suez. Our result supports continental rifting under most of the Gulf of Suez and a combination of transitional and continental crusts under the Gulf of Aqaba. Yet, there is no evidence of oceanic segment development in these gulfs. Regardless of oceanic or transitional crust, the models support a link between the Arabia and Sinai plates at the central Gulf of Aqaba. The data also support that Red Sea tectonism has no connection to or influence on both gulfs. The result suggests a continuation of lithological elements from land into the eastern part of the Gulf of Suez. Our synthesis and interpretations may play an important role in the reassessment of the tectonic history and extension of this important rift system.

  19. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field to continental scales using geostationary and polar orbiting satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing of land-surface temperature (LST provides valuable information about the sub-surface moisture status required for estimating evapotranspiration (ET and detecting the onset and severity of drought. While empirical indices measuring anomalies in LST and vegetation amount (e.g., as quantified by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI have demonstrated utility in monitoring ET and drought conditions over large areas, they may provide ambiguous results when other factors (e.g., air temperature, advection are affecting plant functioning. A more physically based interpretation of LST and NDVI and their relationship to sub-surface moisture conditions can be obtained with a surface energy balance model driven by TIR remote sensing. The Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI model is a multi-sensor TIR approach to ET mapping, coupling a two-source (soil + canopy land-surface model with an atmospheric boundary layer model in time-differencing mode to routinely and robustly map daily fluxes at continental scales and 5 to 10-km resolution using thermal band imagery and insolation estimates from geostationary satellites. A related algorithm (DisALEXI spatially disaggregates ALEXI fluxes down to finer spatial scales using moderate resolution TIR imagery from polar orbiting satellites. An overview of this modeling approach is presented, along with strategies for fusing information from multiple satellite platforms and wavebands to map daily ET down to resolutions on the order of 10 m. The ALEXI/DisALEXI model has potential for global applications by integrating data from multiple geostationary meteorological satellite systems, such as the US Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, the European Meteosat satellites, the Chinese Fen-yung 2B series, and the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellites. Work is underway to further evaluate multi-scale ALEXI implementations over the US, Europe, Africa

  20. The FIRO-2017 Field Campaign: Findings from a Unique Observing Period in the Russian River Watershed in Northern California during Jan - Mar 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. M.; Ralph, M.; Demirdjian, R.; Kawzenuk, B.; Cannon, F.; Cordeira, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is a proposed water management strategy that aims to improve water supply, maintain reduction in flood risk, and achieve ecosystem sustainability using data from state of the art watershed monitoring and weather and water forecasting. The first testbed for this strategy is Lake Mendocino, in the Russian River Watershed in northern California. In order to accomplish these goals, it is necessary to understand and better predict Atmospheric Rivers (ARs), which provide 50% of the annual precipitation, and cause most of the heavy rain and flood events in this watershed. To support this effort, a field campaign was held during January-March 2017 in the Russian River Watershed with the science objectives of understanding AR evolution as the AR makes landfall and interacts with terrain, assess reasons for additional variance in the relationship between storm total precipitation and bulk water vapor flux, and to form a unique database for model verification. Coastal and inland field sites equipped with multiple ground-based sensors as well as Vaisala radiosonde systems were deployed to support these objectives. The 2017 water year was among the wettest recorded in California. During the January-March 2017 period, the coastal/inland pair of radiosonde systems captured 13 storms with maximum integrated vapor transport (IVT) values nearing 1200 kg/m/s. This presentation will provide an overview of the water year and the field campaign observations. Results indicate that bulk upslope water vapor flux measured by the ARO, which is the measurement regularly available to forecasters and researchers, correlates extremely well with integrated vapor transport (IVT). The profiles of water vapor flux observed by the coastal and inland sites are very different both in maximum flux magnitude and height of the maximum flux.

  1. Measuring Relativistic effects in the field of the Earth with Laser Ranged Satellites and the LARASE research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Bassan, Massimo; Magnafico, Carmelo; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Stanga, Ruggero; Visco, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) research program is to obtain refined tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) by means of very precise measurements of the round-trip time among a number of ground stations of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) network and a set of geodetic satellites. These measurements are guaranteed by means of the powerful and precise Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technique. In particular, a big effort of LARASE is dedicated to improve the dynamical models of the LAGEOS, LAGEOS II and LARES satellites, with the objective to obtain a more precise and accurate determination of their orbit. These activities contribute to reach a final error budget that should be robust and reliable in the evaluation of the main systematic errors sources that come to play a major role in masking the relativistic precession on the orbit of these laser-ranged satellites. These error sources may be of gravitational and non-gravitational origin. It is important to stress that a more accurate and precise orbit determination, based on more reliable dynamical models, represents a fundamental prerequisite in order to reach a sub-mm precision in the root-mean-square of the SLR range residuals and, consequently, to gather benefits in the fields of geophysics and space geodesy, such as stations coordinates knowledge, geocenter determination and the realization of the Earth's reference frame. The results reached over the last year will be presented in terms of the improvements achieved in the dynamical model, in the orbit determination and, finally, in the measurement of the relativistic precessions that act on the orbit of the satellites considered.

  2. Functional group analysis by H NMR/chemical derivatization for the characterization of organic aerosol from the SMOCC field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tagliavini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble organic compounds (WSOC in aerosol samples collected in the Amazon Basin in a period encompassing the middle/late dry season and the beginning of the wet season, were investigated by H NMR spectroscopy. HiVol filter samples (PM2.5 and PM>2.5 and size-segregated samples from multistage impactor were subjected to H NMR characterization. The H NMR methodology, recently developed for the analysis of organic aerosol samples, has been improved by exploiting chemical methylation of carboxylic groups with diazomethane, which allows the direct determination of the carboxylic acid content of WSOC. The content of carboxylic carbons for the different periods and sizes ranged from 12% to 20% of total measured carbon depending on the season and aerosol size, with higher contents for the fine particles in the transition and wet periods with respect to the dry period. A comprehensive picture is presented of WSOC functional groups in aerosol samples representative of the biomass burning period, as well as of transition and semi-clean atmospheric conditions. A difference in composition between fine (PM2.5 and coarse (PM>2.5 size fractions emerged from the NMR data, the former showing higher alkylic content, the latter being largely dominated by R-O-H (or R-O-R' functional groups. Very small particles (<0.14 μm, however, present higher alkyl-chain content and less oxygenated carbons than larger fine particles (0.42–1.2 μm. More limited variations were found between the average compositions in the different periods of the campaign.

  3. Characteristics of the NO-NO2-O3 system in different chemical regimes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Z.-H.; Madronich, S.; Song, S.-K.; Flocke, F. M.; Knapp, D. J.; Anderson, R. S.; Shetter, R. E.; Cantrell, C. A.; Hall, S. R.; Tie, X.

    2008-12-01

    The NO-NO2 system was analyzed in different chemical regimes/air masses based on observations of reactive nitrogen species and peroxy radicals made during the intensive field campaign MIRAGE-Mex (4 to 29 March 2006). The air masses were categorized into 5 groups based on combinations of macroscopic observations, geographical location, meteorological parameters, models, and observations of trace gases: boundary layer (labeled as "BL"), biomass burning ("BB"), free troposphere (continental, "FTCO" and marine, "FTMA"), and Tula industrial complex ("TIC"). In general, NO2/NO ratios in different air masses are near photostationary state. Analysis of this ratio can be useful for testing current understanding of tropospheric chemistry. The ozone production efficiency (OPE) for the 5 air mass categories ranged from 4.5 (TIC) to 8.5 (FTMA), consistent with photochemical aging of air masses exiting the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  4. Overview and first results of the Wind and Storms Experiment (WASTEX): a field campaign to observe the formation of gusts using a Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantillon, Florian; Wieser, Andreas; Adler, Bianca; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Knippertz, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Wind gusts are responsible for most damages in winter storms over central Europe, but capturing their small scale and short duration is a challenge for both models and observations. This motivated the Wind and Storms Experiment (WASTEX) dedicated to investigate the formation of gusts during the passage of extratropical cyclones. The field campaign took place during the winter 2016-2017 on a former waste deposit located close to Karlsruhe in the Upper Rhine Valley in southwest Germany. Twelve extratropical cyclones were sampled during WASTEX with a Doppler lidar system performing vertical scans in the mean wind direction and complemented with a Doppler C-band radar and a 200 m instrumented tower. First results are provided here for the three most intense storms and include a potential sting jet, a unique direct observation of a convective gust and coherent boundary-layer structures of strong winds.

  5. Characteristics of the NO-NO2-O3 system in different chemical regimes during the MIRAGE-Mex field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The NO-NO2 system was analyzed in different chemical regimes/air masses based on observations of reactive nitrogen species and peroxy radicals made during the intensive field campaign MIRAGE-Mex (4 to 29 March 2006. The air masses were categorized into 5 groups based on combinations of macroscopic observations, geographical location, meteorological parameters, models, and observations of trace gases: boundary layer (labeled as "BL", biomass burning ("BB", free troposphere (continental, "FTCO" and marine, "FTMA", and Tula industrial complex ("TIC". In general, NO2/NO ratios in different air masses are near photostationary state. Analysis of this ratio can be useful for testing current understanding of tropospheric chemistry. The ozone production efficiency (OPE for the 5 air mass categories ranged from 4.5 (TIC to 8.5 (FTMA, consistent with photochemical aging of air masses exiting the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  6. Assessment of microscale spatio-temporal variation of air pollution at an urban hotspot in Madrid (Spain) through an extensive field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Artíñano, Begoña; Yagüe, Carlos; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco Javier; de la Paz, David; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Díaz, Elías; Maqueda, Gregorio; Sastre, Mariano; Quaassdorff, Christina; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2016-09-01

    Poor urban air quality is one of the main environmental concerns worldwide due to its implications for population exposure and health-related issues. However, the development of effective abatement strategies in cities requires a consistent and holistic assessment of air pollution processes, taking into account all the relevant scales within a city. This contribution presents the methodology and main results of an intensive experimental campaign carried out in a complex pollution hotspot in Madrid (Spain) under the TECNAIRE-CM research project, which aimed at understanding the microscale spatio-temporal variation of ambient concentration levels in areas where high pollution values are recorded. A variety of instruments were deployed during a three-week field campaign to provide detailed information on meteorological and micrometeorological parameters and spatio-temporal variations of the most relevant pollutants (NO2 and PM) along with relevant information needed to simulate pedestrian fluxes. The results show the strong dependence of ambient concentrations on local emissions and meteorology that turns out in strong spatial and temporal variations, with gradients up to 2 μg m-3 m-1 for NO2 and 55 μg m-3 min-1 for PM10. Pedestrian exposure to these pollutants also presents strong variations temporally and spatially but it concentrates on pedestrian crossings and bus stops. The analysis of the results show that the high concentration levels found in urban hotspots depend on extremely complex dynamic processes that cannot be captured by routinely measurements made by air quality monitoring stations used for regulatory compliance assessment. The large influence from local traffic in the concentration fields highlights the need for a detailed description of specific variables that determine emissions and dispersion at microscale level. This also indicates that city-scale interventions may be complemented with local control measures and exposure management, to improve

  7. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  8. Organizational Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    This conference paper will explore the difference between communicating changes and changing communication. Based on a case study in which a manager applies two quite different approaches to organizational communication in order to change the organization he is leading. The first and failing...... approach will in be named: organizational campaigning and means (e.g. Kotter, 2012, p. 9 and Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2009) that the manager takes control with communication and communication cannels in order to ensure successful organizational changes. Since the changes were not succeeding the approach...... is replaced with a new approach which will be named organizing communication. During the case analysis we will see that this change in approach not only change the managers perception of communication but also his perception of the organization he is leading....

  9. Magnetospheric magnetic field modelling for the 2011 and 2012 HST Saturn aurora campaigns – implications for auroral source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A unique set of images of Saturn's northern polar UV aurora was obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2011 and 2012 at times when the Cassini spacecraft was located in the solar wind just upstream of Saturn's bow shock. This rare situation provides an opportunity to use the Kronian paraboloid magnetic field model to examine source locations of the bright auroral features by mapping them along field lines into the magnetosphere, taking account of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF measured near simultaneously by Cassini. It is found that the persistent dawn arc maps to closed field lines in the dawn to noon sector, with an equatorward edge generally located in the inner part of the ring current, typically at ~ 7 Saturn radii (RS near dawn, and a poleward edge that maps variously between the centre of the ring current and beyond its outer edge at ~ 15 RS, depending on the latitudinal width of the arc. This location, together with a lack of response in properties to the concurrent IMF, suggests a principal connection with ring-current and nightside processes. The higher-latitude patchy auroras observed intermittently near to noon and at later local times extending towards dusk are instead found to straddle the model open–closed field boundary, thus mapping along field lines to the dayside outer magnetosphere and magnetopause. These emissions, which occur preferentially for northward IMF directions, are thus likely associated with reconnection and open-flux production at the magnetopause. One image for southward IMF also exhibits a prominent patch of very high latitude emissions extending poleward of patchy dawn arc emissions in the pre-noon sector. This is found to lie centrally within the region of open model field lines, suggesting an origin in the current system associated with lobe reconnection, similar to that observed in the terrestrial magnetosphere for northward IMF.

  10. Evaluation of geomagnetic field models using magnetometer measurements for satellite attitude determination system at low earth orbits: Case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilden-Guler, Demet; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, different geomagnetic field models are compared in order to study the errors resulting from the representation of magnetic fields that affect the satellite attitude system. For this purpose, we used magnetometer data from two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft and the geomagnetic models IGRF-12 (Thébault et al., 2015) and T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) models to study the differences between the magnetic field components, strength and the angle between the predicted and observed vector magnetic fields. The comparisons were made during geomagnetically active and quiet days to see the effects of the geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on the predicted and observed magnetic fields and angles. The angles, in turn, are used to estimate the spacecraft attitude and hence, the differences between model and observations as well as between two models become important to determine and reduce the errors associated with the models under different space environment conditions. We show that the models differ from the observations even during the geomagnetically quiet times but the associated errors during the geomagnetically active times increase. We find that the T89 model gives closer predictions to the observations, especially during active times and the errors are smaller compared to the IGRF-12 model. The magnitude of the error in the angle under both environmental conditions was found to be less than 1°. For the first time, the geomagnetic models were used to address the effects of the near Earth space environment on the satellite attitude.

  11. Characterization of down-valley winds in stable stratification from the KASCADE field campaign and WRF mesoscale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duine, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates down-valley wind characteristics in complex terrain of moderate oro-graphy for a mid-latitude area. The work was motivated by safety regulation in the context of sanitary impact of the Cadarache centre on its close surroundings. Cadarache is one of the research centres of 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives' (CEA), located in southeastern France. It is embedded in a small valley, the Cadarache Valley (CV), which is one of the tributaries of the larger Durance Valley (DV). The two valleys are distinct in width (1 - 2 vs. 5 km for CV and DV, respectively), length (5 vs. more than 60 km), depth (100 vs. 200 m and higher) and slope angle (1 degree vs. 0.2 degree on average along the valleys main axis), and therefore react differently under stable conditions. Stable stratifications regularly occur in the region due to frequent weak synoptic forcing and clear sky conditions. During such conditions, dilution of pollutants can become weak; this is one of the major motivations of the present study. To investigate the valley wind behaviour, the KASCADE (Katabatic winds and Stability over Cadarache for Dispersion of Effluents) campaign has been designed. It was conducted in the winter of 2013 including continuous observations (flux tower, Sodar and Cadarache observational network) covering a 3-month period and 23 intensive observation periods (IOPs). During the IOPs tethered balloon experiments were conducted and radio-soundings were launched. An IOP was carried out when weak synoptic forcing periods and clear skies were expected, started at 12 UTC and lasted 24 hours. A calibration experiment served for sensor correction purposes, resulting in a high quality data set of a well-documented campaign (http://kascade.sedoo.fr/). The valley flows at the local and regional scale are characterized from observations analysis and IOP simulations with the non-hydrostatic WRF model. The analysis shows that the Cadarache

  12. Global daily precipitation fields from bias-corrected rain gauge and satellite observations. Pt. 1. Design and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottek, M.; Rubel, F. [Univ. of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria). Biometeorology Group

    2007-10-15

    Global daily precipitation analyses are mainly based on satellite estimates, often calibrated with monthly ground analyses or merged with model predictions. We argue here that an essential improvement of their accuracy is only possible by incorporation of daily ground measurements. In this work we apply geostatistical methods to compile a global precipitation product based on daily rain gauge measurements. The raw ground measurements, disseminated via Global Telecommunication System (GTS), are corrected for their systematic measurement errors and interpolated onto a global 1 degree grid. For interpolation ordinary block kriging is applied, with precalculated spatial auto-correlation functions (ACFs). This technique allows to incorporate additional climate information. First, monthly ACFs are calculated from the daily data; second, they are regionalised according to the five main climatic zones of the Koeppen-Geiger climate classification. The interpolation error, a by-product of kriging, is used to flag grid points as missing if the error is above a predefined threshold. But for many applications missing values constitute a problem. Due to a combination of the ground analyses with the daily multi-satellite product of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP-1DD) not only these missing values are replaced but also the spatial structure of the satellite estimates is considered. As merging method bivariate ordinary co-kriging is applied. The ACFs necessary for the gauge and the satellite fields as well as the corresponding spatial cross-correlation functions (CCFs) are again precalculated for each of the five main climatic zones and for each individual month. As a result two new global daily data sets for the period 1996 up to today will be available on the Internet (www.gmes-geoland.info): A precipitation product over land, analysed from ground measurements; and a global precipitation product merged from this and the GPCP-1DD multi-satellite product. (orig.)

  13. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  14. Assessing yield and fertilizer response in heterogeneous smallholder fields with UAVs and satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Antonius G.T.; Traore, Pierre C.S.; Blaes, Xavier; By, de Rolf A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural intensification and efficient use and targeting of fertilizer inputs on smallholder farms is key to sustainably improve food security. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how high-resolution satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images can be used to assess the spatial

  15. The electrical conductivity of the Earth's upper mantle as estimated from satellite measured magnetic field variations. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didwall, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Low latitude magnetic field variations (magnetic storms) caused by large fluctuations in the equatorial ring current were derived from magnetic field magnitude data obtained by OGO 2, 4, and 6 satellites over an almost 5 year period. Analysis procedures consisted of (1) separating the disturbance field into internal and external parts relative to the surface of the Earth; (2) estimating the response function which related to the internally generated magnetic field variations to the external variations due to the ring current; and (3) interpreting the estimated response function using theoretical response functions for known conductivity profiles. Special consideration is given to possible ocean effects. A temperature profile is proposed using conductivity temperature data for single crystal olivine. The resulting temperature profile is reasonable for depths below 150-200 km, but is too high for shallower depths. Apparently, conductivity is not controlled solely by olivine at shallow depths.

  16. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Calerias geothermal field, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Urzua, L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile has enormous potential to use the geothermal resources for electric energy generation. The main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North, between the Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT and ASTER satellites have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the Calerias geothermal field located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique developed by authors. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields.

  17. Measurements of nitric oxide and ammonia soil fluxes from a wet savanna ecosystem site in West Africa during the DACCIWA field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Jambert, Corinne; Durand, Pierre; Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mat J.; Lohou, Fabienne; Derrien, Solène; Donnou, Venance H. E.; Houeto, Arnaud V.; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne

    2018-03-01

    It is important to correctly simulate biogenic fluxes from soil in atmospheric chemistry models at a local and regional scale to study air pollution and climate in an area of the world, West Africa, that has been subject to a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions due to a massive growth in population and urbanization. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported inland and northward from the mega cities located on the coast, where the reaction with biogenic emissions may lead to enhanced ozone production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosols formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation and crops. Here we present field measurements of soil fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) observed over four different land cover types, i.e. bare soil, grassland, maize field and forest, at an inland rural site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016. We observe NO fluxes up to 48.05 ngN m-2 s-1. NO fluxes averaged over all land cover types are 4.79 ± 5.59 ngN m-2 s-1, maximum soil emissions of NO are recorded over bare soil. NH3 is dominated by deposition for all land cover types. NH3 fluxes range between -6.59 and 4.96 ngN m-2 s-1. NH3 fluxes averaged over all land cover types are -0.91 ± 1.27 ngN m-2 s-1 and maximum NH3 deposition is measured over bare soil. The observations show high spatial variability even for the same soil type, same day and same meteorological conditions. We compare point daily average measurements of NO emissions recorded during the field campaign with those simulated by GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Model) for the same site and find good agreement. In an attempt to quantify NO emissions at the regional and national scale, we also provide a tentative estimate of total NO emissions for the entire country of Benin for the month of July using two distinct methods: upscaling point measurements and using the

  18. Study of surface energy budget and test of a newly developed fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer in field campaign Szeged (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrai, David; Nikov, Daniella; Zsolt Jász, Ervin; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Weidinger, Tamás; András Gyöngyösi, Zénó; Kiss, Melinda; Józsa, János; Simó Diego, Gemma; Cuxart Rodamilans, Joan; Wrenger, Burkhart; Bottyán, Zsolt

    2014-05-01

    A micrometeorological field measurement campaign dedicated to study the surface energy budget and the structure of the boundary layer focusing on the transient layer forming periods during night-time was organized in the period of 10th of November to 3rd of December 2013 in the nearby of Szeged, Hungary. A temporary micrometeorological measurement station was set up at the coordinates N:46.239943; E:20.089758, approximately 1700 m far from a national meteorology station (N:46.255711; E:20.09052). In the experimental micrometeorological site different types of instruments were installed to measure numerous parameters: standard meteorological measurements (p, T, wet, wind speed and direction at three different levels, relative humidity at two levels and absolute humidity at one level) radiation budget components surface temperature and leaf wetness soil temperature, moisture and heat flux into the deeper soil layer eddy-covariance measurements (t, H, LE CO2) at 3 m level using Campbell open-path IRGA (EC150) system. At the national meteorology station (http://adatok.geo.u-szeged.hu/?lang=eng) besides their standard measurement equipment and measurement routine a SODAR was installed and continuously operated. These ground based measurements were combined with and supported by UAV, quadcopter and tethered balloon based vertical profile measurements of p, T, rh. For this measurement campaign as a modification of a previously developed airborne ready dual channel hygrometer, a fast photoacoustic spectroscopy based hygrometer was developed for absolute humidity measurements. The estimated response time of the system is faster than 15 Hz, which was achieved by the replacement of the data acquisition system and by recording the raw photoacoustic signal sampled at rate of 48 kHz for post-processing. During the campaign this new system was compared to a TDL system commercially available at Li-COR Inc. Besides the testing of the newly developed fast photoacoustic hygrometer

  19. CoMStOC vs. International Solar Month - Experience gained and lessons learned from SMM campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The factors that should be addressed by the organizers of a solar observing campaign are outlined and described. Two recent solar observing campaigns are compared and discussed. Lessons learned from these and other campaigns involving the SMM satellite are analyzed and advice for future campaigns is offered.

  20. Parameterization of the Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds during the ISDAC Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H

    2012-03-06

    This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction

  1. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: A Program for Teachers and Students to Explore Their World and Study Global Change Through Field-Experience and Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Orchard, A.; Colodner, D.; Schwartz, K.; Crown, D. A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.

    2012-03-01

    The Laurel Clark Earth Camp program provides middle and high school students and teachers opportunities to explore local environmental issues and global change through field-experiences, inquiry exercises, and exploring satellite images.

  2. CHANGE DETECTION OF CROPPING PATTERN IN PADDY FIELD USING MULTI SPECTRAL SATELLITE DATA FOR ESTIMATING IRRIGATION WATER NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizatus Shofiyati1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of multi spectral satellite data for cropping pattern monitoring in paddy field. The southern coastal of Citarum watershed, West Java Province was selected as study sites. The analysis used in this study is identifying crop pattern based on growth stages of wetland paddy and other crops by investi-gating the characteristic of Normalized Differen-ce Vegetation Indices (NDVI and Wetness of Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT derived from 14 scenes of Landsat TM date 1988 to 2001. In general, the phenological of growth stages of wetland paddy can be used to distinguish with other seasonal crops. The research results indicate that multi spectral satellite data has a great potential for identi-fication and monitoring cropping pattern in paddy field. Specific character of NDVI and Wetness can also produce a map of cropping pattern in paddy field that is useful to monitor agricultural land condition. The cropping pattern can also be used to estimate irrigation water needed of paddy field in the area. Expected implication of the information obtained from this analysis is useful for guiding more appropriate planning and better agricultural management.

  3. Field Results from Three Campaigns to Validate the Performance of the Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (Mini-LHR) for Measuring Carbon Dioxide and Methane in the Atmospheric Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Houston; Clarke, Greg B.; Melroy, Hilary; Ott, Lesley; Steel, Emily Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In a collaboration between NASA GSFC and GWU, a low-cost, surface instrument is being developed that can continuously monitor key carbon cycle gases in the atmospheric column: carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). The instrument is based on a miniaturized, laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) using near infrared (NIR) telecom lasers. Despite relatively weak absorption line strengths in this spectral region, spectrallyresolved atmospheric column absorptions for these two molecules fall in the range of 60-80% and thus sensitive and precise measurements of column concentrations are possible. In the last year, the instrument was deployed for field measurements at Park Falls, Wisconsin; Castle Airport near Atwater, California; and at the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. For each subsequent campaign, improvement in the figures of merit for the instrument has been observed. In the latest work the absorbance noise is approaching 0.002 optical density (OD) noise on a 1.8 OD signal. An overview of the measurement campaigns and the data retrieval algorithm for the calculation of column concentrations will be presented. For light transmission through the atmosphere, it is necessary to account for variation of pressure, temperature, composition, and refractive index through the atmosphere that are all functions of latitude, longitude, time of day, altitude, etc. For temperature, pressure, and humidity profiles with altitude we use the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Spectral simulation is accomplished by integrating short-path segments along the trajectory using the SpecSyn spectral simulation suite developed at GW. Column concentrations are extracted by minimizing residuals between observed and modeled spectrum using the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. We will also present an assessment of uncertainty in the reported concentrations from assumptions made in the meteorological data, LHR instrument and tracker noise, and radio

  4. Use of high-resolution satellite images for detection of geological structures related to Central Andes geothermal field, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Rivas, C. L.; Soto-Pinto, C. A.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Central valley and the border with Argentina in the center, and in the fault system Liquiñe-Ofqui in the South of the country. High resolution images from the LANDSAT 8 satellite have been used to delineate the geological structures related to the potential geothermal reservoirs located at the northern end of the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. It was done by applying the lineament extraction technique, using the ADALGEO software, developed by [Soto et al., 2013]. These structures have been compared with the distribution of main geological structures obtained in the field. It was found that the lineament density increases in the areas of the major heat flux indicating that the lineament analysis could be a power tool for the detection of faults and joint zones associated to the geothermal fields. A lineament is generally defined as a straight or slightly curved feature in the landscape visible satellite image as an aligned sequence of pixel intensity contrast compared to the background. The system features extracted from satellite images is not identical to the geological lineaments that are generally determined by ground surveys, however, generally reflects the structure of faults and fractures in the crust. A temporal sequence of eight Landsat multispectral images of Central Andes geothermal field, located in VI region de Chile, was used to study changes in the configuration of the lineaments during 2011. The presence of minerals with silicification, epidotization, and albitization, which are typical for geothrmal reservoirs, was also identified, using their spectral characteristics, and subsequently corroborated in the field. Both lineament analysis and spectral analysis gave similar location of the reservoir, which increases reliability of the results.

  5. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Hydroxyl Radical (OH) Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The University of California, Irvine, science team (Dr. Saewung Kim, Dr. Roger Seco, Dr. Alex Guenther, and Dr. Jim Smith) deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer system for hydroxyl radical (OH) and sulfuric acid quantifications. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. Hydroxyl radical determines tropospheric oxidation capacity and had been expected to be very low in the pristine rain forest region such as the Brazilian Amazon because of the presence of significant levels of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds and very low levels of NO, which is an OH recycling agent. However, several recent in situ OH observations provided by a laser-induced fluorescence system reported unaccountably high OH concentrations. To address this discrepancy, a series of laboratory and theoretical studies has postulated chemical reaction mechanisms of isoprene that may regenerate OH in photo-oxidation processes. Along with these efforts, potential artifacts on the laser induced fluorescence system from isoprene and its oxidation products also have been explored. Therefore, the first chemical ionization mass spectrometer observations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, are expected to provide a critical experimental constraint to address uncertainty in constraining oxidation capacity over pristine rain forest environments. In addition, we deployed a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to characterize atmospheric volatile organic compound levels, especially isoprene and its oxidation products, which are critical input parameters for box modeling to simulate OH with different isoprene photo-oxidation schemes. As there has been no report on noticeable new particle formation events, our first in situ sulfuric acid observations in the Amazon rain forest were expected to constrain the

  6. Dynamics of the turbidity maximum zone in a macrotidal estuary (the Gironde, France): Observations from field and MODIS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxaran, David; Froidefond, Jean-Marie; Castaing, Patrice; Babin, Marcel

    2009-02-01

    Over a 1-year period, field and satellite measurements of surface water turbidity were combined in order to study the dynamics of the turbidity maximum zone (TM) in a macrotidal estuary (the Gironde, France). Four fixed platforms equipped with turbidity sensors calibrated to give the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration provided continuous information in the upper estuary. Full resolution data recorded by the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms provided information in the central and lower estuary twice a day (depending on cloud cover). Field data were used to validate a recently developed SPM quantification algorithm applied to the MODIS 'surface reflectance' product. The algorithm is based on a relationship between the SPM concentration and a reflectance ratio of MODIS bands 2 (near-infrared) and 1 (red). Based on 62 and 75 match-ups identified in 2005 with MODIS Terra and Aqua data, the relative uncertainty of the algorithm applied to these sensors was found to be 22 and 18%, respectively. Field measurements showed the tidal variations of turbidity in the upper estuary, while monthly-averaged MODIS satellite data complemented by field data allowed observing the monthly movements of the TM in the whole estuary. The trapping of fine sediments occurred in the upper estuary during the period of low river flow. This resulted in the formation of a highly concentrated TM during a 4-month period. With increasing river flow, the TM moved rapidly to the central estuary. A part of the TM detached, moved progressively in the lower estuary and was finally either massively exported to the ocean during peak floods or temporary trapped (settled) on intertidal mudflats. The massive export to the ocean was apparently the result of combined favorable environmental conditions: presence of fluid mud near the mouth, high river flow, high tides and limited wind speeds. The mean SPM concentration

  7. Lunar polar rover science operations: Lessons learned and mission architecture implications derived from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) terrestrial field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Lim, Darlene; Deans, Matthew; Cook, Amanda; Roush, Ted; Skok, J. R.; Button, Nicole E.; Karunatillake, S.; Stoker, Carol; Marquez, Jessica J.; Shirley, Mark; Kobayashi, Linda; Lees, David; Bresina, John; Hunt, Rusty

    2016-08-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal of producing critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. Specifically, MVP focuses on studying a lunar mission analog to characterize the form and distribution of lunar volatiles. Although lunar volatiles are known to be present near the poles of the Moon, the three dimensional distribution and physical characteristics of lunar polar volatiles are largely unknown. A landed mission with the ability to traverse the lunar surface is thus required to characterize the spatial distribution of lunar polar volatiles. NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is a lunar polar rover mission that will operate primarily in sunlit regions near a lunar pole with near-real time operations to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of volatiles. The MVP project was conducted as a field campaign relevant to the RP lunar mission to provide science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. To achieve these goals, the MVP project conducted a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural environment with an unknown volatile distribution within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon.

  8. Eddy covariance N2O flux measurements at low flux rates: results from the InGOS campaign in a Danish willow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brümmer, Christian; Hensen, Arjan; van Asperen, Hella; Carter, Mette S.; Gasche, Rainer; Famulari, Daniela; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils are characterised by their high spatial and temporal variability. The fluxes depend on the availability of the substrates for nitrification and denitrification and soil physical and chemical conditions that control the metabolic microbial activity. The sporadic nature of the fluxes and their high sensitivity to alterations of the soil climate put very high demands on measurement approaches. Laser spectroscopy enables accurate and fast response detection of atmospheric N2O concentrations and is used for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Alternatively N2O fluxes can be measured with chambers together with high precision analysers. Differences in the measurement approaches and system designs are expected to have a considerable influence on the accuracy of the flux estimation. This study investigates how three different eddy covariance systems perform in a situation of low N2O fluxes from a flat surface. Chamber flux measurements with differing chamber and analyser designs are used for comparison. In April 2013, the EU research infrastructure project InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/) organised a campaign of N2O flux measurements in a willow plantation close to the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark. The willow field was harvested in February 2013 and received mineral fertiliser equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 before the campaign started. Three different eddy covariance systems took part in the campaign: two Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) based systems and one Los Gatos Research off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS) system for N2O and CO. The sonic anemometers were all installed at 2 m height above the bare ground. Gill R3 type sonic anemometers were used with QCL systems and a Gil HS-50 with the ICOS system. The 10 Hz raw data were analysed with group specific softwares and procedures. The local conditions in the exceptionally cold and dry spring 2013 did not lead to large N2O flux

  9. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO. However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhance our knowledge of SO water and atmospheric optical characteristics and address satellite algorithm deficiency of ocean color products. We collected high resolution in situ water leaving reflectance (±1 nm band resolution, simultaneous in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations and satellite (MODIS and VIIRS water leaving reflectance. Field samples show that clouds have a great impact on the visible green bands and are difficult to detect because NASA protocols apply the NIR band as a cloud contamination threshold. When compared to global case I water, water around the AP has lower water leaving reflectance and a narrower blue-green band ratio, which explains chlorophyll-a underestimation in high chlorophyll-a regions and overestimation in low chlorophyll-a regions. VIIRS shows higher spatial coverage and detection accuracy than MODIS. After coefficient improvement, VIIRS is able to predict chlorophyll a with 53% accuracy.

  10. Chlorophyll-a Estimation Around the Antarctica Peninsula Using Satellite Algorithms: Hints from Field Water Leaving Reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Xu, Huiping; Fischer, Andrew M

    2016-12-07

    Ocean color remote sensing significantly contributes to our understanding of phytoplankton distribution and abundance and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean (SO). However, the current SO in situ optical database is still insufficient and unevenly distributed. This limits the ability to produce robust and accurate measurements of satellite-based chlorophyll. Based on data collected on cruises around the Antarctica Peninsula (AP) on January 2014 and 2016, this research intends to enhance our knowledge of SO water and atmospheric optical characteristics and address satellite algorithm deficiency of ocean color products. We collected high resolution in situ water leaving reflectance (±1 nm band resolution), simultaneous in situ chlorophyll-a concentrations and satellite (MODIS and VIIRS) water leaving reflectance. Field samples show that clouds have a great impact on the visible green bands and are difficult to detect because NASA protocols apply the NIR band as a cloud contamination threshold. When compared to global case I water, water around the AP has lower water leaving reflectance and a narrower blue-green band ratio, which explains chlorophyll-a underestimation in high chlorophyll-a regions and overestimation in low chlorophyll-a regions. VIIRS shows higher spatial coverage and detection accuracy than MODIS. After coefficient improvement, VIIRS is able to predict chlorophyll a with 53% accuracy.

  11. Operational experience from the satellite fields Statfjord Nord and East; Driftserfaringer fra satellittfeltene Statfjord Nord og Oest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterdal, Atle; Hansen, Hans Birger [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Since production started on the satellite fields Statfjord Nord and East in 1995 and 1994, respectively, some opportunities for improvement have been discovered and realized both with respect to the subsea systems and the operational routines and philosophy. This presentation discusses the improvement projects. It is known from experience that creative ideas usually originate at the interfaces between supplier/customer, engineers with different backgrounds, or between different technologies. The interface between supplier and operator is very important for discovering creative solutions. The interface between Statoil and the suppliers of underwater equipment is not sufficiently well developed on the operational side.

  12. Monitoring Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Western Pacific Using Satellite Remote Sensing Integrated with Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, C. M.; Phinn, S. R.; Lyons, M. B.; Kovacs, E.; Saunders, M. I.; Leon, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    Corals and Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) are typically found in highly dynamic environments where the magnitude and types of physical and biological processes controlling their distribution, diversity and function changes dramatically. Recent advances in the types of satellite image data and the length of their archives that are available globally, coupled with new techniques for extracting environmental information from these data sets has enabled significant advances to be made in our ability to map and monitor coral and SAV environments. Object Based Image Analysis techniques are one of the most significant advances in information extraction techniques for processing images to deliver environmental information at multiple spatial scales. This poster demonstrates OBIA applied to high spatial resolution satellite image data to map and monitor coral and SAV communities across a variety of environments in the Western Pacific that vary in their extent, biological composition, forcing physical factors and location. High spatial resolution satellite imagery (Quickbird, Ikonos and Worldview2) were acquired coincident with field surveys on each reef to collect georeferenced benthic photo transects, over various areas in the Western Pacific. Base line maps were created, from Roviana Lagoon Solomon island (600 km2), Bikini Atoll Marshall Island (800 Km2), Lizard Island, Australia (30 km2) and time series maps for geomorphic and benthic communities were collected for Heron Reef, Australia (24 km2) and Eastern Banks area of Moreton Bay, Australia (200 km2). The satellite image data were corrected for radiometric and atmospheric distortions to at-surface reflectance. Georeferenced benthic photos were acquired by divers or Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, analysed for benthic cover composition, and used for calibration and validation purposes. Hierarchical mapping from: reef/non-reef (1000's - 10000's m); reef type (100's - 1000's m); 'geomorphic zone' (10's - 100's m); to

  13. Field and Satellite Observations of the Formation and Distribution of Arctic Atmospheric Bromine Above a Rejuvenated Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Shepson, Paul B.; Bottenheim, Jan; Barber, David G.; Steffen, Alexandra; Latonas, Jeff; Wang, Feiyue; hide

    2012-01-01

    Recent drastic reduction of the older perennial sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has resulted in a vast expansion of younger and saltier seasonal sea ice. This increase in the salinity of the overall ice cover could impact tropospheric chemical processes. Springtime perennial ice extent in 2008 and 2009 broke the half-century record minimum in 2007 by about one million km2. In both years seasonal ice was dominant across the Beaufort Sea extending to the Amundsen Gulf, where significant field and satellite observations of sea ice, temperature, and atmospheric chemicals have been made. Measurements at the site of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen ice breaker in the Amundsen Gulf showed events of increased bromine monoxide (BrO), coupled with decreases of ozone (O3) and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), during cold periods in March 2008. The timing of the main event of BrO, O3, and GEM changes was found to be consistent with BrO observed by satellites over an extensive area around the site. Furthermore, satellite sensors detected a doubling of atmospheric BrO in a vortex associated with a spiral rising air pattern. In spring 2009, excessive and widespread bromine explosions occurred in the same region while the regional air temperature was low and the extent of perennial ice was significantly reduced compared to the case in 2008. Using satellite observations together with a Rising-Air-Parcel model, we discover a topographic control on BrO distribution such that the Alaskan North Slope and the Canadian Shield region were exposed to elevated BrO, whereas the surrounding mountains isolated the Alaskan interior from bromine intrusion.

  14. Initial Analysis of VOCs Speciation in CREATE Emissions Inventory using the MAPS-Seoul Aircraft Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, C.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Choi, K. C.; Kim, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y. K.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    As the first international cooperative air quality field study, the MAPS-Seoul (Megacity Air Pollution Studies-Seoul) aircraft mission was conducted in May - June 2016 over the South Korea, to understand of climate and atmospheric environment. The aircraft carried observation instruments for measurements of GHGs, ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and chemical tracers. The CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Environment) emissions inventory and SMOKE-Asia emission processing system were used to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation. Initial results of comparison studies show large discrepancies in VOC species over the South Korea - especially over urban regions. Several VOC species observed high near megacities and petro-chemical plants but under-predicted by chemical transport models (CTMs) - possibly due to relatively low emissions. The chemical speciation profiles and emissions inventory for each emission sources, therefore, have to be re-visited to improve emissions information. In this study, we have; 1) re-examined our emissions inventory and emission speciation processes, 2) and tried to find possible missing sources and alternative chemical speciation profiles, to improve our modelling emissions inventory. Initial review of the mapping and classification profiles, the original US chemical speciation profiles were found to be low in partitioning painting and surface coating sources, although they are the very significant contributors. Unlike other major national cities in China, Shanghai's VOC emissions fraction seems very similar to that of Seoul. Continuous analysis of major urban and industrial areas of the country will be presented at site.Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment

  15. Tile-Level Annotation of Satellite Images Using Multi-Level Max-Margin Discriminative Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-level max-margin discriminative analysis (M3DA framework, which takes both coarse and fine semantics into consideration, for the annotation of high-resolution satellite images. In order to generate more discriminative topic-level features, the M3DA uses the maximum entropy discrimination latent Dirichlet Allocation (MedLDA model. Moreover, for improving the spatial coherence of visual words neglected by M3DA, conditional random field (CRF is employed to optimize the soft label field composed of multiple label posteriors. The framework of M3DA enables one to combine word-level features (generated by support vector machines and topic-level features (generated by MedLDA via the bag-of-words representation. The experimental results on high-resolution satellite images have demonstrated that, using the proposed method can not only obtain suitable semantic interpretation, but also improve the annotation performance by taking into account the multi-level semantics and the contextual information.

  16. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  17. Simulating black carbon and dust and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow: a case study over North China with field campaign measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Hu, Z.; Qian, Y.; Leung, L. Ruby; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Jin, J.; Flanner, M. G.; Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Yan, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2014-10-01

    A state-of-the-art regional model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al., 2008) coupled with a chemistry component (Chem) (Grell et al., 2005), is coupled with the snow, ice, and aerosol radiative (SNICAR) model that includes the most sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January-February of 2010, with extensive field measurements used to evaluate the model performance. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively) are consistent with observations. The model generally moderately underestimates BCS in the clean regions but significantly overestimates BCS in some polluted regions. Most model results fall within the uncertainty ranges of observations. The simulated BCS and DSTS are highest with > 5000 ng g-1 and up to 5 mg g-1, respectively, over the source regions and reduce to dust in the atmosphere. This study represents an effort in using a regional modeling framework to simulate BC and dust and their direct radiative forcing in snowpack. Although a variety of observational data sets have been used to attribute model biases, some uncertainties in the results remain, which highlights the need for more observations, particularly concurrent measurements of atmospheric and snow aerosols and the deposition fluxes of aerosols, in future campaigns.

  18. Structural Characteristics of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems in the U.S. Great Plains as Observed During the PECAN Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Dougherty, E.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Torres, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    During the summer in the U.S. Great Plains, some of the heaviest precipitation falls from large thunderstorm complexes known as Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). These frequently occurring MCSs are often nocturnal in nature, so the dynamics associated with these systems are more elusive than those in the daytime. The Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) field campaign was launched over a 7-week period as an endeavor to better understand nocturnal MCSs occurring in the Great Plains. PECAN featured a dense array of ground-based and airborne instruments to observe nocturnal MCS, including dual-polarization radars at multiple frequencies, mobile mesonets, and sounding units. Our role in PECAN involved deploying Ott Parsivel disdrometers to gain information on drop size distributions (DSDs) and fall speeds. Analysis of disdrometer data in conjunction with radar data presented using Contour Frequency by Altitude Diagrams (CFADs) and high-resolution radiosonde data allows for a structural comparison of PECAN MCS cases to previously identified MCS archetypes. Novel insights into the structural evolution of nocturnal MCSs in relation to their synoptic, mesoscale, and thermodynamic environments are presented, using data collected from dense and numerous observation platforms. Understanding the environmental conditions that result in different nocturnal MCS configurations is useful for gaining insight into precipitation distributions and potential severe weather and flooding hazards in the Great Plains.

  19. Heterogeneous reactivity of sea spray particles during the CalNex field campaign: Insight from single particle measurements and correlations with gas phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, C. J.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Wagner, N.; Brown, S. S.; Quinn, P.; Bates, T. S.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea spray particles are ubiquitous in marine environments. Heterogeneous reactions between sea spray particles and gas phase pollutants, such as HNO3(g), and N2O5(g), alter particle composition by displacing particulate phase halogens in sea spray and releasing these halogen species into the gas phase; these halogen-containing gas phase species play a significant role in tropospheric ozone production. Measurements of both gas phase and particle phase species on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNEX 2010 field campaign provided an opportunity to examine the impact of heterogeneous reactivity of marine aerosols along the California coast. During the cruise, coastal measurements were made near the Santa Monica and Port of Los Angeles regions to monitor the chemical processing of marine aerosols. Sea spray particles were analyzed since these particles were the major chloride-containing particles detected. Real-time single particle measurements made using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) revealed the nocturnal processing of sea spray particles through the loss of particulate chloride and a simultaneous gain in particulate nitrate. Gas phase measurements are consistent with the particle phase observations: As N2O5(g) levels rose overnight, the production of ClNO2(g) coincided with the decrease in particulate chloride. These observations provide unique insight into heterogeneous reactivity from both a gas and particle phase perspective. Results from these measurements can be used to better constrain the rate of heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles.

  20. Assessing the influence of regional transport from Mainland China over the Korean Peninsula during the 2016 KORUS-AQ Field Campaign with CO/CO2 ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, H. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Diskin, G. S.; Choi, Y.; Pusede, S.; Rana, M.; Nowak, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    The industrial growth in East Asia has resulted in widespread growth and prosperity, but has been accompanied by degraded air quality. These poor air quality events have both local and regional effects, and long range transportation of pollution can greatly increase the affected populations. South Korea has a technologically oriented economy with vibrant urban regions, but suffers from poor air quality arising from both local emissions on the Korean peninsula and from the transport of pollution from Mainland China. The KORUS-AQ field campaign was an international collaboration to characterize and understand the air quality over the Korean peninsula in the spring of 2016. We use the aircraft in situ data from the DC-8 aircraft to examine trace gas ratios over three major analysis regions: the Seoul Metropolitan region, the South Korean peninsula, and the West Sea (Yellow Sea). We look specifically at the correlations between CO and CO2 as an indicator of emissions type, with low ratios generally indicative of more efficient combustion and high emission ratios indicating low efficiency combustion. At low altitudes, higher incidences of low CO/CO2 ratios were observed in the Seoul and Peninsula regions, compared to higher ratios of CO/CO2 over the West Sea. We examine the meteorological dependence of these carbon species ratios, their relationships to VOC tracers, and their vertical behavior to evaluate the air mass contributions from Mainland China and assess the percentage contributions of these regional emissions to the measurements over the Korean Peninsula.

  1. Idealized Simulations of a Squall Line from the MC3E Field Campaign Applying Three Bin Microphysics Schemes: Dynamic and Thermodynamic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Lulin [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Lebo, Zachary J. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming; Wu, Wei [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; Morrison, Hugh [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Grabowski, Wojciech W. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Chu, Xia [University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming; Geresdi, István [University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; North, Kirk [McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Stenz, Ronald [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Gao, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Lou, Xiaofeng [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China; Bansemer, Aaron [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Heymsfield, Andrew J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; McFarquhar, Greg M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois; Rasmussen, Roy M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

    2017-12-01

    The squall line event on May 20, 2011, during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) field campaign has been simulated by three bin (spectral) microphysics schemes coupled into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Semi-idealized three-dimensional simulations driven by temperature and moisture profiles acquired by a radiosonde released in the pre-convection environment at 1200 UTC in Morris, Oklahoma show that each scheme produced a squall line with features broadly consistent with the observed storm characteristics. However, substantial differences in the details of the simulated dynamic and thermodynamic structure are evident. These differences are attributed to different algorithms and numerical representations of microphysical processes, assumptions of the hydrometeor processes and properties, especially ice particle mass, density, and terminal velocity relationships with size, and the resulting interactions between the microphysics, cold pool, and dynamics. This study shows that different bin microphysics schemes, designed to be conceptually more realistic and thus arguably more accurate than bulk microphysics schemes, still simulate a wide spread of microphysical, thermodynamic, and dynamic characteristics of a squall line, qualitatively similar to the spread of squall line characteristics using various bulk schemes. Future work may focus on improving the representation of ice particle properties in bin schemes to reduce this uncertainty and using the similar assumptions for all schemes to isolate the impact of physics from numerics.

  2. Assessment of the aerosol optics component of the coupled WRF-CMAQ model using CARES field campaign data and a single column model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chuen Meei; Binkowski, Francis; Pleim, Jonathan; Xing, Jia; Wong, David; Mathur, Rohit; Gilliam, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES), a field campaign held in central California in June 2010, provides a unique opportunity to assess the aerosol optics modeling component of the two-way coupled Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This campaign included comprehensive measurements of aerosol composition and optical properties at two ground sites and aloft from instrumentation on-board two aircraft. A single column model (SCM) was developed to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of the coupled model using both observation and model information. Two cases (June 14 and 24, 2010) are examined in this study. The results show that though the coupled WRF-CMAQ estimates of aerosol extinction were underestimated relative to these measurements, when measured concentrations and characteristics of ambient aerosols were used as input to constrain the SCM calculations, the estimated extinction profiles agreed well with aircraft observations. One of the possible causes of the WRF-CMAQ extinction errors is that the simulated sea-salt (SS) in the accumulation mode in WRF-CMAQ is very low in both cases while the observations indicate a considerable amount of SS. Also, a significant amount of organic carbon (OC) is present in the measurement. However, in the current WRF-CMAQ model all OC is considered to be insoluble whereas most secondary organic aerosol is water soluble. In addition, the model does not consider external mixing and hygroscopic effects of water soluble OC which can impact the extinction calculations. In conclusion, the constrained SCM results indicate that the scattering portion of the aerosol optics calculations is working well, although the absorption calculation could not be effectively evaluated. However, a few factors such as greatly underestimated accumulation mode SS, misrepresentation of water soluble OC, and incomplete mixing state representation in the full coupled model

  3. A statistical study of high-altitude electric fields measured on the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of high-altitude data from the Viking electric field instrument are presented in a statistical study based on 109 Viking orbits. The study is focused in particular on the signatures of and relationships between various parameters measured by the electric field instrument, such as the parallel and transverse (to B) components of the electric field instrument, such as electric field variability. A major goal of the Viking mission was to investigate the occurrence and properties of parallel electric fields and their role in the auroral acceleration process. The results in this paper on the altitude distribution of the electric field variability confirm earlier findings on the distribution of small-scale electric fields and indicate the presence of parallel fields up to about 11,000 km altitude. The directly measured parallel electric field is also investigated in some detail. It is in general directed upward with an average value of 1 mV/m, but depends on, for example, altitude and plasma density. Possible sources of error in the measurement of the parallel field are also considered and accounted for

  4. THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES VIA DROPOUT SELECTION AT REDSHIFTS z ∼ 7 AND 8 FROM THE 2012 ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Stark, Daniel P.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Koekemoer, Anton; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected to lie within the redshift range z ≅ 7-8 using the Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12), the deepest near-infrared (near-IR) exposures yet taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a result of the increased near-IR exposure time compared to previous HST imaging in this field, we probe ∼0.65 (0.25) mag fainter in absolute UV magnitude, at z ∼ 7 (8), which increases confidence in a measurement of the faint end slope of the galaxy luminosity function. Through a 0.7 mag deeper limit in the key F105W filter that encompasses or lies just longward of the Lyman break, we also achieve a much-refined color-color selection that balances high redshift completeness and a low expected contamination fraction. We improve the number of dropout-selected UDF sources to 47 at z ∼ 7 and 27 at z ∼ 8. Incorporating brighter archival and ground-based samples, we measure the z ≅ 7 UV luminosity function to an absolute magnitude limit of M UV = –17 and find a faint end Schechter slope of α=-1.87 +0.18 -0.17 . Using a similar color-color selection at z ≅ 8 that takes our newly added imaging in the F140W filter into account, and incorporating archival data from the HIPPIES and BoRG campaigns, we provide a robust estimate of the faint end slope at z ≅ 8, α=-1.94 +0.21 -0.24 . We briefly discuss our results in the context of earlier work and that derived using the same UDF12 data but with an independent photometric redshift technique.

  5. THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES VIA DROPOUT SELECTION AT REDSHIFTS z {approx} 7 AND 8 FROM THE 2012 ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Stark, Daniel P. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Furlanetto, Steven R., E-mail: schenker@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We present a catalog of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected to lie within the redshift range z {approx_equal} 7-8 using the Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12), the deepest near-infrared (near-IR) exposures yet taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a result of the increased near-IR exposure time compared to previous HST imaging in this field, we probe {approx}0.65 (0.25) mag fainter in absolute UV magnitude, at z {approx} 7 (8), which increases confidence in a measurement of the faint end slope of the galaxy luminosity function. Through a 0.7 mag deeper limit in the key F105W filter that encompasses or lies just longward of the Lyman break, we also achieve a much-refined color-color selection that balances high redshift completeness and a low expected contamination fraction. We improve the number of dropout-selected UDF sources to 47 at z {approx} 7 and 27 at z {approx} 8. Incorporating brighter archival and ground-based samples, we measure the z {approx_equal} 7 UV luminosity function to an absolute magnitude limit of M{sub UV} = -17 and find a faint end Schechter slope of {alpha}=-1.87{sup +0.18}{sub -0.17}. Using a similar color-color selection at z {approx_equal} 8 that takes our newly added imaging in the F140W filter into account, and incorporating archival data from the HIPPIES and BoRG campaigns, we provide a robust estimate of the faint end slope at z {approx_equal} 8, {alpha}=-1.94{sup +0.21}{sub -0.24}. We briefly discuss our results in the context of earlier work and that derived using the same UDF12 data but with an independent photometric redshift technique.

  6. Validating the WRF-Chem model for wind energy applications using High Resolution Doppler Lidar data from a Utah 2012 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. J.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Models are important tools for assessing potential of wind energy sites, but the accuracy of these projections has not been properly validated. In this study, High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL) data obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution at heights of modern turbine rotors were compared to output from the WRF-chem model in order to help improve the performance of the model in producing accurate wind forecasts for the industry. HRDL data were collected from January 23-March 1, 2012 during the Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS) field campaign. A model validation method was based on the qualitative comparison of the wind field images, time-series analysis and statistical analysis of the observed and modeled wind speed and direction, both for case studies and for the whole experiment. To compare the WRF-chem model output to the HRDL observations, the model heights and forecast times were interpolated to match the observed times and heights. Then, time-height cross-sections of the HRDL and WRF-Chem wind speed and directions were plotted to select case studies. Cross-sections of the differences between the observed and forecasted wind speed and directions were also plotted to visually analyze the model performance in different wind flow conditions. A statistical analysis includes the calculation of vertical profiles and time series of bias, correlation coefficient, root mean squared error, and coefficient of determination between two datasets. The results from this analysis reveals where and when the model typically struggles in forecasting winds at heights of modern turbine rotors so that in the future the model can be improved for the industry.

  7. The potential for satellite and marginal field developments on the Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raustein, O.; Abrahamsen, L.E.; Einang, G.

    1994-01-01

    Norway is faced with decreasing field sizes in hostile waters. On the other hand, approximately 620 billion 1993-NOK have been invested in field installations and transport systems. These installations will have significant available processing and transport capacity in the future, and thus represent a valuable infrastructure. This paper describes the resource situation and the installed infrastructure on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Then the potential of still maintaining a high activity level in field developments is outlined

  8. Towards an improved determination of Earth’s lithospheric field from satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    Perhaps one of the biggest difficulties in modelling the Earth’s lithospheric magnetic field is the separation of contributions from sources of internal and external origin. In particular, the determination of smaller-scale lithospheric magnetic field features is problematic because the lithosphe......Perhaps one of the biggest difficulties in modelling the Earth’s lithospheric magnetic field is the separation of contributions from sources of internal and external origin. In particular, the determination of smaller-scale lithospheric magnetic field features is problematic because...

  9. Framatome's 1997 advertisement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de

    1998-01-01

    , Framatome was considered legitimate to communicate in the field of nuclear vs environment. The messages were well understood. Generally speaking, the executive population was more receptive than the general public. The merits of the Framatome campaign was to exclusively address the protection of the environment on a soft tone. But no triumphalism the results show that there is a long way before having convinced the public of the environmental benefits of nuclear power. In view of Kyoto, we decided to go further with the campaign

  10. Azores 2017 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, Birgit [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Chevallier, Karine [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany); Weinhold, Kay [Leibniz Inst. for Tropospheric Research (ITR), Leipzig (Germany)

    2018-03-20

    Aerosol particles play an important role for the regional and global climate. Therefore, a network of measurement sites has been established worldwide, but only a small fraction of them is capturing the marine boundary layer (MBL) while approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The main focus of this project is to improve the knowledge of sources and exchange processes of aerosol particles in general (German Research Foundation [DFG] project WE 2757/2-1) and of cloud condensation nuclei in particular (DFG project HE 6770/2-1) in the MBL in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean where the influence of local anthropogenic sources is negligible. The main hypothesis of the project is that long-range transport of aerosols from North America as well as new particle formation in the free troposphere (FT) and at cloud edges followed by vertical transport contribute significantly to the aerosol budget in the MBL. The knowledge of sources and sinks of aerosol particles in combination with vertical exchange between FT and MBL is a prerequisite to predict aerosol particle number concentrations in the lowest regions of the MBL and its influence on the formation of clouds. These processes are not sufficiently quantified over the ocean up to now. To verify the hypothesis stated above, vertical exchange processes and particle sources over the Azores will be quantified using data of 17 measurement flights with high spatial resolution using a helicopter-borne platform developed at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS). Here, aerosol particle number concentration and vertical wind speed have been measured with a temporal resolution allowing the direct estimate of the vertical turbulent flux of aerosol particles in different heights for the first time. In addition, aerosol particle number size distributions, number concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), and particle absorption at three different wavelengths have been determined. The data analysis is ongoing and final results are not available yet. The detailed analysis of these data will be used to conclude sources and origin of the investigated aerosol particles.

  11. A case study of the energy dissipation of the gravity wave field based on satellite altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Parsons, C. L.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Wave breaking is proposed as the primary energy dissipation mechanism for the gravity wave field. The energy dissipation rate is calculated based on the statistical model proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1969) with a modification of the breaking criterion incorporating the surface stress according to Phillips and Banner (1974). From this modified model, an analytic expression is found for the wave attenuation rate and the half-life time of the wave field which depend only on the significant slope of the wave field and the ratio of friction velocity to initial wave phase velocity. These expressions explain why the freshly generated wave field does not last long, but why swells are capable of propagating long distances without substantial change in energy density. It is shown that breaking is many orders of magnitude more effective in dissipating wave energy than the molecular viscosity, if the significant slope is higher than 0.01. Limited observational data from satellite and laboratory are used to compare with the analytic results, and show good agreement.

  12. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  13. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  14. The LCO/Gemini-South campaign for Deep Impact target Comet 9P/Tempel 1: Temporally resolved wide-field narrowband imaging results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Osip, D. J.; Thomas-Osip, J. E.; DeBuizer, J. M.; Mondragon, L. A.; Schweiger, D. L.; Viehweg, J.; SB Collaboration

    2005-08-01

    An extensive observing campaign to monitor Comet 9P/Tempel 1 will be conducted from 20 June to 19 July, 2005 at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. These observations will precede and follow the impact of the Deep Impact projectile, which is likely to create a crater on the nucleus that will act as a fresh active area on the surface of the comet. Discreet nucleus active areas, believed to be the source of coma gas and dust jets, will likely result in changing morphology in the coma. We present the initial results of the wide-field narrowband visible imaging of the comet. Data will be taken with the 2.5m DuPont telescope from 27 June - 9 July, following the comet from 4 rotations prior to impact, to 4 rotations after impact using the narrowband Hale-Bopp filters, including CN, C2, and two continuum filters. These data will allow an accurate determination of the rotation state of the embedded nucleus immediately preceding the impact event as well as a measure of any changes to the rotation state due to the impact. In addition, modeling of these data will provide the total dust and gas production rates from the unaltered nucleus compared to the enhanced dust and gas emission from the newly created active region and freely sublimating pieces of mantle material ejected into the coma by the impactor. We will monitor temporal changes (on hours and days time-scales) in the morphology of both the gas and refractory components. We will use coma morphology studies to estimate the dust and gas outflow velocities and infer the presence of discreet nucleus source regions (pre- and post-impact). Of particular interest is the study of the gas-to-dust ratio and the ratio of the minor carbon species emitted from the newly created active region relative to the pre-impact coma environment.

  15. Distribution, magnitudes, reactivities, ratios and diurnal patterns of volatile organic compounds in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA 2002 & 2003 field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide array of volatile organic compound (VOC measurements was conducted in the Valley of Mexico during the MCMA-2002 and 2003 field campaigns. Study sites included locations in the urban core, in a heavily industrial area and at boundary sites in rural landscapes. In addition, a novel mobile-laboratory-based conditional sampling method was used to collect samples dominated by fresh on-road vehicle exhaust to identify those VOCs whose ambient concentrations were primarily due to vehicle emissions. Four distinct analytical techniques were used: whole air canister samples with Gas Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID, on-line chemical ionization using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, continuous real-time detection of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS, and long path measurements using UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS. The simultaneous use of these techniques provided a wide range of individual VOC measurements with different spatial and temporal scales. The VOC data were analyzed to understand concentration and spatial distributions, diurnal patterns, origin and reactivity in the atmosphere of Mexico City. The VOC burden (in ppbC was dominated by alkanes (60%, followed by aromatics (15% and olefins (5%. The remaining 20% was a mix of alkynes, halogenated hydrocarbons, oxygenated species (esters, ethers, etc. and other unidentified VOCs. However, in terms of ozone production, olefins were the most relevant hydrocarbons. Elevated levels of toxic hydrocarbons, such as 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene and xylenes, were also observed. Results from these various analytical techniques showed that vehicle exhaust is the main source of VOCs in Mexico City and that diurnal patterns depend on vehicular traffic in addition to meteorological processes. Finally, examination of the VOC data in terms of lumped modeling VOC classes and its comparison to the VOC lumped emissions reported in other

  16. Simulating Black Carbon and Dust and their Radiative Forcing in Seasonal Snow: A Case Study over North China with Field Campaign Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chun; Hu, Zhiyuan; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Maoyi; Jin, Jiming; Flanner, M. G.; Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Yan, Huiping; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, D. G.

    2014-10-30

    A state-of-the-art regional model, WRF-Chem, is coupled with the SNICAR model that includes the sophisticated representation of snow metamorphism processes available for climate study. The coupled model is used to simulate the black carbon (BC) and dust concentrations and their radiative forcing in seasonal snow over North China in January-February of 2010, with extensive field measurements used to evaluate the model performance. In general, the model simulated spatial variability of BC and dust mass concentrations in the top snow layer (hereafter BCS and DSTS, respectively) are quantitatively or qualitatively consistent with observations. The model generally moderately underestimates BCS in the clean regions but significantly overestimates BCS in some polluted regions. Most model results fall into the uncertainty ranges of observations. The simulated BCS and DSTS are highest with >5000 ng g-1 and up to 5 mg g-1, respectively, over the source regions and reduce to <50 ng g-1 and <1 μg g-1, respectively, in the remote regions. BCS and DSTS introduce similar magnitude of radiative warming (~10 W m-2) in snowpack, which is comparable to the magnitude of surface radiative cooling due to BC and dust in the atmosphere. This study represents the first effort in using a regional modeling framework to simulate BC and dust and their direct radiative forcing in snow. Although a variety of observational datasets have been used to attribute model biases, some uncertainties in the results remain, which highlights the need for more observations, particularly concurrent measurements of atmospheric and snow aerosols and the deposition fluxes of aerosols, in future campaigns.

  17. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  18. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    More than two year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm...

  19. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS LPVEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  20. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  1. Measurements of NO and NH3 soil fluxes at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Jambert, Corinne; Durand, Pierre; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Brosse, Fabien; Pedruzo Bagazgoitia, Xabier; Dione, Cheikh; Gabella, Omar

    2017-04-01

    In the next decades South West Africa will be subject to a strong increase in anthropogenic emissions due to a massive growth in population and urbanization. The impact of global climate change, local or regional land use changes, and the strong sensitivity to the West African monsoon lead to complex interactions between surface emissions and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry. Anthropogenic pollutants are transported northward from the mega cities located on the coast, and react with biogenic emissions, leading to enhanced ozone (O3) production outside urban areas, as well as secondary organic aerosols formation, with detrimental effects on humans, animals, natural vegetation and crops. Nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions from soils, among other sources, directly influence NOx concentrations. Changes in NO sources will consequently modify the rate of O3 production. The largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions is agriculture, via the application of synthetic fertilizer. When released into the atmosphere, NH3 increases the level of air pollution. Once deposited in water and soils, it can potentially cause two major types of environmental damage, acidification and eutrophication, both of which can harm sensitive vegetation systems, biodiversity and water quality. We investigate the role of soil fluxes of NO and NH3 on atmospheric chemistry in West Africa, making use of the observations taken in June and July 2016 at the Savé super-site, Benin (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E), during the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, which took place in June-July 2016. These observations also include meteorological and soil parameters such as air temperature and humidity (at 2 m height), radiation, soil temperature and moisture at different depths (5 cm and 10 cm). The climate in Savé is typical of a wet Guinea savanna, and the wet season takes place from June to October. Soil fluxes of NO and NH3 were measured on: bare soil, grassland

  2. The spinning Astrid-2 satellite used for modeling the Earth's main magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, P.S.; Risbo, T.

    2002-01-01

    orientation of the magnetometer could then be determined simultaneously with the instrument intrinsic calibration and the estimate of main field model coefficients. Hence, apart from the scientific use of the magnetic data, the attitude of the spacecraft may be estimated with high precision....

  3. Gravity field models from kinematic orbits of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071; GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field models * kinematic orbits * generalized least squares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  4. Quick look tools for magnetic field retrievals from Swarm satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Plank, Gernot; Haagmans, Roger

    of a closed loop simulation and the effects on the reconstruction of the magnetic field resulting from various error sources acting on the spacecraft are investigated. At first, the simplest noise-free case is examined and then more complex scenarios which include attitude errors, position errors and spectral...

  5. Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  6. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. NINDS is conducting a public awareness campaign across the United States to educate people about ...

  7. The Development of a Field Services Network for a Satellite-Based Educational Telecommunications Experiment. Satellite Technology Demonstration, Technical Report No. 0333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; And Others

    The Satellite Technology Demonstration (STD) of the Federation of Rocky Mountain States (FRMS) employed a technical delivery system to merge effectively hardware and software, products and services. It also needed a nontechnical component to insure product and service acceptance. Accordingly, the STD's Utilization Component was responsible for…

  8. PERBANDINGAN IMPLEMENTASI ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Hanna , Febrianti

    2013-01-01

    Advertising campaign merupakan serangkaian bentuk iklan melalui berbagai media dan berpusat pada satu tema dalam satu waktu. Tujuan utama advertising campaign adalah menyampaikan pesan dalam suatu tema yang diluncurkan kepada masyarakat sehingga tema tersebut menjadi ciri khas produk. Peluncuran tema campaign oleh Coca Cola dan Pepsi yang merupakan rival dalam kategori beverage merupakan obyek dari penelitian ini. Kesuksesan sebuah tema advertising campaign dilihat dengan menggunakan paramet...

  9. Implementing a Nitrogen-Based Model for Autotrophic Respiration Using Satellite and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rate of carbon accumulation by terrestrial plant communities in a process-level, mechanistic modeling is the difference of the rate of gross photosynthesis by a canopy (A(sub g)) and autotrophic respiration (R) of the stand. Observations for different biomes often show that R to be a large and variable fraction of A(sub g), ca. 35% to 75%, although other studies suggest the ratio of R and A(sub g) to be less variable. Here, R has been calculated according to the two compartment model as being the sum of maintenance and growth components. The maintenance respiration of foliage and living fine roots for different biomes has been determined objectively from observed nitrogen content of these organs. The sapwood maintenance respiration is based on pipe theory, and checked against an independently derived equation considering sapwood biomass and its maintenance coefficient. The growth respiration has been calculated from the difference of A(sub g) and maintenance respiration. The A(sub g) is obtained as the product of biome-specific radiation use efficiency for gross photosynthesis under unstressed conditions and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation, and adjusted for stress. Calculations have been done using satellite and ground observations for 36 consecutive months (1987-1989) over large contiguous areas (ca. 10(exp 5) sq km) of boreal forests, crop land, temperate deciduous forest, temperate grassland, tropical deciduous forest, tropical evergreen forest, tropical savanna, and tundra. The ratio of annual respiration and gross photosynthesis, (R/A(sub g)), is found to be 0.5-0.6 for temperate and cold adopted biome areas, but somewhat higher for tropical biome areas (0.6-0.7). Interannual variation of the fluxes is found to be generally less than 15%. Calculated fluxes are compared with observations and several previous estimates. Results of sensitivity analysis are presented for uncertainties in parameterization and input data. It is found that

  10. Small-scale field-aligned currents observed by the AKEBONO (EXOS-D) satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Oya, H.; Kokubun, S.; Tohyama, F.; Mukai, T.; Fujii, R.

    1991-01-01

    The EXOS-D fluxgate magnetometer data obtained at 3,000-10,000 km altitude have shown that small-scale field-aligned currents always exist in large-scale region 1, region 2, cusp and polar cap current systems. Assuming that these small-scale field-aligned currents have current sheet structure, the width of current sheet is estimated to be 5-20 km at ionospheric altitude. By comparing the magnetometer data with charged particle and high frequency plasma wave data simultaneously obtained from EXOS-D, it is found that small-scale currents have one-to-one correspondence with localized electron precipitation events characterized by flux enhancement over a wide energy range from 10 eV to several keV and broadband electrostatic bursts occasionally extending above local plasma frequencies or electron cyclotron frequencies

  11. Gravity field and ocean tides modeling for precise orbit determination of doris satellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, P.; Bezděk, Aleš; Kostelecký, J.; Filler, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-40 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG14026 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GC15-24730J Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field truncation degree * ocean tides * time variable gravity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  12. Supporting Meteorological Field Experiment Missions and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    defined surface that approximates the geoid or the equipotential surface , which would coincide exactly with the mean ocean surface of Earth if the...TCS-08 field project. The hourly estimates of intensity (maximum sustained 1-min surface winds) were used to monitor the typhoon’s rapidly changing...spacecraft is the first mission to test surface wind vector retrievals via a passive sensor (Gaiser et al. 2004). Near-real-time WindSat wind

  13. The Sprite 2003 Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, T.; Laursen, S.; Rasmussen, I. L.

    2003-01-01

    During the northern hemisphere summer of 2003, from July 18 to September 18, a sprite observation campaign was conducted with measurements from Southern Europe, coordinated with measurements from the magnetically conjugate region in South Africa. The goal of the campaign was to investigate...... emissions. The presentation will give an overview of the campaign, the meteorological conditions, and present some first results....

  14. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  15. Distinguishing Alfven waves from quasi-static field structures associated with the discrete aurora: Sounding rocket and HILAT satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, D.J.; Kelley, M.C.; Earle, G.D.; Vickrey, J.F.; Boehm, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present and analyze sounding rocket and HILAT satellite measurements of the low frequency ( 0 in the auroral oval. By examining the time-domain field data it is often difficult to distinguish temporal fluctuations from static structures which are Doppler shifted to a non-zero frequency in the spacecraft frame. However, they show that such a distinction can be made by constructing the impedance function Z(f). Using Z(f) they find agreement with the static field interpretation below about 0.1 Hz in the spacecraft frame, i.e. Z(f) = Σ p -1 where Σ p is the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity of the ionosphere. About 0.1 Hz the authors find Z(f) > Σ p -1 , which they argue to be due to the presence of Alfven waves incident from the magnetosphere and reflecting from the lower ionosphere, forming a standing wave pattern. These waves may represent an electromagnetic coupling mechanism between the auroral acceleration region and the ionosphere

  16. Acceleration/heating of plasma on auroral field lines: preliminary results from the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, a review of the first results obtained from the particle experiment on board the Viking spacecraft will be given. During the first part of the Viking mission, the orbit was suitable for high-altitude measurements (up to ∼ 13500 km) in the dayside oval and the cusp/cleft region. Thus, some emphasis will be put on processes occurring in the dayside auroral region. On the basis of more than 100 Viking traversals of the cusp and cleft it is suggested that these regions can be identified by some regular characteristics in the particle data. The cusp has a continuous presence of solar wind plasma, affected mainly by convection and containing modest plasma energization. Conversely, the cleft is characterized by extensive plasma energization, and strong field aligned current sheets. Temporal injections of solar wind plasma are frequently observed in the cleft. A distinguishing characteristic of the Viking charged particle experiment is the energy and angular resolution. Thus, the fine-structure of narrow particle beams and conical distributions of both electrons and ions can be determined. This enables very detailed studies of the plasma acceleration processes along auroral field lines. Some examples of accelerated plasma populations and their related energy and angular distribution will be presented. The observations are compared with existing theories of auroral plasma heating and acceleration processes

  17. Imaging design of the wide field x-ray monitor onboard the HETE satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, J.J.M. In'T; Fenimore, E.E.; Kawai, N.; Yoshida, A.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), to be launched in 1995, will study Gamma-Ray Bursts in an unprecendented wide wavelength range from Gamma- and X-ray to UV wavelengths. The X-ray range (2 to 25 keV) will be covered by 2 perpendicularly oriented 1-dimensional coded aperture cameras. These instruments cover a wide field of view of 2 sr and thus have a relatively large potential to locate GRBs to a fraction of a degree, which is an order of magnitude better than BATSE. The imaging design of these coded aperture cameras relates to the design of the coded apertures and the decoding algorithm. The aperture pattern is to a large extent determined by the high background in this wide field application and the low number of pattern elements (∼100) in each direction. The result is a random pattern with an open fraction of 33%. The onboard decoding algorithm is dedicated to the localization of a single point source

  18. Evaluation of simulated aerosol properties with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM using observations from the IMPACT field campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.-J.; Brink, H. ten; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Leeuw, G. de; Mensah, A.; Minikin, A.; Otjes, R.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2008, the measurement campaign IMPACT for observation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud properties was conducted in Cabauw, The Netherlands. With a nudged version of the coupled aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we simulate the size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol and the

  19. Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Guyanas during the GABRIEL field campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stickler, A.; Fischer, H.; Bozem, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C.; Martinez-Harder, M.; Kubistin, D.; Harder, H.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Yassaa, N.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Sander, R.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a comparison of different Lagrangian and chemical box model calculations with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon rainforest in the Guyanas, October 2005. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL) air constrained by

  20. Lady Astor's Campaign for Nursery Schools in Britain, 1930-1939: Attempting to Valorize Cultural Capital in a Male-Dominated Political Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehony, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the work of Lady Nancy Astor (1879-1964) in campaigning for nursery education and nursery schools in Britain from the late 1920s until the Second World War. Arguably no elected politician in England at any time, including the present, has identified themselves more closely with the cause of nursery schooling in Britain.…

  1. 40 CFR Table C-5 to Subpart C of... - Summary of Comparability Field Testing Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Campaign Site and Seasonal Requirements for Class II and III FEMs for PM10â2.5 and PM2.5 C Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Between Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-5 Table C-5 to Subpart C of Part...

  2. Polar organic compounds in rural PM2.5 aerosols from K-puszta, Hungary, during a 2003 summer field campaign: Sources and diel variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Ion

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined PM2.5 continental rural background aerosols, which were collected during a summer field campaign at K-puszta, Hungary (4 June-10 July 2003, a mixed coniferous/deciduous forest site characterized by intense solar radiation during summer. Emphasis was placed on polar oxygenated organic compounds that provide information on aerosol sources and source processes. The major components detected at significant atmospheric concentrations were: (a photo-oxidation products of isoprene including the 2-methyltetrols (2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylglyceric acid, (b levoglucosan, a marker for biomass burning, (c malic acid, an intermediate in the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, and (d the sugar alcohols, arabitol and mannitol, markers for fungal spores. Diel patterns with highest concentrations during day-time were observed for the 2-methyltetrols, which can be regarded as supporting evidence for their fast photochemical formation from locally emitted isoprene. In addition, a diel pattern with highest concentrations during day-time was observed for the fungal markers, suggesting that the release of fungal fragments that are associated with the PM2.5 aerosol is enhanced during that time. Furthermore, a diel pattern was also found for levoglucosan with the highest concentrations at night when wood burning may take place in the settlements around the sampling site. In contrast, malic acid did not show day/night differences but was found to follow quite closely the particulate and organic carbon mass. This is interpreted as an indication that malic acid is formed in photochemical reactions which have a much longer overall time-scale than that of isoprene photo-oxidation, and the sources of its precursors are manifold, including both anthropogenic and natural emissions. On the basis of the high concentrations found for the isoprene oxidation products during day-time, it can be concluded that rapid photo

  3. Observations of biogenic isoprene emissions and atmospheric chemistry components at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambert, Corinne; Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Derrien, Solene; Dione, Cheikh; Brosse, Fabien; Gabella, Omar; Pedruzzo Bagazgoitia, Xavier; Durand, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric oxidation of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), including isoprene, in the presence of NOx and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Changes in NO or VOCs sources will consequently modify their atmospheric concentrations and thus, the rate of O3 production and SOA formation. NOx have also an impact on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which determines the lifetime of some pollutants and greenhouse gases. Anthropogenic emissions of pollutants from mega cities located on the Guinean coast in South West Africa are likely to increase in the next decades due to a strong anthropogenic pressure and to land use changes at the regional or continental scale. The consequences on regional air quality and on pollutant deposition onto surfaces may have some harmful effects on human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the regional climate and water cycle are affected by changes in atmospheric chemistry. When transported northward on the African continent, polluted air masses meet biogenic emissions from rural areas which contributes to increase ozone and SOA production, in high temperature and solar radiation conditions, highly favourable to enhanced photochemistry. During the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, we measured the atmospheric chemical composition and the exchanges of trace components in a hinterland area of Benin, at the Savé super-site (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E). The observations, monitored in June and July 2016, in a rural mixed agricultural area, include near surface concentrations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and isoprene, isoprene fluxes and meteorological parameters. We observed hourly average concentrations of O3 up to 50 ppb, low NOx concentrations (ca. 1 ppb and CO concentrations between 75 and 300 ppb. An 8 m tower was equipped with a Fast Isoprene Sensor and sonic anemometer to measure isoprene concentrations and

  4. Contributions of primary and secondary biogenic VOC tototal OH reactivity during the CABINEX (Community Atmosphere-Biosphere INteractions Experiments-09 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present OH reactivity measurements using the comparative reactivity method with a branch enclosure technique for four different tree species (red oak, white pine, beech and red maple in the UMBS PROPHET tower footprint during the Community Atmosphere Biosphere INteraction EXperiment (CABINEX field campaign in July of 2009. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was sequentially used as a detector for OH reactivity and BVOC concentrations including isoprene and monoterpenes (MT for enclosure air. Therefore, the measurement dataset contains both measured and calculated OH reactivity from well-known BVOC. The results indicate that isoprene and MT, and in one case a sesquiterpene, can account for the measured OH reactivity. Significant discrepancy between measured OH reactivity and calculated OH reactivity from isoprene and MT is found for the red maple enclosure dataset but it can be reconciled by adding reactivity from emission of a sesquiterpene, α-farnesene, detected by GC-MS. This leads us to conclude that no significant unknown BVOC emission contributed to ambient OH reactivity from these trees at least during the study period. However, this conclusion should be followed up by more comprehensive side-by-side intercomparison between measured and calculated OH reactivity and laboratory experiments with controlled temperature and light environments to verify effects of those essential parameters towards unknown/unmeasured reactive BVOC emissions. This conclusion leads us to explore the contribution towards ambient OH reactivity (the dominant OH sink in this ecosystem oxidation products such as hydroxyacetone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and C4 and C5-hydroxycarbonyl using recently published isoprene oxidation mechanisms (Mainz Isoprene Mechanism II and Leuven Isoprene Mechanism. Evaluation of conventionally unmeasured first generation oxidation products of isoprene and their possible contribution to ambient missing OH reactivity

  5. Extending a field-based Sonoran desert vegetation classification to a regional scale using optical and microwave satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott Marshall

    2000-10-01

    Vegetation mapping in and regions facilitates ecological studies, land management, and provides a record to which future land changes can be compared. Accurate and representative mapping of desert vegetation requires a sound field sampling program and a methodology to transform the data collected into a representative classification system. Time and cost constraints require that a remote sensing approach be used if such a classification system is to be applied on a regional scale. However, desert vegetation may be sparse and thus difficult to sense at typical satellite resolutions, especially given the problem of soil reflectance. This study was designed to address these concerns by conducting vegetation mapping research using field and satellite data from the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (USYPG) in Southwest Arizona. Line and belt transect data from the Army's Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) Program were transformed into relative cover and relative density classification schemes using cluster analysis. Ordination analysis of the same data produced two and three-dimensional graphs on which the homogeneity of each vegetation class could be examined. It was found that the use of correspondence analysis (CA), detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination methods was superior to the use of any single ordination method for helping to clarify between-class and within-class relationships in vegetation composition. Analysis of these between-class and within-class relationships were of key importance in examining how well relative cover and relative density schemes characterize the USYPG vegetation. Using these two classification schemes as reference data, maximum likelihood and artificial neural net classifications were then performed on a coregistered dataset consisting of a summer Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image, one spring and one summer ERS-1 microwave image, and elevation, slope, and aspect layers

  6. Satellite-based mapping of field-scale stress indicators for crop yield forecasting: an application over Mead, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Anderson, M. C.; Gao, F.; Wardlow, B.; Hain, C.; Otkin, J.; Sun, L.; Dulaney, W.

    2017-12-01

    In agricultural regions, water is one of the most widely limiting factors of crop performance and production. Evapotranspiration (ET) describes crop water use through transpiration and water lost through direct soil evaporation, which makes it a good indicator of soil moisture availability and vegetation health and thus has been an integral part of many yield estimation efforts. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) describes temporal anomalies in a normalized evapotranspiration metric (fRET) as derived from satellite remote sensing and has demonstrated capacity to explain regional yield variability in water limited crop growing regions. However, its performance in some regions where the vegetation cycle is intensively managed appears to be degraded. In this study we generated maps of ET, fRET, and ESI at high spatiotemporal resolution (30-m pixels, daily timesteps) using a multi-sensor data fusion method, integrating information from satellite platforms with good temporal coverage and other platforms that provide field-scale spatial detail. The study was conducted over the period 2010-2014, covering a region around Mead, Nebraska that includes both rainfed and irrigated crops. Correlations between ESI and measurements of corn yield are investigated at both the field and county level to assess the value of ESI as a yield forecasting tool. To examine the role of phenology in ESI-yield correlations, annual input fRET timeseries were aligned by both calendar day and by biophysically relevant dates (e.g. days since planting or emergence). Results demonstrate that mapping of fRET and ESI at 30-m has the advantage of being able to resolve different crop types with varying phenology. The study also suggests that incorporating phenological information significantly improves yield-correlations by accounting for effects of phenology such as variable planting date and emergence date. The yield-ESI relationship in this study well captures the inter-annual variability of yields

  7. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  8. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  9. Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Irregularities and Plasma Instabilities in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Gathered by the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Robert F.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400 km as solar activity has increased. In particular, during the equinox periods of 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set: The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second result is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is near or below the F-peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field

  10. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2011-03-01

    The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

  11. The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Castelporziano (Rome: site characteristics, climatic and meteorological conditions, and eco-physiology of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosphere-atmosphere interactions were investigated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a field campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS. The campaign was carried out in the Presidential estate of Castelporziano, a peri-urban park close to Rome. Former campaigns (e.g. BEMA performed in Castelporziano investigated the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC. These campaigns focused on pseudosteppe and evergreen oak groves whereas the contribution of the largely biodiverse dune vegetation, a prominent component of the Mediterranean ecosystem, was overlooked. While specific aspects of the campaign will be discussed in companion papers, the general climatic and physiological aspects are presented here, together with information regarding BVOC emission from the most common plant species of the dune ecosystem. During the campaign regular air movements were observed, dominated by moderate nocturnal land breeze and diurnal sea breeze. A regular daily increase of ozone concentration in the air was also observed, but daily peaks of ozone were lower than those measured in summer on the same site. The site was ideal as a natural photochemical reactor to observe reaction, transport and deposition processes occurring in the Mediterranean basin, since the sea-land breeze circulation allowed a strong mixing between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and secondary pollutants. Measurements were run in May, when plant physiological conditions were optimal, in absence of severe drought and heat stress. Foliar rates of photosynthesis and transpiration were as high as generally recorded in unstressed Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants. Most of the plant species emitted high level of monoterpenes, despite measurements being made in a period in which emissions of volatile isoprenoids could be restrained by developmental and environmental factors, such as leaf age and relatively low air temperature

  12. Satellite Images Combined with Field Data Reveal Negative Changes in the Distribution of Babassu Palms after Clearing off Amazonian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitja, D.; Delaître, E.; Santos, A. M.; Miranda, I.; Coelho, R. F. R.; Macedo, D. J.; Demagistri, L.; Petit, M.

    2018-02-01

    When the Amazonian rain forest is cut to create pasture, some of the original vegetal species survive clearing, even expressing their ability to invade agro-systems. It is true of the babassu palm, which can be considered, paradoxically, a natural resource by the "Interstate Movement of Babassu Fruit Breaker Women" or as native weed by land owners-farmers. To manage potential conflict of land uses, we study here the current density of this palm tree in different habitats, based on a combination of field data and remote sensing data. Firstly, we checked that the field survey methodology (i.e., counting free-trunk palm trees over 20 cm in circumference) provides density values compatible with those stemming from satellite images interpretation. We can see then that, a PA-Benfica Brazilian territory revealed an average density of the babassu lower in pastures (2.86 ind/ha) than in the dense forest (4.72 ind/ha) from which they originate and than in fallow land (4.31 ind/ha). We analyze in detail density data repartition in three habitats and we discuss results from the literature on the density of this palm tree versus its resilience at different developmental stages after forest clearing, depending on anthropogenic—or not—factors, including solar radiation, fire, weeding, clear cutting, burying fruit, and competition with forage grass. All these results can be exploited for the design of future management plans for the babassu palm and we think that the linked methodology and interdisciplinary approach can be extended to others palms and trees species in similar problematic issues.

  13. The determination of the orbit of the Japanese satellite Ajisai and the GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 gravity field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Experimental Geodetic Satellite Ajisai was launched on August 12, 1986. In response to the TOPEX-POSEIDON mission requirements, the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch and its associates are producing improved models of the Earth's gravitational field. With the launch of Ajisai, precise laser data is now available which can be used to test many current gravity models. The testing of the various gravity field models show improvements of more than 70 percent in the orbital fits when using GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 relative to results obtained with the earlier GEM-10B model. The GEM-T2 orbital fits are at the 13-cm level (RMS). The results of the tests with the various versions of the GEM-T1 model indicate that the addition of satellite altimetry and surface gravity anomalies as additional data types should improve future gravity field models.

  14. How to deal with the high condition number of the noise covariance matrix of gravity field functionals synthesised from a satellite-only global gravity field model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, R.; Slobbe, D. C.; Farahani, H. H.

    2018-03-01

    The posed question arises for instance in regional gravity field modelling using weighted least-squares techniques if the gravity field functionals are synthesised from the spherical harmonic coefficients of a satellite-only global gravity model (GGM), and are used as one of the noisy datasets. The associated noise covariance matrix, appeared to be extremely ill-conditioned with a singular value spectrum that decayed gradually to zero without any noticeable gap. We analysed three methods to deal with the ill-conditioned noise covariance matrix: Tihonov regularisation of the noise covariance matrix in combination with the standard formula for the weighted least-squares estimator, a formula of the weighted least-squares estimator, which does not involve the inverse noise covariance matrix, and an estimator based on Rao's unified theory of least-squares. Our analysis was based on a numerical experiment involving a set of height anomalies synthesised from the GGM GOCO05s, which is provided with a full noise covariance matrix. We showed that the three estimators perform similar, provided that the two regularisation parameters each method knows were chosen properly. As standard regularisation parameter choice rules do not apply here, we suggested a new parameter choice rule, and demonstrated its performance. Using this rule, we found that the differences between the three least-squares estimates were within noise. For the standard formulation of the weighted least-squares estimator with regularised noise covariance matrix, this required an exceptionally strong regularisation, much larger than one expected from the condition number of the noise covariance matrix. The preferred method is the inversion-free formulation of the weighted least-squares estimator, because of its simplicity with respect to the choice of the two regularisation parameters.

  15. Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical Depth (COD) Sensor Three-Waveband Spectrally-Agile Technique (TWST) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niple, E. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Scott, H. E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the data collected by the Three-Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique (TWST) sensor deployed at Hyytiälä, Finland from 16 July to 31 August 2014 as a guest on the Biogenic Aerosols Effects on Climate and Clouds (BAECC) campaign. These data are currently available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Archive website and consists of Cloud Optical Depth (COD) measurements for the clouds directly overhead approximately every second (with some dropouts described below) during the daylight periods. A good range of cloud conditions were observed from clear sky to heavy rainfall.

  16. Rapid uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. Field relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic field. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that rapid uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation field using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc

  17. The Eurosprite 2005 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnone, Enrico; Berg, Peter; Boberg, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    In this report we give an overview of the Eurosprite observation programme and present the results of the Eurosprite 2005 campaign. These campaigns search for occurrences of transient luminous events, such as red sprites, above thunderstorms in France, Spain, northern Italy, Switzerland and south...

  18. Third world campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpin, P

    1988-10-22

    Your readers may be interested in knowing that VSO will be holding a publicity campaign in Scotland in November and December. The campaign is a chance for people to come and talk to us about the opportunities available to them to work in Third World countries. We have a wide range of interesting and challenging jobs in long-term development in health work.

  19. Marketing plan and campaign for Riosol Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Toivonen, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to create an efficient marketing plan and a working marketing campaign for the case company. The aspects of the marketing plan and campaign were adjusted to fit the company size, field of business and aims of the case company. To get a better view on the aspects of the marketing plan and campaign, theoretical frameworks are inspected, such as marketing mix, company stages and SWOT-analysis. This thesis consists of theoretical framework as well as practical implem...

  20. Introducing the VISAGE project - Visualization for Integrated Satellite, Airborne, and Ground-based data Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Conover, H.; Berendes, T.; Maskey, M.; Naeger, A. R.; Wingo, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    A key component of NASA's Earth observation system is its field experiments, for intensive observation of particular weather phenomena, or for ground validation of satellite observations. These experiments collect data from a wide variety of airborne and ground-based instruments, on different spatial and temporal scales, often in unique formats. The field data are often used with high volume satellite observations that have very different spatial and temporal coverage. The challenges inherent in working with such diverse datasets make it difficult for scientists to rapidly collect and analyze the data for physical process studies and validation of satellite algorithms. The newly-funded VISAGE project will address these issues by combining and extending nascent efforts to provide on-line data fusion, exploration, analysis and delivery capabilities. A key building block is the Field Campaign Explorer (FCX), which allows users to examine data collected during field campaigns and simplifies data acquisition for event-based research. VISAGE will extend FCX's capabilities beyond interactive visualization and exploration of coincident datasets, to provide interrogation of data values and basic analyses such as ratios and differences between data fields. The project will also incorporate new, higher level fused and aggregated analysis products from the System for Integrating Multi-platform data to Build the Atmospheric column (SIMBA), which combines satellite and ground-based observations into a common gridded atmospheric column data product; and the Validation Network (VN), which compiles a nationwide database of coincident ground- and satellite-based radar measurements of precipitation for larger scale scientific analysis. The VISAGE proof-of-concept will target "golden cases" from Global Precipitation Measurement Ground Validation campaigns. This presentation will introduce the VISAGE project, initial accomplishments and near term plans.

  1. Standardisation of a European measurement method for organic carbon and elemental carbon in ambient air: results of the field trial campaign and the determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard J C; Beccaceci, Sonya; Butterfield, David M; Quincey, Paul G; Harris, Peter M; Maggos, Thomas; Panteliadis, Pavlos; John, Astrid; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Karanasiou, Angeliki

    2017-10-18

    The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' has recently produced a standard method for the measurements of organic carbon and elemental carbon in PM 2.5 within its working group 35 in response to the requirements of European Directive 2008/50/EC. It is expected that this method will be used in future by all Member States making measurements of the carbonaceous content of PM 2.5 . This paper details the results of a laboratory and field measurement campaign and the statistical analysis performed to validate the standard method, assess its uncertainty and define its working range to provide clarity and confidence in the underpinning science for future users of the method. The statistical analysis showed that the expanded combined uncertainty for transmittance protocol measurements of OC, EC and TC is expected to be below 25%, at the 95% level of confidence, above filter loadings of 2 μg cm -2 . An estimation of the detection limit of the method for total carbon was 2 μg cm -2 . As a result of the laboratory and field measurement campaign the EUSAAR2 transmittance measurement protocol was chosen as the basis of the standard method EN 16909:2017.

  2. Proposal and realization advertising campaign

    OpenAIRE

    RYCHLÁ, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The Bachelor Paper contains proposal and realization advertising campaign, including make charge for cost amount. The advertising campaign is made for chosen product of firm. Advertising campaign is planning by the medium of broadsheet and advertising on the Internet.

  3. Report on field research of the Spanish Antarctic Campaign 2014/15: a cooperative international research project with the 56th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Kudoh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study on the limnological and ecological characteristics of maritime Antarctic lakes on Byers Peninsula, Livingstone Island, South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica, was conducted by the Spanish Antarctic Research Campaign during the 2014/15 season, in cooperation with the research program of the 56th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. Limnological surveys of three hillside lakes and three lagoons near beaches were conducted under conditions of heavy snow cover. Soils and biological samples in the catchment areas of the lakes and lagoons were also collected and analyzed. The hillside lakes were covered by thick ice and snow, which maintained winter water conditions in the lakes, such as irreversible stratification, oxygen depletion of bottom water, very weak underwater light conditions, etc., even in mid-January, although swimming zooplankton were abundant. Water samples were also collected in coastal lagoons and streams, an environment in which birds and marine mammals transport materials through the aquatic system.

  4. Evaluation of simulated aerosol properties with the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM using observations from the IMPACT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-J. Roelofs

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In May 2008, the measurement campaign IMPACT for observation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud properties was conducted in Cabauw, The Netherlands. With a nudged version of the coupled aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we simulate the size distribution and chemical composition of the aerosol and the associated aerosol optical thickness (AOT for the campaign period. Synoptic scale meteorology is represented realistically through nudging of the vorticity, the divergence, the temperature and the surface pressure. Simulated concentrations of aerosol sulfate and organics at the surface are generally within a factor of two from observed values. The monthly averaged AOT from the model is 0.33, about 20% larger than observed. For selected periods of the month with relatively dry and moist conditions discrepancies are approximately −30% and +15%, respectively. Discrepancies during the dry period are partly caused by inaccurate representation of boundary layer (BL dynamics by the model affecting the simulated AOT. The model simulates too strong exchange between the BL and the free troposphere, resulting in weaker concentration gradients at the BL top than observed for aerosol and humidity, while upward mixing from the surface layers into the BL appears to be underestimated. The results indicate that beside aerosol sulfate and organics also aerosol ammonium and nitrate significantly contribute to aerosol water uptake. The simulated day-to-day variability of AOT follows synoptic scale advection of humidity rather than particle concentration. Even for relatively dry conditions AOT appears to be strongly influenced by the diurnal cycle of RH in the lower boundary layer, further enhanced by uptake and release of nitric acid and ammonia by aerosol water.

  5. Monturaqui meteorite impact crater, Chile: A field test of the utility of satellite-based mapping of ejecta at small craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, K.; Ukstins, I.; Drop, S.

    2017-12-01

    Monturaqui Crater is a small ( 350 m diameter), simple meteorite impact crater located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile that was emplaced in Ordovician granite overlain by discontinuous Pliocene ignimbrite. Ejecta deposits are granite and ignimbrite, with lesser amounts of dark impact melt and rare tektites and iron shale. The impact restructured existing drainage systems in the area that have subsequently eroded through the ejecta. Satellite-based mapping and modeling, including a synthesis of photographic satellite imagery and ASTER thermal infrared imagery in ArcGIS, were used to construct a basic geological interpretation of the site with special emphasis on understanding ejecta distribution patterns. This was combined with field-based mapping to construct a high-resolution geologic map of the crater and its ejecta blanket and field check the satellite-based geologic interpretation. The satellite- and modeling-based interpretation suggests a well-preserved crater with an intact, heterogeneous ejecta blanket that has been subjected to moderate erosion. In contrast, field mapping shows that the crater has a heavily-eroded rim and ejecta blanket, and the ejecta is more heterogeneous than previously thought. In addition, the erosion rate at Monturaqui is much higher than erosion rates reported elsewhere in the Atacama Desert. The bulk compositions of the target rocks at Monturaqui are similar and the ejecta deposits are highly heterogeneous, so distinguishing between them with remote sensing is less effective than with direct field observations. In particular, the resolution of available imagery for the site is too low to resolve critical details that are readily apparent in the field on the scale of 10s of cm, and which significantly alter the geologic interpretation. The limiting factors for effective remote interpretation at Monturaqui are its target composition and crater size relative to the resolution of the remote sensing methods employed. This

  6. Address on the Occasion of the Meeting of the Second Committee of Governmental Experts on Problems in the Field of Copyright and of the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organizations Raised by Transmission via Space Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Rene

    These opening remarks by the Director General of Unesco briefly discuss that organization's activities in the area of copyright within the field of satellite communication. They were addressed to members of a committee whose purpose is to determine whether the protection of signals transmitted by communications satellites does or does not require…

  7. A New Tropical Cyclone Dynamic Initialization Technique Using High Temporal and Spatial Density Atmospheric Motion Vectors and Airborne Field Campaign Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric A.; Bell, Michael M.; Elsberry, Russell L.; Velden, Chris S.; Cecil, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Initialization of tropical cyclones in numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems is a great challenge: Mass-wind ?eld balance; Secondary circulation and heating; Asymmetries. There can be large adjustments in structure and intensity in the ?rst 24 hours if the initial vortex is not in balance: Spurious gravity waves; Spin-up (model and physics). Existing mesoscale NWP model TC (Tropical Cyclone) initialization strategies: Bogus vortex, cold start from global analyses; 3DVAR or 4DVAR, possibly with synthetic observations; EnKF (Ensemble Kalman Filter); Dynamic initialization. Dynamic initialization allows vortex to have improved balance and physics spin-up at the initial time (e.g., Hendricks et al. 2013, 2011; Nguyen and Chen 2011; Fiorino and Warner 1981; Hoke and Anthes 1976). Himawari-8 geostationary satellite has capability of continuous imagery (10-minutes) over the full disk: New GOES-R satellites will have same capability. This will allow for unprecedented observations of tropical cyclones. However, current data assimila1on systems are not capable of ingesting such high temporal observations (Atmospheric Mo1on Vectors - AMVs). Hourly AMVs are produced, and thinned to 100-kilometer spacing in the horizontal. An entirely new data assimilation concept is required to utilize these observations.

  8. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4, Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterizations, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.

  9. Chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols during a 2007 summer field campaign at Brasschaat, Belgium: sources and source processes of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez-González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of organic marker compounds and inorganic species were performed on PM2.5 aerosols from a Belgian forest site that is severely impacted by urban pollution ("De Inslag", Brasschaat, Belgium during a 2007 summer period within the framework of the "Formation mechanisms, marker compounds, and source apportionment for biogenic atmospheric aerosols (BIOSOL" project. The measured organic species included (i low-molecular weight (MW dicarboxylic acids (LMW DCAs, (ii methanesulfonate (MSA, (iii terpenoic acids originating from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene and Δ3-carene, and (iv organosulfates related to secondary organic aerosol from the oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. The organic tracers explained, on average, 5.3 % of the organic carbon (OC, of which 0.7 % was due to MSA, 3.4 % to LMW DCAs, 0.6 % to organosulfates, and 0.6 % to terpenoic acids. The highest atmospheric concentrations of most species were observed during the first five days of the campaign, which were characterised by maximum day-time temperatures >22 °C. Most of the terpenoic acids and the organosulfates peaked during day-time, consistent with their local photochemical origin. High concentrations of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA and low concentrations of cis-pinonic acid were noted during the first five days of the campaign, indicative of an aged biogenic aerosol. Several correlations between organic species were very high (r>0.85, high (0.7<r<0.85, or substantial (0.5<r<0.7, suggesting that they are generated through similar formation pathways. Substantial correlations with temperature were found for OC, water-soluble OC, MBTCA, and several other organic species. MBTCA and terebic acid were highly correlated with the temperature (r>0.7 and showed an Arrhenius-type relationship, consistent with their formation through OH radical chemistry.

  10. Galaxy Environment in the 3D-HST Fields: Witnessing the Onset of Satellite Quenching at z ˜ 1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, M.; Wilman, D. J.; Mendel, J. T.; Saglia, R. P.; Galametz, A.; Beifiori, A.; Bender, R.; Chan, J. C. C.; Fabricius, M.; Bandara, K.; Brammer, G. B.; Davies, R.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Hartley, W.; Kulkarni, S. K.; Lang, P.; Momcheva, I. G.; Nelson, E. J.; Skelton, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Übler, H.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Wisnioski, E.; Whitaker, K. E.; Wuyts, E.; Wuyts, S.

    2017-02-01

    We make publicly available a catalog of calibrated environmental measures for galaxies in the five 3D-Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/CANDELS deep fields. Leveraging the spectroscopic and grism redshifts from the 3D-HST survey, multiwavelength photometry from CANDELS, and wider field public data for edge corrections, we derive densities in fixed apertures to characterize the environment of galaxies brighter than {{JH}}140< 24 mag in the redshift range 0.5< z< 3.0. By linking observed galaxies to a mock sample, selected to reproduce the 3D-HST sample selection and redshift accuracy, each 3D-HST galaxy is assigned a probability density function of the host halo mass, and a probability that it is a central or a satellite galaxy. The same procedure is applied to a z = 0 sample selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We compute the fraction of passive central and satellite galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass, and redshift, and then derive the fraction of galaxies that were quenched by environment specific processes. Using the mock sample, we estimate that the timescale for satellite quenching is {t}{quench}˜ 2{--}5 {Gyr}; it is longer at lower stellar mass or lower redshift, but remarkably independent of halo mass. This indicates that, in the range of environments commonly found within the 3D-HST sample ({M}h≲ {10}14 {M}⊙ ), satellites are quenched by exhaustion of their gas reservoir in the absence of cosmological accretion. We find that the quenching times can be separated into a delay phase, during which satellite galaxies behave similarly to centrals at fixed stellar mass, and a phase where the star formation rate drops rapidly ({τ }f˜ 0.4{--}0.6 Gyr), as shown previously at z = 0. We conclude that this scenario requires satellite galaxies to retain a large reservoir of multi-phase gas upon accretion, even at high redshift, and that this gas sustains star formation for the long quenching times observed.

  11. Results of an experimental campaign of monitoring of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw; Risultati di una campagna sperimentale di monitoraggio della pratica di combustione all`aperto della paglia di riso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spezzano, P.; Cerea, E.; Massironi, L.; Nocente, M.; Olivetta, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Castellani, C. M.; De Zaiacomo, T. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    For the evaluation of environmental impact of agricultural practice of field combustion of rice straw following harvest an experimental campaign was performed in a field situated near Rive Vercellese (Vercelli, Italy) by burning the amount of rice straw in a 1.2 hectare piece of ground. Four sampling positions were operated, each one composed of a miniaturized impactor and a battery-powered pump, and an optical monitor was also used to measure aerosuspended aerosol concentration continuously. Experimental results show that after field combustion, resulting ash is depleted in cadmium, copper, lead and zinc while manganese and silica remaining almost quantitatively in the ash. Manganese and silica were the only components attributable to field combustion of rice straw in the atmospheric aerosol collected during this monitoring survey. Aerosuspended mass concentration values obtained by means of both optical measurements and gravimetric determinations are presented. Aerosol granulometric distribution, measured in the vicinity of the experimental field and the parameter values of the log-normal distribution obtained with experimental data are also indicated. Finally, a comparison is made between aerosol granulometric data and respirable fraction as defined by international standards.

  12. Vertical profiles of aerosol and black carbon in the Arctic: a seasonal phenomenology along 2 years (2011–2012 of field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ferrero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a systematic study of vertical profiles of aerosol number size distribution and black carbon (BC concentrations conducted in the Arctic, over Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard. The campaign lasted 2 years (2011–2012 and resulted in 200 vertical profiles measured by means of a tethered balloon (up to 1200 m a.g.l. during the spring and summer seasons. In addition, chemical analysis of filter samples, aerosol size distribution and a full set of meteorological parameters were determined at ground. The collected experimental data allowed a classification of the vertical profiles into different typologies, which allowed us to describe the seasonal phenomenology of vertical aerosol properties in the Arctic. During spring, four main types of profiles were found and their behavior was related to the main aerosol and atmospheric dynamics occurring at the measuring site. Background conditions generated homogenous profiles. Transport events caused an increase of aerosol concentration with altitude. High Arctic haze pollution trapped below thermal inversions promoted a decrease of aerosol concentration with altitude. Finally, ground-based plumes of locally formed secondary aerosol determined profiles with decreasing aerosol concentration located at different altitude as a function of size. During the summer season, the impact from shipping caused aerosol and BC pollution plumes to be constrained close to the ground, indicating that increasing shipping emissions in the Arctic could bring anthropogenic aerosol and BC in the Arctic summer, affecting the climate.

  13. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS MC3E V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  14. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS TWP-ICE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  15. GPM GROUND VALIDATION SATELLITE SIMULATED ORBITS C3VP V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Satellite Simulator database is available for several campaigns: Light Precipitation Evaluation Experiment (LPVEX), Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds...

  16. Transport and build-up of tropospheric trace gases during the MINOS campaign: comparision of GOME, in situ aircraft measurements and MATCH-MPIC-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The MINOS (Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study campaign was an international, multi-platform field campaign to measure long-range transport of air-pollution and aerosols from South East Asia and Europe towards the Mediterranean basin during August 2001. High pollution events were observed during this campaign. For the Mediterranean region enhanced tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and formaldehyde (HCHO, which are precursors of tropospheric ozone (O3, were detected by the satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument and compared with airborne in situ measurements as well as with the output from the global 3D photochemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC (Model of Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry - Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. The increase of pollution in that region leads to severe air quality degradation with regional and global implications.

  17. The Effectiveness of Campaign Messages on Turnout and Vote Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study campaign effects on turnout and vote choice. I analyze different campaign messages and the way they affect voters across various situations. First, through an online survey experiment, I study the impact of campaign messages and ideological cues on voters as they make inferences on candidates. Next, through a field experiment, I test whether microtargeted messages or general messages on the economy have any effect on turnout. Lastly, using online survey data, I e...

  18. Studies on aerosol properties during ICARB–2006 campaign period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronous measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Black Carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentration and aerosol particle size distribution were carried out during the campaign period at tropical urban regions of Hyderabad, India. Daily satellite datasets of DMSP-OLS were processed for night-time forest fires over ...

  19. INTEGRATED ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Claudia NEAMŢU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features

  20. Chemistry, transport and dry deposition of trace gases in the boundary layer over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Guyanas during the GABRIEL field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stickler

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of different Lagrangian and chemical box model calculations with measurement data obtained during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Amazon rainforest in the Guyanas, October 2005. Lagrangian modelling of boundary layer (BL air constrained by measurements is used to derive a horizontal gradient (≈5.6 pmol/mol km−1 of CO from the ocean to the rainforest (east to west. This is significantly smaller than that derived from the measurements (16–48 pmol/mol km−1, indicating that photochemical production from organic precursors alone cannot explain the observed strong gradient. It appears that HCHO is overestimated by the Lagrangian and chemical box models, which include dry deposition but not exchange with the free troposphere (FT. The relatively short lifetime of HCHO implies substantial BL-FT exchange. The mixing-in of FT air affected by African and South American biomass burning at an estimated rate of 0.12 h−1 increases the CO and decreases the HCHO mixing ratios, improving agreement with measurements. A mean deposition velocity of 1.35 cm/s for H2O2 over the ocean as well as over the rainforest is deduced assuming BL-FT exchange adequate to the results for CO. The measured increase of the organic peroxides from the ocean to the rainforest (≈0.66 nmol/mol d−1 is significantly overestimated by the Lagrangian model, even when using high values for the deposition velocity and the entrainment rate. Our results point at either heterogeneous loss of organic peroxides and/or their radical precursors, underestimated photodissociation or missing reaction paths of peroxy radicals not forming peroxides in isoprene chemistry. We calculate a mean integrated daytime net ozone production (NOP in the BL of (0.2±5.9 nmol/mol (ocean and (2.4±2.1 nmol/mol (rainforest. The NOP strongly correlates with NO and has a positive tendency in

  1. Source apportionment of NMVOCs in the Kathmandu Valley during the SusKat-ABC international field campaign using positive matrix factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sarkar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive matrix factorization model (US EPA PMF version 5.0 was applied for the source apportionment of the dataset of 37 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs measured from 19 December 2012 to 30 January 2013 during the SusKat-ABC international air pollution measurement campaign using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer in the Kathmandu Valley. In all, eight source categories were identified with the PMF model using the new constrained model operation mode. Unresolved industrial emissions and traffic source factors were the major contributors to the total measured NMVOC mass loading (17.9 and 16.8 %, respectively followed by mixed industrial emissions (14.0 %, while the remainder of the source was split approximately evenly between residential biofuel use and waste disposal (10.9 %, solvent evaporation (10.8 %, biomass co-fired brick kilns (10.4 %, biogenic emissions (10.0 % and mixed daytime factor (9.2 %. Conditional probability function (CPF analyses were performed to identify the physical locations associated with different sources. Source contributions to individual NMVOCs showed that biomass co-fired brick kilns significantly contribute to the elevated concentrations of several health relevant NMVOCs such as benzene. Despite the highly polluted conditions, biogenic emissions had the largest contribution (24.2 % to the total daytime ozone production potential, even in winter, followed by solvent evaporation (20.2 %, traffic (15.0 % and unresolved industrial emissions (14.3 %. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA production had approximately equal contributions from biomass co-fired brick kilns (28.9 % and traffic (28.2 %. Comparison of PMF results based on the in situ data versus REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories showed that both the inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. In addition, the REAS

  2. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  3. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  4. New computer security campaign

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    A new campaign is taking shape to promote computer security. The slogan “SEC_RITY is not complete without U!” reminds users of the importance of their contribution. The campaign kicks off on 10 June with a public awareness day in the Council Chamber.   The new campaign, organised by CERN’s computer security team, will focus on prevention and involving the user. “This is an education and awareness-raising campaign for all users at CERN,” explains Stefan Lueders, in charge of computer security. “Every day, we register thousands of computer attacks against CERN: there are attempts to tamper with web pages, hack into user accounts, take over servers, and much more. A successful attack could mean confidential user information being divulged, services being interrupted or data being lost. It could even affect operations at CERN. Another factor is the damage that a successful attack could inflict on the Organization’s reputation. &...

  5. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  6. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  7. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  8. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  11. The Movember campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Mikkelsen, Marta K; Hansen, Rikke B

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the present study were to investigate referral patterns and the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) before and after the Movember campaign was initiated in Denmark. METHODS: All men (n=2817) referred to the Department of Urology at Frederiksberg Hospital with suspicion of having ...

  12. Mapping urban heat islands of arctic cities using combined data on field measurements and satellite images based on the example of the city of Apatity (Murmansk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, P. I.; Grishchenko, M. Y.; Varentsov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the urban heat island (UHI) in the city of Apatity during winter that were obtained according to the data of field meteorological measurements and satellite images. Calculations of the surface layer temperature have been made based on the surface temperature data obtained from satellite images. The experimental data on air temperature were obtained as a result of expeditionary meteorological observations, and the experimental data on surface temperature were obtained based on the data of the space hyperspectral Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) system, channels 31 and 32 (10.78-11.28 and 11.77-12.27 micrometers, respectively). As a result of the analysis of temperature fields, an intensive heat island (up to 3.2°C) has been identified that was estimated based on the underlying surface temperature, and its mean intensity over the observation period significantly exceeds the representative data for European cities in winter. It has also been established that the air temperature calculated according to the MODIS data is systematically higher under winter conditions than the air temperature from direct measurement data.

  13. Application of the artificial satellite of the earth to determine the velocity of the gravitational interaction within newtonian gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristea, Gh.

    1975-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, additional data are given concerning a gravimeter consisting in a pendulum-laser set proposed in a previous paper of the author (1). This gravimeter could have a sensitivity of 0.1 microgal or even 0.01 microgal in the case of statistical measurements. If processing by an on-line computer is used, the pendulum-laser can constitute a gravimeter which, used in statistical measurements on a long time interval, could reach a sensitivity of 10 -12 g. The second part of the paper points out the advantages resulting from determining the velocity of the gravitational reaction in an artificial satellite of the earth. The main advantage is the very fact that this measurement can be achieved by means of the existant gravimeters. The massive reduction of the time error is due to the increase of the ''sinusoid'' frequency resulting from the recording being made on the gravimeter set on an artificial satellite turning around the earth in about 90 minutes

  14. Satellite Data Support for the ARM Climate Research Facility, 8/01/2009 - 7/31/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Khaiyer, Mandana M [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-10-06

    This report summarizes the support provided by NASA Langley Research for the DOE ARM Program in the form of cloud and radiation products derived from satellite imager data for the period between 8/01/09 through 7/31/15. Cloud properties such as cloud amount, height, and optical depth as well as outgoing longwave and shortwave broadband radiative fluxes were derived from geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellite imager radiance measurements for domains encompassing ARM permanent sites and field campaigns during the performance period. Datasets provided and documents produced are listed.

  15. Satellite Based Live and Interactive Distance Learning Program in the Field of Geoinformatics - a Perspective of Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.; Roy, P. S.

    2011-09-01

    Geoinformatics is a highly specialized discipline that deals with Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and field surveys for assessing, quantification, development and management of resources, planning and infrastructure development, utility services etc. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a premier institute and one of its kinds has played a key role for capacity Building in this specialized area since its inception in 1966. Realizing the large demand, IIRS has started outreach program in basics of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS for universities and institutions. EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) is the communication satellite built and launched by ISRO in 2004 exclusively for serving the educational sector to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. IIRS has used EDUSAT (shifted to INSAT 4 CR recently due to termination of services from EDUSAT) for its distance learning program to impart basic training in Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, catering to the universities spread across India. The EDUSAT based training is following similar to e-learning method but has advantage of live interaction sessions between teacher and the students when the lecture is delivered using EDUSAT satellite communication. Because of its good quality reception the interactions are not constrained due to bandwidth problems of Internet. National Natural Resource Management System, Department of Space, Government of India, under Standing Committee in Training and Technology funded this unique program to conduct the basic training in Geoinformatics. IIRS conducts 6 weeks basic training course on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS" regularly since the year 2007. The course duration is spread over the period of 3 months beginning with the start of the academic year (1st semester) i.e., July to December every year, for university students. IIRS has utilized EDUSAT satellite for conducting 4 six weeks

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic structure of an interplanetary flux according to measurements of plasma and magnetic field on the ''Prognoz-7'' satellite (VI STIP interval, April 25, 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastenker, G.N.; Omel'chenko, A.N.; Eroshenko, E.G.; Ivanov, K.G.; Styazhkin, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    MHD structure of an interplanetary flow on 25.04.1979 is studied using plasma and magnetic field measurements at the Prognoz 7 near-earth cosmic satellite. The main attention was paid to the interaction region between rapid flow (presumably from a low-latitudinal coronal hole) and slow solar wind. It is discovered that specific large break (flow boundary) divides the interaction region into a head shock wave with hot dense (β > 1) turbulent magnetoplasma and a back shock wave with a strong regular magnetic field and cold (β << 1) plasma. Ouantity of motion gained with slow wind in the head wave exceeds 4 times quantity of motion lost with rapid flow in a back wave. An additional quantity of motion to the acceleration region is suggested to go near the Sun at the expense of pulse of electrodynamic forces

  17. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.a; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project develops and field tests a long-range, solarpowered, automated rover platform (Zo ) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is barely detectable over most of the driest desert on Earth. Its unique geological, climatic, and biological evolution have created a unique training site for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars.

  18. Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): wet season campaigns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...

  19. Estimation of forest aboveground biomass and uncertainties by integration of field measurements, airborne LiDAR, and SAR and optical satellite data in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbazaev, Mikhail; Thiel, Christian; Cremer, Felix; Dubayah, Ralph; Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2018-02-21

    Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed for understanding and managing processes involved in the carbon cycle and supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Furthermore, these products provide important baseline data for the development of sustainable management strategies to local stakeholders. The use of remote sensing data can provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales. In this study, we mapped national Mexican forest AGB using satellite remote sensing data and a machine learning approach. We modelled AGB using two scenarios: (1) extensive national forest inventory (NFI), and (2) airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) as reference data. Finally, we propagated uncertainties from field measurements to LiDAR-derived AGB and to the national wall-to-wall forest AGB map. The estimated AGB maps (NFI- and LiDAR-calibrated) showed similar goodness-of-fit statistics (R 2 , Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)) at three different scales compared to the independent validation data set. We observed different spatial patterns of AGB in tropical dense forests, where no or limited number of NFI data were available, with higher AGB values in the LiDAR-calibrated map. We estimated much higher uncertainties in the AGB maps based on two-stage up-scaling method (i.e., from field measurements to LiDAR and from LiDAR-based estimates to satellite imagery) compared to the traditional field to satellite up-scaling. By removing LiDAR-based AGB pixels with high uncertainties, it was possible to estimate national forest AGB with similar uncertainties as calibrated with NFI data only. Since LiDAR data can be acquired much faster and for much larger areas compared to field inventory data, LiDAR is attractive for repetitive large scale AGB mapping. In this study, we showed that two-stage up-scaling methods for AGB estimation over large areas need to be analyzed and validated

  20. GRIP CAMPAIGN REPORTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Campaign Reports dataset consists of various reports filed by scientists during the GRIP campaign which took place 8/15/2010 - 9/30/2010; however, several...

  1. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  2. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  3. Evolution of almost circular orbits of satellites under the action of noncentral gravitational field of the Earth and lunisolar perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulliev, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    Based on the results of paper [1] by G.V. Mozhaev, joint perturbations produced by nonsphericity of the Earth and by attraction of the Moon and the Sun are investigated using the method of averaging. Arbitrary number of spherical harmonics was taken into account in the force function of the Earth’s gravitational filed, and only the principal term was retained in the perturbing function of the Sun. In the perturbing function of the Moon two parallactic terms were considered in addition to the dominant term. The flight altitude was chosen in such a way that perturbations produced by the Sun and Moon would have the second order of smallness relative to the polar oblateness of the Earth. As a result, the formulas for calculation of satellite coordinates are derived that give a high precision on long time intervals.

  4. Evaluation of Hyperspectral Multi-Band Indices to Estimate Chlorophyll-A Concentration Using Field Spectral Measurements and Satellite Data in Dianshan Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration is considered as a key indicator of the eutrophic status of inland water bodies. Various algorithms have been developed for estimating Chl-a in order to improve the accuracy of predictive models. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of hyperspectral multi-band indices to estimate the Chl-a concentration in Dianshan Lake, which is the largest lake in Shanghai, an international metropolis of China. Based on field spectral measurements and in-situ Chl-a concentration collected on 7–8 September 2010, hyperspectral multi-band indices were calibrated to estimate the Chl-a concentration with optimal wavelengths selected by model tuning. A three-band index accounts for 87.36% (R2 = 0.8736 of the Chl-a variation. A four-band index, which adds a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR region, results in a higher R2 (0.8997 by removing the absorption and backscattering effects of suspended solids. To test the applicability of the proposed indices for routinely monitoring of Chl-a in inland lakes, simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data were selected to estimate the Chl-a concentration. The results show that the explanatory powers of these satellite hyperspectral multi-band indices are relatively high with R2 = 0.8559, 0.8945, 0.7969, and 0.8241 for simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data, respectively. All of the results provide strong evidence that hyperspectral multi-band indices are promising and applicable to estimate Chl-a in eutrophic inland lakes.

  5. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  6. Internet Explorers: the online campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, M.; Sudulich, M.L.; Gallagher, M.; Marsh, M.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of an ‘internet election’ was initially put forward in 1997. However, there is little evidence to date that online campaigning has supplanted more traditional campaign practices. This is particularly true of Irish campaigns, which are hardware-rich affairs characterised by substantial

  7. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  8. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  9. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  10. Electric field measurements from satellites-to-forbidden line ratios in an Omega-Upgrade laser-produced plasma. Semi-annual report, February 1--May 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.; Welch, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Under this FY-96 NLUF program, the authors began their search for satellite lines to forbidden transitions for localized laser-induced electric field measurements by preparing in their laboratory a flat-field grazing incidence spectrograph for use on the OMEGA-Upgrade facility. This involved wavelength calibration using a (small) laser-produced plasma, as well as designing and constructing a mounting table compatible with the large 60-beam target chamber at LLE. Beginning in April 1996 they installed and aligned the spectrograph at LLE. Following final alignment on Monday, April 29, they obtained the following day their first time-integrated spectral data in the 30--250 angstrom range. A total of 28 successful shots were obtained. For most shots, two beams of the OMEGA-Upgrade laser were used at nominal uv-pulse widths of 1.1 ns and energies ranging from 76--470 J/beam, with focal spots of 80--450 microm and irradiances covering approximately 10 14 --10 16 Watt/cm 2 . Planar targets used consisted of Mg and NaF, as well as boron mounted on a plastic film, with some of the former two overcoated with 5 microm of CH on each side for containing the plasma, at least during the early portion of the pulse. Preliminary analyses indicate that they do indeed observe the desired Li-like L-shell spectra for oxygen, fluorine, sodium and magnesium, as well as L-shell lines in the corresponding H-(Balmer) and He-like species. Similarly, they recorded K-shell lines from B and C. Sample traces for Mg and Na fluoride from their soft x-ray spectrograph are shown. Both of these shots were obtained at a rather low applied irradiance of 2 X 10 14 W/cm 2 , and were chosen mainly for line identification. The parent Li-like 2s-3p allowed lines corresponding to the forbidden-line satellites sought for E-field determinations are clearly present. The calculated satellite line intensity relative to the intensity from this 2s-3p transition is ∼ 3%

  11. A new proposal for measuring the Lense-Thirring effect with a pair of supplementary satellites in the gravitational field of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter we propose a new observable for measuring the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with artificial satellites in the gravitational field of the Earth. It consists of the difference of the perigee rates of two satellites placed in identical orbits with supplementary inclinations. As in the well known LAGEOS-LARES project in which, instead, the sum of the residuals of the nodal rates would be used, the proposed observable would be able to cancel out the aliasing effect of the classical even zonal perigee precessions induced by the oblateness of the Earth. The possibility of using the already existing LAGEOS II and a twin of its, to be launched, in a supplementary orbit is briefly examined. While with the originally proposed LAGEOS-LARES mission only the sum of the nodal rates could be used because the perigee of LAGEOS is not a good observable, the implementation of the proposed mission would allow to adopt both the sum of the nodes and the difference of the perigees

  12. Mapping Fish Community Variables by Integrating Field and Satellite Data, Object-Based Image Analysis and Modeling in a Traditional Fijian Fisheries Management Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Jupiter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of marine spatial planning for zoning multi-use areas is growing in both developed and developing countries. Comprehensive maps of marine resources, including those important for local fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, provide a crucial foundation of information for the planning process. Using a combination of field and high spatial resolution satellite data, we use an empirical procedure to create a bathymetric map (RMSE 1.76 m and object-based image analysis to produce accurate maps of geomorphic and benthic coral reef classes (Kappa values of 0.80 and 0.63; 9 and 33 classes, respectively covering a large (>260 km2 traditional fisheries management area in Fiji. From these maps, we derive per-pixel information on habitat richness, structural complexity, coral cover and the distance from land, and use these variables as input in models to predict fish species richness, diversity and biomass. We show that random forest models outperform five other model types, and that all three fish community variables can be satisfactorily predicted from the high spatial resolution satellite data. We also show geomorphic zone to be the most important predictor on average, with secondary contributions from a range of other variables including benthic class, depth, distance from land, and live coral cover mapped at coarse spatial scales, suggesting that data with lower spatial resolution and lower cost may be sufficient for spatial predictions of the three fish community variables.

  13. Strategic campaigns and redistributive politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates strategic, informative campaigning by two parties when politics concern redistribution. Voters are uncertain about whether parties favour special groups. Parties will target campaigns on groups where most votes are gained by informing about policies. In equilibrium......, campaigning will be most intensive in groups where the uncertainty is largest and where voters are most mobile, most likely to vote, most receptive to campaigns and relatively uninformed initially. These groups will become more informed about policy. Parties will therefore gain more votes by treating...... these groups well so these groups will gain from strategic campaigning. Welfare effects are assessed...

  14. Impacts of using an ensemble Kalman filter on air quality simulations along the California-Mexico border region during Cal-Mex 2010 field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Naifang; Li, Guohui; Meng, Zhiyong; Weng, Yonghui; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, L T

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) on air quality simulations in the California-Mexico border region on two days (May 30 and June 04, 2010) during Cal-Mex 2010. The uncertainties in ozone (O3) and aerosol simulations in the border area due to the meteorological initial uncertainties were examined through ensemble simulations. The ensemble spread of surface O3 averaged over the coastal region was less than 10ppb. The spreads in the nitrate and ammonium aerosols are substantial on both days, mostly caused by the large uncertainties in the surface temperature and humidity simulations. In general, the forecast initialized with the EnKF analysis (EnKF) improved the simulation of meteorological fields to some degree in the border region compared to the reference forecast initialized with NCEP analysis data (FCST) and the simulation with observation nudging (FDDA), which in turn leading to reasonable air quality simulations. The simulated surface O3 distributions by EnKF were consistently better than FCST and FDDA on both days. EnKF usually produced more reasonable simulations of nitrate and ammonium aerosols compared to the observations, but still have difficulties in improving the simulations of organic and sulfate aerosols. However, discrepancies between the EnKF simulations and the measurements were still considerably large, particularly for sulfate and organic aerosols, indicating that there are still ample rooms for improvement in the present data assimilation and/or the modeling systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The height variation of supergranular velocity fields determined from simultaneous OSO 8 satellite and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    November, L. J.; Toomre, J.; Gebbie, K. B.; Simon, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported for simultaneous satellite and ground-based observations of supergranular velocities in the sun, which were made using a UV spectrometer aboard OSO 8 and a diode-array instrument operating at the exit slit of an echelle spectrograph attached to a vacuum tower telescope. Observations of the steady Doppler velocities seen toward the limb in the middle chromosphere and the photosphere are compared; the observed spectral lines of Si II at 1817 A and Fe I at 5576 A are found to differ in height of formation by about 1400 km. The results show that supergranular motions are able to penetrate at least 11 density scale heights into the middle chromosphere, that the patterns of motion correlate well with the cellular structure seen in the photosphere, and that the motion increases from about 800 m/s in the photosphere to at least 3000 m/s in the middle chromosphere. These observations imply that supergranular velocities should be evident in the transition region and that strong horizontal shear layers in supergranulation should produce turbulence and internal gravity waves.

  16. Amateur astronomers in support of observing campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project evolved from the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. While PACA identifies a consistent collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access, and storage are needed. Several interesting results emerged from the synergistic inclusion of both social media and amateur astronomers: - the establishment of a network of astronomers and related professionals that can be galvanized into action on short notice to support observing campaigns; - assist in various science investigations pertinent to the campaign; - provide an alert-sounding mechanism should the need arise; - immediate outreach and dissemination of results via our media/blogger members; - provide a forum for discussions between the imagers and modelers to help strategize the observing campaign for maximum benefit. In 2014, two new comet observing campaigns involving pro-am collaborations have been identified: (1) C/2013 A1 (C/Siding Spring) and (2) 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG). The evolving need for individual customized observing campaigns has been incorporated into the evolution of PACA (Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy) portal that currently is focused on comets: from supporting observing campaigns for current comets, legacy data, historical comets; interconnected with social media and a set of shareable documents addressing observational strategies; consistent standards for data; data access, use, and storage, to align with the needs of professional observers. The integration of science, observations by professional and amateur astronomers, and various social media provides a dynamic and evolving collaborative partnership between professional and amateur astronomers. The recent observation of comet 67P, at a magnitude of 21.2, from Siding

  17. How campaigns polarize the electorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper M.; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    The minimal effect theory of campaign studies stipulates that intense political competition during campaigns assures and reinforces the initial party choice of the electorate. We find that this reinforcement is two-fold. During the campaign, the party preference of the voters’ in-group party...... an increase in their preference for their most preferred party and a decrease for their least liked party as the campaign progresses. These trends show that the political campaign polarizes the electorate by increasing the affective distance between in-group party and out-group party preferences, thereby...... resulting in stronger political polarization after the campaign than before the campaign. The data utilized in this study is a large six-wave panel-study of Danish voters’ party preferences during the Danish parliamentary election of 2011. Thus, the analysis provides evidence of the minimal effect theory...

  18. Airborne Sun photometry and Closure Studies in SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Hobbs, P. V.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J.; Holben, B. N.; McGill, M.; hide

    2001-01-01

    From August 13 to September 25, the Southern African Regional Science Initiative's (SAFARI 2000) dry-season airborne campaign studied the complex interactions between the region's ecosystems, air pollution, atmospheric circulation, land-atmosphere interactions, and land use change. The field campaign was timed to coincide with the annual winter fire season in Southern Africa. This challenging campaign. which coordinated ground-based measurement teams, multiple research aircraft, and satellite overpasses across nine African nations, was head quartered at the Petersburg International Airport in South Africa's Northern Province. Among many others, unique coordinated observations were made of the evolution of massive, thick haze layers produced by industrial emissions, biomass burning, marine and biogenic sources. The NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington CV-580 during 24 data flights. The AATS-14 instrument measures the transmission of the direct solar beam at 14 discrete wavelengths (3501558 nm) from which we derive spectral aerosol optical depths (AOD), columnar water vapor (CWV) and columnar ozone. Flying at different altitudes over a fixed location allows derivation of layer AOD and CWV. Data taken during feasible vertical profiles allows derivation of aerosol extinction and water vapor density. In the talk, we show comparisons with ground-based AERONET sun/sky photometer results, with ground based MPL-Net lidar data, and with measurements from a lidar aboard the high flying ER-2 aircraft. We will use measurements from the Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer to derive estimates of solar spectral forcing as a function of aerosol thickness. Validations of TOMS and Terra satellite aerosol and water-vapor retrievals will also be discussed.

  19. Heterogeneous benefits of precision nitrogen management over the Midwestern US: evidence from 1,000 fields derived by satellite imagery and crop modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Archontoulis, S.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    The wise management of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is important for both economic and environmental considerations. The variable rate technology (VRT) that applies different rates of N fertilizer by fully taking account of the spatial heterogeneity within fields has gained popularity with the recent advent of high-resolution satellites and spectrometers, but its profitability is still uncertain given the dependence of corn-nitrogen responses to soil and climate. To our knowledge, the benefits of adopting VRT in the vast Midwestern US agricultural zones have only been assessed at a very limited number of fields based on labor-costing on-farm samplings. Here we present a study that integrates a range of geospatial tools and data to quantifying the economic benefit of VRT versus uniform N application over 1,000 randomly selected corn fields in the US Midwest. We employed the Google Earth Engine (GEE) and Landsat-5, 7 and 8 collections to derive 30m-resolution yield map for years 2007-2015, and used the multi-year averaged yields to characterize the yield variation and hence the management zones for each field and zone-specific yield goal. The yield goals as well as the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) data were then used to calibrate the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) model, which generated a range of variables such as yields, N balance and leaching. Our preliminary results showed that the calibrated APSIM model was able to capture about 60% of the variation in the satellite-based yield estimates, and more than 70% of the yield spread (i.e. maximum - minimum yield). Regardless of the overall environmental benefits of less N loss through leaching, the economic difference between adopting VRT and uniform application ranged from -50 to 200 per acre, with the majority lay between -10 and 40 per acre. Fields with a wider range of yield spread benefited more from adopting VRT, yet the conclusion varies upon weather, especially the precipitation. Our

  20. Observations of 50/60 Hz Power Line Radiation in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Detected by the Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Simoes, F. A.; Liebrecht, M. C.; Farrell, W.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ubiquitous forms of EM radiation emanating from the earth's surface is that of power line radiation. Associated with AC electric power generation, such emissions are typically launched along conducting power lines that may travel hundreds, or even thousands of km, from generating stations. The fundamental frequencies of such emissions are characteristically 50 Hz or 60 Hz, depending on the regional standards for power generation/consumption. The frequency of this radiation is well below that of the plasma frequency of the ionosphere (typically several MHz) and hence is expected to reflect back to the earth and propagate in the waveguide formed by the earth's surface and the bottom ledge of the ionosphere, typically near 100 km. Given that such power lines are widespread on the exposed lithosphere, the leakage of some ELF emissions associated with electric power generation might nevertheless be expected in the ionosphere, in the same manner in which a small fraction of the power associated with ELF Schumann resonances and lightning sferics have been shown to penetrate into the ionosphere. We present direct measurements of 50/60 Hz power line radiation detected by in situ probes on an orbiting satellite in the earth's ionosphere. The data were gathered by the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) tri-axial double probe detector flown on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. C/NOFS was launched in April, 2008 into a low latitude (13 deg inclination) orbit with perigee and apogee of 400 km and 850 km, respectively. The electric field wave data were gathered by ELF receivers comprised of two orthogonal broadband channels sampled at 512 s/sec each, and digitized with 16 bit A/D converters. The data show distinct 60 Hz emissions while the satellite sampled within the Brazilian sector whereas distinct 50 Hz emissions were detected over India. Other, less distinct, emissions were observed over Africa and southeast Asia

  1. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society; Um estudo simplificado sobre a percepcao publica na area nuclear: sugestoes para campanhas educativas para os diferentes segmentos da sociedade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-07-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  2. A history of the 2014 Minute 319 environmental pulse flow asdocumented by field measurements and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven M.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Rodriguez-Burgeueno, J. Eliana; Milliken, Jeff; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Zamora-Arroyo, Francisco; Schlatter, Karen; Santiago-Serrano, Edith; Carrera-Villa, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    As provided in Minute 319 of the U.S.-Mexico Water Treaty of 1944, a pulse flow of approximately 132 million cubic meters (mcm) was released to the riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta over an eight-week period that began March 23, 2014 and ended May 18, 2014. Peak flows were released in the early part of the pulse to simulate a spring flood, with approximately 101.7 mcm released at Morelos Dam on the U.S.-Mexico border. The remainder of the pulse flow water was released to the riparian corridor via Mexicali Valley irrigation spillway canals, with 20.9 mcm released at Km 27 Spillway (41 km below Morelos Dam) and 9.3 mcm released at Km 18 Spillway (78 km below Morelos Dam). We used sequential satellite images, overflights, ground observations, water discharge measurements, and automated temperature, river stage and water quality loggers to document and describe the progression of pulse flow water through the study area. The rate of advance of the wetted front was slowed by infiltration and high channel roughness as the pulse flow crossed more than 40 km of dry channel which was disconnected from underlying groundwater and partially overgrown with salt cedar. High lag time and significant attenuation of flow resulted in a changing hydrograph as the pulse flow progressed to the downstream delivery points; two peak flows occurred in some lower reaches. The pulse flow advanced more than 120 km downstream from Morelos Dam to reach the Colorado River estuary at the northern end of the Gulf of California.

  3. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  4. Measurements of HOx radicals and the total OH reactivity (kOH) in the planetary boundary layer over southern Finland aboard the Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, Sebastian; Gomm, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bachner, Mathias; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Thayer, Mitchell; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The concentration of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals (also named HOx) and the total OH reactivity were measured over southern Finland and during transfer flights over Germany, Denmark and Sweden aboard the Zeppelin NT airship within the framework of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) field campaign in 2013. The measurements were performed with a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument which was installed on top of the airship. Together with a comprehensive set of trace gas (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies and aerosol measurements as well as the measurement of meteorological parameters, these data provide the possibility to test the current understanding of the chemical processes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over different landscapes and in different chemical regimes. The unique flight performance of the Zeppelin NT allowed us to measure transects at a constant altitude as well as vertical profiles within the range of 80 m to 1000 m above ground. The transect flights show changes in the HOx distribution and kOH while crossing different chemical regimes on the way from Friedrichshafen, Germany to Jämijärvi, Finland over Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Vertical profile flights over the boreal forest close to Jämijärvi and Hyytiälä (both Finland) gave the opportunity to investigate the layering of the PBL and with that the vertical distribution of HOx and kOH with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Gradients in the HOx concentration and kOH were measured between the different layers during the early morning hours. The maximum radical concentrations found during the campaign were 1.0 x 107 cm-3 for OH and 1.0 x 109 cm-3 for HO2. The total OH reactivity measured in Finland was much lower than what was reported before in the literature from ground based measurements and ranged from 1 s-1 to 6 s-1. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European

  5. Campaign Country Going Green?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    justification. This paper finally discusses the reason for this greening of government initiated Danish energy saving campaigns, which is seen as an indirect result of the 1987 UN report, Our Common Future. The 1988 general election in Denmark led to the formation of a new center-right government coalition...... economics and not least a significant portion of patriotism. Environmental justification was almost entirely absent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. This changed only from 1989 onwards, as government initiatives to curb the ever rising consumption of energy commenced an extensive use of environmental...

  6. EAGLE 2006 – Multi-purpose, multi-angle and multi-sensor in-situ and airborne campaigns over grassland and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available EAGLE2006 – an intensive field campaign for the advances in land surface hydrometeorological processes – was carried out in the Netherlands from 8th to 18th June 2006, involving 16 institutions with in total 67 people from 16 different countries. In addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sensor satellite data, several airborne instruments – an optical imaging sensor, an imaging microwave radiometer, and a flux airplane – were deployed and extensive ground measurements were conducted over one grassland site at Cabauw and two forest sites at Loobos and Speulderbos in the central part of the Netherlands. The generated data set is both unique and urgently needed for the development and validation of models and inversion algorithms for quantitative land surface parameter estimation and land surface hydrometeorological process studies. EAGLE2006 was led by the Department of Water Resources of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC and originated from the combination of a number of initiatives supported by different funding agencies. The objectives of the EAGLE2006 campaign were closely related to the objectives of other European Space Agency (ESA campaign activities (SPARC2004, SEN2FLEX2005 and especially AGRISAR2006. However, one important objective of the EAGLE2006 campaign is to build up a data base for the investigation and validation of the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters, obtained at different radar frequencies (X-, C- and L-Band and at hyperspectral optical and thermal bands acquired simultaneously over contrasting vegetated fields (forest and grassland. As such, all activities were related to algorithm development for future satellite missions such as the Sentinels and for validation of retrievals of land surface parameters with optical and thermal and microwave sensors onboard current and future satellite missions. This contribution describes the campaign objectives and

  7. Updating representation of land surface-atmosphere feedbacks in airborne campaign modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Chan, S.; Xu, X.; Fisher, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    An updated modeling system to support airborne field campaigns is being built at NASA Ames Pleiades, with focus on adjusting the representation of land surface-atmosphere feedbacks. The main updates, referring to previous experiences with ARCTAS-CARB and CalNex in the western US to study air pollution inflows, include: 1) migrating the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) coupled land surface model from Noah to improved/more complex models especially Noah-MP and Rapid Update Cycle; 2) enabling the WRF land initialization with suitably spun-up land model output; 3) incorporating satellite land cover, vegetation dynamics, and soil moisture data (i.e., assimilating Soil Moisture Active Passive data using the ensemble Kalman filter approach) into WRF. Examples are given of comparing the model fields with available aircraft observations during spring-summer 2016 field campaigns taken place at the eastern side of continents (KORUS-AQ in South Korea and ACT-America in the eastern US), the air pollution export regions. Under fair weather and stormy conditions, air pollution vertical distributions and column amounts, as well as the impact from land surface, are compared. These help identify challenges and opportunities for LEO/GEO satellite remote sensing and modeling of air quality in the northern hemisphere. Finally, we briefly show applications of this system on simulating Australian conditions, which would explore the needs for further development of the observing system in the southern hemisphere and inform the Clean Air and Urban Landscapes (https://www.nespurban.edu.au) modelers.

  8. Recent Science Campaigns at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, R. P.; Bristow, W. A.; Fallen, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Experiments in HF ionospheric heating using the High­frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities have tremendous potential for informing our investigation of the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. They provide a unique opportunity for quantifying and modeling the multi­scale coupled processes that characterize the interactions between the plasma in near­Earth space, the Earth's magnetic field, and the neutral gasses of the atmosphere. Physical parameters of the region are often difficult to measure with ground­based instruments, and the measurements that are possible are often poorly resolved in range or time or unavailable outside narrow altitude regimes. HF ionospheric modification experiments allow us to measure ionospheric and thermospheric state parameters more systematically and over a broader range of conditions than would otherwise be possible. HAARP is the world's most powerful and most flexible HF transmitting facility, capable of generating 3.6 MW of RF power over a frequency range from about 2 MHz to about 10 MHz. The electronic phased array antenna provides the ability to direct the RF energy to a large region of the sky above Alaska. HAARP was constructed through a research program managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR). It was jointly funded by AFRL, ONR, and the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA). These agencies ended of their program of HAARP research in 2014, and donated the site equipment to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF), in the summer of 2015, who now operate the facility as an international observatory for radio plasma heating and subauroral physics. Since taking control of HAARP, UAF has carried out research campaigns in February 2017, and September 2017. The topics investigated in the campaigns included the physics of ionospheric irregularities (FAI), the stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), generation of optical

  9. Modeling and simulation of satellite subsystems for end-to-end spacecraft modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schum, William K.; Doolittle, Christina M.; Boyarko, George A.

    2006-05-01

    During the past ten years, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been simultaneously developing high-fidelity spacecraft payload models as well as a robust distributed simulation environment for modeling spacecraft subsystems. Much of this research has occurred in the Distributed Architecture Simulation Laboratory (DASL). AFRL developers working in the DASL have effectively combined satellite power, attitude pointing, and communication link analysis subsystem models with robust satellite sensor models to create a first-order end-to-end satellite simulation capability. The merging of these two simulation areas has advanced the field of spacecraft simulation, design, and analysis, and enabled more in-depth mission and satellite utility analyses. A core capability of the DASL is the support of a variety of modeling and analysis efforts, ranging from physics and engineering-level modeling to mission and campaign-level analysis. The flexibility and agility of this simulation architecture will be used to support space mission analysis, military utility analysis, and various integrated exercises with other military and space organizations via direct integration, or through DOD standards such as Distributed Interaction Simulation. This paper discusses the results and lessons learned in modeling satellite communication link analysis, power, and attitude control subsystems for an end-to-end satellite simulation. It also discusses how these spacecraft subsystem simulations feed into and support military utility and space mission analyses.

  10. Nature and Intensity of the 22-23 April 2015 Eruptions of Volcán Calbuco, Chile, from Satellite, Lightning, and Field Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eaton, A. R.; Amigo, A.; Bertin, D.; Mastin, L. G.; Giacosa, R.; Behnke, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    On 22 April 2015, Calbuco Volcano in southern Chile erupted for the first time in 43 years. The two primary phases of eruption, separated by a few hours, produced pyroclastic density currents, lahars, and spectacular vertical eruption columns that rose into the stratosphere. Clear weather conditions allowed the populated areas of Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas full view of the lightning-rich eruption, which was rapidly shared through social media. A wealth of remote-sensing data was also publically available in near real-time. We used this information to assess the eruption behavior by combining satellite-based umbrella growth rates, and the location and frequency of volcanic lightning. Umbrella expansion rates from GOES-13 satellite retrievals correspond to eruption rates of about 4x106 kg s-1 for the first eruptive phase and 6x106 kg s-1 for the second phase, following the approach of Pouget et al. (2013, JVGR, 258, 100-112). The location and timing of lightning flashes were obtained from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) Global Volcanic Lightning Monitor, which is updated approximately every minute (Ewert et al., 2010, Fall AGU Abstract AE31A-04). Interestingly, the onset of detected flashes was delayed by ~30 min after the start of each eruptive phase. Lighting provided a useful proxy for the waxing or waning intensity of the eruption, and helped identify the end of significant ash emissions. Using the 1-D volcanic plume model Plumeria, we have also simulated the vertical distribution of ash and ice in the plumes to examine potential causes of the extraordinary amount of volcanic lightning (1,094 flashes detected). Our analysis provides information on eruption timing, duration, and mass flow rate, which are necessary for ash dispersal modeling within hours of eruption. Results are also consistent with the field-based measurements of total erupted volume. We suggest that the combination of satellite-detected umbrella expansion rates with lightning

  11. Dual Microwave Radiometer Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, Roger [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Passive microwave radiometers (MWRs) are the most commonly used and accurate instruments the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility has to retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP). The MWR measurements (microwave radiances or brightness temperatures) are often used to derive LWP using climatological constraints, but are frequently also combined with measurements from radar and other instruments for cloud microphysical retrievals. Nominally this latter approach improves the retrieval of LWP and other cloud microphysical quantities (such as effective radius or number concentration), but this also means that when MWR data are poor, other cloud microphysical quantities are also negatively affected. Unfortunately, current MWR data is often contaminated by water on the MWR radome. This water makes a substantial contribution to the measured radiance and typically results in retrievals of cloud liquid water and column water vapor that are biased high. While it is obvious when the contamination by standing water is large (and retrieval biases are large), much of the time it is difficult to know with confidence that there is no contamination. At present there is no attempt to estimate or correct for this source of error, and identification of problems is largely left to users. Typically users are advised to simply throw out all data when the MWR “wet-window” resistance-based sensor indicates water is present, but this sensor is adjusted by hand and is known to be temperamental. In order to address this problem, a pair of ARM microwave radiometers was deployed to the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, Washington, USA. The radiometers were operated such that one radiometer was scanned under a cover that (nominally) prevents this radiometer radome from gathering water and permits measurements away from zenith; while the other radiometer is operated normally – open or uncovered - with the radome exposed to the sky. The idea is that (1) the covered radiometer data can provide LWP (and water vapor) along the off-zenith slant path and (2) the two sets of measurements can be compared to identify when wet-radome contamination is occurring.

  12. Design and Planning of Field Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, F.

    1996-01-01

    From Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Monitoring and Control Strategies for Urban Air Pollution, held in Erice, Italy, October 9-15, 1994......From Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Monitoring and Control Strategies for Urban Air Pollution, held in Erice, Italy, October 9-15, 1994...

  13. SMAP Post-launch Field Campaign Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SMAP post-launch Cal/Val activities are intended both to assess the quality of the mission products and to support analyses that lead to their improvement. A suite of complementary methodologies will be employed that will result in a robust global assessment. Much of the work will occur in the C...

  14. Arctic Shield 2015 Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, Robert A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    During the week of July 13, 2015, the U.S. Coast Guard’s (USCG) Research and Development Center partnered with Conoco Phillips through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to conduct a Search and Rescue (SAR) exercise off of Oliktok Point, Alaska. The Coast Guard was interested in exploring how unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used to enhance capabilities for its SAR mission and gain a better understanding of how it could work jointly with private industry for response operations in remote regions. Participants in the exercise included Coast Guard Pacific Area Command, Coast Guard Cutter Healy, Coast Guard District Seventeen, Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak, and Conoco Phillips. Joining Conoco Phillips were their partners Insitu (a Boeing company), Era Helicopter, and Era Helicopter’s partner Priority One. Other government agencies supporting the exercise were the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the North Slope Borough of the state of Alaska. The exercise scenario involved a simulated small aircraft crash offshore where the survivors took refuge in a 6-man life raft. The aircraft’s last known position and asset availability required the Coast Guard to coordinate the response with Conoco Phillips. This included the use of an Insitu-operated ScanEagle UAS, flown from DOE-ARM’s Sandia National Laboratory-operated facility at Oliktok Point, and manned aircraft provided by both the Coast Guard’s Forward Operating Location in Deadhorse and Era Helicopter. Lessons learned from this exercise will help the Coast Guard understand how to best collaborate with private industry on the North Slope during response operations and develop requirements for UAS performing Coast Guard missions in the Arctic environment. For the ARM facility, the exercise demonstrated some of the opportunities and constraints of using UAS in the Arctic for research purposes.

  15. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  16. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  17. A global reference database from very high resolution commercial satellite data and methodology for application to Landsat derived 30 m continuous field tree cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, Bruce; Long, Jordan; Dahal, Devendra; Stehman, Stephen V.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The methodology for selection, creation, and application of a global remote sensing validation dataset using high resolution commercial satellite data is presented. High resolution data are obtained for a stratified random sample of 500 primary sampling units (5 km  ×  5 km sample blocks), where the stratification based on Köppen climate classes is used to distribute the sample globally among biomes. The high resolution data are classified to categorical land cover maps using an analyst mediated classification workflow. Our initial application of these data is to evaluate a global 30 m Landsat-derived, continuous field tree cover product. For this application, the categorical reference classification produced at 2 m resolution is converted to percent tree cover per 30 m pixel (secondary sampling unit)for comparison to Landsat-derived estimates of tree cover. We provide example results (based on a subsample of 25 sample blocks in South America) illustrating basic analyses of agreement that can be produced from these reference data. Commercial high resolution data availability and data quality are shown to provide a viable means of validating continuous field tree cover. When completed, the reference classifications for the full sample of 500 blocks will be released for public use.

  18. Texture Analysis of satellite imagery in the field of biodiversity and forest structure of the Colombian Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya A, Jesus A; Duque L, Rosa A; Valencia H, German M

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between texture calculated from an Ikonos image with diversity and structure was evaluated along a corridor with 43 field plots in the Colombian Andes. Diversity indexes were calculated at the 43 plots and Land Use maps were used as an approach to vegetation structure. Texture was obtained from an Ikonos image using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix GLCM and Gray Level Difference Vector GLDV. Traditionally, texture has been interpreted from a qualitatively point of view from smooth to rough, however our approach using a matrix allows for a quantitative measurement. Texture was related to field information at two different detail levels: first with diversity measurements (Shannon Index and Richness) established at forest plots and second, with classes of a land use map (primary forest, secondary forests, forest plantation, crops and pastures) considered to be representative of vegetation structure. Results are based on relations between structure diversity,texture diversity and texture structure. Ikonos texture presents a large potential to classify forests at different successional stages however, the relation between diversity and data gathered with remote sensing is still weak. Landsat images are mentioned throughout the text as a reference or comparison with Ikonos images.

  19. The Swarm Initial Field Model – a Model of the Earth’s Magnetic Field for 2014 Determined From One Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent

    Almost one year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times (Kp less than 2o, time change of Dst-index less than 2 nT/hr) and dark regions (sun below horizon) and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC...

  20. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  1. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  2. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  3. Aerosols, Chemistry, and Radiative Forcing: A 3-D Model Analysis of Satellite and ACE-Asia data (ACMAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Zhao, Xue-Peng

    2005-01-01

    We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into the multi-national Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) mission. Our objectives are (1) to understand the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols and the processes that control those properties over the Asian-Pacific region, (2) to investigate the interaction between aerosols and tropospheric chemistry, and (3) to determine the aerosol radiative forcing over the Asia-Pacific region. We will use the Georgia TecWGoddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to link satellite observations and the ACE-Asia measurements. First, we will use the GOCART model to simulate aerosols and related species, and evaluate the model with satellite and in-situ observations. Second, the model generated aerosol vertical profiles and compositions will be used to validate the satellite products; and the satellite data will be used for during- and post- mission analysis. Third, we will use the model to analyze and interpret both satellite and ACE- Asia field campaign data and investigate the aerosol-chemistry interactions. Finally, we will calculate aerosol radiative forcing over the Asian-Pacific region, and assess the influence of Asian pollution in the global atmosphere. We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into

  4. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  5. Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD) of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase satellite: specifications and initial evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Yagitani, Satoshi; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Kurita, Satoshi; Hori, Tomoaki; Shinbori, Atsuki; Teramoto, Mariko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Naoko; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Nomura, Reiko

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the specifications and initial evaluation results of Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD), the key components for the electric field measurement of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase (ERG) satellite. WPT consists of two pairs of dipole antennas with 31-m tip-to-tip length. Each antenna element has a spherical probe (60 mm diameter) at each end of the wire (15 m length). They are extended orthogonally in the spin plane of the spacecraft, which is roughly perpendicular to the Sun and enables to measure the electric field in the frequency range of DC to 10 MHz. This system is almost identical to the WPT of Plasma Wave Investigation aboard the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, except for the material of the spherical probe (ERG: Al alloy, MMO: Ti alloy). EFD is a part of the EWO (EFD/WFC/OFA) receiver and measures the 2-ch electric field at a sampling rate of 512 Hz (dynamic range: ± 200 mV/m) and the 4-ch spacecraft potential at a sampling rate of 128 Hz (dynamic range: ± 100 V and ± 3 V/m), with the bias control capability of WPT. The electric field waveform provides (1) fundamental information about the plasma dynamics and accelerations and (2) the characteristics of MHD and ion waves in various magnetospheric statuses with the magnetic field measured by MGF and PWE-MSC. The spacecraft potential provides information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure combined with the electron density obtained from the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided by PWE-HFA. EFD has two data modes. The continuous (medium-mode) data are provided as (1) 2-ch waveforms at 64 Hz (in apoapsis mode, L > 4) or 256 Hz (in periapsis mode, L < 4), (2) 1-ch spectrum within 1-232 Hz with 1-s resolution, and (3) 4-ch spacecraft potential at 8 Hz. The burst (high-mode) data are intermittently obtained as (4) 2-ch waveforms at 512 Hz and (5) 4-ch spacecraft potential at 128 Hz and downloaded with the WFC

  6. A prototype method for diagnosing high ice water content probability using satellite imager data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Christopher R.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Minnis, Patrick; Nguyen, Louis; Strapp, J. Walter; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Spangenberg, Douglas; Smith, William L., Jr.; Protat, Alain; Delanoe, Julien

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have found that ingestion of high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms, with radar reflectivity considered safe for aircraft penetration, can adversely impact aircraft engine performance. Previous aviation industry studies have used the term high ice water content (HIWC) to define such conditions. Three airborne field campaigns were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to better understand how HIWC is distributed in deep convection, both as a function of altitude and proximity to convective updraft regions, and to facilitate development of new methods for detecting HIWC conditions, in addition to many other research and regulatory goals. This paper describes a prototype method for detecting HIWC conditions using geostationary (GEO) satellite imager data coupled with in situ total water content (TWC) observations collected during the flight campaigns. Three satellite-derived parameters were determined to be most useful for determining HIWC probability: (1) the horizontal proximity of the aircraft to the nearest overshooting convective updraft or textured anvil cloud, (2) tropopause-relative infrared brightness temperature, and (3) daytime-only cloud optical depth. Statistical fits between collocated TWC and GEO satellite parameters were used to determine the membership functions for the fuzzy logic derivation of HIWC probability. The products were demonstrated using data from several campaign flights and validated using a subset of the satellite-aircraft collocation database. The daytime HIWC probability was found to agree quite well with TWC time trends and identified extreme TWC events with high probability. Discrimination of HIWC was more challenging at night with IR-only information. The products show the greatest capability for discriminating TWC ≥ 0.5 g m-3. Product validation remains challenging due to vertical TWC uncertainties and the typically coarse spatio-temporal resolution of the GEO data.

  7. A contrastive study on the influences of radial and three-dimensional satellite gravity gradiometry on the accuracy of the Earth's gravitational field recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Hsu Hou-Tse; Zhong Min; Yun Mei-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of the Earth's gravitational field measured from the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE), up to 250 degrees, influenced by the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij from the satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) are contrastively demonstrated based on the analytical error model and numerical simulation, respectively. Firstly, the new analytical error model of the cumulative geoid height, influenced by the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij are established, respectively. In 250 degrees, the GOCE cumulative geoid height error measured by the radial gravity gradient V zz is about 2 ½ times higher than that measured by the three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij . Secondly, the Earth's gravitational field from GOCE completely up to 250 degrees is recovered using the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij by numerical simulation, respectively. The study results show that when the measurement error of the gravity gradient is 3 × 10 −12 /s 2 , the cumulative geoid height errors using the radial gravity gradient V zz and three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij are 12.319 cm and 9.295 cm at 250 degrees, respectively. The accuracy of the cumulative geoid height using the three-dimensional gravity gradient V ij is improved by 30%–40% on average compared with that using the radial gravity gradient V zz in 250 degrees. Finally, by mutual verification of the analytical error model and numerical simulation, the orders of magnitude from the accuracies of the Earth's gravitational field recovery make no substantial differences based on the radial and three-dimensional gravity gradients, respectively. Therefore, it is feasible to develop in advance a radial cold-atom interferometric gradiometer with a measurement accuracy of 10 −13 /s 2 −10 −15 /s 2 for precisely producing the next-generation GOCE Follow-On Earth gravity field

  8. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  9. Solar Energy Campaign. 2008 Norwegian student-based web campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Scott

    2009-07-01

    Student research campaigns (forskningskampanjer) have been an annual event in connection to Research Days (Forskningsdagene) since 2003 in Norway. The campaigns invite students from all over the country to participate in a common scientific research event, always connected to a special environmentally related theme - for example Air Quality in the Classroom (2003), Pollution along Roads (2004), Bacteria in Drinking Water (2005), and The Rain Check (2006). The year 2008, as with previous years, was overshadowed by the topic of climate change, and the specific role of humans. The research campaign theme for 2008 fit well into this focus: the potential benefits of solar energy as an alternative energy source. The campaign also was aligned with the Research Days theme of alternative energy sources and technologies. The campaign included the hands-on activity of assembling a solar panel and taking measurements with the device to determine efficiency, as well as a questionnaire to record the results and ask deeper questions regarding alternative energy and climate change. The results gained from data analysis of the campaign show that students were able to gain maximum efficient solar power from the devices they constructed, which gave them a solid understanding of solar power technology. Analysis of the campaign questionnaire in regards to the activity shows that students believe that solar energy should be better utilized as an energy source in Norway. (Also in Norwegian OR 24/2009). (Author)

  10. Bureau of Military Intelligence in the Chancellorsville Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Printing Office, 2014. ———. Field Manual (FM) 34-130. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Accessed...THE BUREAU OF MILITARY INTELLIGENCE IN THE CHANCELLORSVILLE CAMPAIGN A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...AUG 2016 – JUN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Bureau of Military Intelligence in the Chancellorsville Campaign 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  11. The configuration of the auroral distribution for interplanetary magnetic field Bz northward. 1. IMF Bx and By dependencies as observed by the Viking satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliphinstone, R.D.; Jankowska, K.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    Viking images obtained throughout 1986 have been utilized in combination with IMP 8 satellite measurements of the interplanetary magnetic fields (IMF) to determine typical northern hemisphere auroral distributions for a variety of IMF B z positive conditions. Varying B y has an effect which is consistent with expected results. That is, B y positive implies high-latitude auroral arcs in the dusk sector while negative B y gives dawn sector polar arcs. A new result gives significant importance to the B x component of the IMF. B x toward the Sun (B y = 0) gives polar arcs on both dawn and dusk with comparatively weak UV emissions. With B x away from the Sun (B y = 0) a single Sun-aligned morning sector polar arc dominates the auroral distribution. Azimuthal angle changes to the IMF of only 45 degree seem to affect the global auroral distribution with time scales of less than 2-3 hours. Poleward boundaries of the aurora were found to have a strong dependence on the IMF azimuthal angle which varied according to the magnetic local time investigated

  12. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Alan V.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Higuchi, Niro; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2014-03-01

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949-54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9-17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies.

  13. Tropical forest carbon balance: effects of field- and satellite-based mortality regimes on the dynamics and the spatial structure of Central Amazon forest biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vittorio, Alan V; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Debate continues over the adequacy of existing field plots to sufficiently capture Amazon forest dynamics to estimate regional forest carbon balance. Tree mortality dynamics are particularly uncertain due to the difficulty of observing large, infrequent disturbances. A recent paper (Chambers et al 2013 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 110 3949–54) reported that Central Amazon plots missed 9–17% of tree mortality, and here we address ‘why’ by elucidating two distinct mortality components: (1) variation in annual landscape-scale average mortality and (2) the frequency distribution of the size of clustered mortality events. Using a stochastic-empirical tree growth model we show that a power law distribution of event size (based on merged plot and satellite data) is required to generate spatial clustering of mortality that is consistent with forest gap observations. We conclude that existing plots do not sufficiently capture losses because their placement, size, and longevity assume spatially random mortality, while mortality is actually distributed among differently sized events (clusters of dead trees) that determine the spatial structure of forest canopies. (paper)

  14. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  15. Towards Improved Satellite-In Situ Oceanographic Data Interoperability and Associated Value Added Services at the Podaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies on ocean circulation, the water cycle, and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center, to extend our data management and distribution support capabilities for field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. We also discuss value-added services, based on the integration of satellite and in-situ datasets, which are under development with a particular focus on DOMS. The distributed oceanographic matchup service (DOMS) implements a portable technical infrastructure and associated web services that will be broadly accessible via the PO.DAAC for the dynamic collocation of satellite and in-situ data, hosted by distributed data providers, in support of mission cal/val, science and operational applications.

  16. Education campaigns: pointers and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariasy, J

    1988-01-01

    The best protection from AIDS is prevention, and this fact makes AIDS awareness campaigns a high priority. Since there are cases of well informed groups that still do not alter their sexual behavior (i.e. teenagers in the UK and San Francisco), fact forcing campaigns cannot be the method of AIDS education. Facts along with behavioral motivation are needed. AIDS awareness campaigns must recognize denial factors that must be overcome before the campaign is even taken seriously. On the other end of the spectrum, exaggerated fears leading to irrational behavior and stigmatization must be prevented by supplying counselling programs to dispel these fears. A campaign must build trust and not underestimate its target population so that their self respect remains high enough to motivate them towards assertive action. Cultural problems, such as women who cannot discuss sexual options for fear of being socially stigmatized, need to have programs that instruct as well as develop a environment that supports change. School women's groups, work places, clinics, community networks, and religious organizations know a local temperament and beliefs, and therefore should be consulted on designing messages that best fit their peers language, literacy, and economic circumstances. Their is no single answer for an AIDS awareness campaign, but a mixture of facts, explanation, persuasion, and reassurance for each targeted community must be well planned. Since each campaign is an experiment, it should be carefully regulated.

  17. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  18. Awareness campaign. Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma launches awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Orthopedic Hospital of Oklahoma is a 25-bed inpatient and outpatient center with one focus: Orthopedics. To acquaint people with its services and build brand awareness to drive market share, the hospital launched a print campaign featuring actual patients.

  19. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  20. Cyber-campaigning in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    sites and Facebook sites are popular among candidates but other features such as blogs, feeds, newsletter, video uploads, SMS and twitter are used by less than half the candidates. Second, only age and possibly education seem to matter when explaining the uptake of cyber-campaigning. The prominent...... candidates are not significantly more likely to use cyber-campaigning tools and activities. Third, the analysis of the effect of cyber-campaigning shows that the online score has an effect on the inter-party competition for personal votes, but it does not have a significant effect when controlling for other...

  1. The articulation of transnational campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The article traces the complex series of relations that are constitutive of transnational campaigning through empirical research, focusing on political campaigning critical of the WTO's General Agreement on Trade-in-Services. Applying the methodology of post-structuralist discourse theory......, as developed by Laclau and Mouffe, the article is able to move beyond the search for a ‘Global Civil Society' or ‘Transnational Advocacy Network', and instead focus on the articulatory process in which the relations central to transnational campaigning are produced. This empowers an analysis that is able...

  2. Original monitoring of desert dust in African air masses transported over the Mediterranean Sea by quasi-Lagrangian drifting balloons and sounding balloons during the summer 2013 ChArMEx field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, F.; Renard, J. B.; Durand, P.; Denjean, C.; Bourgeois, Q.; Vignelles, D.; Jeannot, M.; Mallet, M.; Verdier, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study focuses on in situ balloon-borne measurements of mineral dust from summer regional field campaigns in the western Mediterranean basin performed in the framework of ChArMEx (the Chemistry and Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; see special issue https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue334.html). Due to long-range transport from Africa, the lower troposphere over this regional sea is subject to high levels of desert dust with a maximum during the long dry and sunny Mediterranean summer season. Based on developments of boundary-layer pressurized balloons (BLPBs) and of a dedicated optical particle counter named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter/sizer), we were able to perform original quasi-Lagrangian monitoring of desert dust aerosols over the sea. The strategy combined classical sounding balloons and drifting BLPBs to document both the vertical distribution and long-range transport. A total of 27 LOAC flights were successfully conducted from Minorca Isl. (Spain) or Levant Isl. (France), during 4 Saharan dust transport events, including 10 flights with BLPBs at drifting altitudes between 2.0 and 3.3 km above sea level. The longest flight exceeded 700 km and lasted more than 25 h. Numerous tests and validations of LOAC measurements were performed to qualify the instrument, including comparisons with concurrent airborne measurements, sounding balloons, and remote sensing measurements with an AERONET sun-photometer, and a ground-based and the CALIOP lidar systems. Aerosol optical depths in the balloon vicinity did not exceed about 0.4 but the presence of turbid dust layers was confirmed thanks to dual scattering angle measurements by LOAC allowing the identification of dust particles. LOAC data could generally be fitted by a 3-mode lognormal distribution at roughly 0.2, 4 and 30 µm in modal diameter. Up to about 10-4 dust particles larger than 40 µm per cm3 are reported and no significant evolution of the size distribution was observed during the

  3. Norplant campaign in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Indian government's plan to introduce the new long-acting contraceptive Norplant in the National Family Planning Program under pressure from the US government is opposed because Norplant has not been adequately tested. The government has reduced the funding for the national program for eradication of malaria and tuberculosis, but it is proposing to finance a Norplant based population project for the State of Uttar Pradesh. The powers that can turn a deaf ear to the possible hazards of Norplant. Implanted in the arm of a woman, the chemical is released into the bloodstream providing contraception for 5 years. Severe adverse reactions include depression, heart disease thromboembolism, high blood pressure, and ovarian cysts. Many such long-acting contraceptives are being developed including injectables, vaccines, nasal sprays, and vaginal rings with potential permanent impairment to fertility. One of the major objectives of the Family Planning Program is the improvement of the health status of women, but the introduction of Norplant would harm healthy young women. Therefore, the group Saheli and others in the campaign demand: 1) that plans for introduction of Norplant in the Family Planning Program be halted immediately; 2) that the introduction of any other long acting invasive contraceptive such as Net-En, vaginal ring, nasal spray, and anti-fertility vaccine be banned, both on the grounds of inadequacy of the health services and loss of user controls; 3) that information on the safety aspects of Norplant and the basis on which the Drugs Controller has granted his approval be made public; 4) that each and every one of the hundreds of women who still have the implant should be located, and the implant removed; and 5) that all hormonal contraceptive preparations be banned in the social marketing program as their use involves extensive monitoring.

  4. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  5. About the Collision Repair Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed the Collision Repair Campaign to focus on meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source sector to complement ongoing community air toxics work and attain reductions at a faster rate.

  6. Categorization of Mobile Advertising Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2006-01-01

    The result of this contribution is a categorization and thus a description model for mobile advertising campaigns using the morphological method. For identification of the characteristics 32 case studies were analysed and relevant literature was sighted.

  7. The STAR Grants Contribution to the SOAS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) is a community-led field campaign that was part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). As one of the largest field studies in decades to characterize air quality in the Southeastern United States, SAS is a collaborative project invo...

  8. Political Reputations and Campaign Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Aragones, Enriqueta; Palfrey, Thomas R.; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which candidates' reputations may affect voters' beliefs over what policy will be implemented by the winning candidate of an election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. We analyze an equilibrium in which voters' strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates who renege on their campaign promises and in which all campaign promises are believed by voters and honored by candidates....

  9. Initial results from the StratoClim aircraft campaign in the Asian Monsoon in summer 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Asian Monsoon System is one of the Earth's largest and most energetic weather systems. Monsoon rainfall is critical to feeding over a billion people in Asia and the monsoon circulation affects weather patterns over the entire northern hemisphere. The Monsoon also acts like an enormous elevator, pumping vast amounts of air and pollutants from the surface up to the tropopause region at levels above 16km altitude, from where air can ascend into the stratosphere, where it spreads globally. Thus the monsoon affects the chemical composition of the global tropopause region and the stratosphere, and hence plays a key role for the composition of the UTS. Dynamically the monsoon circulation leads to the formation of a large anticyclone at tropopause levels above South Asia - the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). Satellite images show a large cloud of aerosols directly above the monsoon, the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). In July to August 2017 the international research project StratoClim carried out the first in-situ aircraft measurements in the AMA and the ATAL with the high altitude research aircraft M55-Geophysica. Around 8 scientific flights took place in the airspaces of Nepal, India and Bangladesh and have horizontally and vertically probed the AMA and have well characterized the ATAL along flight patterns that have been carefully designed by a theory, modelling and satellite data analysing team in the field. The aircraft campaign has been complemented by launches of research balloons from ground stations in Nepal, Bangladesh, China and Palau. The presentation will give an overview of the StratoClim project, the aircraft and balloon activities and initial results from the StratoClim Asian Monsoon campaign in summer 2017.

  10. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Traag

    Full Text Available Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign</