WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite-terrestrial frequency reuse

  1. A Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial Approach to Aeronautical Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Chomos, Gerald J.; Griner, James H.; Mainger, Steven W.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid growth in air travel has been projected to continue for the foreseeable future. To maintain a safe and efficient national and global aviation system, significant advances in communications systems supporting aviation are required. Satellites will increasingly play a critical role in the aeronautical communications network. At the same time, current ground-based communications links, primarily very high frequency (VHF), will continue to be employed due to cost advantages and legacy issues. Hence a hybrid satellite-terrestrial network, or group of networks, will emerge. The increased complexity of future aeronautical communications networks dictates that system-level modeling be employed to obtain an optimal system fulfilling a majority of user needs. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the current and potential future state of aeronautical communications, and is developing a simulation and modeling program to research future communications architectures for national and global aeronautical needs. This paper describes the primary requirements, the current infrastructure, and emerging trends of aeronautical communications, including a growing role for satellite communications. The need for a hybrid communications system architecture approach including both satellite and ground-based communications links is explained. Future aeronautical communication network topologies and key issues in simulation and modeling of future aeronautical communications systems are described.

  2. Revisiting Frequency Reuse towards Supporting Ultra-Reliable Ubiquitous-Rate Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Kim, Dong Min; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    One of the goals of 5G wireless systems stated by the NGMN alliance is to provide moderate rates (50+ Mbps) everywhere and with very high reliability. We term this service Ultra-Reliable Ubiquitous-Rate Communication (UR2C). This paper investigates the role of frequency reuse in supporting UR2C...... in the downlink. To this end, two frequency reuse schemes are considered: user-specific frequency reuse (FRu) and BS-specific frequency reuse (FRb). For a given unit frequency channel, FRu reduces the number of serving user equipments (UEs), whereas FRb directly decreases the number of interfering base stations...

  3. New hybrid frequency reuse method for packet loss minimization in LTE network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nora A; El-Dakroury, Mohamed A; El-Soudani, Magdi; ElSayed, Hany M; Daoud, Ramez M; Amer, Hassanein H

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the problem of inter-cell interference (ICI) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile systems, which is one of the main problems that causes loss of packets between the base station and the mobile station. Recently, different frequency reuse methods, such as soft and fractional frequency reuse, have been introduced in order to mitigate this type of interference. In this paper, minimizing the packet loss between the base station and the mobile station is the main concern. Soft Frequency Reuse (SFR), which is the most popular frequency reuse method, is examined and the amount of packet loss is measured. In order to reduce packet loss, a new hybrid frequency reuse method is implemented. In this method, each cell occupies the same bandwidth of the SFR, but the total system bandwidth is greater than in SFR. This will provide the new method with a lot of new sub-carriers from the neighboring cells to reduce the ICI which represents a big problem in many applications and causes a lot of packets loss. It is found that the new hybrid frequency reuse method has noticeable improvement in the amount of packet loss compared to SFR method in the different frequency bands. Traffic congestion management in Intelligent Transportation system (ITS) is one of the important applications that is affected by the packet loss due to the large amount of traffic that is exchanged between the base station and the mobile node. Therefore, it is used as a studied application for the proposed frequency reuse method and the improvement in the amount of packet loss reached 49.4% in some frequency bands using the new hybrid frequency reuse method.

  4. Efficient Resource Allocation and Sectorization for Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR in LTE Femtocell Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Kawser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR is a resource allocation technique that can effectively mitigate inter-cell interference (ICI in LTE based HetNets and it is a promising solution. Various FFR schemes have been suggested to address the challenge of interference in femtocell systems. In this paper, we study the scopes of interference mitigation and capacity improvement. We propose a resource allocation scheme that gradually varies frequency resource share with distance from the eNodeB for both macrocells and femtocells in order to attain better utilization of the resources. This is performed effectively using three layers in the cell. The proposal also employs high number sectors in a cell, low interference and good frequency reuse. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed, which show that the proposed scheme achieves significantly better throughput compared to the existing FFR schemes.

  5. Multi-Layer Soft Frequency Reuse Scheme for 5G Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakir, Md. Hossain; Tariq, Faisal; Safdar, Ghazanfar

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous network (HetNet) is a promising cell deployment technique where low power access points are deployed overlaid on a macrocell system. It attains high throughput by intelligently reusing spectrum, and brings a trade-off between energy- and spectral-efficiency. An efficient resource...... allocation strategy is required to significantly improve its throughput in a bid to meet the fifth-generation (5G) high data rate requirements. In this correspondence, a new resource allocation scheme for HetNet, called multi-level soft frequency reuse for HetNet (ML-SFR HetNet), is proposed which increases...... the throughput several fold. We derived spectrum and power allocation expression for a generalized HetNet scenario. In addition, analytical expressions for the throughput and area spectral efficiency (ASE) are also developed. The simulations results demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed scheme which...

  6. Low power fast settling multi-standard current reusing CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Wenfeng; Feng Peng; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2012-01-01

    A low power fast settling multi-standard CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer is proposed.The current reusing and frequency presetting techniques are adopted to realize the low power fast settling multi-standard fractional-N frequency synthesizer.An auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) is embedded to avoid the repetitive calibration process and to save power in practical application.This PLL is implemented in a 0.18μm technology.The frequency range is 0.3 to 2.54 GHz and the settling time is less than 5μs over the entire frequency range.The LC-VCO with the stacked divide-by-2 has a good figure of merit of-193.5 dBc/Hz.The measured phase noise of frequency synthesizer is about -115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset when the carrier frequency is 2.4 GHz and the reference spurs are less than -52 dBc.The whole frequency synthesizer consumes only 4.35 mA @ 1.8 V.

  7. Low power fast settling multi-standard current reusing CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Wenfeng; Feng Peng; Wang Haiyong; Wu Nanjian

    2012-01-01

    A low power fast settling multi-standard CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer is proposed. The current reusing and frequency presetting techniques are adopted to realize the low power fast settling multi-standard fractional-N frequency synthesizer. An auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) is embedded to avoid the repetitive calibration process and to save power in practical application. This PLL is implemented in a 0.18 μm technology. The frequency range is 0.3 to 2.54 GHz and the settling time is less than 5 μs over the entire frequency range. The LC-VCO with the stacked divide-by-2 has a good figure of merit of −193.5 dBc/Hz. The measured phase noise of frequency synthesizer is about −115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset when the carrier frequency is 2.4 GHz and the reference spurs are less than −52 dBc. The whole frequency synthesizer consumes only 4.35 mA and 1.8 V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. A generic interference model for uplink OFDMA networks with fractional frequency reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2014-03-01

    Fractional frequency reuse (FFR) has emerged as a viable solution to coordinate and mitigate cochannel interference (CCI) in orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA)-based wireless cellular networks. The incurred CCI in cellular networks with FFR is highly uncertain and varies as a function of various design parameters that include the user scheduling schemes, the transmit power distribution among multiple allocated subcarriers, the partitioning of the cellular region into cell-edge and cell-center zones, the allocation of spectrum within each zone, and the channel reuse factors. To this end, this paper derives a generic analytical model for uplink CCI in multicarrier OFDMA networks with FFR. The derived expressions capture several network design parameters and are applicable to any composite fading-channel models. The accuracy of the derivations is verified via Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, their usefulness is demonstrated by obtaining closed-form expressions for the Rayleigh fading-channel model and by evaluating important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity. Numerical results provide useful system design guidelines and highlight the trade-offs associated with the deployment of FFR schemes in OFDMA-based networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. A generic interference model for uplink OFDMA networks with fractional frequency reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina; Dawy, Zaher; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2014-01-01

    Fractional frequency reuse (FFR) has emerged as a viable solution to coordinate and mitigate cochannel interference (CCI) in orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA)-based wireless cellular networks. The incurred CCI in cellular networks with FFR is highly uncertain and varies as a function of various design parameters that include the user scheduling schemes, the transmit power distribution among multiple allocated subcarriers, the partitioning of the cellular region into cell-edge and cell-center zones, the allocation of spectrum within each zone, and the channel reuse factors. To this end, this paper derives a generic analytical model for uplink CCI in multicarrier OFDMA networks with FFR. The derived expressions capture several network design parameters and are applicable to any composite fading-channel models. The accuracy of the derivations is verified via Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, their usefulness is demonstrated by obtaining closed-form expressions for the Rayleigh fading-channel model and by evaluating important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity. Numerical results provide useful system design guidelines and highlight the trade-offs associated with the deployment of FFR schemes in OFDMA-based networks. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  11. Reusing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management System Environmental Outreach Feature Stories Individual Permit for Storm Water Public Reading Room Sustainability » Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by

  12. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  13. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food safety and the influence of the countries which import food are influencing policy makers and agriculturists to improve the standards of wastewater reuse in agriculture. The environmental awareness of consumers has been putting pressure on the producers (industries to opt for environmentally sound technologies including those which conserve water and reduce the level of pollution. It may be observed that we have to move forwards to implement strategies and plans for wastewater reuse. However, their success and sustainability will depend on political will, public awareness and active support from national and international agencies to create favorable    environment for the promotion of environmentally sustainable technologies. Wastewater treatment has a long history, especially in agriculture, but also in industry and households. Poor quality of wastewater can pose a significant risk to the health of farmers and users of agricultural products. The World Health Organization (WHO is working on a project for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture. To reduce effects of human activities to the minimum, it is necessary to provide such technical and technological solutions that would on the one hand ensure complying with  the existing regulations and legislation, and on the other hand provide economically viable systems as seen through investments and operating costs. The use of wastewater The practice of using wastewater varies from country to country. Its

  14. Re-use of disposable coil dialysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbud Filho, M.

    1980-01-01

    Re-use of disposable dialysers has been in practice for over 16 years throughout the world but it still is a polemical subject. The main justification for it is the reduction of costs in the hemodialytic treatment. We evaluated the technique of re-use that we adopt by studying 33 patients who should re-utilize coil dialysers for 8 consecutive hemodialysis sessions. We investigated: 1) small and middle molecules clearances trough a radioisotopic method; 2) the integrity of the system regarding bacterial invasion; 3) the frequency of anti-N antibodies; 4) aspects of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dialysis membrane after re-use. We observed no changes in the dialysers performance during re-use. We conclude that the re-use of dialyzers is feasible, without risks for the patients, allowing marked reduction of costs, thus making possible to offer treatment to a larger number of uremic patients. (author)

  15. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  16. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  17. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  19. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  20. Beneficial reuse '97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The annual Beneficial Reuse Conference was conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee from August 5-7, 1997. Now in its fifth year, this conference has become the national forum for discussing the beneficial reuse and recycle of contaminated buildings, equipment and resources, and the fabrication of useful products from such resources. As in the past, the primary goal of Beneficial Reuse ''97 was to provide a forum for the practitioners of pollution prevention, decontamination and decommissioning, waste minimization, reindustrialization, asset management, privatization and recycling to share their successes and failures, as well as their innovative strategies and operational experiences with the assembled group of stakeholders. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this conference proceedings

  1. Aligning the economic modeling of software reuse with reuse practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, D.; Meijler, 27696

    In contrast to current practices where software reuse is applied recursively and reusable assets are tailored trough parameterization or specialization, existing reuse economic models assume that (i) the cost of reusing a software asset depends on its size and (ii) reusable assets are developed from

  2. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  3. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  4. 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual is a revision of the "2004 Water Reuse Guidelines." This document is a summary of reuse guidelines, with supporting information, for the benefit of utilities of utilities and regulatory agencies, particularly EPA.

  5. Prototype water reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    A small-scale water reuse system (150 L/min) was developed to create an environment for observing fish under a variety of temperature regimes. Key concerns of disease control, water quality, temperature control, and efficiency and case of operation were addressed. Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were held at loading densities ranging from 0.11 to 0.97 kg/L per minute and at temperatures from 10 to 20°C for 6 months with no disease problems or degradation ofwater quality in the system. The system required little maintenance during 2 years of operation.

  6. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Keywords Policy Reuse · Reinforcement Learning · Online Learning · Online Bandits · Transfer Learning · Bayesian Optimisation · Bayesian Decision Theory. 1 Introduction As robots and software agents are becoming more ubiquitous in many applications.... The agent has access to a library of policies (pi1, pi2 and pi3), and has previously experienced a set of task instances (τ1, τ2, τ3, τ4), as well as samples of the utilities of the library policies on these instances (the black dots indicate the means...

  7. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    and Estonia, it was assumed that over 100 collected items 60 would be reused, 30 recycled in other ways and 10 go to final disposal Using these inputs, the LCA showed that the collection, processing and transport of second-hand clothing has insignificant impacts on the environment in comparison to the savings...... of establishing the net benefits from introducing clothes reuse. Indeed, it enables to take into consideration all the activities connected to reusing clothes, including, for instance, recycling and disposal of the collected clothes not suitable for reuse. In addition, the routes followed by the collected clothes....... Conclusions The results of the study show that clothes reuse can significantly contribute to reducing the environmental burden of clothing. Recommendations and perspectives It would be beneficial to apply other methods for estimating the avoided production of new clothes in order to check the validity...

  8. Performance Analysis of Reuse Distance in Cooperative Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmi Grönkvist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative broadcasting is a promising technique for robust broadcast with low overhead and delay in mobile ad hoc networks. The technique is attractive for mission-oriented mobile communication, where a majority of the traffic is of broadcast nature. In cooperative broadcasting, all nodes simultaneously retransmit packets. The receiver utilizes cooperative diversity in the simultaneously received signals. The retransmissions continue until all nodes are reached. After the packet has traveled a specific number of hops out from the source, denoted as reuse distance, the source node transmits a new broadcast packet in the time slot used for the previous broadcast packet. If the reuse distance is too small, interference causes packet loss in intermediate nodes. In the literature, a reuse distance of three is common. With an analysis based on a realistic interference model and real terrain data, we show that a reuse distance of at least four is necessary to avoid packet loss in sparsely connected networks, especially for high spectral efficiencies. For frequency hopping, widely used in military systems, we propose a novel method. This method almost eliminates interference for a reuse distance of three, increasing the throughput by 33% compared to systems with a reuse distance of four.

  9. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  10. Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A. [USDA ARS, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salin Laboratory

    2008-09-15

    Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

  11. Water Reuse and Pathogen Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building product water. By designing our buildings to collect and treat water generated on-site, can be and reused for flushing our toilets and irrigating our landscaping. Several water sources are generated with-in a building including: rainwater, stormwater, graywater, blackwa...

  12. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves Curty

    Full Text Available The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves. Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  13. Ionizing radiation and water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Cherbakian, Eloisa Helena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to point out the possibility of including ionizing radiation for wastewater treatment and reuse. Radiation processing is an efficient technology which can be useful for water reuse once the process can reduce not only the biological contamination but also organic substances, promoting an important acute toxicity removal from aquatic resources. Final secondary effluents from three different wastewater treatment plant were submitted to electron beam radiation and the process efficacy was evaluated. Concerning disinfection, relatively low radiation doses (2,0 - 4,0 kGy) accounted for 4 to 6 cycle log reduction for total coliforms. When radiation was applied for general wastewater improvement related to the chemical contamination, radiation process reduced from 78% up to 100% the total acute toxicity, measured for crustaceans, D. similis, and for V. fiscehri bacteria. (author)

  14. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  15. Value-based management of design reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan Antonio; Cohn, David L.; Belluomini, Wendy; Montoye, Robert K.

    2003-06-01

    Effective design reuse in electronic products has the potential to provide very large cost savings, substantial time-to-market reduction, and extra sources of revenue. Unfortunately, critical reuse opportunities are often missed because, although they provide clear value to the corporation, they may not benefit the business performance of an internal organization. It is therefore crucial to provide tools to help reuse partners participate in a reuse transaction when the transaction provides value to the corporation as a whole. Value-based Reuse Management (VRM) addresses this challenge by (a) ensuring that all parties can quickly assess the business performance impact of a reuse opportunity, and (b) encouraging high-value reuse opportunities by supplying value-based rewards to potential parties. In this paper we introduce the Value-Based Reuse Management approach and we describe key results on electronic designs that demonstrate its advantages. Our results indicate that Value-Based Reuse Management has the potential to significantly increase the success probability of high-value electronic design reuse.

  16. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  17. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  18. Factors affecting reuse of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraszti, L

    1981-01-01

    Changing the quality of circulating water, raising the effectiveness of sedimentation, examples of biological treatment of wastewater are presented. The necessity of continuing the studies on biological treatment of wastewater is demonstrated. It is considered useful to define the importance of KhPK and BP5 in each case. During biological treatment in ponds, to define the relation BPK5:N:P, research on conditions for nutrient removal must be done. To do this, as well as decrease the significance of KhPK, a mathematical model for defining the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater and consequently their reuse must be developed.

  19. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  20. Software reuse example and challenges at NSIDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, B. W.; Brodzik, M.; Collins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSIDC has created a new data discovery and access system, Searchlight, to provide users with the data they want in the format they want. NSIDC Searchlight supports discovery and access to disparate data types with on-the-fly reprojection, regridding and reformatting. Architected to both reuse open source systems and be reused itself, Searchlight reuses GDAL and Proj4 for manipulating data and format conversions, the netCDF Java library for creating netCDF output, MapServer and OpenLayers for defining spatial criteria and the JTS Topology Suite (JTS) in conjunction with Hibernate Spatial for database interaction and rich OGC-compliant spatial objects. The application reuses popular Java and Java Script libraries including Struts 2, Spring, JPA (Hibernate), Sitemesh, JFreeChart, JQuery, DOJO and a PostGIS PostgreSQL database. Future reuse of Searchlight components is supported at varying architecture levels, ranging from the database and model components to web services. We present the tools, libraries and programs that Searchlight has reused. We describe the architecture of Searchlight and explain the strategies deployed for reusing existing software and how Searchlight is built for reuse. We will discuss NSIDC reuse of the Searchlight components to support rapid development of new data delivery systems.

  1. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.

  2. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  3. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  4. In-Depth Case Studies of Superfund Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRI’s in-depth case studies explore Superfund reuse stories from start to finish. Their purpose is to see what redevelopment strategies worked, acknowledge reuse barriers and understand how communities overcame the barriers to create new reuse outcomes.

  5. Bed and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ando, Chieko

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe bed (nest) and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, south-eastern Gabon. During an eight-month study 44 bed sites and 506 beds were found. Among these, 38.6% of bed sites and 4.1% of beds were reused. We analyzed the monthly frequency of bed-site reuse in relation to rainfall, fruit abundance, and fruit consumption by the gorillas. The different frequency of bed-site reuse in the rainy and dry seasons was not significant. More bed-site reuse was observed during the fruiting season than during the non-fruiting season. Results from fecal analysis suggested that gorillas ate more fruit in the fruiting season than in the non-fruiting season. The frugivorous diet of western gorillas may possibly cause gorillas to stay in some areas and, consequently, reuse their bed sites. Reuse of bed sites by gorillas suggests their frequent return to an area where preferred fruit is readily available. A higher percentage of arboreal beds may also affect bed-site reuse, because of the shortage of bed material.

  6. Water Reuse in Brazilian Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    José Féres; Arnaud Reynaud; Alban Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors influencing water reuse in manufacturing firms and analyzes whether the structure of intake water demand differs between firms that adopt water reuse practices and those which do not. To this purpose, we estimate a two-stage econometric model based on a sample of 447 industrial facilities located in the Paraíba do Sul river basin. The first stage applies a probit model for the water reuse decision and the second stage employs an endogenous switching regression ...

  7. An empirical analysis of ontology reuse in BioPortal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Arabandi, Sivaram; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    Biomedical ontologies often reuse content (i.e., classes and properties) from other ontologies. Content reuse enables a consistent representation of a domain and reusing content can save an ontology author significant time and effort. Prior studies have investigated the existence of reused terms among the ontologies in the NCBO BioPortal, but as of yet there has not been a study investigating how the ontologies in BioPortal utilize reused content in the modeling of their own content. In this study we investigate how 355 ontologies hosted in the NCBO BioPortal reuse content from other ontologies for the purposes of creating new ontology content. We identified 197 ontologies that reuse content. Among these ontologies, 108 utilize reused classes in the modeling of their own classes and 116 utilize reused properties in class restrictions. Current utilization of reuse and quality issues related to reuse are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  9. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-01-01

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials

  10. Towards a comprehensive framework for reuse: A reuse-enabling software evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes and knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demand. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows broad and extensive reuse could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. The scope of a comprehensive framework for understanding, planning, evaluating and motivating reuse practices and the necessary research activities is outlined. As a first step towards such a framework, a reuse-enabling software evolution environment model is introduced which provides a basis for the effective recording of experience, the generalization and tailoring of experience, the formalization of experience, and the (re-)use of experience.

  11. Software Reuse in the Naval Open Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greathouse, Carlus A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a web-based continuous learning module (CLM) for use in introducing members of the Department of the Navy s acquisition community to software reuse in the context of Naval Open Architecture...

  12. Water brief-WDM & wastewater reuse

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aalfouns

    Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management in the Middle East and ... Among the substantial WDM tools in MENA is the use of wastewater to reduce the pressure on scarce freshwater .... recycled water to irrigate crops with associated ...

  13. the greywater reuse case of Jordan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fox Run Craftsmen

    2003-03-06

    Mar 6, 2003 ... new and creative methods and systems of dealing with wastewater reuse. .... and attended by 35 individuals representing 8 different agencies. .... Water and Irrigation calls for covering the operation and maintenance costs for.

  14. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  15. Public opinion on water reuse options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvold, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Public policy on waste water reuse options must be informed by public opinion because it is the public who must pay the cost of developing the option and who will be served by the option in the future. For public policy on reuse, guidance for innovative reuse is not as simple as first believed. It seems that public opinion regarding actual community reuse options is affected by the linkage of several factors, including water conservation, health protection, treatment and distribution costs, and environmental enhancement. Probability sampling was used in 7 studies to select respondents who were queried regarding their opinions on various reclaimed water uses such as ranging from cooling tower water to full domestic use. These 7 are briefly reviewed

  16. Revisiting Reuse in Main Memory Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Kayhan; Binnig, Carsten; Cetintemel, Ugur; Kraska, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reusing intermediates in databases to speed-up analytical query processing has been studied in the past. Existing solutions typically require intermediate results of individual operators to be materialized into temporary tables to be considered for reuse in subsequent queries. However, these approaches are fundamentally ill-suited for use in modern main memory databases. The reason is that modern main memory DBMSs are typically limited by the bandwidth of the memory bus, thus query execution ...

  17. Beneficial Reuse of Produced and Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water reuse and recycling is a significant issue in the development of oil and gas shale plays in the United StatesDrilling operations – 60,000 to 650,000 gallons per wellHydraulic fracturing operations – 3 million to 5 million gallons per wellDefinition of produced water and flowback waterInteractions of water quality constituents as they relate to water reuse and recyclingTesting criteria in the laboratory and field operations

  18. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  19. Sharing and re-use of phylogenetic trees (and associated data) to facilitate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Arlin; O'Meara, Brian; Whitacre, Jamie; Mounce, Ross; Gillespie, Emily L; Kumar, Sudhir; Rosauer, Dan F; Vos, Rutger A

    2012-10-22

    Recently, various evolution-related journals adopted policies to encourage or require archiving of phylogenetic trees and associated data. Such attention to practices that promote sharing of data reflects rapidly improving information technology, and rapidly expanding potential to use this technology to aggregate and link data from previously published research. Nevertheless, little is known about current practices, or best practices, for publishing trees and associated data so as to promote re-use. Here we summarize results of an ongoing analysis of current practices for archiving phylogenetic trees and associated data, current practices of re-use, and current barriers to re-use. We find that the technical infrastructure is available to support rudimentary archiving, but the frequency of archiving is low. Currently, most phylogenetic knowledge is not easily re-used due to a lack of archiving, lack of awareness of best practices, and lack of community-wide standards for formatting data, naming entities, and annotating data. Most attempts at data re-use seem to end in disappointment. Nevertheless, we find many positive examples of data re-use, particularly those that involve customized species trees generated by grafting to, and pruning from, a much larger tree. The technologies and practices that facilitate data re-use can catalyze synthetic and integrative research. However, success will require engagement from various stakeholders including individual scientists who produce or consume shareable data, publishers, policy-makers, technology developers and resource-providers. The critical challenges for facilitating re-use of phylogenetic trees and associated data, we suggest, include: a broader commitment to public archiving; more extensive use of globally meaningful identifiers; development of user-friendly technology for annotating, submitting, searching, and retrieving data and their metadata; and development of a minimum reporting standard (MIAPA) indicating

  20. Software Reuse Within the Earth Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, James J.; Olding, Steve; Wolfe, Robert E.; Delnore, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific missions in the Earth sciences frequently require cost-effective, highly reliable, and easy-to-use software, which can be a challenge for software developers to provide. The NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) spends a significant amount of resources developing software components and other software development artifacts that may also be of value if reused in other projects requiring similar functionality. In general, software reuse is often defined as utilizing existing software artifacts. Software reuse can improve productivity and quality while decreasing the cost of software development, as documented by case studies in the literature. Since large software systems are often the results of the integration of many smaller and sometimes reusable components, ensuring reusability of such software components becomes a necessity. Indeed, designing software components with reusability as a requirement can increase the software reuse potential within a community such as the NASA ESE community. The NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group is chartered to oversee the development of a process that will maximize the reuse potential of existing software components while recommending strategies for maximizing the reusability potential of yet-to-be-designed components. As part of this work, two surveys of the Earth science community were conducted. The first was performed in 2004 and distributed among government employees and contractors. A follow-up survey was performed in 2005 and distributed among a wider community, to include members of industry and academia. The surveys were designed to collect information on subjects such as the current software reuse practices of Earth science software developers, why they choose to reuse software, and what perceived barriers prevent them from reusing software. In this paper, we compare the results of these surveys, summarize the observed trends, and discuss the findings. The results are very

  1. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.

    2003-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  2. Potable Water Reuse: What Are the Microbiological Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Sharon P; Soller, Jeffrey A; Eftim, Sorina E

    2018-06-01

    With the increasing interest in recycling water for potable reuse purposes, it is important to understand the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. This review focuses on potable reuse systems that use high-level treatment and de facto reuse scenarios that include a quantifiable wastewater effluent component. In this article, we summarize the published human health studies related to potable reuse, including both epidemiology studies and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA). Overall, there have been relatively few health-based studies evaluating the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. Several microbial risk assessments focused on risks associated with unplanned (or de facto) reuse, while others evaluated planned potable reuse, such as indirect potable reuse (IPR) or direct potable reuse (DPR). The reported QMRA-based risks for planned potable reuse varied substantially, indicating there is a need for risk assessors to use consistent input parameters and transparent assumptions, so that risk results are easily translated across studies. However, the current results overall indicate that predicted risks associated with planned potable reuse scenarios may be lower than those for de facto reuse scenarios. Overall, there is a clear need to carefully consider water treatment train choices when wastewater is a component of the drinking water supply (whether de facto, IPR, or DPR). More data from full-scale water treatment facilities would be helpful to quantify levels of viruses in raw sewage and reductions across unit treatment processes for both culturable and molecular detection methods.

  3. Creating by Reusing Learning Design Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Harrer, Andreas; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Asensio-Pérez, Juan; Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Hernández-Leo, D., Harrer, A., Dodero, J. M., Asension-Pérez, J. I., & Burgos, D. (2006). Creating by reusing Learning Design solutions. Proceedings of 8th Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa, León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technology. Retrieved October 3rd, 2006, from

  4. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  5. What is Type-Safe Code Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    Subclassing is reuse of class definitions. It is usually tied to the use of class names, thus relying on the order in which the particular classes in a program are created. This is a burden, however, both when programming and in theoretical studies. This paper presents a structural notion of subc...

  6. Constructed Wetlands for Greywater Recycle and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over dwindling water supplies for urban areas as well as environmental degradation from existing urban water systems has motivated research into more resilient and sustainable water supply strategies. Greywater reuse has been suggested as a way to diversify local water su...

  7. Asset Reuse of Images from a Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    According to Markus's theory of reuse, when digital repositories are deployed to collect and distribute organizational assets, they supposedly help ensure accountability, extend information exchange, and improve productivity. Such repositories require a large investment due to the continuing costs of hardware, software, user licenses, training,…

  8. MINIMIZATION OF RETRIEVAL TIME DURING SOFTWARE REUSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Versions. Label in repository. No. of classifiers in class diagrams. No. of sequence diagrams. No. of messages in all sequence diagrams. Java Game. Maker. (JGM) game engine for developing java games. 1.9, 2.1, 2.2, ... to programming, code-based sizing metrics will be used to estimate reuse effort. The formula employed.

  9. Current Opinion and Controversies of Dialyser Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Colin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of dialysers has been an integral part of hemodialysis since its inception. Over the past decade, reuse has increased significantly in many countries, most notably in the United States, while vanishing entirely in some other countries, such as Portugal and France. In the United States, which is most widely used as an example because of the large amount of data available, the mortality of dialysis patients has steadily decreased even as reuse has increased. This improvement is probably the result of a complex of factors including understanding the role of comorbidity, treatment unit characteristics, barriers to adequate dialysis, nutrition, anemia, high flux dialysis and dialyser membrane improvements and the desired dialysis dose. Reuse provides a significant economic benefit that allows the use of more efficient and expensive larger biocompatible synthetic membranes to provide high-quality dialysis in the face of cost inflation, limited medical resources and fixed reimbursement. Rather than being legitimized by clinical practice alone, reprocessing, supported by clinical studies, allows the provision of superior treatment to more patients safely and economically. Recent reports concerning dialyser reprocessing have centered not only on morbidity and mortality, but also on questions of the specific effects of different germicides on various types of dialyser membranes (e.g., cellulosic, synthetic, high-flux, etc. and on the possible role of dialyser reprocessing in the transmission of hepatitis C.

  10. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  11. Code Reuse and Modularity in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer programs can become long, unwieldy and confusing without special mechanisms for managing complexity. This lesson will show you how to reuse parts of your code by writing Functions and break your programs into Modules, in order to keep everything concise and easier to debug. Being able to remove a single dysfunctional module can save time and effort.

  12. Submerged membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feki; Firas; Jraou, Mouna; Loukil, Slim; Kchaou, Sonia; Sayadi, Sami; Arnolt, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin (and particularly North African countries) is one of the poorest regions in the world in terms of water resources. In Tunisia, treated municipal wastewater is becoming one of the main alternative sources of water. Indeed, in 2007, 99 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) has treated a quantity of 215 millions of m 3 from which more than 30 pour cent are reused. The treated volume in 2011 is expected to be 266 millions m 3 , whereas the reused wastewaters should reach more than 50 pour cent. However, especially in the eastern and northern Mediterranean regions, wastewaters are inefficiently treated and re-used for irrigation or sanitary purposes, serving as a carrier for diseases or causing water pollution when discharged to water bodies. In the last decade, several water treatment technologies have been used in the region with little success in pathogen removal. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very promising alternative to those conventional water treatments as membranes act as a barrier against bacteria and viruses achieving a high degree of water purification. However, most membrane bioreactors currently in use have very high running costs because of the high pressure drop and high air-flushing rate required for their operation. The objective of this PURATREAT FP 6 EU project was to study a new approach to the operation of membrane bioreactors. This study was included a comparison of three leading membrane technologies. The operating procedure to be studied is expected to yield very low energy consumption and reduced maintenance costs. After the start up period, the MBR3 was operated with a MLSS concentration of 4.5 and 9 g/L, respectively. Different fluxes as 16, 18, 20 and 22 Lh -1 m -2 were tested. When the flux increase from 16 to 22 Lh -1 m -2 , the treatment energy consumption decreased from 7 to 5 kWh/m 3 . However the increases of MLSS concentration from 4.5 and 9 g/L raise the membrane fouling frequency from 1

  13. An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lili; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Xiaoning; Chen, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments. Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges, water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China. The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water. This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China, including: (1) application history and current status; (2) potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws, policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse. Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples. Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced. Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world, China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.

  14. Minimization of Retrieval Time During Software Reuse | Salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of Retrieval Time During Software Reuse. ... Retrieval of relevant software from the repository during software reuse can be time consuming if the repository contains many ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Quantifying Functional Reuse from Object Oriented Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Condori-Fernández, N.; Pastor, O; Daneva, Maia; Abran, A.; Castro, J.; Quer, C.; Carvallo, J. B.; Fernandes da Silva, L.

    2008-01-01

    Software reuse is essential in improving efficiency and productivity in the software development process. This paper analyses reuse within requirements engineering phase by taking and adapting a standard functional size measurement method, COSMIC FFP. Our proposal attempts to quantify reusability

  16. Presentation: Overview of Water Reuse Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Overview of Water Reuse Challenges and Opportunities, was given at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  17. Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative monitoring of a treated wastewater reuse extensive distribution system: ... region where 80 % of the freshwater resources are consumed by agriculture. ... the reuse limits for orchard irrigation, being 80 mg/ℓ and 25 mg/ℓ respectively.

  18. Wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    The reuse of Municipal wastewaters (TMWW) for irrigation of crops, and of sludge for the amendment of soils, is a multidimensional disposal practice aiming at: (i) minimizing the environmental problems by releasing the pressure exerted by these two inputs on the environment, (ii) providing the growing plants with water and nutrients and (ii) improving soil fertility and productivity, The research work conducted in our University in relation to accomplishing a safe reuse has been focused on the study of the following aspects of reuse: (i) heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants with emphasis on their edible part. This aspect has been studied by conducting a series of experiments aiming at the study of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils, and in plant roots, stalks, leaves and fruits. The conclusions drawn so far with regard to the order of accumulation of heavy metals are: Roots>leaves>stalks>fruits ( edible parts) (ii) interactions between heavy metals, plant nutrients and soil chemical and physical properties. After the examinations of hundreds of interactions, and the development of a quantification of the interactions contribution, it was found that considerable quantities of heavy metals and nutrients are contributed to the soil and to various plant parts , emphasizing the important role of the elemental interactions in plants.(iii) assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals based on pollution indices, Three pollution Indices have been established by our research team and were proposed internationally for application in actual practice for the prediction of soil pollution due to long term reuse of wastewater and sludge. These indices are as follows: (a) Elemental pollution Index (EPI), (b) Heavy Metal Load (HML), and (c) Total Concentration Factor (TCF) and (iv) construction of a computer program for the control of the reuse of TMWW and sludge, and forecasting soil pollution due to accumulation of heavy metal by means of pollution indices.

  19. Savannah River Site Surplus Facilities Available for Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.M.; Owens, M.B.; Lentz, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a current, centralized list of Savannah River Site facilities, which are surplus and available for reuse. These surplus facilities may be made available for other DOE site missions, commercial economic development reuse, or other governmental reuse. SRS procedures also require that before new construction can be approved, available surplus facilities are screened for possible reuse in lieu of the proposed new construction

  20. How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Frijns, Jos; Smith, Heather M.; Brouwer, Stijn; Garnett, Kenisha; Elelman, Richard; Jeffrey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse sc...

  1. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K K; Kim, D H; Weon, D Y; Yoon, S W; Song, H R [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  3. Patterns of Learning Object Reuse in the Connexions Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the term "learning object" was first published, there has been either an explicit or implicit expectation of reuse. There has also been a lot of speculation about why learning objects are, or are not, reused. This study quantitatively examined the actual amount and type of learning object use, to include reuse, modification, and translation,…

  4. Conceptual Match as a Determinant of Reference Reuse in Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Dominique; Le Bigot, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    As speakers interact, they add references to their common ground, which they can then reuse to facilitate listener comprehension. However, all references are not equally likely to be reused. The purpose of this study was to shed light on how the speakers' conceptualizations of the referents under discussion affect reuse (along with a generation…

  5. Development of waste water reuse water system for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.K.; Kim, D.H.; Weon, D.Y.; Yoon, S.W.; Song, H.R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1. Status of waste water discharge at power plants 2. Present status of waste water reuse at power plants 3. Scheme of waste water reuse at power plants 4. Standardization of optimum system for waste water reuse at power plants 5. Establishment of low cost zero discharge system for waste water 6. Waste water treatment technology of chemical cleaning. (author). 132 figs., 72 tabs.

  6. How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Frijns

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse schemes: an indirect potable reuse scheme at Torreele (Belgium, the urban reuse of treated municipal wastewater at the London Olympic Park (United Kingdom and at Sabadell (Spain, and the reuse of agro-industrial effluent for irrigation at Capitanata (Italy. The findings underscore the importance of clarity in policy arrangements around water reuse, as well as of the financial competitiveness of reuse projects compared to alternative water supply options. Operators of water reuse schemes expressed a preference for water quality standards, which focus on appropriateness for use rather than over-emphasise the waters’ origin so that unnecessary treatment and costs can be avoided. Positive public support was widely acknowledged as an important factor in the success or failure of water reuse schemes. We conclude that constructive institutional relationships underpin many of the challenges faced by reuse scheme operators and that greater emphasis should be given to building confidence and gaining trust in water service providers through early identification of how governance regimes shape the viability of new schemes.

  7. Picking Up Artifacts: Storyboarding as a Gateway to Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Shahtab; Branham, Stacy M.; Cairco, Lauren; McCrickard, D. Scott; Harrison, Steve

    Storyboarding offers designers the opportunity to illustrate a visual narrative of use. Because designers often refer to past ideas, we argue storyboards can be constructed by reusing shared artifacts. We present a study in which we explore how designers reuse artifacts consisting of images and rationale during storyboard construction. We find images can aid in accessing rationale and that connections among features aid in deciding what to reuse, creating new artifacts, and constructing. Based on requirements derived from our findings, we present a storyboarding tool, PIC-UP, to facilitate artifact sharing and reuse and evaluate its use in an exploratory study. We conclude with remarks on facilitating reuse and future work.

  8. Direct Reuse of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets—Coating Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Stig; Holbøll, Joachim; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets can be reused directly as an alternative to traditional recycling methods, in which scrapped magnets are reprocessed into new magnets by undergoing many of the original energy-intensive and expensive production processes. Direct reuse entails using segmented magnet...... assemblies built by several small standard-sized magnets that can be reused directly in a number of different applications. A central part of the direct reuse strategy is to separate and demagnetize magnets by heating them to the Curie temperature. We investigated the validity of direct reuse as a rare earth...

  9. Study on the reuse of nodular casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermont, V.M; Gomez, C.A; Lamas, J.F; Castillo, R.N

    2004-01-01

    Nodular cast pieces that have worn out are an attractive alternative to be reused as a cheap raw material for directly making other pieces. This materials recycling process often requires new and successive thermal treatments in order to be machined, to obtain the proper mechanical and microstructural properties. This work includes the results of the microstructural analysis by optic and Scanning Electron Microscopy and of the mechanical tests for traction and hardness of the test pieces submitted to different successive thermal treatments. The results show that by means of successive thermal treatments, followed by austemperizing, the appropriate mechanical and microstructural properties can be recovered permitting the nodular castings that were studied to be reliably reused (CW)

  10. The Adaptive Reuse of Kirkuk Citadel

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar, Mustafa Sabah Saleh; Korumaz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge and memory influence the interpretations of a built environment, implying particular expectations in regard to the built environments and their roles in a society. People and their culture constitute the spirits of a building and a space. Memory also can dominate many heritage users, individuals, social and political groups over many centuries. Memory and spirit of cultural heritage enriches cultural identity under the global development. The adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is ...

  11. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo; Zapparoli, Carlos Leonel; Barboza, Marycel Figols de

    2009-01-01

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  12. Heterogeneous IP Ecosystem enabling Reuse (HIER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    HIER project, DARPA also established additional concepts in the formation of the Common Heterogeneous Integration and IP Reuse Strategies (CHIPS...would need a major change to  business model to offer  Hard  or Soft IP – So CHIPS program can be a better fit to these firms • DoD‐Contractor IP pricing

  13. Hybrid membrane processes for water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Pidou, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Water recycling is now widely accepted as a sustainable option to respond to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. Because greywater represents up to 70% of domestic wastewater volume but contains only 30% of the organic fraction and from 9 to 20% of the nutrients (Kujawa-Roeleveld and Zeeman, 2006), it is seen as one of the most appropriate sources to be treated and reuse. A broad range of technologies has been used for...

  14. Electrodialysis and water reuse novel approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Marco; Ferreira, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This book presents novel techniques to evaluate electrodialysis processes, to synthesize ionic membranes and to characterize their properties. It shows the potential use of membrane process to the treatment of effluents generated in many industrial sectors such as refineries, leather industries, mining and electroplating processes. The book is based on the results obtained by the author's research group during the past decade. It is useful for students, researchers and engineers interested in membrane technologies for water reuse.

  15. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  16. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, economic reuse of launch vehicles has been an elusive goal. Recent attempts at demonstrating elements of launch vehicle recovery for reuse have invigorated a debate over the merits of different approaches. The parameter most often used to assess the cost of access to space is dollars-per-kilogram to orbit. When comparing reusable vs. expendable launch vehicles, that ratio has been shown to be most sensitive to the performance lost as a result of enabling the reusability. This paper will briefly review the historical background and results of recent attempts to recover launch vehicle assets for reuse. The business case for reuse will be reviewed, with emphasis on the performance expended to recover those assets, and the practicality of the most ambitious reuse concept, namely propulsive return to the launch site. In 2015, United Launch Alliance (ULA) announced its Sensible, Modular, Autonomous Return Technology (SMART) reuse plan for recovery of the booster module for its new Vulcan launch vehicle. That plan employs a non-propulsive approach where atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) technologies are utilized. Elements of such a system have a wide variety of applications, from recovery of launch vehicle elements in suborbital trajectories all the way to human space exploration. This paper will include an update on ULA's booster module recovery approach, which relies on Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and Mid-Air Retrieval (MAR) technologies, including its concept of operations (ConOps). The HIAD design, as well as parafoil staging and MAR concepts, will be discussed. Recent HIAD development activities and near term plans including scalability, next generation materials for the inflatable structure and heat shield, and gas generator inflation systems will be provided. MAR topics will include the ConOps for recovery, helicopter selection and staging, and the state of the art of parachute recovery systems using large parafoils

  17. Dynamic Membrane Technology for Printing Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Lu, Xujie; Chen, Jihua

    As environmental regulations become rigid and the cost of freshwater increases, wastewater is considered as a major resource in China. The paper presented a study on the implementation of the advanced treatment process using dynamic membrane (DM) in reusing of printing wastewater. The DM was well formed by circulating 1.5g/L of PAC in 20 minutes, the trans-membrane pressure of 200 kPa and the cross-flow velocity of 0.75m/s. The printing effluents were treated in effluent treatment plants comprising a physicochemical option followed by biological process. The treated effluent contained chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and turbidity in the range of 45-60 mg/L, 0.030-0.045 (absorbance at 420 nm) and 3-5 NTU. The results showed that the COD, color and turbidity removal efficiencies of the DM permeate were 84%, 85% and 80%, respectively. The wastewater treated by DM was reused as process water and the final concentrated retentate could be discharged directly into sewage treatment works with no additional treatments. Cleaning and regeneration of DM were very convenient if necessary. The proper process was that the polluted DM was cleaned with tap water at high cross-flow velocity. When irreversible pollutants accumulate, it would be rinsed with chemicals tested and the membrane flux would be restored up to 95%. The result showed that DM was considered as a promising method for purification aimed at reuse of printing wastewater, resulting in direct environmental and economic benefits.

  18. The Adaptive Reuse of Kirkuk Citadel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sabah Saleh Mokhtar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and memory influence the interpretations of a built environment, implying particular expectations in regard to the built environments and their roles in a society. People and their culture constitute the spirits of a building and a space. Memory also can dominate many heritage users, individuals, social and political groups over many centuries. Memory and spirit of cultural heritage enriches cultural identity under the global development. The adaptive reuse of heritage buildings is valued for the contribution for social and environmental sustainability as well as retaining memory. The inherent value of cultural heritage components and their place within the community’s memory helps to reinforce sense of place. In conservation sense identity, memory and the relationships of people give cultural significance to historical places. Evolution of the built environments bridges past and present to the future and embrace memory. However the cities as organisms are in a dilemma along with the loss of city memories and city spirits. These collective memories that bring spirits to a place play very important role and determine the cultural significance of places. The main contribution of this study is to emphasize the importance of adaptive reuse as a carrier of spirits to have a collective memory in order to sustain the development of a place. This article explores the relations between spirit and memory of a place by focusing of adaptive reuse project in Kirkuk citadel.   Aim of this study is to question and evaluate restoration of Kirkuk Citadel in terms of urban identity and sense of place referring the early Kirkuk city and development of it. This paper also intends to put important guidelines for the future restoration projects of Kirkuk citadel – which is very urgently required – and high lights the importance of revitalizing this area, which is now the semi-dead heart of the city. The paper advocates policy makers is to increase

  19. [Filing and reuse of research data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Merete; Bredahl, Lone; Ousager, Steen

    2008-02-25

    Currently several scientific journals only publish data from randomised clinical trials which are registered in a public database. Similar requirements on data sharing now follow grants from agencies such as the National Institute of Health. In Denmark the Health unit at the Danish Data Archive (DDA/Health) offers Danish researchers to keep their data for free on conditions that fulfil the above requirements. DDA/Health also passes on research data for reuse, and at present more than 300 studies are available in a database on sundhed.dda.dk.

  20. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  1. Design reuse in product shape modeling : A study of freeform feature reuse by signal processing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.

    2005-01-01

    Lack of facilities in supporting design reuse is a serious problem in product shape modeling, especially in computer-aided design systems. This becomes a bottleneck of fast shape conceptualization and creation in consumer product design, which consequently prohibits creativity and innovation. In the

  2. Water Reuse Highlights: A Summary Volume of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO. Research Foundation.

    This document reports the efforts of the AWWA Research Foundation to gather, prepare, and distribute current technical information in the wastewater reclamation and reuse field. The information reported has been abstracted from other Foundation publications and only attempts here to highlight the field. Categories discussed include research,…

  3. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  4. Dialyzer Reuse and Outcomes of High Flux Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Sattar, Abdus; Kellum, John A; Weissfeld, Lisa; Unruh, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of randomized trial evidence for the expanding use of High Flux (HF) hemodialysis worldwide comes from two randomized controlled trials, one of which (HEMODIALYSIS, HEMO) allowed, while the other (Membrane Outcomes Permeability, MPO) excluded, the reuse of membranes. It is not known whether dialyzer reuse has a differential impact on outcomes with HF vs low flyx (LF) dialyzers. Proportional Hazards Models and Joint Models for longitudinal measures and survival outcomes were used in HEMO to analyze the relationship between β2-microglobulin (β2M) concentration, flux, and reuse. Meta-analysis and regression techniques were used to synthesize the evidence for HF dialysis from HEMO and MPO. In HEMO, minimally reused (membranes (p for interaction between reuse and flux benefit with more extensively reused dialyzers. Meta-regression of HEMO and MPO estimated an adjusted HR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51-0.78) for non-reused HF dialyzers compared with non-reused LF membranes. This secondary analysis and synthesis of two large hemodialysis trials supports the widespread use of HF dialyzers in clinical hemodialysis over the last decade. A mechanistic understanding of the effects of HF dialysis and the reuse process on dialyzers may suggest novel biomarkers for uremic toxicity and may accelerate membrane technology innovations that will improve patient outcomes.

  5. Reuse inspection refort of the spent fuel cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. W.; Seo, K. S.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Min, D. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This is the contract result report performed by KAERI under the contract with KPS for the reuse inspection of the KSC-4 No. 2 cask to receive the license for the reuse of next 5 years. According to the revision of the atomic regulations, all type B package should receive and pass the reuse inspection for every 5 years. This report contains the summary of the reuse inspection project, the details of the inspection methods and evaluation criteria, the documents which submitted to the KINS and the license approved by the KINS. 1 tabs. (Author)

  6. An Empirical Agent-Based Model to Simulate the Adoption of Water Reuse Using the Social Amplification of Risk Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Venu; Binder, Andrew R; Berglund, Emily Z

    2017-10-01

    Water reuse can serve as a sustainable alternative water source for urban areas. However, the successful implementation of large-scale water reuse projects depends on community acceptance. Because of the negative perceptions that are traditionally associated with reclaimed water, water reuse is often not considered in the development of urban water management plans. This study develops a simulation model for understanding community opinion dynamics surrounding the issue of water reuse, and how individual perceptions evolve within that context, which can help in the planning and decision-making process. Based on the social amplification of risk framework, our agent-based model simulates consumer perceptions, discussion patterns, and their adoption or rejection of water reuse. The model is based on the "risk publics" model, an empirical approach that uses the concept of belief clusters to explain the adoption of new technology. Each household is represented as an agent, and parameters that define their behavior and attributes are defined from survey data. Community-level parameters-including social groups, relationships, and communication variables, also from survey data-are encoded to simulate the social processes that influence community opinion. The model demonstrates its capabilities to simulate opinion dynamics and consumer adoption of water reuse. In addition, based on empirical data, the model is applied to investigate water reuse behavior in different regions of the United States. Importantly, our results reveal that public opinion dynamics emerge differently based on membership in opinion clusters, frequency of discussion, and the structure of social networks. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in de facto wastewater reuse in drinking water systems across the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jacelyn; Westerhoff, Paul

    2015-01-20

    De facto potable reuse occurs when treated wastewater is discharged into surface waters upstream of potable drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) intakes. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges may pose water quality risks at the downstream DWTP, but additional flow aids in providing a reliable water supply source. In this work de facto reuse is analyzed for 2056 surface water intakes serving 1210 DWTPs across the U.S.A. that serve greater than 10,000 people, covering approximately 82% of the nation’s population. An ArcGIS model is developed to assess spatial relationships between DWTPs and WWTPs, with a python script designed to perform a network analysis by hydrologic region. A high frequency of de facto reuse occurrence was observed; 50% of the DWTP intakes are potentially impacted by upstream WWTP discharges. However, the magnitude of de facto reuse was seen to be relatively low, where 50% of the impacted intakes contained less than 1% treated municipal wastewater under average streamflow conditions. De facto reuse increased greatly under low streamflow conditions (modeled by Q95), with 32 of the 80 sites yielding at least 50% treated wastewater, this portion of the analysis is limited to sites where stream gauge data was readily available.

  9. 20 CFR 616.10 - Reuse of employment and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of employment and wages. 616.10 Section 616.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.10 Reuse of employment and wages. Employment and wages...

  10. Methods & tools for publishing & reusing linked open statistical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, Efthimios; Kalampokis, Evangelos; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Krimmer, Robert; Tarabanis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The number of open data available for reuse is rapidly increasing. A large number of these data are numerical thus can be easily visualized. Linked open data technology enables easy reuse and linking of data residing in di.erent locations. In this workshop, we will present a number of

  11. Water Reuse in Industrial food Processing. | Pagella | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While water, as an industrial commodity, is considered increasingly as a valuable material and the subject of responsible care for the environment, water reuse is increasingly regarded as a tool for substantial reduction in water supply needs, and saving in related costs. A strategic approach to water reuse must be based on ...

  12. Use of ozone in a water reuse system for salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.C.; Hughes, S.G.; Rumsey, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A water reuse system is described in which ozone is used in addition to biological filters to remove toxic metabolic wastes from the water. The system functions at a higher rate of efficiency than has been reported for other reuse systems and supports excellent growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  13. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  14. OAI Object Re-Use and Exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in appropriating these tools and modalities to support the scholarly communication process. This begins with leveraging the intrinsic value of scholarly digital objects beyond the borders of the hosting repository. There are numerous examples of the need to re-use objects across repositories in scholarly communication. These include citation, preservation, virtual collections of distributed objects, and the progression of units of scholarly communication through the registration-certification-awareness-archiving chain. The last several years have brought about numerous open source repository systems and their associated communities. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been the initial catalyst for repository interoperability. However, there is now a rising interest in repositories no longer bein...

  15. Water reuse by membrane bioreactors (MBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Huete, E.; Martinez, L. C.; Torres, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows an up-to date overview of the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) to obtain water treated for reusing it. Considering the existing rules. it has been presented a summary of published studies in which the quality of the effluent is analyzed in terms on physico-chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, MBR results are compared with the conventional treatment ones. Due to the suitability of MBR technology for removing pathogens, particular attention has been paid to disinfection process and the mechanism that govern it. Results from reviewed studies of MBR have showed equal or better quality of water treated than conventional treatments (activated sludge plus disinfection tertiary treatment by the addition of antibacterial agents). (Author) 32 refs.

  16. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkhorst, I.P.; Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  17. OAI Object Re-Use and Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Jacobs, Neil

    2007-01-01

    YouTube, Flickr, del.icio.us, blogs, message boards and other "Web 2.0" related technologies are indicative of the contemporary web experience. There is a growing interest in appropriating these tools and modalities to support the scholarly communication process. This begins with leveraging the intrinsic value of scholarly digital objects beyond the borders of the hosting repository. There are numerous examples of the need to re-use objects across repositories in scholarly communication. These include citation, preservation, virtual collections of distributed objects, and the progression of units of scholarly communication through the registration-certification-awareness-archiving chain. The last several years have brought about numerous open source repository systems and their associated communities. The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) has been the initial catalyst for repository interoperability. However, there is now a rising interest in repositories no longer being stat...

  18. International Conference on water reuse and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The International conference on water reuse and desalination was held on the 13 November 1984 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Papers delivered on this conference covered the following aspects: desalination technology, industrial effluent control, economics of desalination of wastewaters, consumable supplies in desalination, the world market for seawater desalination equipment, reverse osmosis, evaporation and ultrafiltration, treatment of hazardous wastes, role of reverse osmosis in waste water treatment, as well as the desalination, recovery and recycle of water with high efficiency. A paper was also delivered on the mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination - as an example the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process: a 1,500 mz/day unit installed in the Nuclear power plant of Flamanville in France

  19. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

      Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  20. Water conservation, recycling, and reuse: US northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.

    1984-10-01

    This paper focuses upon present and future possibilities for water conservation, recycling, and reuse in New England and Middle Atlantic states. Telephone interviews and questionnaires sent to trade associations, public utility commissions, federal, state and other agencies were used to supplement information gathered in the literature. Water intake and consumptive demands in 1980 were calculated for industrial, electric utility, agricultural, and residential sectors. Corresponding information for the year 2000 were estimated using data from utilities, public utility commissions, and the US Bureau of Economic Affairs. Water supplies were estimated using the concept of safe yield. Assuming reductions in water use by industries, agriculture and by private residences in the year 2000, it was found that many users, particularly the electric utility sector, would still experience serious water supply shortfalls in several industrialized states. 20 references, 14 tables.

  1. Application of solar energy in water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.

    1987-01-01

    The application of photocatalysed oxidation in water reuse technology is described. Results with a sequencing batch reactor showed that 4 hours contact of the raw sewage with 0.5 mg dye sorbed g/sup -1/ fly ash in sunlight, under experimental conditions, significantly reduced the organic and bacteriological load and rendered it fit for use in irrigation or for discharge. The effect of variables such as contact time or amount of dye sorbed on COD, MBAS and MPN counts were investigated and the results interpreted in terms of enhanced photoactivity and biodegradation in the sorbed state. The process appears to be well suited to commercial exploitation as it is safe, quick and economical.

  2. Ultrafiltration to reuse laundering wash water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giagnorio, Mattia; Søtoft, Lene Fjerbæk; Tiraferri, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Laundering industry consumes and discharges large amounts of water and surfactants, and the demand of surface active agents used for washing is increasing worldwide. Some of these substances are considered contaminants of emerging concern, as they persist in the environment. This work aimed...... at evaluating the feasibility of ultrafiltration as a method to treat the wash wastewater and possibly reuse the surfactant-rich permeate stream in laundry facilities. In particular, evaluation of surfactant recovery was performed through analysis of the permeate flux and properties obtained through polymeric...... and ceramic membranes. Wash water samples were collected at an industrial laundering facility for hospital linen and filtered through different ultrafiltration membranes with varying molecular weight cut-off. The critical micelle concentration of the detergent was quantified, and capillarity measurements were...

  3. Lifespan analyses of forest raptor nests: patterns of creation, persistence and reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Jiménez-Franco

    Full Text Available Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively. Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species, to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding

  4. Lifespan Analyses of Forest Raptor Nests: Patterns of Creation, Persistence and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, María V.; Martínez, José E.; Calvo, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Structural elements for breeding such as nests are key resources for the conservation of bird populations. This is especially true when structural elements require a specific and restricted habitat, or if the construction of nests is costly in time and energy. The availability of nesting-platforms is influenced by nest creation and persistence. In a Mediterranean forest in southeastern Spain, nesting-platforms are the only structural element for three forest-dwelling raptor species: booted eagle Aquila pennata, common buzzard Buteo buteo and northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. From 1998 to 2013, we tracked the fate of 157 nesting-platforms built and reused by these species with the aim of determining the rates of creation and destruction of nesting-platforms, estimating nest persistence by applying two survival analyses, describing the pattern of nest reuse and testing the effects of nest use on breeding success. Nest creation and destruction rates were low (0.14 and 0.05, respectively). Using Kaplan Meier survival estimates and Cox proportional-hazards regression models we found that median nest longevity was 12 years and that this was not significantly affected by nest characteristics, nest-tree dimensions, nest-builder species, or frequency of use of the platform. We also estimated a transition matrix, considering the different stages of nest occupation (vacant or occupied by one of the focal species), to obtain the fundamental matrix and the average life expectancies of nests, which varied from 17.9 to 19.7 years. Eighty six percent of nests were used in at least one breeding attempt, 67.5% were reused and 17.8% were successively occupied by at least two of the study species. The frequency of nest use had no significant effects on the breeding success of any species. We conclude that nesting-platforms constitute an important resource for forest raptors and that their longevity is sufficiently high to allow their reuse in multiple breeding attempts. PMID

  5. Beneficial Re-use of Decommissioned Former Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    With the decision to decommission a nuclear facility, it is necessary to evaluate whether to fully demolish a facility or to re-use the facility in some capacity. This evaluation is often primarily driven by both the past mission of the site and the facility and the site's perceived future mission. In the case where the facility to be decommissioned is located within a large research or industrial complex and represents a significant resource to the site's future mission, it may be a perfect candidate to be re-used in some fashion. However, if the site is a rather remote older facility with little chance of being modified to today's standards for its re-use, the chances for its re-use will be substantially reduced. In this presentation, some specific cases of former nuclear facilities being decommissioned and re-used will be reviewed and some factors required to be considered in making this decision will be reviewed

  6. Irrigation Water Quality Standards for Indirect Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: A Contribution toward Sustainable Wastewater Reuse in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanseok Jeong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and the subsequent change in agricultural conditions increase the vulnerability of agricultural water use. Wastewater reuse is a common practice around the globe and is considered as an alternative water resource in a changing agricultural environment. Due to rapid urbanization, indirect wastewater reuse, which is the type of agricultural wastewater reuse that is predominantly practiced, will increase, and this can cause issues of unplanned reuse. Therefore, water quality standards are needed for the safe and sustainable practice of indirect wastewater reuse in agriculture. In this study, irrigation water quality criteria for wastewater reuse were discussed, and the standards and guidelines of various countries and organizations were reviewed to suggest preliminary standards for indirect wastewater reuse in South Korea. The proposed standards adopted a probabilistic consideration of practicality and classified the use of irrigation water into two categories: upland and rice paddy. The standards suggest guidelines for E. coli, electric conductivity (EC, turbidity, suspended solids (SS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, pH, odor, and trace elements. Through proposing the standards, this study attempts to combine features of both the conservative and liberal approaches, which in turn could suggest a new and sustainable practice of agricultural wastewater reuse.

  7. Dialyzer Reuse and Outcomes of High Flux Dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Argyropoulos

    Full Text Available The bulk of randomized trial evidence for the expanding use of High Flux (HF hemodialysis worldwide comes from two randomized controlled trials, one of which (HEMODIALYSIS, HEMO allowed, while the other (Membrane Outcomes Permeability, MPO excluded, the reuse of membranes. It is not known whether dialyzer reuse has a differential impact on outcomes with HF vs low flyx (LF dialyzers.Proportional Hazards Models and Joint Models for longitudinal measures and survival outcomes were used in HEMO to analyze the relationship between β2-microglobulin (β2M concentration, flux, and reuse. Meta-analysis and regression techniques were used to synthesize the evidence for HF dialysis from HEMO and MPO.In HEMO, minimally reused (< 6 times HF dialyzers were associated with a hazard ratio (HR of 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 0.48-0.92, p = 0.015, 0.64 (95%CI: 0.44 - 0.95, p = 0.03, 0.61 (95%CI: 0.41 - 0.90, p = 0.012, 0.53 (95%CI: 0.28 - 1.02, p = 0.057 relative to minimally reused LF ones for all cause, cardiovascular, cardiac and infectious mortality respectively. These relationships reversed for extensively reused membranes (p for interaction between reuse and flux < 0.001, p = 0.005 for death from all cause and cardiovascular causes, while similar trends were noted for cardiac and infectious mortality (p of interaction between reuse and flux of 0.10 and 0.08 respectively. Reduction of β2M explained only 1/3 of the effect of minimally reused HF dialyzers on all cause mortality, while non-β2M related factors explained the apparent attenuation of the benefit with more extensively reused dialyzers. Meta-regression of HEMO and MPO estimated an adjusted HR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.51-0.78 for non-reused HF dialyzers compared with non-reused LF membranes.This secondary analysis and synthesis of two large hemodialysis trials supports the widespread use of HF dialyzers in clinical hemodialysis over the last decade. A mechanistic understanding of the effects of

  8. Dialyzer Reuse with Peracetic Acid Does Not Impact Patient Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T. Christopher; Krishnan, Mahesh; Wilson, Steven M.; Mayne, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Numerous studies have shown the overall benefits of dialysis filter reuse, including superior biocompatibility and decreased nonbiodegradable medical waste generation, without increased risk of mortality. A recent study reported that dialyzer reprocessing was associated with decreased patient survival; however, it did not control for sources of potential confounding. We sought to determine the effect of dialyzer reprocessing with peracetic acid on patient mortality using contemporary outcomes data and rigorous analytical techniques. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted a series of analyses of hemodialysis patients examining the effects of reuse on mortality using three techniques to control for potential confounding: instrumental variables, propensity-score matching, and time-dependent survival analysis. Results In the instrumental variables analysis, patients at high reuse centers had 16.2 versus 15.9 deaths/100 patient-years in nonreuse centers. In the propensity-score matched analysis, patients with reuse had a lower death rate per 100 patient-years than those without reuse (15.2 versus 15.5). The risk ratios for the time-dependent survival analyses were 0.993 (per percent of sessions with reuse) and 0.995 (per unit of last reuse), respectively. Over the study period, 13.8 million dialyzers were saved, representing 10,000 metric tons of medical waste. Conclusions Despite the large sample size, powered to detect miniscule effects, neither the instrumental variables nor propensity-matched analyses were statistically significant. The time-dependent survival analysis showed a protective effect of reuse. These data are consistent with the preponderance of evidence showing reuse limits medical waste generation without negatively affecting clinical outcomes. PMID:21566107

  9. Management optimization in Thermal complex through water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, S.; Manganelli, A.; Bertolotto, J.; Leys, P.; Garcia, B.

    2004-01-01

    Water reuse involves the concept of the exploitation of a previously used water, for a new, beneficial purpose. Actually, in Uruguay, thermal water is just utilised for balneological purposes, in this paper is proposed the water reuse taking the excess of used swimming pool water, and using it for heating and greenhouse irrigation, and australian lobster breeding. An important aspect of sustainable thermal water management is the protection of the exploted thermal water resources, so water reuse plays an important role in water resource, and ecosystem management, because it reduces the volume discharged and also reduces the risk of thermal pollution [es

  10. Preserving and reusing high-energy-physics data analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Simko, Tibor; Dasler, Robin; Fokianos, Pamfilos; Kuncar, Jiri; Lavasa, Artemis; Mattmann, Annemarie; Rodriguez, Diego; Trzcinska, Anna; Tsanaktsidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The revalidation, reuse and reinterpretation of data analyses require having access to the original virtual environments, datasets and software that was used to produce the original scientific result. The CERN Analysis Preservation pilot project is developing a set of tools that support particle physics researchers in preserving the knowledge around analyses so that capturing, sharing, reusing and reinterpreting data becomes easier. In this talk, we shall notably focus on the aspects of reusing a preserved analysis. We describe a system that permits to instantiate the preserved analysis workflow on the computing cloud, paving the way to allowing researchers to revalidate and reinterpret research data even many years after the original publication.

  11. Uncovering high rates of unsafe injection equipment reuse in rural Cameroon: validation of a survey instrument that probes for specific misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Savanna R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe reuse of injection equipment in hospitals is an on-going threat to patient safety in many parts of Africa. The extent of this problem is difficult to measure. Standard WHO injection safety assessment protocols used in the 2003 national injection safety assessment in Cameroon are problematic because health workers often behave differently under the observation of visitors. The main objective of this study is to assess the extent of unsafe injection equipment reuse and potential for blood-borne virus transmission in Cameroon. This can be done by probing for misconceptions about injection safety that explain reuse without sterilization. These misconceptions concern useless precautions against cross-contamination, i.e. "indirect reuse" of injection equipment. To investigate whether a shortage of supply explains unsafe reuse, we compared our survey data against records of purchases. Methods All health workers at public hospitals in two health districts in the Northwest Province of Cameroon were interviewed about their own injection practices. Injection equipment supply purchase records documented for January to December 2009 were compared with self-reported rates of syringe reuse. The number of HIV, HBV and HCV infections that result from unsafe medical injections in these health districts is estimated from the frequency of unsafe reuse, the number of injections performed, the probability that reused injection equipment had just been used on an infected patient, the size of the susceptible population, and the transmission efficiency of each virus in an injection. Results Injection equipment reuse occurs commonly in the Northwest Province of Cameroon, practiced by 44% of health workers at public hospitals. Self-reported rates of syringe reuse only partly explained by records on injection equipment supplied to these hospitals, showing a shortage of syringes where syringes are reused. Injection safety interventions could

  12. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  13. Recycling, reducing and reusing: A theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubursi, A.A.; Butterfield, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Macroeconomic models are generally based on a particular national income accounting framework. The current approach treats waste and pollution generation in such a way that any increase in these activities increases directly the gross domestic product of the economy. A reformulation is suggested for the accounting framework so as to treat waste management and pollution abatement as services to business whose costs should be charged against business revenue. Even such costs to households may be considered as costs to output. In this way such expenses appear as a cost to society and not as a final output. A new theoretical framework is developed to correspond to the reformulated accounting principle that allows clear identification of recycling activity and waste management. The rectangular input-output framework is particularly suited for this treatment as it allows different industries to produce the same output and identifies different commodities as inputs in the production of the same output. With the new framework, it is possible to examine the socioeconomic consequences of increased use and production of recyclables. Equally important is the ability to assess the relative efficiency of alternative policies to reuse or reduce the use of products and resources through price incentives and full cost charges. 2 tabs

  14. Centralised urban stormwater harvesting for potable reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, P; Gleeson, J; Hammond, T; Heslop, E; Holden, R; Kuczera, G

    2011-01-01

    Urban impervious areas provide a guaranteed source of runoff, especially in cities with high rainfall - this represents a source of water with low sensitivity to unfavourable climate change. Whilst the potential to reuse stormwater has long been recognised, its quality has largely limited usage to non-potable applications requiring the use of a third-pipe network, a prohibitively expensive option in established urban areas. Given recent advances in membrane filtration, this study investigates the potential of harvesting and treating stormwater to a potable standard to enable use of the potable distribution network. A case study based on the Throsby Creek catchment in Newcastle explores the issue. The high seasonally uniform rainfall provides insight into the maximum potential of such an option. Multicriterion optimisation was used to identify Pareto optimal solutions for harvesting, storing and treating stormwater. It is shown that harvesting and treating stormwater from a 13 km² catchment can produce yields ranging from 8.5 to 14.2 ML/day at costs ranging from AU$2.60/kL to AU$2.89/kL, which may become viable as the cost of traditional supply continues to grow. However, there are significant social impacts to deal with including alienation of public land for storage and community acceptance of treated stormwater.

  15. Waste Not Want Not: Water Reuse and Recycling in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texas Water Development Board has provided more than $300 million to over 28 projects using its CWSRF to fund a diversification of water reclamation, reuse and supply development solutions to augment community resiliency in the face of drought events.

  16. A Community-Driven Workflow Recommendation and Reuse Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Promote and encourage process and workflow reuse  within NASA Earth eXchange (NEX) by developing a proactive recommendation technology based on collective NEX user...

  17. Reuse of wastewater in urban farming and urban planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    status of wastewater reuse in urban farming in Katsina, an important urban area in the semi arid ... officially registered with the Katsina Urban Planning Authority. ..... crop production in the water-short Guanajuato river basin. Mexico. Res. Rep.

  18. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Tong Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

  19. Water reuse systems: A review of the principal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Principal components of water reuse systems include ammonia removal, disease control, temperature control, aeration, and particulate filtration. Effective ammonia removal techniques include air stripping, ion exchange, and biofiltration. Selection of a particular technique largely depends on site-specific requirements (e.g., space, existing water quality, and fish densities). Disease control, although often overlooked, is a major problem in reuse systems. Pathogens can be controlled most effectively with ultraviolet radiation, ozone, or chlorine. Simple and inexpensive methods are available to increase oxygen concentration and eliminate gas supersaturation, these include commercial aerators, air injectors, and packed columns. Temperature control is a major advantage of reuse systems, but the equipment required can be expensive, particularly if water temperature must be rigidly controlled and ambient air temperature fluctuates. Filtration can be readily accomplished with a hydrocyclone or sand filter that increases overall system efficiency. Based on criteria of adaptability, efficiency, and reasonable cost, we recommend components for a small water reuse system.

  20. Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking water ... water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. ... in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater ...

  1. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  2. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  3. Trombay symposium on desalination and water reuse: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    Trombay Symposium on Desalination and Water Reuse (TSDWR-07) addresses the issues related to desalination and water reuse including integrated water resource management. It aims to bring together the desalination and water purification technologists from government R and D, academia, industry and representatives from NGOs and user groups including policy makers. The papers received cover a wide range of topics from water resource management to different aspects of desalination and water purification. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  5. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  6. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Quazi H., E-mail: qhbari@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Mahbub Hassan, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Haque, R. [Project Builders Ltd., Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  7. Optimal waste heat recovery and reuse in industrial zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Linke, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Significant energy efficiency gains in zones with concentrated activity from energy intensive industries can often be achieved by recovering and reusing waste heat between processing plants. We present a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and design optimal reuse options across plants in industrial zones. The approach first establishes available waste heat qualities and reuse feasibilities considering distances between individual plants. A targeting optimization problem is solved to establish the maximum possible waste heat recovery for the industrial zone. Then, a design optimization problem is solved to identify concrete waste heat recovery options considering economic objectives. The paper describes the approach and illustrates its application with a case study. -- Highlights: → Developed a systematic approach to target waste heat recovery potentials and to design optimal recovery and reuse options across plants in industrial zones. → Five stage approach involving data acquisition, analysis, assessment, targeting and design. → Targeting optimization problem establishes the maximum possible waste heat recovery and reuse limit for the industrial zone. → Design optimization problem provides concrete waste heat recovery and reuse network design options considering economic objectives.

  8. Public responses to water reuse - Understanding the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H M; Brouwer, S; Jeffrey, P; Frijns, J

    2018-02-01

    Over the years, much research has attempted to unpack what drives public responses to water reuse, using a variety of approaches. A large amount of this work was captured by an initial review that covered research undertaken up to the early 2000s (Hartley, 2006). This paper showcases post-millennium evidence and thinking around public responses to water reuse, and highlights the novel insights and shifts in emphasis that have occurred in the field. Our analysis is structured around four broad, and highly interrelated, strands of thinking: 1) work focused on identifying the range of factors that influence public reactions to the concept of water reuse, and broadly looking for associations between different factors; 2) more specific approaches rooted in the socio-psychological modelling techniques; 3) work with a particular focus on understanding the influences of trust, risk perceptions and affective (emotional) reactions; and 4) work utilising social constructivist perspectives and socio-technical systems theory to frame responses to water reuse. Some of the most significant advancements in thinking in this field stem from the increasingly sophisticated understanding of the 'yuck factor' and the role of such pre-cognitive affective reactions. These are deeply entrenched within individuals, but are also linked with wider societal processes and social representations. Work in this area suggests that responses to reuse are situated within an overall process of technological 'legitimation'. These emerging insights should help stimulate some novel thinking around approaches to public engagement for water reuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-01-01

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d −1 solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  10. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  11. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  12. Minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge - Towards a water reuse regulatory instrument at EU level Réédition

    OpenAIRE

    ALCALDE SANZ LAURA; GAWLIK BERND

    2017-01-01

    As an input to the design of a Legal Instrument on Water Reuse in Europe, this report recommends minimum quality requirements for water reuse in agricultural irrigation and aquifer recharge based on a risk management approach.

  13. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Piwowar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the “citation benefit”. Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13% more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a

  14. Data reuse and the open data citation advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Heather A; Vision, Todd J

    2013-01-01

    Background. Attribution to the original contributor upon reuse of published data is important both as a reward for data creators and to document the provenance of research findings. Previous studies have found that papers with publicly available datasets receive a higher number of citations than similar studies without available data. However, few previous analyses have had the statistical power to control for the many variables known to predict citation rate, which has led to uncertain estimates of the "citation benefit". Furthermore, little is known about patterns in data reuse over time and across datasets. Method and Results. Here, we look at citation rates while controlling for many known citation predictors and investigate the variability of data reuse. In a multivariate regression on 10,555 studies that created gene expression microarray data, we found that studies that made data available in a public repository received 9% (95% confidence interval: 5% to 13%) more citations than similar studies for which the data was not made available. Date of publication, journal impact factor, open access status, number of authors, first and last author publication history, corresponding author country, institution citation history, and study topic were included as covariates. The citation benefit varied with date of dataset deposition: a citation benefit was most clear for papers published in 2004 and 2005, at about 30%. Authors published most papers using their own datasets within two years of their first publication on the dataset, whereas data reuse papers published by third-party investigators continued to accumulate for at least six years. To study patterns of data reuse directly, we compiled 9,724 instances of third party data reuse via mention of GEO or ArrayExpress accession numbers in the full text of papers. The level of third-party data use was high: for 100 datasets deposited in year 0, we estimated that 40 papers in PubMed reused a dataset by year 2, 100 by

  15. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  16. Reusing and recycling in Saskatchewan: Environmental benefits of reusing and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction explaining the environmental benefits of reusing and recycling, as well as providing suggestions on minimizing waste and conserving energy, a directory of recyclers and handlers of various kinds of waste in Saskatchewan is presented. Names, addresses/telephone numbers, and types of materials accepted are given for recyclers of animal products, clothing or textiles, glass, compostable materials, industrial hardware, metals, office products, paper, plastic, and tires. Collection depots in the SARCAN recycling program for beverage containers are listed, giving town name, address, hours of operation, and telephone number. Receivers of waste dangerous goods are listed under the categories of ozone-depleting substances, waste batteries, solvents, lubricating oils and oil filters, paint, flammable liquids, antifreeze, drycleaning waste, and miscellaneous.

  17. Software Reuse Success Strategy Model: An Empirical Study of Factors Involved in the Success of Software Reuse in Information System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kiet T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between information technology (IT) governance and software reuse success. Software reuse has been mostly an IT problem but rarely a business one. Studies in software reuse are abundant; however, to date, none has a deep appreciation of IT governance. This study demonstrated that IT governance had a positive…

  18. Does the water reuse affect the fish growth, welfare quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish production in aquaculture is growing from year to year. However capacities of current aquaculture facilities are limited. So the need of intensification of old facilities and building new intensive facilities is obvious. The high intensity of fish culture generates some questions. Could water reuse affect fish growth, welfare, health or quality of final product? A lot of research was performed for this issue but just a few works compared water reuse systems (RAS versus flow thru systems (FTS. A problem with CO2 oversaturation was solved by shallow diffusers. Fin erosion seems to be a problem of high stocking density and system hygienic but it is not related directly to water reuse. A few papers were written about biochemical blood stress markers but it was mostly aimed to acute crowding or changes were found at extreme stocking densities over 124 kg.m3 for rainbow trout and 70 kg.m3 for sea bass. The fish are able to accustom to increased noise produced by RAS equipment very fast so it don’t affect fish negatively. There wasn’t found any prove of main water reuse to fish influence in the available literature. All results indicates that if the ecological parameters are kept in natural range for the fish reared in RAS, there is no negative effect of water reuse on fish.

  19. UV disinfection for reuse applications in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, G; Schwartzel, D; Tomowich, D

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to conserve and protect limited water resources, the States of Florida and California have actively promoted wastewater reclamation and have implemented comprehensive regulations covering a range of reuse applications. Florida has a semi-tropical climate with heavy summer rains that are lost due to run off and evaporation. Much of California is arid and suffers periodic droughts, low annual rainfall and depleted ground water supplies. The high population density combined with heavy irrigation demands has depleted ground water supplies resulting in salt-water intrusion. During the past decade, Florida reuse sites have increased dramatically from 118 to 444 plants representing a total flow capacity of 826 MGD. California presently has over 250 plants producing 1 BGD with a projected increase of 160 sites over the next 20 years. To prevent the transmission of waterborne diseases, disinfection of reclaimed water is controlled by stringent regulations. Many states regulate wastewater treatment processes, nutrient removal, final effluent quality and disinfection criteria based upon the specific reuse application. As a rule, the resulting effluents have low turbidity and suspended solids. For such effluents, UV technology can economically achieve the most stringent disinfection targets that are required by the States of California and Florida for restricted and unrestricted reuse. This paper compares UV disinfection for wastewater reuse sites in California and Florida and discusses the effect of effluent quality on UV disinfection.

  20. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. The preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping. (author)

  1. Reduce, reuse, recycle for robust cluster-state generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsman, Clare; Brown, Katherine L.; Kendon, Vivien M.; Munro, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient generation of cluster states is crucial for engineering large-scale measurement-based quantum computers. Hybrid matter-optical systems offer a robust, scalable path to this goal. Such systems have an ancilla which acts as a bus connecting the qubits. We show that by generating the cluster in smaller sections of interlocking bricks, reusing one ancilla per brick, the cluster can be produced with maximal efficiency, requiring fewer than half the operations compared with no bus reuse. By reducing the time required to prepare sections of the cluster, bus reuse more than doubles the size of the computational workspace that can be used before decoherence effects dominate. A row of buses in parallel provides fully scalable cluster-state generation requiring only 20 controlled-phase gates per bus use.

  2. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III

    1994-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping

  3. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture.

  4. Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motl, G.P.

    1995-01-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ``beneficially reuse`` this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept.

  5. Beneficial reuse of US DOE Radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 2.5 million tons of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) that is either in inventory or expected to be generated over the next 25 years as major facilities within the weapons complex are decommissioned. Since much of this metal cannot be decontaminated easily, past practice has been to either retain this material in inventory or ship it to DOE disposal sites for burial. In an attempt to conserve natural resources and to avoid burial of this material at DOE disposal sites, options are now being explored to ''beneficially reuse'' this material. Under the beneficial reuse concept, RSM that cannot be decontaminated and free released is used in applications where the inherent contamination is not a detriment to its end use. This paper describes initiatives currently in progress in the United States that support the DOE beneficial reuse concept

  6. Water reuse practices in the United States and abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, B.

    1998-07-01

    Reuse of water reclaimed from waste takes various adaptations in different parts of the globe to accommodate the economic forces underlying water supply constraints and local public health and sanitation conditions. The more developed regions have adopted and enforced the most rigorous water reuse regulations. The strong environmental safeguards adopted and the immense investments made in these countries in wastewater treatment provide for a very high quality of discharged effluent. Unfortunately, high (even adequate) levels of investment in sanitation and environmental protection have been lacking in most of the rest of the world. In the developing nations of the world a de facto brand of water reuse is practiced, generally without the benefit of protective standards of acceptable public health practice. Between the extremes of high standards of public health protection on the one hand, and the unsanitary use of raw sewage on the other, there are wide varieties of uses and treatment levels dictated by and evolved to accommodate the local economy.

  7. Oilfield Produced Water Reuse and Reinjection with Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siagian Utjok W.R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Produced water has become a global environmental issue due to its huge volume and toxicity that may pose detrimental effects on receiving environment. Several approaches have been proposed to provide a strategy for produced water handling such as reinjection, reuse, or discharge. With various advantages, membrane technology has been increasingly used in produced water treatment replacing the conventional technologies. However, fouling is a major drawback of membrane processes in this application which needs to be controlled. This paper gives an overview and comparison of different produced water management. Special attention is given to produced water treatment for reuse purpose. Furthermore, the use of membrane processes in produced water reuse including performance, challenges, and future outlook are discussed.

  8. Reuse of waste water: impact on water supply planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, G.F. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    As the urban population of the world increases and demands on easily developable water supplies are exceeded, cities have recourse to a range of management alternatives to balance municipal water supply and demand. These alternatives range from doing nothing to modifying either the supply or the demand variable in the supply-demand relationship. The reuse or recycling of urban waste water in many circumstances may be an economically attractive and effective management strategy for extending existing supplies of developed water, for providing additional water where no developable supplies exist and for meeting water quality effluent discharge standards. The relationship among municipal, industrial and agricultural water use and the treatment links which may be required to modify the quality of a municipal waste effluent for either recycling or reuse purposes is described. A procedure is described for analyzing water reuse alternatives within a framework of regional water supply and waste water disposal planning and management.

  9. Selecting a Sustainable Disinfection Technique for Wastewater Reuse Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Curiel-Esparza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and multiple alternatives which involve non-commeasurable decision criteria, with expert opinions playing a major role in the selection of these treatment technologies. Five disinfection techniques for wastewater reuse have been evaluated for each of the nine criteria weighted according to the opinions of consulted experts. Finally, the VIKOR method has been applied to determine a compromise solution, and to establish the stability of the results. Therefore, the expert system proposed to select the optimal disinfection alternative is a hybrid method combining the AHP with the Delphi method and the VIKOR technique, which is shown to be appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders are involved in the selection of a sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects.

  10. REUSE OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS FROM DISMANTLED END OF LIFE VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr NOWAKOWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of recycling end of life automotive vehicles is serious worldwide. It is one of the most important streams of waste in developed countries. It has big importance as recycling potential of raw materials content in automotive vehicles is valuable. Different parts and assemblies after dismantling can also be reused in vehicles where replacement of specific component is necessary. Reuse of the components should be taken into consideration in selecting the vehicles dismantling strategy. It also complies with European Union policy concerning end of life vehicles (ELV. In the paper it is presented systematic approach to dismantling strategies including disassembly oriented on further reuse of components. It is focused on decision making and possible benefits calculation from economic and environmental point of view.

  11. Performing Verification and Validation in Reuse-Based Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Edward A.

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of reuse-based software engineering not only introduces new activities to the software development process, such as domain analysis and domain modeling, it also impacts other aspects of software engineering. Other areas of software engineering that are affected include Configuration Management, Testing, Quality Control, and Verification and Validation (V&V). Activities in each of these areas must be adapted to address the entire domain or product line rather than a specific application system. This paper discusses changes and enhancements to the V&V process, in order to adapt V&V to reuse-based software engineering.

  12. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  13. Reusing Implicit Cooperation. A Novel Approach to Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lancieri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this paper deals with information reuse obtained by implicit co-operation, particularly by recycling the contents of a proxy cache (shared memory. The objective is to automatically feed a Web server with large multimedia objects implicitly centred on community fields of interests. We show that the strategy of reusing previously downloaded information provides interesting advantages at a low cost; in particular, to reduce Web access time, to improve information retrieval, and to reduce Internet bandwidth use. Moreover, we use the conceptual frameworks of forgetting and collective intelligence to develop a model on which the operation of implicit cooperation is based.

  14. A Case Study of Framework Design for Horizontal Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Røn, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    through the application of design patterns. We outline the reuse process and analyse and classify the problems encountered during the first-instance framework reuse. The major lessons learned are: (1) that, while design patterns are well-known for providing decoupling solutions at the code level, the lack...... of similar decoupling techniques at the non-code level may give rise to technical mismatch problems between the framework and the client systems; (2) that such technical mismatch problems can be costly; and (3) that a reusable framework may beneficially provide a solution template when it cannot provide...

  15. South Africa: Necsa redevelopment and reuse case and history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, E.; Visagie, A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to share the experience gained from the decommissioning and redevelopment of redundant Necsa buildings in order to assist in the compilation of a holistic future redevelopment and reuse plan for the Necsa site. This document aims to ensure optimisation of decommissioning and redevelopment actions. This document also aims to facilitate timely and efficient completion of decommissioning projects in that it highlights alternatives for effective Redevelopment and Reuse (R and R) of buildings currently in a decommissioning phase. (author)

  16. SOFTWARE REUSING AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SYSTEM'S COST

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Lazo, Paul; Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents two programs in C# that use an SQL server 2002 data access component, which is modified to be used with a 9i data base, with the purpose of evaluating a developer's productivity, making the comparative analysis of two stages: a system developed reusing software, and another one without software reusing. El artículo presenta dos programas en C# que utilizan un componente de acceso de base de datos SQL Server 2002, el cual se modifica para ser utilizado con una Base de ...

  17. Water reuse and desalination in Spain – challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Navarro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an evaluation of the reuse of reclaimed water and desalination in Spain and aims to provide an overview of the state of the art and Spanish legal framework as far as non-conventional resources are concerned. The fight against the scarcity of water resources in this country, especially in the southeast, has made the production of new alternative water resources a clear priority and has turned the nation into a leader in water reuse and seawater desalination. The assessment presented can be used to help build a more general framework, like the European one, and shed light on other comparative legal experiences.

  18. Improved semantic interoperability for content reuse through knowledge organization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS are resources designed to improve the knowledge interoperability, management and retrieval. As increases the web resources, it’s evidenced the lack of KOS, with the consequent impact in the resources interoperability. The KOSS are, by definition, complicated and costly tools, so much in his creation as in his management. The reuse of similar organizational structures is a necessary element in this context. They analyses experiences of reuse of The KOS and signals like the new standards are impinged on this appearance.

  19. Reusing Design Knowledge Based on Design Cases and Knowledge Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Haobai; Shen, Jiaoqi

    2013-01-01

    Design knowledge was reused for innovative design work to support designers with product design knowledge and help designers who lack rich experiences to improve their design capacity and efficiency. First, based on the ontological model of product design knowledge constructed by taxonomy, implicit and explicit knowledge was extracted from some…

  20. Silver Uptake and Reuse of Biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the recovery of bound silver and reuse of Chlorella emersonii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass for further silver uptake after they were placed in contact with 20mg/l silver for 30 minutes to allow for maximum binding. It was found that 0.16M nitric acid gave the best recovery rates of silver.

  1. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  2. Clearance of building structures for conventional non-nuclear reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, K.; Boehringer, S.

    1998-01-01

    At the example of a fuel assembly plant the strategy of control measurements on building surfaces, which shall be conventionally reused after their clearance, is regarded. Based on the given clearance levels the used measuring methods, especially with regard of possibly covered or intruded uranium contamination, are shown. The possibility of using the in-situ-γ-spectroscopy is discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories. Methods: Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric. The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description. Results: Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories. Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers. The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets. Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

  4. Reduce--recycle--reuse: guidelines for promoting perioperative waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Gary

    2007-04-01

    The perioperative environment generates large amounts of waste, which negatively affects local and global ecosystems. To manage this waste health care facility leaders must focus on identifying correctable issues, work with relevant stakeholders to promote solutions, and adopt systematic procedural changes. Nurses and managers can moderate negative environmental effects by promoting reduction, recycling, and reuse of materials in the perioperative setting.

  5. Integrating reuse measurement practices into the ERP requirements engineering process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Münich, Jürgen; Vierimaa, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The management and deployment of reuse-driven and architecturecentric requirements engineering processes have become common in many organizations adopting Enterprise Resource Planning solutions. Yet, little is known about the variety of reusability aspects in ERP projects at the level of

  6. Supporting the Reuse of Open Educational Resources through Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Kalz, Marco; Gruber, Marion; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., Kalz, M., Gruber, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Supporting the Reuse of Open Educational Resources through Open Standards. In T. Hirashima, A. F. Mohd Ayub, L. F. Kwok, S. L. Wong, S. C. Kong, & F. Y. Yu (Eds.), Workshop Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in

  7. Emergy Evaluation of Different Straw Reuse Technologies in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxian Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Open burning of straw in China has degraded agricultural environments and has become a contributor to air pollution. Development of efficient straw-reuse technologies not only can yield economic benefits but also can protect the environment and can provide greater benefit to society. Thus, the overall benefits of straw-reuse technologies must be considered when making regional development planning and enterprise technology decisions. In addition, agricultural areas in China cross several climatic zones and have different weather characteristics and cultural conditions. In the present study, we assessed five types of straw-reuse technologies (straw-biogas production, -briquetting, -based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production, using emergy analysis, in northeast China. Within each type, five individual cases were investigated, and the highest-performing cases were used for comparison across technologies. Emergy indices for comprehensive benefits for each category, namely, EYR, ELR, and ESI were calculated. Calculated indices suggest that straw-briquetting and -biogas production are the most beneficial technologies in terms of economy, environmental impact, and sustainability compared to straw-based power generation, -gasification, and -bioethanol production technologies. These two technologies can thus be considered the most suitable for straw reuse in China.

  8. Reusing open data for learning database design through project development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Norberto MAZÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel methodology based on reusing open data for applying project-based learning in a Database Design subject of a university degree. This methodology is applied to the ARA (Alto Rendimiento Académico or High Academic Performance group taught in the degree in Computer Engineering at the University of Alicante (Spain during 2012/2013, 2013/2014, and 2014/2015. Openness philosophy implies that huge amount of data is available to students in tabular format, ready for reusing. In our teaching experience, students propose an original scenario where different open data can be reused to a specific goal. Then, it is proposed to design a database in order to manage this data in the envisioned scenario. Open data in the subject helps in instilling a creative and entrepreneur attitude in students, as well as encourages autonomous and lifelong learning. Surveys made to students at the end of each year shown that reusing open data within project-based learning methodologies makes more motivated students since they are using real data.

  9. Finding source code on the web for remix and reuse

    CERN Document Server

    York, Springer New

    2013-01-01

    First comprehensive treatment of the topic, bringing together results from multiple research areas including information retrieval, programming, software tools, software reuse, testing, and social aspects Presents essential reading for researchers new to the area Includes contributions from leading companies and experts in data structure, software engineering, and HCI

  10. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  11. Ceramic Ultra- and Nanofiltration for Municipal Wastewater Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, water reuse has been widely recognized in many regions of the world. Fouling of ceramic membranes, especially hydraulically irreversible fouling, is a critical aspect affecting the operational cost and energy consumption in water treatment plants. In addition, the reverse

  12. Towards a national policy on wastewater reuse in Kenya | Kaluli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potable water for irrigation and industrial use is generally unavailable, and this calls for alternative water sources. Despite use of wastewater being illegal in Kenya, it is used to irrigate over 720 ha in Nairobi. In order to justify the formulation of a national policy to support wastewater reuse, secondary data which included the ...

  13. Factors Affecting the Intention to Reuse Mobile Banking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceva Lavenja Arahita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated advancement in technology resulted to the appearance of Self Service Technology. One form of self-service technology in the banking sector is the presence of mobile banking. This study aims to examine the influence of five factors toward the reusing of Mobile Bank Central Asia (BCA in Bandung. Those factors used in this study were the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM constructs, i.e perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived credibility, customer awareness and social influence. Data was collected through distributed questionnaire to 100 respondents who used Mobile BCA by using judgment sampling. Multiple linear regression technique was employed to investigate the influence among variables. This study empirically concluded that consumer intention to reuse BCA mobile services was positively influenced by perceived ease of use, customer awareness and social influence. On the other hand, perceived usefulness and perceived credibility did not influence the intention of reusing Mobile BCA in Bandung. Further study is suggested to use probability sampling technique to cover the real voice of mobile banking user in Bandung and to explore the lack influence of perceived usefulness and perceived credibility toward reusing of Mobile BCA.

  14. Factors Affecting the Intention to Reuse Mobile Banking Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceva Lavenja Arahita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated advancement in technology resulted to the appearance of Self Service Technology. One form of self-service technology in the banking sector is the presence of mobile banking. This study aims to examine the influence of five factors toward the reusing of Mobile Bank Central Asia (BCA in Bandung. Those factors used in this study were the extension of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM constructs, i.e perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived credibility, customer awareness and social influence. Data was collected through distributed questionnaire to 100 respondents who used Mobile BCA by using judgment sampling. Multiple linear regression technique was employed to investigate the influence among variables. This study empirically concluded that consumer intention to reuse BCA mobile services was positively influenced by social influence, customer awareness and perceived ease of use. On the other hand, perceived usefulness and perceived credibility did not influence the intention of reusing Mobile BCA in Bandung. Further study is suggested to use probability sampling technique to cover the real voice of mobile banking user in Bandung and to explore the lack influence of perceived usefulness and perceived credibility toward reusing of Mobile BCA.

  15. The applicability of nanofiltration for the treatment and reuse of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using nanofiltration (NF) processes for the treatment of reactive dyebath effluents from the textile industry, in order to recover the water and chemicals (salts) for reuse purposes. The study of the reusability of nanofiltered water for dyeing has been given little or no ...

  16. Technology and human issues in reusing learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Strijker, A.

    2004-01-01

    Reusing learning objects is as old as retelling a story or making use of libraries and textbooks, and in electronic form has received an enormous new impetus because of the World Wide Web and Web technologies. Are we at the brink of changing the "shape and form of learning, ... of being able to

  17. The domain theory: patterns for knowledge and software reuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2002-01-01

    ..., retrieval system, or any other means, without prior written permission of the publisher. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers 10 Industrial Avenue Mahwah, New Jersey 07430 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sutcliffe, Alistair, 1951- The domain theory : patterns for knowledge and software reuse / Alistair Sutcl...

  18. Characterization of winery wastewater for reuse in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than thirty percent of the United States is currently in a drought that is expected to have profound social, economic, and environmental impacts. The intensification of drought conditions in southern and western regions of the country has spurred interest in wastewater reuse in agriculture, inc...

  19. Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Wilson, K.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved

  20. The reuse of scrap and decontamination waste water from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Xie Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Huge amount of radioactive scrap with low activity will be generated from reactor decommissioning; the decontamination is concentrated in the surface layer of the scrap. The decontaminated substance can be removed by high pressure water jet to appear the base metal and to reuse the metal. Big amount of radioactive waste water will be generated by this decontamination technology; the radioactive of the waste water is mainly caused by the solid particle from decontamination. To remove the solid particle as clean as possible, the waste water can be reused. Different possible technology to remove the solid particle from the water had been investigated, such as the gravity deposit separation, the filtration and the centrifugal separation etc. The centrifugal separation technology is selected; it includes the hydraulic vortex, the centrifugal filtration and the centrifugal deposit. After the cost benefit analysis at last the centrifugal deposit used butterfly type separator is selected. To reuse the waste water the fresh water consumption and the cost for waste water treatment can be reduced. To reuse the radioactive scrap and the waste water from decommissioning will minimize the radioactive waste. (authors)

  1. Water Reuse Project in Virginia Providing Multiple Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 500 million gallons a year of treated wastewater that would otherwise be discharged into a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay are instead being put to beneficial reuse to cool a waste-to-energy plant and irrigate a golf course and ball fields.

  2. Treatment and reuse for irrigation of wastewater in Cagliari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragadin, G.L.; Franco, D.; Mancini, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    D.M. 12 June 2003 n. 185 gives national rules about wastewater recycling and reuse. Increasing in water consumption for new agricultural practise and uncertainty about availability of water resource in summer due to climatic instability make necessary to search new available fonts. In most part of Italian territory surface water volumes are taken into civil water distribution system for domestic use and, in summer, rivers are often in dry condition before arriving in urban tracts and in quality condition typical of domestic wastewater more or less treated in downstream. This work explains an experience in reclamation and irrigation reuse of a large flowrate of domestic wastewater carried out in Cagliari and discuss results in order to test reliability and efficiency with reference to existent Italian laws about discharge (D.Lgs n. 152/99) and reuse (D.M. n. 185/2003). Simbrizzi artificial basin make possible agricultural recycling and reuse realizing adequate retention basins for storage and final finishing of wastewater, at the same time permits to avoid every discharge in seawater during summer [it

  3. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Chan-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Bakje-daero, Deokjin-Gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyun [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwook, E-mail: jin-wook.chung@samsung.com [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coagulation and ion exchange technologies were ineffective in removing fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyamide RO was more efficacious than cellulose RO due to its high flux and rejection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral wound RO system was more preferential to disc tube RO system for reusing raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined coagulation and RO technology can be applied to reuse raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. - Abstract: The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  4. Using Linked Open Data to Improve Data Reuse in Zooarchaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whitcher Kansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inability of journals and books to accommodate data and to make it reusable has led to the gradual loss of vast amounts of information. The practice of disseminating selected sub-sets of data (usually in summary tables permits only very limited types of reuse, and thus hampers scholarship. In recent years, largely in response to increasing government and institutional requirements for full data access, the scholarly community is giving data more attention, and solutions for data management are emerging. However, seeing data management primarily as a matter of compliance means that the research community faces continued data loss, as many datasets enter repositories without adequate description to enable their reuse. Furthermore, because many archaeologists do not yet have experience in data reuse, they lack understanding of what “good” data management means in terms of their own research practices. This paper discusses Linked Open Data (LOD as an approach to improving data description, intelligibility and discoverability to facilitate reuse. I present examples of how annotating zooarchaeology datasets with LOD can facilitate data integration without forcing standardization. I conclude by recognizing that data sharing is not without its challenges. However, the research community’s careful attention and recognition of datasets as valuable scholarly outputs will go a long way toward ensuring that the products of our work are more widely useful.

  5. Application Reuse Library for Software, Requirements, and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Thronesbery, Carroll

    1994-01-01

    Better designs are needed for expert systems and other operations automation software, for more reliable, usable and effective human support. A prototype computer-aided Application Reuse Library shows feasibility of supporting concurrent development and improvement of advanced software by users, analysts, software developers, and human-computer interaction experts. Such a library expedites development of quality software, by providing working, documented examples, which support understanding, modification and reuse of requirements as well as code. It explicitly documents and implicitly embodies design guidelines, standards and conventions. The Application Reuse Library provides application modules with Demo-and-Tester elements. Developers and users can evaluate applicability of a library module and test modifications, by running it interactively. Sub-modules provide application code and displays and controls. The library supports software modification and reuse, by providing alternative versions of application and display functionality. Information about human support and display requirements is provided, so that modifications will conform to guidelines. The library supports entry of new application modules from developers throughout an organization. Example library modules include a timer, some buttons and special fonts, and a real-time data interface program. The library prototype is implemented in the object-oriented G2 environment for developing real-time expert systems.

  6. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  7. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  8. Brownfields Recover Your Resources - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides background information on how the sustainable reuse of brownfield properties includes efforts to reduce the environmental impact by reusing and recycling materials generated during building construction, demolition, or renovation.

  9. A Spike Cocktail Approach to Improve Microbial Performance Monitoring for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water reuse, via either centralized treatment of traditional wastewater or decentralized treatment and on-site reuse, is becoming an increasingly important element of sustainable water management. Despite advances in waterborne pathogen detection methods, low and highly variable ...

  10. A Water Chemistry Perspective on Flowback Reuse with Several Case Studies, March 30, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation discusses the reuse of frac flowback from a water chemistry perspective. Two examples of flowback reuse, where a minimal water treatment has been used, describe the rationale for why the practice is considered acceptable.

  11. Governing the reuse of treated wastewater in irrigation : the case study of Jericho, Palestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khatib, Nasser; Shoqeir, Jawad A.H.; Özerol, Gül; Majaj, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater reuse in irrigation provides additional water supply for agriculture and saves freshwater resources for human consumption. Through these benefits, wastewater reuse can significantly alleviate the water scarcity in Palestine and fit to the complexity of the geopolitical context. However,

  12. Classification and Comparison of Architecture Evolution Reuse Knowledge - A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Jamshidi, Pooyan; Pahl, Claus

    2014-01-01

    patterns (34% of selected studies) represent a predominant solution, followed by evolution styles (25%) and adaptation strategies and policies (22%) to enable application of reuse knowledge. Empirical methods for acquisition of reuse knowledge represent 19% including pattern discovery, configuration...

  13. Textile wastewater reuse after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília Cleto Meirelles; Starling, Maria Clara V M; Leão, Mônica Maria Diniz; de Amorim, Camila Costa

    2017-03-01

    This study verifies textile wastewater reuse treated by the conventional activated sludge process and subjected to further treatment by advanced oxidation processes. Three alternative processes are discussed: Fenton, photo-Fenton, and UV/H 2 O 2 . Evaluation of treatments effects was based on factorial experiment design in which the response variables were the maximum removal of COD and the minimum concentration of residual H 2 O 2 in treated wastewater. Results indicated Fenton's reagent, COD/[H 2 O 2 ]/[Fe 2+ ] mass ratio of 1:2:2, as the best alternative. The selected technique was applied to real wastewater collected from a conventional treatment plant of a textile mill. The quality of the wastewater before and after the additional treatment was monitored in terms of 16 physicochemical parameters defined as suitable for the characterization of waters subjected to industrial textile use. The degradation of the wastewater was also evaluated by determining the distribution of its molecular weight along with the organic matter fractionation by ultrafiltration, measured in terms of COD. Finally, a sample of the wastewater after additional treatment was tested for reuse at pilot scale in order to evaluate the impact on the quality of dyed fabrics. Results show partial compliance of treated wastewater with the physicochemical quality guidelines for reuse. Removal and conversion of high and medium molecular weight substances into low molecular weight substances was observed, as well as the degradation of most of the organic matter originally present in the wastewater. Reuse tests indicated positive results, confirming the applicability of wastewater reuse after the suggested additional treatment. Graphical abstract Textile wastewater samples after additional treatment by Fenton's reagent, photo-Fenton and H 2 O 2 /UV tested in different conditions.

  14. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  15. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiping Chen; Yanying Bai; Weiling Zhang; Sidan Lyu; Wentao Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their a...

  16. Reuse of drainage water in the Nile Delta; monitoring, modelling and analysis; final report Reuse of Drainage Water Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring Centrum, Instituut voor Onderzoek van het LandelijkGebied

    1995-01-01

    The effects of reusing drainage water have been evaluated and other options to increase the water utilization rate in Egypt explored. The results are an operational network for monitoring drainage water discharges and salinity along the major drains, a database for monitored drainage water

  17. The role of soil quality maps in the reuse of lightly contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamé, F.P.J.; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Dutch government agreed on a new policy regarding the reuse of lightly contaminated soil. From now on, lightly contaminated soil may be reused under conditions of soil-quality management. The municipal authorities supervise the reuse under this new regime. Two basic criteria need to be

  18. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  19. The role of soil quality maps in the reuse of lightly contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Lamé, F.P.J.; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Dutch government agreed on a new policy regarding the reuse of lightly contaminated soil. From now on, lightly contaminated soil may be reused under conditions of soil-quality management. The municipal authorities supervise the reuse under this new regime. Two basic criteria need to be met before reuse of lightly contaminated soil is allowed. Firstly, the quality of the soil has to be characterised on a soil quality map. Secondly, the soil that will be reused has to be of the same...

  20. Reuse of Aluminum Dross as an Engineered Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chen; Apelian, Diran

    To prevent the leaching of landfilled aluminum dross waste and save the energy consumed by recovering metallic aluminum from dross, aluminum dross is reused as an engineering product directly rather than "refurbished" ineffectively. The concept is to reduce waste and to reuse. Two kinds of aluminum dross from industrial streams were selected and characterized. We have shown that dross can be applied directly, or accompanied with a simple conditioning process, to manufacture refractory components. Dross particles below 50 mesh are most effective. Mechanical property evaluations revealed the possibility for dross waste to be utilized as filler in concrete, resulting in up to 40% higher flexural strength and 10% higher compressive strength compared to pure cement, as well as cement with sand additions. The potential usage of aluminum dross as a raw material for such engineering applications is presented and discussed.

  1. Practical application of wastewater reuse in tourist resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakyali, D; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2008-01-01

    A medium-scale membrane bioreactor was tested in a large tourist resort on the south-western coast of Turkey with the treated wastewater subsequently being used for irrigational purposes. The wastewater treatment system was designed to eliminate carbonaceous and nitrogenous substances. Treatment efficiency was monitored by means of regular chemical and microbiological analyses. Information was collected on water use at different locations of the hotel. Specific values based on the number of guests were determined. Wastewater streams from kitchen, laundry and rooms were analysed to investigate the various contribution from these points. The social acceptance of the guests concerning the on-site wastewater treatment and reuse in the hotel was analysed using a questionnaire. The investigations indicated that the treated wastewater provides the required chemical and hygienic conditions to satisfy requirement for its reuse in irrigation. The acceptance by guests was encouraging for such applications. IWA Publishing 2008.

  2. Agronomic behavior of gladiolus in organic substrates with wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Dourado Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the technical feasibility of effluent reuse and recycling of organic substrates in the production of gladiolus. We adopted a completely randomized design in a split-plot, and the plots three qualities water (river water with Hoagland’s solution; treated effluent in stabilization pond; treated effluent in stabilization pond and disinfected and the subplots organic substrates (pine bark, coir, bagasse, repeated five times. Were characterized physico-chemical water and each substrate, the beginning and end of two growing seasons. The variables evaluated were: number of tillers, plant height, total production; flower stem length, number of flowers, time to first harvest, total cycle time, fresh and dry mass of the area. The reuse of effluent resulted in agronomic performance equal or superior to that obtained by the use of nutrient solution and the substrate base bagasse promoted agronomic performance inferior to the other substrates evaluated.

  3. Coal washery effluent treatment for material recovery and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.N.; Chaudhuri, M.

    1980-10-01

    Th effluent from coal washeries consisting mainly of coal fines is normally discharged to inland surface waters and causes severe river pollution with substantial loss of good quality coking coal. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to characterize the effluents from several coal washeries and to evaluate the potential of using various coagulants and coagulant aids for clarification of the effluent with a view to recovery of the coal fines and reuse of the clarified effluent. It has been demonstrated that higher recovery of coal fines can be achieved by using coagulants like alum or ferric chloride with or without coagulant aids with an added advantage of reuse of the clarified effluent in the washery.

  4. Advanced treatment and reuse system developed for oilfield process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin

    2011-01-15

    An innovative plant to treat oilfield produced wastewater is being constructed in Trinidad and Tobago following recent regulations and industrial water supply challenges. The 4,100m3/day treatment system, developed by Golder Associates, will produce water for industrial reuse and effluent that meets new regulations. The treatment stages include: oil-water separation by gravity, equalization with a two-day capacity basin, dissolved air flotation, cooling, biotreatment/settling with immobilized cell bioreactors (ICB) technology, prefiltration/reverse osmosis and effluent storage/transfer. This advanced system will provide several important benefits including the elimination of inland discharge of minimally-treated water and the reduction of environmental and public health concerns. In addition, it will provide a new source of industrial water, resulting in a decrease in demand for fresh water. The success of this plant could lead to additional facilities in other oil field locations, expanding economic and environmental benefits of water reuse.

  5. Estimating the potential water reuse based on fuzzy reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Giovana; Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Marques, Alfeu Sá; Kiperstok, Asher; Cardoso, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Studies worldwide suggest that the risk of water shortage in regions affected by climate change is growing. Decision support tools can help governments to identify future water supply problems in order to plan mitigation measures. Treated wastewater is considered a suitable alternative water resource and it is used for non-potable applications in many dry regions around the world. This work describes a decision support system (DSS) that was developed to identify current water reus...

  6. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R; Noynaert, L; Harnie, S; Marien, J

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  7. The Anatomy of a Data Citation: Discovery, Reuse, and Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Hailey; Newton, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Data citation should be a necessary corollary of data publication and reuse. Many researchers are reluctant to share their data, yet they are increasingly encouraged to do just that. Reward structures must be in place to encourage data publication, and citation is the appropriate tool for scholarly acknowledgment. Data citation also allows for the identification, retrieval, replication, and verification of data underlying published studies. METHODS This study examines author beha...

  8. Water reuse achieved by zero discharge of aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelchner, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for zero discharge of aqueous waste from ERDA's nuclear weapons plant near Denver are discussed. Two plants - a process waste treatment facility now under construction, and a reverse osmosis desalting plant now under design, will provide total reuse of waste water for boiler feed and cooling tower supply. Seventy million gallons of water per year will be conserved and downstream municipalities will be free of inadvertent pollution hazards

  9. Development of filtration equipment to reuse PFC decontamination wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Lee, Sung Yeol; Won, Hui Jun; Jung Chong Hun; Oh, Won Zin; Park, Jin Ho

    2005-01-01

    When PFC(Perfluorocarbonate) decontamination technology is applied to removal of radioactive contaminated particulate adhered at surface during the operation of nuclear research facilities, it is necessary to develop a filtration equipment to reuse of PFC solution due to high price, also to minimize the volume of second wastewater. Contaminated characteristics of hot particulate was investigated and a filtration process was presented to remove suspended radioactive particulate from PFC decontamination wastewater generated on PFC decontamination

  10. A collaborative recommendation framework for ontology evaluation and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Cantador, Iván; Fernández Sánchez, Miriam; Castells, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    This is an electronic version of the paper presented at the International Workshop on Recommender Systems, held in Riva del Garda on 2006 Ontology evaluation can be defined as assessing the quality and the adequacy of an ontology for being used in a spe-cific context, for a specific goal. Although ontology reuse is being extensively addressed by the Semantic Web community, the lack of appropriate support tools and automatic techniques for the evaluation of certain ontology features are oft...

  11. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg; Garduñ o, C. Patricio Roa; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world's desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  12. Water reuse in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Status, prospects and research needs

    KAUST Repository

    Drewes, Jorg

    2012-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world. While desalination plants currently installed in the country represent 30% of the world\\'s desalination capacity, seawater desalination alone will not be able to provide sufficient supplies to meet the increasing freshwater demand. However, with only 9% of the total municipal wastewater generated currently being reused, the kingdom is projected as the third largest reuse market after China and the USA, and reuse capacities are projected to increase by 800% by 2016. This projected growth and the change in water portfolios offer tremendous opportunities to integrate novel approaches of water reclamation and reuse. This paper highlights the current status of reuse in the kingdom, discusses prospects of using distributed infrastructure for reuse tailored to local needs as well as the use of artificial recharge and recovery systems for reclaimed water. It also suggests research needs to helping overcoming barriers for wastewater reuse. Copyright © IWA Publishing 2012.

  13. Using Dedal to share and reuse distributed engineering design information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baya, Vinod; Baudin, Catherine; Mabogunje, Ade; Das, Aseem; Cannon, David M.; Leifer, Larry J.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of the project is to facilitate the reuse of previous design experience for the maintenance, repair and redesign of artifacts in the electromechanical engineering domain. An engineering team creates information in the form of meeting summaries, project memos, progress reports, engineering notes, spreadsheet calculations and CAD drawings. Design information captured in these media is difficult to reuse because the way design concepts are referred to evolve over the life of a project and because decisions, requirements and structure are interrelated but rarely explicitly linked. Based on protocol analysis of the information seeking behavior of designer's, we defined a language to describe the content and the form of design records and implemented this language in Dedal, a tool for indexing, modeling and retrieving design information. We first describe the approach to indexing and retrieval in Dedal. Next we describe ongoing work in extending Dedal's capabilities to a distributed environment by integrating it with World Wide Web. This will enable members of a design team who are not co-located to share and reuse information.

  14. Electron beam irradiation and adsorption as possibilities for wastewater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.; Higa, Marcela C.; Pinheiro, Alessandro; Morais, Aline V.; Fungaro, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of water for life and for the industrial processes is forcing the development of combined technologies for wastewater improvement. The limitations of biological treatment for reducing micro-pollutants and the constant introduction of different chemical into environment make Ionizing Radiation a more interesting technique for pollutants abatement. Electron Accelerators are the main radiation source for cleaning waters purpose. Remazol Orange and Black B were decomposed by Electron Beam Irradiation. Another research consisted in reuse of burnt coal for cleaning wastewater and the Orange and Red dyes were adsorbed onto zeolitic material. Both color and toxicity were the main parameters to evaluate the efficacy of the process and also the recommended criteria which allow further industrial reuse. Real effluents were also treated by both technologies in batch scale. The radiation dose suggested for real effluents varied from 2.5kGy up to 5kGy. The characteristics of obtained zeolite will be presented. The removal of color and toxicity was enough to allow the industrial reuse of those products (wastewater). (author)

  15. Reuse of ground waste glass as aggregate for mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, V; Gnappi, G; Moriconi, G; Montenero, A

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of reusing waste glass from crushed containers and building demolition as aggregate for preparing mortars and concrete. At present, this kind of reuse is still not common due to the risk of alkali-silica reaction between the alkalis of cement and silica of the waste glass. This expansive reaction can cause great problems of cracking and, consequently, it can be extremely deleterious for the durability of mortar and concrete. However, data reported in the literature show that if the waste glass is finely ground, under 75mum, this effect does not occur and mortar durability is guaranteed. Therefore, in this work the possible reactivity of waste glass with the cement paste in mortars was verified, by varying the particle size of the finely ground waste glass. No reaction has been detected with particle size up to 100mum thus indicating the feasibility of the waste glass reuse as fine aggregate in mortars and concrete. In addition, waste glass seems to positively contribute to the mortar micro-structural properties resulting in an evident improvement of its mechanical performance.

  16. Setting water quality criteria for agricultural water reuse purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation is practiced worldwide and will increase in the future. The definition of water quality limits is a useful instrument for the assessment of water quality regarding its suitability for irrigation purposes and the performance of wastewater treatment steps. This study elaborates water quality objectives for a water reuse project in a setting where national guidelines do not exist. Internationally established guidelines are therefore applied to the local context. Additional limits for turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and potassium are suggested to meet the requirements of water reuse projects. Emphasis is put on water quality requirements prior to UV disinfection and nutrient requirements of cultivated crops. The presented values can be of assistance when monitoring reclaimed water quality. To facilitate the realization of water reuse projects, comprehensive and more detailed information, in particular on water quality requirements prior to disinfection steps, should be provided as well as regarding the protection of the irrigation infrastructure.

  17. Biological treatment and nanofiltration of denim textile wastewater for reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Uzal, Nigmet; Yetis, Ulku; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at coupling of activated sludge treatment with nanofiltration to improve denim textile wastewater quality to reuse criteria. In the activated sludge reactor, the COD removal efficiency was quite high as it was 91 ± 2% and 84 ± 4% on the basis of total and soluble feed COD, respectively. The color removal efficiency was 75 ± 10%, and around 50-70% of removed color was adsorbed on biomass or precipitated within the reactor. The high conductivity of the wastewater, as high as 8 mS/cm, did not adversely affect system performance. Although biological treatment is quite efficient, the wastewater does not meet the reuse criteria. Hence, further treatment to improve treated water quality was investigated using nanofiltration. Dead-end microfiltration (MF) with 5 μm pore size was applied to remove coarse particles before nanofiltration. The color rejection of nanofiltration was almost complete and permeate color was always lower than 10 Pt-Co. Similarly, quite high rejections were observed for COD (80-100%). Permeate conductivity was between 1.98 and 2.67 mS/cm (65% conductivity rejection). Wastewater fluxes were between 31 and 37 L/m 2 /h at 5.07 bars corresponding to around 45% flux declines compared to clean water fluxes. In conclusion, for denim textile wastewaters nanofiltration after biological treatment can be applied to meet reuse criteria

  18. What Germany’s University Beginners Think about Water Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schmid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse is a new technology, not yet implemented, but discussed for use in Germany. Public opinion plays a major role in the success of the introduction of this new technology and was not yet analyzed for Germany. When monitoring 340 university beginners’ conceptions regarding water reuse, a variety of conceptions appeared. While usage of tap water is accepted for drinking purposes, acceptance of recycled water for oral consumption was low. When asked for reasons for (not using recycled water, three groups of respondents were extracted: (a The acceptors (convinced of quality, or naming sustainability as a reason; (b the undecided (doubts about quality, rejection of its use for consumption, and psychological conflicts of logic and disgust; (c the non-acceptors (unconvinced of quality and preference for bottled water. When asked about factors that would lead to accepting the use of recycled water, insights into treatment processes were identified as the most convincing, followed by educational films and guided tours. Participants showed high conviction about currently existing tap-water qualities. Having water that is cleaned before it reaches the consumer was reported to have high priority. To increase acceptance of water reuse, recommendations for appropriate outreach programs are discussed.

  19. Automated Reuse of Scientific Subroutine Libraries through Deductive Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael R.; Pressburger, Thomas; VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Roach, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Systematic software construction offers the potential of elevating software engineering from an art-form to an engineering discipline. The desired result is more predictable software development leading to better quality and more maintainable software. However, the overhead costs associated with the formalisms, mathematics, and methods of systematic software construction have largely precluded their adoption in real-world software development. In fact, many mainstream software development organizations, such as Microsoft, still maintain a predominantly oral culture for software development projects; which is far removed from a formalism-based culture for software development. An exception is the limited domain of safety-critical software, where the high-assuiance inherent in systematic software construction justifies the additional cost. We believe that systematic software construction will only be adopted by mainstream software development organization when the overhead costs have been greatly reduced. Two approaches to cost mitigation are reuse (amortizing costs over many applications) and automation. For the last four years, NASA Ames has funded the Amphion project, whose objective is to automate software reuse through techniques from systematic software construction. In particular, deductive program synthesis (i.e., program extraction from proofs) is used to derive a composition of software components (e.g., subroutines) that correctly implements a specification. The construction of reuse libraries of software components is the standard software engineering solution for improving software development productivity and quality.

  20. Ambient iron-mediated aeration (IMA) for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Englehardt, James D; Abdul-Aziz, Samer; Bataille, Tristan; Cueto, Josenrique; De Leon, Omar; Wright, Mary E; Gardinali, Piero; Narayanan, Aarthi; Polar, Jose; Tomoyuki, Shibata

    2013-02-01

    Global water shortages caused by rapidly expanding population, escalating water consumption, and dwindling water reserves have rendered water reuse a strategically significant approach to meet current and future water demand. This study is the first to our knowledge to evaluate the technical feasibility of iron-mediated aeration (IMA), an innovative, potentially economical, holistic, oxidizing co-precipitation process operating at room temperature, atmospheric pressure, and neutral pH, for water reuse. In the IMA process, dissolved oxygen (O₂) was continuously activated by zero-valent iron (Fe⁰) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at ambient pH, temperature, and pressure. Concurrently, iron sludge was generated as a result of iron corrosion. Bench-scale tests were conducted to study the performance of IMA for treatment of secondary effluent, natural surface water, and simulated contaminated water. The following removal efficiencies were achieved: 82.2% glyoxylic acid, ~100% formaldehyde as an oxidation product of glyoxylic acid, 94% of Ca²⁺ and associated alkalinity, 44% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 26% of electrical conductivity (EC), 98% of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), 80% of 17β-estradiol (E2), 45% of total nitrogen (TN), 96% of total phosphorus (TP), 99.8% of total Cr, >90% of total Ni, 99% of color, 3.2 log removal of total coliform, and 2.4 log removal of E. Coli. Removal was attributed principally to chemical oxidation, precipitation, co-precipitation, coagulation, adsorption, and air stripping concurrently occurring during the IMA treatment. Results suggest that IMA is a promising treatment technology for water reuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Sarp, S; Bucs, Sz S; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  3. Can Data be Organized for Science and Reuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, T.; Shasharina, S.; Jelenak, A.; Fillmore, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Data Life Cycle is an important general concept for thinking about data collection, management, and preservation practices across the geophysical scientific data community. The cycle generally spans the scientific process from ideation, through experimental design, observation collection, data analysis and visualization, publication, archive, distributions and eventual reuse. During the cycle, the data may change through new analyses, presentations, and responsible parties, but, historically, the format and organization of the data have generally remained the same. Data collected as a time series at a point remains as a time series and data collected/calculated as grids remains as grids. BIP is BIP and BSQ is BSQ. In fact, in many large data centers, the native format remains sacrosanct and, in the scientific community, reformatting is avoided because of fear of losing information or introducing data quality problems and irreproducible results. This traditional approach has worked well in areas where data are collected and used for a single purpose throughout the life cycle and domains where comparisons across different data sets are rare and problematic due to conflicting data organizational structures or incomplete documentation. This is not the world we live in today. Reuse for unexpected purposes and data (and model) comparisons are becoming increasingly common (e.g. climate model / observation comparisons). Data sets are preserved for future global investigators that may be unaware of the original project or purpose of the data. Also, it is becoming more common for data to be restructured and reformatted for particular problem or to support a flexible web service. Unfortunately, many of these efforts do not preserve the metadata that, hopefully, accompanies the data in the original format. In this presentation we will discuss alternative approaches to data management that will facilitate data reuse across teams and disciplines.

  4. Recovery of zirconium from pickling solution, regeneration and its reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal10@gmail.com [Alkali Material & Metal Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Visweswara Rao, R.V.R.L.; Sairam, S.; Thakur, S. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The following compares the performance of fresh pickling solution (PS) and regenerated and used pickling solution (UPS). - Highlights: • Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages is carried out to remove oxide layer. • The pickling solution become saturated with zirconium due to reuse. • As NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases, conc. of Zr in pickling solution decreases. • Experimental results shows that, used pickling solution can be regenerated. • Regenerated solution may be reused by adding makeup quantities of HF-HNO{sub 3}. - Abstract: The pressurized heavy water reactors use natural uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) as fuel and uses cladding material made up of zircaloy, an alloy of zirconium. Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages viz., spacer and bearing pads is carried out to remove the oxide layer and surface contaminants, if present. Pickling solution, after use for many cycles i.e., used pickling solution (UPS) is sold out to vendors, basically for its zirconium value. UPS, containing a relatively small concentration of hydrofluoric acid. After repeated use, pickling solution become saturated with zirconium fluoride complex and is treated by adding sodium nitrate to precipitate sodium hexafluro-zirconate. The remaining solution can be recycled after suitable makeup for further pickling use. The revenue lost by selling UPS is very high compared to its zirconium value, which causes monetary loss to the processing unit. Experiments were conducted to regenerate and reuse UPS which will save a good amount of revenue and also protect the environment. Experimental details and results are discussed in this paper.

  5. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    This review focuses on the present status of forward osmosis (FO) niches in two main areas: seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. Specific applications for desalination and impaired-quality water treatment and reuse are described, as well as the benefits, advantages, challenges, costs and knowledge gaps on FO hybrid systems are discussed. FO can play a role as a bridge to integrate upstream and downstream water treatment processes, to reduce the energy consumption of the entire desalination or water recovery and reuse processes, thus achieving a sustainable solution for the water-energy nexus. FO hybrid membrane systems showed to have advantages over traditional membrane process like high pressure reverse osmosis and nanofiltration for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v) higher overall sustainability of the desalination and wastewater treatment process. Nevertheless, major challenges make FO systems not yet a commercially viable technology, the most critical being the development of a high flux membrane, capable of maintaining an elevated salt rejection and a reduced internal concentration polarization effect, and the availability of appropriate draw solutions (cost effective and non-toxic), which can be recirculated via an efficient recovery process. This review article highlights the features of hybrid FO systems and specifically provides the state-of-the-art applications in the water industry in a novel classification and based on the latest developments toward scaling up these systems.

  6. Treatment of water closet flush water for recycle and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Results from the operation of a 37.8 m/sup 3//d extended aeration and sand filtration system in the closed-loop treatment of water closet flush water are presented. The system has operated for four and one-half years at 95 percent recycle. During this period over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of flush water was treated and reused. Water inputs into the recycle system resulted from liquid human wastes plus wastage form potable water uses. Wasted potable water inputs were from wash basins, water fountains and custodial services. Operation of both the biological treatment unit and the pressure sand filter followed acceptable conventional practice. Variations in nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate), pH and alkalinity that were observed could be accounted for through fundamental biological, chemical and physical relationships. The pH throughout the entire recycle system varied between 5.5 and 8.4. Recycled water pH rose from a preflush pH of approximately 7.0 to a pH of 8.4 immediately after flushing. The biological unit lowered the pH and functioned between pH values of 5.5 and 7.0. A slight rise in pH between the biological unit (through storage and filtration) and water closets was observed. The predominate biomass in the biological unit was fungi. Biological solids were threadlike; however, they readily separated by gravity settling. Wastage of biological solids from the biological unit in the recycle-reuse system was the same experienced for a comparable biological unit used to treat water closet wastewater that was not recycled. Results from this study have conclusively demonstrated on a full-scale basis the acceptability of using biological oxidation and sand filtration as a treatment train in the reuse of water closet wastewater with a recycle ratio of 20.

  7. V&V Within Reuse-Based Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    Verification and Validation (V&V) is used to increase the level of assurance of critical software, particularly that of safety-critical and mission-critical software. V&V is a systems engineering discipline that evaluates the software in a systems context, and is currently applied during the development of a specific application system. In order to bring the effectiveness of V&V to bear within reuse-based software engineering, V&V must be incorporated within the domain engineering process.

  8. De Reus van Schimmert: from water tower to data center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tzanakakis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The water tower of Schimmert was built in 1926 to cover the needs of water of Schimmert and the surrounding areas as well. This imposing 38 meters high tower dwarfs any nearby buildings, providing a 360° view of the surrounding area and deserves its pseudonym de Reus van Schimmert (the Giant of Schimmert. In the attempt to find a sustainable business model for the iconic building the concept of installing a data center in its core is investigated. The waste heat from the servers will be transferred to the reservoir on the top and from there used to power a district heating system in Schimmert.

  9. Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.

  10. Reuse of discharged fuel in Bohunice-1,2 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.; Majercik, J.; Kacmar, M.

    2003-01-01

    During the reconstruction of Bohunice-1,2 units (1997 - 2001), their cycle lengths dropped to very short values. Because of 4-year limit to fuel residence time, refuelling with fresh 2.4 % enriched assemblies seemed to be a solution of the problem. The paper describes the implementation of a final decision to reuse 3.6 % enriched fuel discharged after 3-year irradiation in previous cycles. This decision led to a large-scale moving of discharged assemblies from spent fuel pools back to reactors (Authors)

  11. Test results on reuse of reclaimed shower water - A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Sauer, Richard; Reysa, Richard P.; Linton, Arthur T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to evaluate a microgravity whole body shower and waste water recovery system design for possible use on the Space Station. Several water recovery methods were tested, including phase change distillation, a thermoelectric hollow fiber membrane evaporation subsystem, and a reverse osmosis dynamic membrane system. Consideration is given to the test hardware, the types of soaps evaluated, the human response to showering with reclaimed water, chemical treatment for microbial control, the procedures for providing hygienic water, and the quality of water produced by the systems. All three of the waste water recovery systems tested successfully produced reclaimed water for reuse.

  12. Cooperative Spatial Reuse with Transmit Beamforming in Multi-rate Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Chenguang; Fitzek, Frank; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a cooperative spatial reuse (CSR) scheme as a cooperative extension of the current TDMA-based MAC to enable spatial reuse in multi-rate wireless networks. We model spatial reuse as a cooperation problem on utilizing the time slots obtained from the TDMA-based MAC. In CSR, there are two...... operation modes. One is TDMA mode while the other is spatial reuse mode in which links transmit simultaneously. Links contribute their own time slots to form a cooperative group to do spatial reuse. Each link joins the group only if it can benefit in capacity or energy efficiency. Otherwise, the link...... will leave spatial reuse mode and switch back to TDMA. In this work, we focus on the transmit beamforming techniques to enable CSR by interference cancellation on MISO (Multiple Input Single Output) links. We compare the CSR scheme using zero-forcing (ZF) transmit beamforming, namely ZF-CSR, to the TDMA...

  13. Evidence of Cross-boundary Use and Reuse of Digital Educational Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riina Vuorikari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study an investigation using log-files of teachers’ Collections of educational resources in two different platforms was conducted. The goal was to find empirical evidence from the field that teachers use and reuse learning resources that are in a language other than their mother tongue and originate from different countries than they do, for this, the term cross-boundary use of learning resources is used. In both contexts behavioural evidence was found that cross-boundary use and reuse takes place, and it was shown that it correlates with the general use and reuse trends. Moreover, it was found that cross-boundary reuse, when compared to 20% of general reuse, was notably less (37% to 55% of it. The motivation to study cross-boundary use and reuse is to set a baseline for future studies, and to understand how it can be supported and enhanced in the future.

  14. Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Chang, Andrew C; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2018-01-01

      To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output LCA to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on wastewater discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, the authors apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.

  15. A Case Study of Horizontal Reuse in a Project-Driven Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Røn, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    This experience paper presents observations, lessons learned, and recommendations based on a case study of reuse. The case study is concerned with the development, maturation, and reuse of a business domain independent software component (horizontal reuse) in a project-driven organisation that has...... knowledge is transferred within an organisation; (c) design patterns can be as risky as they can be beneficial; and (d) there is more to architectural mismatch than “merely ” packaging mismatch....

  16. A BIM-based approach to reusing construction firm’s management information

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiliang Ma

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays most construction firms have begun to use information management systems in their business to work more efficiently. At the same time, a lot of management information is being accumulated and some of the information can be reused to support the decision-making. Up to now, the information has not been reused so effectively in construction firms as expected. This paper introduces a new approach to reusing construction firm’s management information, which is based on BIM (Building Inf...

  17. A MAUT APPROACH FOR REUSING DOMAIN ONTOLOGIES ON THE BASIS OF THE NeOn METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    A. JIMÉNEZ; M. C. SUÁREZ-FIGUEROA; A. MATEOS; A. GÓMEZ-PÉREZ; M. FERNÁNDEZ-LÓPEZ

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge resource reuse is becoming a widespread approach in the ontology engineering field because it can speed up the ontology development process. In this context, the NeOn Methodology specifies some guidelines for reusing different types of knowledge resources (ontologies, nonontological resources, and ontology design patterns). These guidelines prescribe how to perform the different activities involved in any of the diverse types of reuse processes. One such activity is to select the be...

  18. On the Capacity of a GSM Frequency Hopping network with Intelligent Underlayer-Overlayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wigard, Jeroen; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    1997-01-01

    . By combining this reuse partitioning with frequency hopping, an increase in the network capacity in terms of carried traffic per cell is achieved. Simulations have indicated that for slow moving mobiles a gain of approximately 35% is achieved by this new feature when compared with a frequency hopping network...

  19. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  20. Production and Perception of Agricultural Reuse in a Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Cristiano Marques Arruda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing competition among the various sectors of society in the world for the use of water where agriculture stands out as a major consumer. Since it is carried out in a controlled manner, irrigation with effluents from a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP is a very attractive practice, as it allows a greater supply of water for nobler purposes. This work had the general objective of evaluating the perception of a rural community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Pernambuco, Brasil, in terms of consumption and production of products cultivated with the practice of agricultural reuse. The local population showed acceptance for the cultivation and consumption of products through agricultural reuse, above all, with reliable information on the appropriate quality of the effluents used for irrigation. In the estimated data, the same community had a potential of production of corn, beans and cotton in the order of 19.8 tons, 3.4 tons and 7.7 tons respectively, with the use of treated sewage in irrigation.

  1. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  2. Direct potable reuse – a feasible water management option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lahnsteiner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct potable reuse (DPR can be more economic than indirect potable reuse as no environmental buffer is needed and conveyance and blending of the purified water with other potable sources is basically less expensive. Long-term experience in Windhoek (48 years shows that treated domestic sewage can be safely and cost-efficiently utilized for potable reclamation (0.72 €/m3. A multiple barrier strategy is employed in order to attain the highest possible safety levels. There are three types of barriers: non-treatment, treatment and operational barriers. In recent years, new DPR schemes have been implemented in South Africa and in the USA, and the major difference between all the new reclamation processes and the Windhoek New Goreangab water reclamation plant lies in the employment of desalination process units. This topic and other issues, such as the use of ozone and biological activated carbon filtration, are addressed. Reclamation process optimization (increase in sustainability and the attainment of greater public acceptance are the major challenges facing the promotion of DPR, which should become a common and widely used water management option within the next 5–10 years.

  3. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewater from Beverage Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, H.; Mahmood, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimization. The combination of water demand management and cleaner production concepts have resulted in both economical and ecological benefits. Beverage industry requires huge amount of fresh water, generating considerable amount of polluted waste water during different processes including drink production, washing bottles, plant washdown as well as washing the floors and the general work area. Most of the industries do not reuse the waste water and consuming bulk of fresh water. The beverage industry is one of the major industries in Pakistan and the present study was conducted on the beverage/soft drink industry at Hattar Industrial Estate, Hattar, Pakistan to assess the feasibility of reuse of wastewater form bottle washing plant by conducting treatment test, like dilution of the waste water in different ratios, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. (author)

  4. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  5. The Anatomy of a Data Citation: Discovery, Reuse, and Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey Mooney

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Data citation should be a necessary corollary of data publication and reuse. Many researchers are reluctant to share their data, yet they are increasingly encouraged to do just that. Reward structures must be in place to encourage data publication, and citation is the appropriate tool for scholarly acknowledgment. Data citation also allows for the identification, retrieval, replication, and verification of data underlying published studies. METHODS This study examines author behavior and sources of instruction in disciplinary and cultural norms for writing style and citation via a content analysis of journal articles, author instructions, style manuals, and data publishers. Instances of data citation are benchmarked against a Data Citation Adequacy Index. RESULTS Roughly half of journals point toward a style manual that addresses data citation, but the majority of journal articles failed to include an adequate citation to data used in secondary analysis studies. DISCUSSION Full citation of data is not currently a normative behavior in scholarly writing. Multiplicity of data types and lack of awareness regarding existing standards contribute to the problem. CONCLUSION Citations for data must be promoted as an essential component of data publication, sharing, and reuse. Despite confounding factors, librarians and information professionals are well-positioned and should persist in advancing data citation as a normative practice across domains. Doing so promotes a value proposition for data sharing and secondary research broadly, thereby accelerating the pace of scientific research.

  6. Water Reuse: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the Bronze Age (ca. 3200–1100 BC, domestic wastewater (sewage has been used for irrigation and aquaculture by a number of civilizations including those that developed in China and the Orient, Egypt, the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Crete. In historic times (ca. 1000 BC−330 AD, wastewater was disposed of or used for irrigation and fertilization purposes by the Greek and later Roman civilizations, especially in areas surrounding important cities (e.g., Athens and Rome. In more recent times, the practice of land application of wastewater for disposal and agricultural use was utilized first in European cities and later in USA. Today, water reclamation and reuse projects are being planned and implemented throughout the world. Recycled water is now used for almost any purpose including potable use. This paper provides a brief overview of the evolution of water reuse over the last 5,000 years, along with current practice and recommendations for the future. Understanding the practices and solutions of the past, provides a lens with which to view the present and future.

  7. Immersed membrane technology for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkies, J.W. [Zenon Municipal Systems Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The use of membrane technology for both municipal water purification and wastewater/sewage treatment was discussed. Membranes are available in a wide range of forms and configurations. Their primary characteristics are pore size and molecular weight separation which classifies then as either microfiltration, ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis membranes. Ultrafiltration can separate soluble organics and insoluble solids such as bacteria, viruses, colloids and suspended particles. Microfiltration can separate most suspended solids including bacteria, many viruses and other suspended solids. It is not, however a complete barrier to viruses and is best used in conjunction with an ultra-violet disinfecting process. Different membrane configurations currently available were described along with their performance and efficiency. The ZenoGem{sup R} process which operates at high organic loadings, meets surface water discharge criteria. This membrane bioreactor makes wastewater reuse an achievable and cost-effective option, particularly when it is combined with carbon filtration and ultra-violet disinfection. The Cycle-Let{sup R} system produces a treated stream that is suitable for re-use in non-potable applications such as toilet flush water or for irrigation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  8. Water reuse in South America: A Chilean study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piero, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The driest desert in the western hemisphere is the source of the largest and most lucrative copper mining and processing business in South America. The newest, most explosive capitalist economy in South America is fueled by an industry whose ancient water supply is on the verge of collapse. Farther south, a textbook example of 1950's industrial pollution continues to be dumped in the Bio Bio River, the water supply of the country's third largest city. In the temperate Central Valley, public health advisories regularly warn consumers against consuming vegetables irrigated with river water containing raw sewage. In the warm summer months, hepatitis and cholera epidemics are frequent and deadly. In the last 5 years, these areas have initiated major sewage treatment plant and system improvements with significant reuse components. The technologies and reuse applications of reclaimed water that are now being used in Chile are being monitored and evaluated by Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. Major efforts at environmental cleanups are now being combined with new strategies to sue reclaimed water to meet the needs of South American in the 21st century.

  9. Review of produced water recycle and beneficial reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hum, F.; Tsang, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory; Harding, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Fresh water scarcity and increasing water demands are concerns facing jurisdictions around the world. A number of water management initiatives involving produced water recycling and reuse in Alberta and Canada will have a significant impact on sustainable development in Alberta. Produced water must first be treated to meet water quality requirements and regulatory guidelines for specific applications. This paper presented a comprehensive technical and economic review of commercially available water treatment technologies and discussed technical challenges in recycling produced water for steam generation and for commercial use. It provided an introduction to fresh water allocations and oil, gas and water production volumes in Alberta. In addition to research and development activities, the paper identified guidelines from Alberta Environment and the Energy and Utilities Board. Benefits of treated produced water were discussed. Desalination technologies include both distillation processes and membrane processes. The paper provided cost estimates based on a literature view and discussed the potential water treatment for south-east Alberta. The paper also offered a number of recommendations for further research. It was concluded that treating and recycling produced water for agriculture, irrigation, commercial and domestic uses are at early stages of research and development and that regulatory guidelines on water quality, health and safety for specific industries, ownership and transfer of produced water need to be developed in order to facilitate beneficial reuse of produced water. 57 refs., 7 tabs., 14 figs.

  10. Reuse and Securing of Mining Waste : Need of the hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neha; Dino, Giovanna; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; De Luca, Domenico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    With recent advancements in technology and rising standards of living the demand for minerals has increased drastically. Increased reliance on mining industry has led to unmanageable challenges of Mining waste generated out of Mining and Quarrying activities. According to Statistics from EuroStat Mining and Quarrying generated 734 million Tons in Europe in 2012 which accounted for 29.19 % of the total waste, becoming second most important sector in terms of waste generation after Construction Industry. Mining waste can be voluminous and/ or chemically active and can cause environmental threats like groundwater pollution due to leaching of pollutants, surface water pollution due to runoffs during rainy season, river and ocean pollution due to intentional dumping of tailings by mining companies. Most of the big mining companies have not adopted policies against dumping of tailings in rivers and oceans. Deep Sea Tailings Placement (DSTP) is creating havoc in remote and pristine environment of deep-sea beds e.g. Bismarck Sea. Furthermore, mining waste is contaminating soil in nearby areas by disturbing soil microbial activity and other physio-chemical and biological properties of soil (e.g. Barruecopardo village - Spain). Mining waste stored in heaps and dams has led to many accidents and on an average, worldwide, there is one major accident in a year involving tailings dams (e.g. Myanmar, Brazil, 2015). Pollution due to tailings is causing local residents to relocate and become 'ecological migrants'. The above issues linked to mining waste makes reuse and securing of mining waste one of the urgent challenge to deal with. The studies done previously on mining show that most of the researches linked with mining waste reuse and securing are very site specific. For instance, the type of recovery method should not only provide environmental clean-up but also economic benefits to promise sustainability of the method. Environmental risk assessment of using mining waste as

  11. Frequency Synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; Breems, Lucien J.; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  12. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, S.; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  13. Adaptive Re-Use Principles in Historic Hotel Buildings in Melaka And George Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Wahab Lilawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive re-use of historic buildings is a process of changing the original function of the historic buildings to another function that can optimise the use of existing historic buildings. The selection of appropriate new function is an important factor in determining the success of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. However, adaptive re-use work done on historic buildings on the World Heritage Site is not an easy task due to rules and principles outlined by local and international charters that must be abide by. This research is conducted to gather the true picture of applied adaptive re-use principles that has been done on heritage hotels available in Melaka and George Town World Heritage Sites. This research is started with an inventory that led to the discovery of 35 hotels which applied the principle of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. Based on this finding, 4 historic hotels from adaptive re-use applications have been selected as the case studies. Results of the case studies carried out show that the level of conservation of heritage hotel is moderate and measures of control should be taken to ensure the privileges of heritage hotel. As a result of this research, a number of suggestions are made to ensure that adaptive re-use work done in the future will be conducted as optimum as possible according to the adaptive re-use and conservation principles.

  14. Challenges in reusing transactional data for daily documentation in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G R; Lawson, E E; Lehmann, C U

    2008-11-06

    The reuse of transactional data for clinical documentation requires navigation of computational, institutional and adaptive barriers. We describe organizational and technical issues in developing and deploying a daily progress note tool in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit that reuses and aggregates data from a commercial integrated clinical information system.

  15. Understanding Functional Reuse of ERP Requirements in the Telecommunication Sector: an Empirical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an empirical study on the application of Function Points (FP) and a FP-based reuse measurement model in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects in three organizations in the telecommunication sector. The findings of the study are used to compare the requirements reuse for one

  16. Neural reuse leads to associative connections between concrete (physical) and abstract (social) concepts and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; Bargh, John A

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with neural reuse theory, empirical tests of the related "scaffolding" principle of abstract concept development show that higher-level concepts "reuse" and are built upon fundamental motives such as survival, safety, and consumption. This produces mutual influence between the two levels, with far-ranging impacts from consumer behavior to political attitudes.

  17. Re-using the archive in video posters: a win-win for users and archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.; Salgado, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Re-use of digital archival content means interpretation; and the ability to create new and original interpretations of cultural heritage materials constitutes necessary contemporary digital and media literacy skills for any (aspiring) scholar and, by extension, informed citizen. For archives, re-use

  18. Modeled De Facto Reuse and Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Drinking Water Source Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De facto reuse is the percentage of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) intake potentially composed of effluent discharged from upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results from grab samples and a De Facto Reuse in our Nation's Consumable Supply (DRINCS) geospatial wat...

  19. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  20. Incentives in the water chain: wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengenbach, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    The proper management of wastewater and its reuse is crucial in order to reduce hazards and maintain a variety of benefits. The merits of improvements in wastewater management are particularly high where effective wastewater treatment is not in place and completely untreated wastewater is reused.

  1. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their acceptance of the three major water reuse types of river water supplement, park water supplement, and agriculture irrigation was not high. The beneficial use of reclaimed water was admired by water resource managers, industrial sectors, and researchers, and these stakeholders strongly supported the advancement of reclaimed water reuse. However, some of the stakeholders showed concerns about the potential risks from reclaimed wastewater reuse. Among them, risks from waste water treatment facilities were the biggest concern. Stakeholders’ perception of reclaimed water was influenced by their social-economic attributes. This study will enrich the current survey findings on public perception of reclaimed water reuse, particularly in developing countries.

  2. Review of pathogen treatment reductions for onsite non-potable reuse of alternative source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities face a challenge when implementing onsite reuse of collected waters for non-potable purposes given the lack of national microbial standards. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) can be used to predict the pathogen risks associated with the non-potable reuse o...

  3. Beyond User Acceptance: A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Lovett, Sasha R; Binz, Christian; Sedlak, David L; Kiparsky, Michael; Truffer, Bernhard

    2015-07-07

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water quality standards, many utilities face skepticism from the public about potable water reuse. Prior research on this topic has mainly focused on marketing strategies for garnering public acceptance of the process. This study takes a broader perspective on the adoption of potable water reuse based on concepts of societal legitimacy, which is the generalized perception or assumption that a technology is desirable or appropriate within its social context. To assess why some potable reuse projects were successfully implemented while others faced fierce public opposition, we performed a series of 20 expert interviews and reviewed in-depth case studies from potable reuse projects in California. Results show that proponents of a legitimated potable water reuse project in Orange County, California engaged in a portfolio of strategies that addressed three main dimensions of legitimacy. In contrast, other proposed projects that faced extensive public opposition relied on a smaller set of legitimation strategies that focused near-exclusively on the development of robust water treatment technology. Widespread legitimation of potable water reuse projects, including direct potable water reuse, may require the establishment of a portfolio of standards, procedures, and possibly new institutions.

  4. Wastewater reuse in agriculture in the outskirts of the city Batna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is based on a survey of farmers. The data collected allow us to understand the reasons for the reuse of wastewater. This resource can be an important element in irrigation water management strategy. The possibilities of wastewater reuse in agriculture are significant, as is the case in the Batna region. In this ...

  5. The use of BIM for deconstruction and reuse : literature review and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, K.; Voordijk, J.T.; Adriaanse, A.M.; Bakker, J.; Frangopol, D.M.; van Breugel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Reduction of virgin materials use by the construction industry has high priority and can be achieved by reusing structural and non-structural building components from existing buildings. The high value reuse of building components has not been adopted yet on a large scale because of several reasons,

  6. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  7. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  8. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today's legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ''Indifference'' decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described

  9. V & V Within Reuse-Based Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) is used to increase the level of assurance of critical software, particularly that of safety-critical and mission critical software. This paper describes the working group's success in identifying V&V tasks that could be performed in the domain engineering and transition levels of reuse-based software engineering. The primary motivation for V&V at the domain level is to provide assurance that the domain requirements are correct and that the domain artifacts correctly implement the domain requirements. A secondary motivation is the possible elimination of redundant V&V activities at the application level. The group also considered the criteria and motivation for performing V&V in domain engineering.

  10. Reduce, reuse, and recycle: developmental evolution of trait diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C; Hileman, Lena C; Cubas, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    A major focus of evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) studies is to determine the genetic basis of variation in organismal form and function, both of which are fundamental to biological diversification. Pioneering work on metazoan and flowering plant systems has revealed conserved sets of genes that underlie the bauplan of organisms derived from a common ancestor. However, the extent to which variation in the developmental genetic toolkit mirrors variation at the phenotypic level is an active area of research. Here we explore evidence from the angiosperm evo-devo literature supporting the frugal use of genes and genetic pathways in the evolution of developmental patterning. In particular, these examples highlight the importance of genetic pleiotropy in different developmental modules, thus reducing the number of genes required in growth and development, and the reuse of particular genes in the parallel evolution of ecologically important traits.

  11. PUBLIC DOMAIN PROTECTION. USES AND REUSES OF PUBLIC DOMAIN WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often only remains at the level of concept, as the notion of the public’s right of access to public domain works is not substantiated, nor is the notion of the correct or legal use of such works.

  12. Acquiring, encoding, and re-using clinical knowledge in PRODIGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The development, implementation and maintenance of computer-executable clinical guidelines encompass a series of complex processes. As they are often performed by more than one organisation, this introduces further complexity. Within the PRODIGY project we attempt to control as many aspects of the process as possible, in order to increase the likelihood of achieving success. To illustrate the complexity of the process and many of the inherent problems and solutions, this paper describes the evolution of the PRODIGY knowledge base, describing the steps from acquiring knowledge, through encoding, to the execution of guidelines, and 'closing the loop' by discussing an approach to knowledge re-use. We will also consider some of the wider implications of our work and propose directions for future research and development activities.

  13. CASE-BASED PRODUCT CONFIGURATION AND REUSE IN MASS CUSTOMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shiwei; Tan Jianrong; Zhang Shuyou; Wang Xin; He Chenqi

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity and size of configuration knowledge bases requires the provision of advanced methods supporting the development of the actual configuration process and design reuse.A new framework to find a feasible and practical product configuration method is presented in mass customization.The basic idea of the approach is to integrate case-based reasoning (CBR) with a constraint satisfaction problem(CSP).The similarity measure between a crisp and range is also given,which is common in case retrieves.Based on the configuration model,a product platform and customer needs,case adaptation is carried out with the repair-based algorithm.Lastly,the methodology in the elevator configuration design domain is tested.

  14. Sharing and reuse of individual participant data from clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohmann, Christian; Banzi, Rita; Canham, Steve

    2017-01-01

    : The adoption of the recommendations in this document would help to promote and support data sharing and reuse among researchers, adequately inform trial participants and protect their rights, and provide effective and efficient systems for preparing, storing and accessing data. The recommendations now need......OBJECTIVES: We examined major issues associated with sharing of individual clinical trial data and developed a consensus document on providing access to individual participant data from clinical trials, using a broad interdisciplinary approach. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a consensus...... Research Infrastructures Building Enduring Life-science Services) and coordinated by the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network. Thus, the focus was on non-commercial trials and the perspective mainly European. OUTCOME: We developed principles and practical recommendations on how to share data...

  15. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, F.F.; Oliveira, E.B.G.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Telles, V.B.; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 μm). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 , ZnO e SiO 2 . This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  16. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  17. Beneficial reuse of empty DUF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Arnish, J.; Nabelssi, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses options for the disposal of depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders as they are freed over the next 20 years. Presently there are 46,000 mild steel cylinders in use, and projections show 600,000 tons of steel being freed over 20 years. The paper discusses the results of studies which have looked at various aspects of this issue: health risks; environmental impacts; costs and hassles; impact of DOE metal recycle policy. The general conclusions were that chemical and trauma risks dominate the risk evaluations, that risk levels are broadly speaking level for the studied disposition options, that environmental risks are highest for burial, and lowest for free release, while costs are higher for burial and recycling, than for reuse or free release.

  18. Soft plastic bread packaging: lead content and reuse by families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, C; Demak, M; Marcus, S; Goldstein, B D

    1991-06-01

    The presence of lead in labels painted on soft plastic bread packaging was evaluated. Lead was detected on the outside of 17 of 18 soft plastic bread bags that were analyzed, with an average of 26 +/- 6 mg per bag with lead. Of 106 families questioned, 16 percent of respondents reported turning the bags inside out before reusing for food storage, thus putting food in contact with the lead paint. We estimate that a weak acid, such as vinegar, could readily leach 100 micrograms of lead from a painted plastic bag within 10 minutes. Further, lead and other metals painted on food packaging of any type becomes part of the municipal waste stream subject to incineration and to land-filling. The use of lead in packaging presents an unnecessary risk to public health.

  19. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casals, Lluc Canals; García, Beatriz Amante; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  20. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, Lluc Canals; García, Beatriz Amante; Cremades, Lázaro V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  1. Greywater characterization and loadings - Physicochemical treatment to promote onsite reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, C; Andreadakis, A; Kouris, N; Charchousi, D; Mendrinou, P; Galani, A; Mantziaras, I; Koumaki, E

    2018-06-15

    Greywater is the wastewater produced in bathtubs, showers, hand basins, kitchen sinks, dishwashers and laundry machines. Segregation of greywater and blackwater and on site greywater treatment in order to promote its reuse for toilet flushing and/or garden irrigation is an interesting option especially in water deficient areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the different greywater sources in Greek households and to evaluate the performance of alternative physicochemical treatment systems to treat several types of greywater. Based on the results average daily greywater production was equal to 98 L per person per day and accounts for approximately 70-75% of the total household wastewater production (135 L per person per day). Among the different sources, laundry and kitchen sink are the main contributors to the total greywater load of organic carbon, suspended solids and surfactants, whereas dishwasher and bathroom greywater are the main sources of phosphorus and endocrine disrupting chemicals respectively. Depending on sources, greywater accounts for as low as 15% of the total wastewater load of organic carbon (in the case of light greywater sources), to as high as 74% of the total load organic load (in the case of the heavy greywater sources). On the other hand, the nutrients load of greywater is limited. The application of a physical treatment system consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, granular activated carbon filtration and disinfection can provide for a final effluent with high quality characteristics for onsite reuse, especially when treating light greywater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimized MBR for greywater reuse systems in hotel facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Natasa; Dalmau, Montserrat; Comas, Joaquim; Poch, Manel; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi

    2017-05-15

    Greywater is an important alternative water source, particularly in semi-arid, touristic areas, where the biggest water demand is usually in the dry period. By using this source wisely, tourist facilities can substantially reduce the pressure to scarce water resources. In densely urbanized touristic areas, where space has high value, compact solutions such as MBR based greywater reuse systems appear very appropriate. This research focuses on technical and economical evaluation of such solution by implementing a pilot MBR to a hotel with separated grey water. The pilot was operated for 6 months, with thorough characterisation of the GW performed, its operation was monitored and its energy consumption was optimized by applying a control system for the air scour. Based on the pilot operation a design and economic model was set to estimate the feasibility (CAPEX, OPEX, payback period of investment) of appropriate scales of MBR based GW systems, including separation of GW, MBR technology, clean water storage and disinfection. The model takes into account water and energy prices in Spain and a planning period of 20 years. The results demonstrated an excellent performance in terms of effluent quality, while the energy demand for air-scour was reduced by up to 35.2%, compared to the manufacturer recommendations. Economical evaluation of the entire MBR based GW reuse system shows its feasibility for sizes already at 5 m 3 /day (60 PE). The payback period of the investment for hotels like the demonstration hotel, treating 30 m 3 /day is 3 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electric vehicle battery reuse: Preparing for a second life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluc Canals Casals

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On pursue of economic revenue, the second life of electric vehicle batteries is closer to reality. Common electric vehicles reach the end of life when batteries loss between a 20 or 30% of its capacity. However, battery technology is evolving fast and the next generation of electric vehicles will have between 300 and 400 km range. This study will analyze different End of Life scenarios according to battery capacity and their possible second life’s opportunities. Additionally, an analysis of the electric vehicle market will define possible locations for battery repurposing or remanufacturing plants. Design/methodology/approach: Calculating the barycenter of the electric vehicle market offers an optimal location to settle the battery repurposing plant from a logistic and environmental perspective. This paper presents several possible applications and remanufacture processes of EV batteries according to the state of health after their collection, analyzing both the direct reuse of the battery and the module dismantling strategy. Findings: The study presents that Netherlands is the best location for installing a battery repurposing plant because of its closeness to EV manufacturers and the potential European EV markets, observing a strong relation between the EV market share and the income per capita. 15% of the batteries may be send back to the an EV as a reposition battery, 60% will be prepared for stationary or high capacity installations such as grid services, residential use, Hybrid trucks or electric boats, and finally, the remaining 25% is to be dismantled into modules or cells for smaller applications, such as bicycles or assisting robots. Originality/value: Most of studies related to the EV battery reuse take for granted that they will all have an 80% of its capacity. This study analyzes and proposes a distribution of battery reception and presents different 2nd life alternatives according to their state of health.

  5. A NASA-wide approach toward cost-effective, high-quality software through reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Charlotte O. (Editor); Smith, Kathryn A. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the second Workshop on NASA Research in Software Reuse on May 5-6, 1992 at the Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The workshop was hosted by the Research Triangle Institute. Participants came from the three NASA centers, four NASA contractor companies, two research institutes and the Air Force's Rome Laboratory. The purpose of the workshop was to exchange information on software reuse tool development, particularly with respect to tool needs, requirements, and effectiveness. The participants presented the software reuse activities and tools being developed and used by their individual centers and programs. These programs address a wide range of reuse issues. The group also developed a mission and goals for software reuse within NASA. This publication summarizes the presentations and the issues discussed during the workshop.

  6. A room with a viewpoint revisited: descriptive norms and hotel guests' towel reuse behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Bohner

    Full Text Available Field experiments on descriptive norms as a means to increase hotel guests' towel reuse [1] were replicated and extended. In two hotels in Germany (Study 1: N = 724; Study 2: N = 204, descriptive norm messages suggesting that 75% of guests had reused their towels, or a standard message appealing to environmental concerns, were placed in guests' bathrooms. Descriptive norm messages varied in terms of proximity of the reference group ("hotel guests" vs. "guests in this room" and temporal proximity (currently vs. two years previous. Reuse of towels was unobtrusively recorded. Results showed that reuse rates were high overall and that both standard and descriptive norm messages increased reuse rates compared to a no-message baseline. However, descriptive norm messages were not more effective than the standard message, and effects of proximity were inconsistent across studies. Discussion addresses cultural and conceptual issues in comparing the present findings with previous ones.

  7. A room with a viewpoint revisited: descriptive norms and hotel guests' towel reuse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Schlüter, Lena E

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments on descriptive norms as a means to increase hotel guests' towel reuse [1] were replicated and extended. In two hotels in Germany (Study 1: N = 724; Study 2: N = 204), descriptive norm messages suggesting that 75% of guests had reused their towels, or a standard message appealing to environmental concerns, were placed in guests' bathrooms. Descriptive norm messages varied in terms of proximity of the reference group ("hotel guests" vs. "guests in this room") and temporal proximity (currently vs. two years previous). Reuse of towels was unobtrusively recorded. Results showed that reuse rates were high overall and that both standard and descriptive norm messages increased reuse rates compared to a no-message baseline. However, descriptive norm messages were not more effective than the standard message, and effects of proximity were inconsistent across studies. Discussion addresses cultural and conceptual issues in comparing the present findings with previous ones.

  8. The potential for reusing grey water and its generation rates for sustainable potable water security in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAWA AL-JARALLAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to achieve the following objectives: (1 to investigate the water consumption patterns of Kuwaiti households, (2 to determine the per use water consumption rate for plumbing fixtures and their frequency of daily use and (3 to estimate the amount of grey water generated per person per day to explore the potential for reusing grey water in Kuwait. To achieve these objectives, a preliminary study was conducted to determine the per use water consumption rate for each plumbing fixture. An intensive study was then conducted using data from 53 households in different districts in Kuwait. The average daily freshwater consumption rate per person was found to be 283 L, half of which was converted to grey water. Reuse of grey water could reduce the freshwater consumption and hence wastewater treatment by 72.73 million imperial gallons per day (MIGD, which could lead to a savings of KD 87.6 (US $318.55 million from the annual freshwater production budget and between KD 15.93 (US $57.92 and KD 27.08 (US $98.46 million from the annual wastewater treatment budget.

  9. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the Disposal and Reuse of Mare Island Naval Shipyard Vallejo, California. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... reuse plan, developed by the City of Vallejo. Community reuse alternatives analyzed in the EIS/EIR include the Reuse Plan Alternative, a Medium Density Alternative, and the Open Space Alternative...

  10. Frequency spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  11. Frequency spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H., E-mail: strogatz@cornell.edu [Center for Applied Mathematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  12. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. → We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. → There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. → Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. → Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  13. Feasibility of on-site grey-water reuse for toilet flushing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the total reuse rate of municipal wastewater was 8.8% in China in 2012, water crisis is forcing China to increasingly develop water reuse. Urban reuse is comparatively poor and has significant potential to be promoted in China. It is a sensitive matter whether to include kitchen wastewater in grey-water reuse in water-deficient areas when kitchen wastewater accounts for a large proportion of total domestic water consumption. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon in kitchen wastewater are comparatively lower in China than in other countries, but a high concentration of nitrogen from washing tableware and rice makes it difficult to meet nitrogen requirements in Chinese guidelines. Whether kitchen wastewater should be included in grey-water reuse in China needs further study. Aerobic biological processes combined with physical filtration and/or disinfection is preferred in grey-water treatment, and how to balance the investment and treatment costs with reuse criteria still needs to be researched further. The promotion of reclaimed water for toilet flushing faces resistance in China. The necessity and effectiveness of existing restrictions in water reuse guidelines for toilet flushing in China are in doubt and need further discussion.

  14. Cleaning protocol for a FO membrane fouled in wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2013-05-30

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology which can be applied in water reuse applications. Osmosis is a natural process that involves less energy consumption than reverse osmosis (RO), and therefore can be applied as a dilution process before low-pressure RO; it is expected to compete favourably against current advanced water reuse technologies that use microfiltration/ultrafiltration and RO. The focus of this research was to assess the efficiency of different cleaning procedures to remove fouling from the surface of a FO membrane during the operation of a submerged system working in FO-mode (active layer (AL) facing feed solution) intended for secondary wastewater effluent (SWWE) recovery, using seawater as draw solution (DS), which will be diluted and can further be fed to a low-pressure RO unit to produce fresh water. Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling was expected to affect the AL, while for the support layer (SL), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were used as indicators of fouling due to their stickiness and propensity to enhance the attachment of other foulants in seawater on the membrane surface. The composition of the NOM fouling layer was determined after proper characterisation with a liquid chromatograph coupled with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), showing biopolymers and protein-like substances as the main constituents. NOM fouling showed high hydraulic reversibility after a 25% flux decline was observed, up to 89.5% when in situ air scouring for 15 min was used as a cleaning technique. Chemical cleaning with a mixture of Alconox, an industrial detergent containing phosphates, and sodium EDTA showed to increase the reversibility (93.6%). Osmotic backwash using a 4% NaCl solution and DI water proved to be ineffective to recover flux due to the salt diffusion phenomena occurring at the AL. Part of the flux that could not be recovered is attributable to TEP fouling on the SL, which forms clusters clearly identifiable with an optical

  15. Cleaning protocol for a FO membrane fouled in wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Li, Qingyu; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology which can be applied in water reuse applications. Osmosis is a natural process that involves less energy consumption than reverse osmosis (RO), and therefore can be applied as a dilution process before low-pressure RO; it is expected to compete favourably against current advanced water reuse technologies that use microfiltration/ultrafiltration and RO. The focus of this research was to assess the efficiency of different cleaning procedures to remove fouling from the surface of a FO membrane during the operation of a submerged system working in FO-mode (active layer (AL) facing feed solution) intended for secondary wastewater effluent (SWWE) recovery, using seawater as draw solution (DS), which will be diluted and can further be fed to a low-pressure RO unit to produce fresh water. Natural organic matter (NOM) fouling was expected to affect the AL, while for the support layer (SL), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) were used as indicators of fouling due to their stickiness and propensity to enhance the attachment of other foulants in seawater on the membrane surface. The composition of the NOM fouling layer was determined after proper characterisation with a liquid chromatograph coupled with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), showing biopolymers and protein-like substances as the main constituents. NOM fouling showed high hydraulic reversibility after a 25% flux decline was observed, up to 89.5% when in situ air scouring for 15 min was used as a cleaning technique. Chemical cleaning with a mixture of Alconox, an industrial detergent containing phosphates, and sodium EDTA showed to increase the reversibility (93.6%). Osmotic backwash using a 4% NaCl solution and DI water proved to be ineffective to recover flux due to the salt diffusion phenomena occurring at the AL. Part of the flux that could not be recovered is attributable to TEP fouling on the SL, which forms clusters clearly identifiable with an optical

  16. Optimization of greenhouse gas emissions in second-hand consumer product recovery through reuse platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Lorena M; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2017-08-01

    Product reuse in the solid waste management sector is promoted as one of the key strategies for waste prevention. This practice is considered to have favorable impact on the environment, but its benefits have yet to be established. Existing research describes the perspective of "avoided production" only, but has failed to examine the interdependent nature of reuse practices within an entire solid waste management system. This study proposes a new framework that uses optimization to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions of an integrated solid waste management system that includes reuse strategies and practices such as reuse enterprises, online platforms, and materials exchanges along with traditional solid waste management practices such as recycling, landfilling, and incineration. The proposed framework uses material flow analysis in combination with an optimization model to provide the best outcome in terms of GHG emissions by redistributing product flows in the integrated solid waste management system to the least impacting routes and processes. The optimization results provide a basis for understanding the contributions of reuse to the environmental benefits of the integrated solid waste management system and the exploration of the effects of reuse activities on waste prevention. A case study involving second-hand clothing is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed framework as applied to the material flow. Results of the case study showed the considerable impact of reuse on GHG emissions even for small replacement rates, and helped illustrate the interdependency of the reuse sector with other waste management practices. One major contribution of this study is the development of a framework centered on product reuse that can be applied to identify the best management strategies to reduce the environmental impact of product disposal and to increase recovery of reusable products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abandoning Peracetic Acid-Based Dialyzer Reuse Is Associated with Improved Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiling; Mooney, Ann; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, J. Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher mortality risk reported with reuse versus single use of dialyzers is potentially related to reuse reagents that modify membrane surface characteristics and the blood-membrane interface. A key mechanism may involve stimulation of an inflammatory response. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a prospective crossover design, laboratory markers and mortality from 23 hemodialysis facilities abandoning reuse with peracetic acid mixture were tracked. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin, and prealbumin were measured for 2 consecutive months before abandoning reuse and subsequently within 3 and 6 months on single use. Survival models were utilized to compare the 6-month period before abandoning reuse (baseline) and the 6-month period on single use of dialyzers after a 3-month “washout period.” Results Patients from baseline and single-use periods had a mean age of approximately 63 years; 44% were female, 54% were diabetic, 60% were white, and the mean vintage was approximately 3.2 years. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.70 and after case-mix adjustment was 0.74 for single use compared with reuse. Patients with CRP ≥ 5 mg/L during reuse (mean CRP = 26.6 mg/ml in April) declined on single use to 20.2 mg/L by August and 20.4 mg/L by November. WBC count declined slightly during single use, but nutritional markers were unchanged. Conclusions Abandonment of peracetic-acid-based reuse was associated with improved survival and lower levels of inflammatory but not nutritional markers. Further study is needed to evaluate a potential link between dialyzer reuse, inflammation, and mortality. PMID:20947788

  18. Water reuse potential in truck wash using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lucas Subtil; José Carlos Mierzwa; Ivanildo Hespanhol; Raphael Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the water reuse potential for truck washing using the effluent treated by a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) operated in full scale. In order to evaluate the reuse potential, a mass balance was performed for the reuse system taking into account the concentration of Total Dissolved Solids as the critical contaminant. The treatment system produced an effluent with average concentration of color, turbidity, TDS and BOD5 of 45 ± 14 uC, 15 ± 6.0 NTU, 244 ± 99 mg TDS / L and...

  19. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  20. Chihuahua: a water reuse case in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, M S; Navarro, C J; Pérez, J M

    2004-01-01

    Water supply for all kind of uses in Chihuahua is mainly groundwater. During the last decade this city has been damaged with a heavy hydrologic crisis because of a persistent drought. This came up with the overexploitation of groundwater aquifers; therefore a deficit between demand and offer was done. To minimize this problem the government authorities have started an integral plan of optimizing hydrologic resources which considers the treatment of wastewater and the use of reclaimed water. The secondary wastewater treatment facility of the city treats about 30,000 m3/d of a wastewater with high organic contents, and produces an effluent with low concentration of suspended solids, organic matter, fats, detergents, and metals. Reclaimed water is conveyed toward strategic sites for the irrigation of great green areas in sport clubs, educational institutions and industrial zones, besides of its utilization on some manufacturing processes, road service, and also over construction industry. The potential reuse of this water goes farther from those activities; the treatment of the secondary effluent until the required levels of the water-bearing recharge criteria are met for drinking water supply is considered as the next step to achieve through a suitable planning strategy for the best integral resource advantage.

  1. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N.; Velikhov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of ∼0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is ∼6000000 m 3 per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity

  2. Spatial optimization for decentralized non-potable water reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Nelson, Kara L.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-06-01

    Decentralization has the potential to reduce the scale of the piped distribution network needed to enable non-potable water reuse (NPR) in urban areas by producing recycled water closer to its point of use. However, tradeoffs exist between the economies of scale of treatment facilities and the size of the conveyance infrastructure, including energy for upgradient distribution of recycled water. To adequately capture the impacts from distribution pipes and pumping requirements, site-specific conditions must be accounted for. In this study, a generalized framework (a heuristic modeling approach using geospatial algorithms) is developed that estimates the financial cost, the energy use, and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with NPR (for toilet flushing) as a function of scale of treatment and conveyance networks with the goal of determining the optimal degree of decentralization. A decision-support platform is developed to assess and visualize NPR system designs considering topography, economies of scale, and building size. The platform can be used for scenario development to explore the optimal system size based on the layout of current or new buildings. The model also promotes technology innovation by facilitating the systems-level comparison of options to lower costs, improve energy efficiency, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Reuse of spent bleaching earth by polymerisation of residual organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Abdelhamid; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Spent bleaching earth (SBE) is a waste generated by the edible oil industry that currently has limited options for beneficial reuse. In excess of ∼2 million tonnes per year of SBE is generated world-wide with major quantities available in the middle-east where significant volumes of edible oils are produced. Low pressure compaction followed by heat treatment at 150°C causes polymerisation of the residual organic components in SBE and this produces monolithic samples with high unconfined compressive strengths (54MPa). SBE can therefore be used to manufacture novel clay blocks for use in construction that are bonded by polymerised vegetable oil. This represents a new, innovative and resource efficient application for SBE. In this research, commercial SBE has been characterised and the effects of key processing variables (temperature and compaction pressure) on the compressive strength, porosity and density of the SBE clay blocks are reported and the mechanisms responsible for strength development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Water Utility Lime Sludge Reuse – An Environmental Sorbent ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime sludge can be used as an environmental sorbent to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and acid gases, by the ultra-fine CaCO3 particles, and to sequester mercury and other heavy metals, by the Natural Organic Matter and residual activated carbon. The laboratory experimental set up included a simulated flue gas preparation unit, a lab-scale wet scrubber, and a mercury analyzer system. The influent mercury concentration was based on a range from 22 surveyed power plants. The reactivity of the lime sludge sample for acid neutralization was determined using a method similar to method ASTM C1318-95. Similar experiments were conducted using reagent calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate to obtain baseline data for comparing with the lime sludge test results. The project also evaluated the techno-economic feasibility and sustainable benefits of reusing lime softening sludge. If implemented on a large scale, this transformative approach for recycling waste materials from water treatment utilities at power generation utilities for environmental cleanup can save both water and power utilities millions of dollars. Huge amounts of lime sludge waste, generated from hundreds of water treatment utilities across the U.S., is currently disposed in landfills. This project evaluated a sustainable and economically-attractive approach to the use of lime sludge waste as a valuable resource for power generation utilities.

  5. Characteristics and possible reuse of Favignana Harbor’s sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, Sergio; Maffucci, Massimo; La Marca, Floriana; Ferrantini, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Italy is a country with a high coastal development where multiple activities are located in sites near the coast, which makes the handling of marine sediments a topic of particular interest and socio-economic importance. At present, the excavation of the seabed and the subsequent discharge of resulting materials into the sea represents a risk due to the possible spread of contaminants in the ecosystem. National and international legislation has recognized the immersion of contaminated material into the sea as an event of perturbation to the environment while promoting alternative management options and introducing the concept of sediment as a “resource” and not as a “waste”. There is a wide range of treatment technologies available and they significantly influence the reuse of dredged material. In the present work, a site-specific conceptual model of the small harbour of Favignana is presented and, on the basis of some preliminary analytical tests on superficial samples, the assumptions of management options are predicted. One of them is particularly interesting as it could be applied to other cases where, for reasons of safety of navigation, small volumes of slightly contaminated sand (less than 25,000 m3) must be dredged and, after removing chlorides, they may be used on land to create sporting centres and increase tourist capacity

  6. Beneficial reuse of a national resource from the nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a vital national resource existing within and being generated by the US nuclear enterprise and current and planned technologies and techniques for its beneficial use. Several million tons of radioactively contaminated metals, considered scrap and waste, have been identified at the many commercial and federal sites involved in the nuclear enterprise. Both the public and private sectors have several concerns regarding the disposition of existing inventories and potential generation of contaminated scrap metals. In the past, good metal has been buried as waste. The time has come and is long overdue for that practice to cease. In the late eighties, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge office pioneered the move to involve private industry in dealing with the contaminated scrap metal under its purview. Consequently, the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) emerged as the leader in processing contaminated metal for beneficial reuse. To use and advance the technologies and techniques for disposal of radioactively contaminated metals, SEG has built and operates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a metal processing facility (MPF). This MPF is used to process radioactively contaminated metals, rid them of most of the contamination, and form them into customized shield blocks and other beneficial-use items. Significant volume reduction for scrap metals (estimated to be in excess of 20 to 1) is achieved with metal-melting services

  7. A novel integrated assessment methodology of urban water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listowski, A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Vigneswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater is no longer considered a waste product and water reuse needs to play a stronger part in securing urban water supply. Although treatment technologies for water reclamation have significantly improved the question that deserves further analysis is, how selection of a particular wastewater treatment technology relates to performance and sustainability? The proposed assessment model integrates; (i) technology, characterised by selected quantity and quality performance parameters; (ii) productivity, efficiency and reliability criteria; (iii) quantitative performance indicators; (iv) development of evaluation model. The challenges related to hierarchy and selections of performance indicators have been resolved through the case study analysis. The goal of this study is to validate a new assessment methodology in relation to performance of the microfiltration (MF) technology, a key element of the treatment process. Specific performance data and measurements were obtained at specific Control and Data Acquisition Points (CP) to satisfy the input-output inventory in relation to water resources, products, material flows, energy requirements, chemicals use, etc. Performance assessment process contains analysis and necessary linking across important parametric functions leading to reliable outcomes and results.

  8. Stainless Steel RSM Beneficial Reuse technical feasibility to business reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.L.; Mishra, G.

    1997-08-01

    The Stainless Steel Beneficial Reuse Program began in 1994 as a demonstration funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. The purpose was to assess the practicality of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle. Technical feasibility has been demonstrated through the production of a number of products made from recycled RSM. A solid business foundation is yet to be achieved. However, a business environment is beginning to develop as multiple markets and applications for RSM are surfacing around the Complex. The criteria for a successful business reality includes: - affordable programs, - a continuing production base from which to expand, - real products needs, -adequate RSM supply, and - a multi-year program This program currently sponsored by SRS and DOE-ORO to fabricate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters from RSM provides an activity that satisfies these criteria. The program status is discussed. A comparison of the cost of DWPF canisters fabricated from recycled RSM and virgin metal is presented. The comparison is a function of several factors: disposal costs, the fabrication cost of virgin metal canisters, the fabrication cost of recycled RSM canisters, free release decontamination costs, and the cost to accumulate the RSM. These variables are analyzed and the relationship established to show the break-even point for various values of each parameter

  9. A study of quality management strategy for reused products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hui-Chiung; Yu, Rouh-Yun

    2013-01-01

    To ensure the sustainability, industries have to move forward to product recovery strategies. Reuse is one of the most efficient strategies as it preserves natural resources while maintaining the functional properties of the product. To alleviate the concerns over the quality at the end of first life, laws are enacted to protect the consumers through mandatory warranty requirements. Offering warranty results in additional costs, this cost might be reduced through upgrade that improves the reliability of the item. Considering the age at the end of first life as stochastic, this paper proposes a profit model, relevant costs like upgrade and the minimal repair during the warranty period are included. Optimal upgrade level and warranty length are jointly derived so that the expected profit per used item for the producer can be maximized. Algorithm to search for the optimal solution is developed for a special case. Numerical examples are utilized to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and the sensitivity analyses regarding the important parameters that might impact the profit

  10. Reuse of organobentonites with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ling-Yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Li-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Synthesized organobentonite (SOB), montmorillonite (MMT), and commercial organobentonite (COB) were used as adsorbents for paraffin oil, a model pollutant in land-based oil spills and oil pipeline rupture. The characterization of clays was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After adsorption, oil was separated from adsorbents with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and DMCHA was subsequently separated from paraffin oil upon CO 2 bubbling instead of distillation with high energy cost. The adsorption capacity of oil to SOB, MMT, and COB was 0.686, 1.124, and 1.239 g/g, respectively. It was found that the adsorption capacity and rinsed amount of the adsorbents depended on the d-spacing, which is related to surfactant content. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements suggested that the separation process occurred via two steps. Firstly, during the initial 35 min, carbonate ions coexisted with bicarbonate ions. Then, only bicarbonate ions existed after the introduction of CO 2 gas for 120 min. Thus, organobentonites were feasible for hydrocarbon adsorption and could be simply reused by an amine-based responsive solvent. This work provided a cost-effective and sustainable method of recycling of organobentonites and the responsive solvent, which can be used to deal with leaked oil and oil spills.

  11. Decision-Making Methodologies for Reuse of Industrial Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Claver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When there is a social consensus that industrial assets are in fact heritage elements of cultural interest, their conservation and reuse must be considered with approaches that offer greater guarantees and that prevent their exposure to aggressive actions. In order for this to materialise, many aspects must be included in the decision-making process, from the characteristics of an asset and its surroundings, to the valuable aspects that distinguish it and that must be protected. This study aims to develop tools that guide the decision-making process regarding the most appropriate activity for each specific case study. Multicriteria Decision Support Techniques are evaluated as adequate support to create a proposal that fulfils these objectives. Furthermore, the Analytic Hierarchy Process is adapted to develop methodologies for assessing both the heritage value and the most compatible uses according to the characteristics of the asset. Subsequently, they are connected and such considerations regarding the heritage value of the asset are incorporated into the final decision. The tools developed are then applied to a case study to test their performance, assess their usefulness, and identify possible applications and future developments.

  12. Strengthening Culture of Recycling and Reusing from Environmental Axiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Del Valle Nadales Díaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to strengthen the culture of recycling and reuse from the environmental axiology in the students and teachers of the José Francisco Jiménez School, in the parish of Bolivia City of Pedraza state Barinas, under the action research method competitor. Consequently, it was developed in five phases described as: diagnosis, planning, execution, evaluation and systematization. The informants were two (2 classroom teachers, one (1 parents and representatives and two (02 students, belonging to the 6th grade of the aforementioned institution. The technique used for the collection of information was observation and interview, the instrument will be the observation guide for students and an interview guide for parents, representatives and teachers, the validity and reliability of the same was determined through of triangulation. Subsequently, the obtained results allowed to know the weaknesses in relation to the current situation of the garbage in the institution and the community in general. Based on the derivations that were generated, a set of actions aimed at students was developed in order to strengthen the entire content of environmental care in accordance with the new educational policies. In developing and evaluating the study, it was concluded that the actions carried out will be an alternative for students to process information related to the interactions of environmental systems, taking individual and collective actions in the protection and defense of the environment for sustainable development.

  13. Food industrial wastewater reuse by membrane bio-reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patthanant Natpinit

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility and performance of treating food industrial wastewater by Membrane BioReactor (MBR. In addition, the effluent of MBR was treated by Reverse Osmosis system (RO to reuse in boiler or cooling tower. The membranes of hollow fiber type were filled in the aerobic tank with aerobe bacteria. The total area of membrane 6 units was 630 m2 so the flux of the operation was 0.25 m/d or 150 m3/d. The spiral wound RO was operated at 100 m3/d of influent and received 72 m3/d of permeate. The sludge volume (MLSS of MBR was maintained at 8,000-10,000 mg/l. The average COD and SS of MBR influent were 600 mg/l and 300 mg/l respectively. After treating by MBR, COD and SS of effluent were maintained at less than 100 mg/l and less than 10 mg/l respectively. In the same way, COD and SS of RO permeate were less than 10 mg/l and less than 5 mg/l respectively.

  14. Clean-out and Reuse of GCEP Facilities at Portsmouth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, William; Hickman, Mark; Wiehle, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    PORTS began operations in 1956 to enrich uranium for both civilian and military use. It operated under Goodyear Atomic Corporation and Lockheed-Martin as a government-owned contractor-operated facility until the formation of the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as a government corporation in 1993. In 1998, USEC was privatized as a publicly traded corporation. USEC leases the Portsmouth and Paducah GDPs from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Enrichment operations were terminated at Portsmouth in 2001, although USEC continues to lease and maintain the Portsmouth GDP in Cold Shutdown and conduct some DOE projects there. LPP found that removal of old equipment to allow reuse of a facility can present unexpected challenges. Classified components create significant logistics issues. In this case, teamwork and attention to detail by USEC, LATA/Parallax, and DOE resulted in solutions and success. Lessons learnt: - Transportation logistics are particularly important when shipping waste streams with special requirements. - Investment in extra equipment yields tangible benefits where other resources (cleared drivers) are scarce. - An early start to providing specially qualified drivers, in this case providing security clearances, is essential. Availability is limited, and the time required to qualify new drivers may be lengthy. - A dedicated communications station, rather than reliance on existing resources (shift superintendent), is invaluable

  15. Savana: Re-using Electronic Health Records with Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Hernández Medrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Health information grows exponentially (doubling every 5 years, thus generating a sort of inflation of science, i.e. the generation of more knowledge than we can leverage. In an unprecedented data-driven shift, today doctors have no longer time to keep updated. This fact explains why only one in every five medical decisions is based strictly on evidence, which inevitably leads to variability. A good solution lies on clinical decision support systems, based on big data analysis. As the processing of large amounts of information gains relevance, automatic approaches become increasingly capable to see and correlate information further and better than the human mind can. In this context, healthcare professionals are increasingly counting on a new set of tools in order to deal with the growing information that becomes available to them on a daily basis. By allowing the grouping of collective knowledge and prioritizing “mindlines” against “guidelines”, these support systems are among the most promising applications of big data in health. In this demo paper we introduce Savana, an AI-enabled system based on Natural Language Processing (NLP and Neural Networks, capable of, for instance, the automatic expansion of medical terminologies, thus enabling the re-use of information expressed in natural language in clinical reports. This automatized and precise digital extraction allows the generation of a real time information engine, which is currently being deployed in healthcare institutions, as well as clinical research and management.

  16. Electrochemical treatment of spent tan bath solution for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Benhadji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A spent tanning bath contains high concentration of salts, chromium and protein. The treatment system for removal of chlorides or chromium from this effluent is expensive. In this context this waste has to be reused. Our study focuses on the application of advanced oxidation processes for protein removal present in a tanning bath. To improve the quality of the chromium tanning bath, two electrochemical processes (electrooxidation and peroxi-electrocoagulation process, PEP are investigated in a batch reactor. The effects of operational parameters such as reactor configuration, current density and electrolysis time on chemical oxygen demand (COD and protein removal efficiency are examined. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for process, the COD and protein removal efficiency reached 53 and 100%, respectively. The optimum values are determined for the hybrid process (PEP under 0.13 A·cm−2 over 2 h. The treated tanning bath is used as a tanning solution in leather processing. The influence of chromium salt dose, pH solution, stirring time and contact time on the leather characteristic is evaluated. The hides tanned after the addition of 0.25% of commercial chromium salt, at pH solution, leaving them stirring for 4 h with a contact time of 2 days, and showed good hydrothermal stability and physical characteristics of leather.

  17. Re-use of winery wastewaters for biological nutrient removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Villaseñor, J; Buendía, I M; Fernández, F J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the re-use of the winery wastewater to enhance the biological nutrient removal (BNR) process. In batch experiments it was observed that the addition of winery wastewater mainly enhanced the nitrogen removal process because of the high denitrification potential (DNP), of about 130 mg N/g COD, of the contained substrates. This value is very similar to that obtained by using pure organic substrates such as acetate. The addition of winery wastewater did not significantly affect either phosphorus or COD removal processes. Based on the experimental results obtained, the optimum dosage to remove each mg of N-NO3 was determined, being a value of 6.7 mg COD/mg N-NO3. Because of the good properties of the winery wastewater to enhance the nitrogen removal, the viability of its continuous addition in an activated sludge pilot-scale plant for BNR was studied. Dosing the winery wastewater to the pilot plant a significant increase in the nitrogen removal was detected, from 58 to 75%. The COD removal was slightly increased, from 89 to 95%, and the phosphorus removal remained constant.

  18. Reuse of Winery Wastewater by Application to Vineyard Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosse, K. P.; Patti, A. F.; Parikh, S.; Steenwerth, K. L.; Buelow, M. C.; Cavagnaro, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to reuse winery wastewater (WWW) has potential benefits both with respect to treatment of a waste stream, as well as providing a beneficial water resource in water limited regions such as south-eastern Australia, California and South Africa. Our study in south-eastern Australia and California has focused on characterizing the physicochemical properties and microbial communities on soils following WWW application. Studies in the Yarra Valley, Victoria, Australia considered the effect of a single WWW application on paired soil sites, one of which was acclimatized to WWW application via 30 years of this practice, and the other of which was not. Soils that had received WWW appear to have a primed microbial population, with soil respiration showing a significantly greater spike following the single WWW application. In addition, the nitrate and ammonium spikes were impacted upon in the acclimatised site. Taken together, this information suggests that long-term WWW application causes an alteration to the microbial community, which may be more readily able to assimilate the carbon and nitrogen sources present in WWW. Studies are currently underway to assess the impacts of the application of a synthetic WWW on vineyard soils in Davis, California. In this study, four different synthetic WWWs are being applied as irrigation water, and soil will be sampled at the time of grape harvest. Results from this ongoing work will be presented with a view to informing long term vineyard management for sustainability.

  19. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  20. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  1. Incidental potable water reuse in a Catalonian basin: living downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mujeriego

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of incidental potable water reuse (IPR in the Llobregat River basin has been conducted by estimating the dilution factor of treated effluent discharges upstream of six river flow measurement sections. IPR in the Llobregat River basin is an everyday occurrence, because of the systematic discharge of treated effluents upstream of river sections used as drinking water sources. Average river flows at the Sant Joan Despí measurement section increased from 400,000 m3/d (2007 to 864,000 m3/d (2008 and to 931,000 m3/d (2013, while treated effluent discharges upstream of that section ranged from 109,000 m3/d to 114,000 m3/d in those years. The highest degree of IPR occurs downstream of the Abrera and Sant Joan Despí flow measurement sections, from where about half of the drinking water supplied to the Barcelona Metropolitan Area is abstracted. Based on average annual flows, the likelihood that drinking water produced from that river stretch contained treated effluent varied from 25% (2007 to 13% (2008 and to 12% (2013. Water agencies and drinking water production utilities have strived for decades to ensure that drinking water production satisfies applicable quality requirements and provides the required public health protection.

  2. Pouring and running a protein gel by reusing commercial cassettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alexander C; Grey, Paris H; Cuddy, Katrina; Oppenheimer, David G

    2012-02-12

    The evaluation of proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is a common technique used by biochemistry and molecular biology researchers. For laboratories that perform daily analyses of proteins, the cost of commercially available polyacrylamide gels (~$10/gel) can be considerable over time. To mitigate this cost, some researchers prepare their own polyacrylamide gels. Traditional methods of pouring these gels typically utilize specialized equipment and glass gel plates that can be expensive and preclude pouring many gels and storing them for future use. Furthermore, handling of glass plates during cleaning or gel pouring can result in accidental breakage creating a safety hazard, which may preclude their use in undergraduate laboratory classes. Our protocol demonstrates how to pour multiple protein gels simultaneously by recycling Invitrogen Nupage Novex minigel cassettes, and inexpensive materials purchased at a home improvement store. This economical and streamlined method includes a way to store the gels at 4°C for a few weeks. By re-using the plastic gel cassettes from commercially available gels, labs that run frequent protein gels can save significant costs and help the environment. In addition, plastic gel cassettes are extremely resistant to breakage, which makes them ideal for undergraduate laboratory classrooms.

  3. Targeting heat recovery and reuse in industrial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Milana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the usage of fossil fuels in industrial sectors by meeting the requirements of production processes, new heat integration and heat recovery approaches are developed. The goal of this study is to develop an approach to increase energy efficiency of an industrial zone by recovering and reusing waste heat via indirect heat integration. Industrial zones usually consist of multiple independent plants, where each plant is supplied by an independent utility system, as a decentralized system. In this study, a new approach is developed to target minimum energy requirements where an industrial zone would be supplied by a centralized utility system instead of decentralized utility system. The approach assumes that all process plants in an industrial zone are linked through the central utility system. This method is formulated as a linear programming problem (LP. Moreover, the proposed method may be used for decision making related to energy integration strategy of an industrial zone. In addition, the proposed method was applied on a case study. The results revealed that saving of fossil fuel could be achieved. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI172063

  4. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  5. Enhanced noise tolerance for 10 Gb/s Bi-directional cross-wavelength reuse colorless WDM-PON by using spectrally shaped OFDM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallab K.

    2018-05-01

    Spectrally shaped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for symmetric 10 Gb/s cross-wavelength reuse reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based colorless wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) is proposed and further analyzed to support broadband services of next generation high speed optical access networks. The generated OFDM signal has subcarriers in separate frequency ranges for downstream and upstream, such that the re-modulation noise can be effectively minimized in upstream data receiver. Moreover, the cross wavelength reuse approach improves the tolerance against Rayleigh backscattering noise due to the propagation of different wavelengths in the same feeder fiber. The proposed WDM-PON is successfully demonstrated for 25 km fiber with 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) OFDM signal having bandwidth of 2.5 GHz for 10 Gb/s operation and subcarrier frequencies in 3-5.5 GHz and DC-2.5 GHz for downstream (DS) and upstream (US) transmission respectively. The result shows that the proposed scheme maintains a good bit error rate (BER) performance below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10-3 at acceptable receiver sensitivity and provides a high resilience against re-modulation and Rayleigh backscattering noises as well as chromatic dispersion.

  6. Full-duplex radio-over-fiber system with tunable millimeter-wave signal generation and wavelength reuse for upstream signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqun; Pei, Li; Li, Jing; Li, Yueqin

    2017-06-10

    A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system is proposed, which provides both the generation of a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal with tunable frequency multiplication factors (FMFs) and wavelength reuse for uplink data. A dual-driving Mach-Zehnder modulator and a phase modulator are cascaded to form an optical frequency comb. An acousto-optic tunable filter based on a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG-AOTF) is employed to select three target optical sidebands. Two symmetrical sidebands are chosen to generate mm waves with tunable FMFs up to 16, which can be adjusted by changing the frequency of the applied acoustic wave. The optical carrier is reused at the base station for uplink connection. FBG-AOTFs driven by two acoustic wave signals are experimentally fabricated and further applied in the proposed scheme. Results of the research indicate that the 2-Gbit/s data can be successfully transmitted over a 25-km single-mode fiber for bidirectional full-duplex channels with power penalty of less than 2.6 dB. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is verified by detailed simulations and partial experiments.

  7. Veritex(TM) Patches for Structural Repair and Re-Use, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) proposes to develop a bonded composite patch repair and re-use system based on CRG's VeritexTM materials. VeritexTM is a...

  8. Water reuse in the Apatlaco River Basin (México): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller-Chávez, G; Seguí-Amórtegui, L; Alfranca-Burriel, O; Escalante-Estrada, V; Pozo-Román, F; Rivas-Hernández, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of implementing different reclamation and reuse projects that improve the quality of the Apatlaco river basin located in the central part of Mexico. A special methodology based on a decision support system was developed. This methodology allows to decide if it is convenient or not to finance a reclamation or reuse project for the most common water uses in the basin. This methodology is based on the net present value criteria (NPV) of the effective cash flow during the useful life of the project. The results obtained reveal a technical and economical feasibility for industrial reuse in Jiutepec and for agricultural reuse in Zacatepec and Emiliano Zapata. On the other hand, sanitation projects are not feasible in all cases analyzed. Therefore, Mexican Regulation (Ley Federal de Derechos en Materia de Agua) as currently implemented, does not promote and support this kind of projects.

  9. Development of transformations from business process models to implementations by reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, T.; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Hammoudi, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for developing transformations from business process models to implementations that facilitates reuse. A transformation is developed as a composition of three smaller tasks: pattern recognition, pattern realization and activity transformation. The approach allows one

  10. Soil Aquifer Treatment : Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  11. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Maeng, Sungkyu; Fujioka, Takahiro; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Li, Zhenyu; Amya, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO

  12. Application of monochloramine for wastewater reuse: Effect on biostability during transport and biofouling in RO membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Loubineaud, E.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; El Chakhtoura, Joline; Salles, C.; Bucs, Szilard; Trampé , J.; Van den Broek, W.B.P.; Van Agtmaal, J.M.C.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2018-01-01

    The rising demand for clean and safe water has increased the interest in advanced wastewater treatment and reuse. Reverse osmosis (RO) can provide reliable and high-quality water from treated wastewater. Biofouling inevitably occurs, certainly

  13. The profitability drivers in packaging materials reuse for manufacturers in business to business environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Deleuran, Brian; Jacobsen, Peter

    Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to explore the profitability drivers for a firm’s operation of a reverse supply chain (RSC) that takes back and reuses packaging materials. Results apply specifically to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in business to business environments. Design......’s theoretical basis is the RSC literature’s business perspective formulated by Guide and Van Wassenhove. Findings – The drivers of profitability in packaging materials reuse are 1) the amount of avoided costs of purchasing new packaging materials, 2) the firm’s ability to reduce costs of reverse logistics...... as between the drivers and their sub-level antecedents. Originality/value – The study provides exploratory insights into the economics of reusing packaging materials and identifies the drivers that are decisive for a firm’s ability to reuse packaging materials profitably....

  14. Current technology and advances in true re-use of effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillie, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing exploitation of natural water resources has necessitated true re-use of effluents. Such planned re-use is preferable to the indirect or incidental re-use which has hitherto been practised, sometimes indiscriminately. Modern technology provides the means for renovating effluents to any desired quality standard, including human consumption. The major obstacles still confronting widespread application of true re-use are the removal of nitrogen compounds and trace organic residues, including insecticides, herbicides and carcinogens. The need to guarantee hygienic quality by removal or destruction of all pathogens, including viruses and parasites, constitutes a major cost item. Radiation techniques may well be applied for sterilization and for destruction of organic radicals. A combination of various unit processes, for which design criteria and hardware are readily available, can be used to produce potable water at a cost of some 10 cents/m 3 for a 45 Ml/d plant. (author)

  15. A BIM-based approach to reusing construction firm’s management information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ma

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays most construction firms have begun to use information management systems in their business to work more efficiently. At the same time, a lot of management information is being accumulated and some of the information can be reused to support the decision-making. Up to now, the information has not been reused so effectively in construction firms as expected. This paper introduces a new approach to reusing construction firm’s management information, which is based on BIM (Building Information Modeling technology. In the paper, the current approaches are reviewed at first, and then the framework of the new approach is described. Next, the key issues of the new approach are clarified. Finally, a use case of the new approach is demonstrated. It is concluded that the new approach can be used in construction firms to better reuse the accumulated management information.

  16. Spatial Reuse and Collision Avoidance in Ad Hoc Networks with Directional Antennas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yu; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    2002-01-01

    .... Some MAC protocols using directional antennas have been proposed in the past, which trade off spatial reuse and collision avoidance via a combination of omni-directional and directional transmission modes...

  17. Funding Water Reuse and Conservation Projects with the Clean Water State Revolving Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet demonstrates how the CWSRF provides assistance to eligible recipients for projects promoting water reuse and conservation. It highlights successful projects for these communities in California, Virginia and Texas.

  18. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  19. Presentation: Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given by Dr. James Johnson at the STAR Human and Ecological Health Impacts Associated with Water Reuse and Conservation Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar held on Oct. 26-27, 2016.

  20. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  1. Reuse of the compact nuclear simulator software under PC with Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, K. H.; Park, J. C.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, G. Y.

    2000-01-01

    This study was approached to reuse source programs for a nuclear simulator under PC with Open Source Software(OSS) and to extend its applicability. Source programs in the Compact Nuclear Simulator(CNS), which has been operated for institutional research and training in KAERI, were reused and implemented for Linux-PC environment with the aim of supporting the study. PC with 500 MHz processor and Linux 2.2.5-22 kernel were utilized for the reuse implementation and it was investigated for some applications, through the functional testing for its main functions as interfaced with compact control panels in the current CNS. Development and upgrade of small-scale simulators, establishment of process simulation for PC, and development of prototype predictive simulation, can effectively be enabled with the experience though the reuse implementation was limited to port only CNS programs for PC with Linux

  2. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  3. Reuse of materials from recyclable-waste collection for road building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2006-01-01

    A right policy of waste management should look to nature: in fact in nature nothing of produced is lost; everything could be considered food to energy resource for another subject. A diffusion of right policy of waste reuse is the leit motive of this study. Heavy problem of pollution and the protection of the natural environment, is the one of the most important problem of this society, and so to think waste to reuse for civil engineering research has a double aim: a) to reduce quantity to send to dump; b) to reuse good materials for civil engineering building, as substitute of natural aggregate. It look very innovative and actual to think to possibility of reuse glass from recyclable-waste collection for road building, and so we could consider road as a valid substitute to dump. The aim is to consider waste as an element with high energetic power and value added [it

  4. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  5. Bottom-Up Technologies for Reuse: Automated Extractive Adoption of Software Product Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez , Jabier ,; Ziadi , Tewfik; Bissyandé , Tegawendé; Klein , Jacques ,; Le Traon , Yves ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Adopting Software Product Line (SPL) engineering principles demands a high up-front investment. Bottom-Up Technologies for Reuse (BUT4Reuse) is a generic and extensible tool aimed to leverage existing similar software products in order to help in extractive SPL adoption. The envisioned users are 1) SPL adopters and 2) Integrators of techniques and algorithms to provide automation in SPL adoption activities. We present the methodology it implies for both types of users ...

  6. Inheritance for software reuse: The good, the bad, and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Murali; Eichmann, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Inheritance is a powerful mechanism supported by object-oriented programming languages to facilitate modifications and extensions of reusable software components. This paper presents a taxonomy of the various purposes for which an inheritance mechanism can be used. While some uses of inheritance significantly enhance software reuse, some others are not as useful and in fact, may even be detrimental to reuse. The paper discusses several examples, and argues for a programming language design that is selective in its support for inheritance.

  7. A Room with a Viewpoint Revisited: Descriptive Norms and Hotel Guests' Towel Reuse Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bohner, Gerd; Schlüter, Lena E.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments on descriptive norms as a means to increase hotel guests' towel reuse [1] were replicated and extended. In two hotels in Germany (Study 1: N = 724; Study 2: N = 204), descriptive norm messages suggesting that 75% of guests had reused their towels, or a standard message appealing to environmental concerns, were placed in guests' bathrooms. Descriptive norm messages varied in terms of proximity of the reference group ("hotel guests" vs. "guests in this room") and temporal prox...

  8. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  9. IDA world congress on desalination and water reuse, october 6-9, 1997, Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    International desalination association

    1997-12-31

    The books contain the Congress on Desalination and water reuse held in Madrid during October 1997. The five volumen present the following scopes. 1.- Fresh water world and Regional prospective 2.- Membrane desalination design 3. -Evaporative desalination operational experience 4.- Potable water reuse 5.- Plant automation design and experience 6.- Materials and corrosion research 7.- Chemistry and pretreatment. 8.- Research and development review 9.- Water treatment and potabilitation

  10. The future of urban waste water reuse. El futuro de la reutilizacion de las aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias Iglesias, M. (PRIDESA. Madrid (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    An explanation is given for the interest in the re-use of urban waste water, together with the possible uses for it. Water quality parameters such as the quantity of material in suspension, fertilizers, heavy metals, boron, bacteria and viruses, salinity, toxicity and pathogenous agents are given for water to be re-used, whether it be for drinking purposes or industrial use. Consideration is also given to the possibility of injecting this water into aquifers. (Author)

  11. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  12. The software-cycle model for re-engineering and reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John W.; Basili, Victor R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress of a study which will contribute to our ability to perform high-level, component-based programming by describing means to obtain useful components, methods for the configuration and integration of those components, and an underlying economic model of the costs and benefits associated with this approach to reuse. One goal of the study is to develop and demonstrate methods to recover reusable components from domain-specific software through a combination of tools, to perform the identification, extraction, and re-engineering of components, and domain experts, to direct the applications of those tools. A second goal of the study is to enable the reuse of those components by identifying techniques for configuring and recombining the re-engineered software. This component-recovery or software-cycle model addresses not only the selection and re-engineering of components, but also their recombination into new programs. Once a model of reuse activities has been developed, the quantification of the costs and benefits of various reuse options will enable the development of an adaptable economic model of reuse, which is the principal goal of the overall study. This paper reports on the conception of the software-cycle model and on several supporting techniques of software recovery, measurement, and reuse which will lead to the development of the desired economic model.

  13. Reuse of assembly systems: a great ecological and economical potential for facility suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weule, Hartmut; Buchholz, Carsten

    2001-02-01

    In addition to the consumer goods, capital goods offer a great potential for ecological and economic optimization. In view of this fact the project WiMonDi (Re-Use of Assembly Systems as new Business Fields), started in September 1998, focuses a marketable Remanufacturing and Re-Use of modules and components of assembly systems by using technically and organizationally continuous concepts. The objective of the closed Facility-Management-System is to prolong the serviceable lifespan of assembly facilities through the organized dismantling, refurbishment and reconditioning of the assembly facilities as well as their components. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easible and methodical strategies to realize a workable Re-Use concept. Within the project the focus is based on the optimization of Re-Use-strategies - the direct Re-Use, the Re-Use including Refurbishment as well as Material Recycling. The decision for an optimal strategy depends on economical (e.g. residual value, cost/benefit of relevant processes, etc.), ecological (e.g. pollutant components /substances), etc.) and technical parameters (e.g. reliability, etc.). For the purpose to integrate the total cost-of-ownership of products or components, WiMonDi integrates the costs of the use of products as well as the Re-Use costs/benefits. To initiate the conception of new distribution and user models between the supplier and the user of assembly facilities the described approach is conducted in close cooperation between Industry and University.

  14. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  15. Dialyzer reuse following manual reprocessing with a new sterilant, RenNew-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Adkar, V; Kaye, M

    1987-04-01

    Dialysis patients are at risk for toxicity from formaldehyde used in the reprocessing of dialyzers for reuse; therefore, replacing formaldehyde as a dialyzer sterilant would be advantageous. The potential for RenNew-D as a sterilizing agent was investigated in seven stable in-center hemodialysis patients over 20 consecutive dialyses with cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber dialyzers. Treatment with RenNew-D showed no toxicity to patients or dialyzers except for two blood leaks occurring in one patient. The mean number of dialyzer uses was 4.9. In all the dialyzers that passed functional testing small solute clearances were maintained with reuse. The ability of RenNew-D to improve the biocompatibility of reused dialyzers was documented with mean neutrophil counts falling to only 78% of initial values during first reuse of dialyzers processed with RenNew-D compared with a decrease in neutrophil count to 2% of initial values during first use of the same dialyzers. Our results suggest that RenNew-D may be a useful alternative to formaldehyde for the purpose of dialyzer reuse. A reuse procedure that includes processing with RenNew-D is associated with improved biocompatibility, possibly because of maintenance of the blood-derived membrane coating established during prior dialysis.

  16. Water reuse potential in truck wash using a Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lucas Subtil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the water reuse potential for truck washing using the effluent treated by a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC operated in full scale. In order to evaluate the reuse potential, a mass balance was performed for the reuse system taking into account the concentration of Total Dissolved Solids as the critical contaminant. The treatment system produced an effluent with average concentration of color, turbidity, TDS and BOD5 of 45 ± 14 uC, 15 ± 6.0 NTU, 244 ± 99 mg TDS / L and 14 ± 7.3 mg O2 / L, respectively. Based on the mass balance, and considering the TDS concentration established in NBR 13.696, if the final rinse does not use clean water, the potential for effluent reuse can reach 40%. However, if clean water is used as 30% of the total rinsing volume, it would be possible to reuse 70% of the treated effluent without compromising truck washing performance. This water reuse approach would result in an operational cost reduction of R$ 2,590.75/month.

  17. Reuse of samples: ethical issues encountered by two institutional ethics review committees in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langat, Simon K

    2005-10-01

    There is growing concern about the reuse and exploitation of biological materials (human tissues) for use in research worldwide. Most discussions about samples have taken place in developed countries, where genetic manipulation techniques have greatly advanced in recent years. There is very little discussion in developing countries, although collaborative research with institutions from developed countries is on the increase. The study sought to identify and describe ethical issues arising in the storage, reuse and exportation of samples in a developing country. Research protocols presented to two Ethics Review Committees in Kenya during a period of two years were reviewed. A record was made of the protocol title, sample collected, request for storage, reuse or exportation and whether or not subject consent was sought. The findings indicated that about 25% out of the 388 protocols sought permission for reuse and only half of those actually informed subjects of the contemplated re-use. Less than 20% requested storage and again, about half of them sought consent from subjects. There is an indication that investigators do not see the need to seek consent for storage, reuse and exportation of samples. It is proposed that these issues should be addressed through policy interventions at both the national and global levels.

  18. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  19. Water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP: a refinery case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dian Kurnia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP, has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering intra-facility water reuse strategies. For industrial sectors applying water reclamation and reuse schemes, it is paramount that the reclaimed water quality stays within the desired quality. The objective of WRAP is to establish a new methodology and knowledge, which will contribute to the sustainable development of industrial water management, and demonstrate its capabilities in identifying and addressing any potential hazards in the selected schemes adoption by the industries. A ‘what-if’ scenario was simulated using a refinery as a case study to show strategies on how to benefit reclaimed or reuse water based on reliable, applied and scientific research within the process integration area. In conclusion, the WRAP model will facilitate operators, consultants and decision makers to reuse water on a fit-for-use basis whilst avoiding contaminant accumulation in the overall system and production of sub-quality products from inadequate processes after several reuses.

  20. Sociospatial understanding of water politics: Tracing the multi-dimensionality of water reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Beveridge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Much social science literature on water reuse focuses on problems of acceptance and economic problems, while the spatial and political dimensions remain under-researched. This paper addresses this deficit by reformulating the issue in terms of sociospatial politics of water reuse. It does this by drawing on the work of Mollinga (2008 and the Territory Place Scale Network (TPSN framework (Jessop et al., 2008 to develop an analytical approach to the sociospatial politics of water in general, and water reuse in particular. The paper argues that Mollinga’s understanding of water politics as contested technical/physical, organisational/managerial and regulatory/socioeconomic planes of human interventions can be deepened through further reflection on their implications for the four sociospatial dimensions of the TPSN framework. Such a comprehensive, multidimensional approach re-imagines the politics of water reuse, providing researchers with a heuristic device to trace the interventions through which water reuse plans disrupt existing arrangements, and avoid a concern for individual preferences and simplified notions of barriers and enablers. The potential of the analytical framework is explored using an empirical illustration of water reuse politics in the Berlin-Brandenburg region in Germany.

  1. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullinger, Heather L; Kennedy, Marla J; Schneider, William H; Miller, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  2. Exploratory Disposal and Reuse Feasibility Analysis of Winter Maintenance Wash Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Ullinger

    Full Text Available The Ohio Department of Transportation has more than 60 facilities without sewer access generating approximately 19 million gallons of winter maintenance wash water. Off-site disposal is costly, creating the need for sustainable management strategies. The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory feasibility analysis to assess wash water disposal and potential reuse as brine. Based on a comprehensive literature review and relevant environmental chemistry, a sampling protocol consisting of 31 water quality constituents was utilized for monthly sampling at three geographically distinct Ohio Department of Transportation garages during the winter of 2012. Results were compared to local disposal and reuse guidance limits. Three constituents, including a maximum copper concentration of 858 ppb, exceeded disposal limits, and many constituents also failed to meet reuse limits. Some concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than reuse limits and suggest pre-treatment would be necessary if wash water were reused as brine. These water quality results, in conjunction with copper chemical equilibrium modeling, show pH and dissolved carbon both significantly impact the total dissolved copper concentration and should be measured to assess reuse potential. The sampling protocol and specific obstacles highlighted in this paper aid in the future development of sustainable wash water management strategies.

  3. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  4. Wastewater reuse in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC): the lost opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleisa, Esra; Al-Zubari, Waleed

    2017-10-12

    Reuse of treated wastewater is not only environmentally and financially sound, it is becoming indispensable for meeting the staggering water demand in certain regions, especially under conditions of alarming water scarcity. Reusing treated wastewater will help in reducing the pressure on expensive desalinated water production and depleting groundwater withdrawal, thereby reducing associated harmful environmental impacts. Reuse of wastewater in general and in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in particular has been a priority research area and has been in the media spotlight for some time, especially the use of tertiary quality water resources for agricultural purposes. However, reuse of treated wastewater is still in its primitive stage in terms of implementation in GCC. In addition, the overall volume of tertiary treated water that outflows unutilized to the sea is much greater than the volume reused. This paper provides a general review of and statistics on current practices of treatment of domestic wastewater in the GCC. The review highlights water resources, sanitation service coverage, wastewater treatment, effluent types, treated and reuse quantities, costs, and tariffs. The paper provides recommendations to improve wastewater treatment in the GCC to alleviate the stress on the scarce groundwater resources, provide a relatively inexpensive alternative to desalination, reduce the environmentally adverse impacts and externalities of desalination plants, and eliminate the discharge of untreated wastewater in coastal areas or terrestrial landfills.

  5. Development of decommissioning, decontamination and reuse technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Choi, B. S.

    2012-03-01

    In this project, the foundation of decommissioning technology through the development of core technologies applied to maintenance and decommissioning of nuclear facility was established. First of all, we developed the key technology such as safety assessment technology for decommissioning work needed at the preparatory stage of decommissioning of the highly contaminated facilities and simultaneous measurement technology of the high-level alpha/beta contamination applicable to the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Second, we developed a remotely controlled laser ablation decontamination system which is useful for a removal of fixed contaminants and developed a chemical gel decontamination technology for a removal of non-fixed contaminants during the maintenance and decommissioning works of high radiation hot cells which have been used for a recycling or treatment of spent fuels. Third, we developed a volume reduction and self-disposal technology for dismantled concrete wastes. Also, the technology for volume reduction and stabilization of the peculiar wastes(HEPA filter and organic mixed wastes), which have been known to be very difficult to treat and manage, generated from the high radioactive facilities in operation, improvement and repair and under decommissioning was developed. Finally, this research project was developed a system for the reduction of radiotoxicity of several uranium mixtures generated in the front- and back-end nuclear fuel cycles with characteristics of highly enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness, which can make the uranium to be recovered or separated from the mixtures with a high purity level enough for the uranium to be reused and to be classified as C-class level for burial near the surface, and then which result in the much reduction in volume of the uranium mixture wastes

  6. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  7. Reprocessing and reuse of urological armamentarium: How correct are we!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutik Vipulbhai Raval

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare is expensive for a large proportion of the population in spite of high per capita income and good health insurance penetration. In an effort to reduce cost of the procedure, reprocessing of devices was started in the late 1970s. Reprocessing practice includes various measures such as proper cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures. As reprocessing is aimed at reducing cost, there is a potential risk of compromising patient safety due to cross contamination after inadequate sterilization. There is also risk of performance alteration of urological reprocessed devices during sterilization/disinfection processing. Therefore, there is a need for formulating proper guidelines to decide methods of reprocessing for various urological equipment. There is also need to discuss the problematic areas that urologists face and to find their solutions. A PubMed search was made in September 2016, using key words “reprocessing of medical devices,” “Single Use Devices,” “methods of reprocessing of devices in clinical practice,” “use of formalin chamber,” “urological disposable sterilization,” etc., After excluding duplicates, all English articles were reviewed by title and abstract. Full texts of selected articles were obtained, and these articles were cross-referenced to find any other related articles. All the articles were reviewed. A product can be reused if it can be economically reprocessed with validated protocols with preservation of its function. There is no reason to discard it after one use. This practice is useful for controlling economics of a urological case and to reduce the financial burden. Current Food and Drug Administration guidelines are stringent. The contamination described to test the sterilization process in the suggested guidelines actually does never exist in clinical practice. Therefore, new guidelines considering the clinical practice scenario are desirable.

  8. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rabia M.; Hamilton, Kerry A.; Haas, Charles N.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0–100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water) when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10−4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10−4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR. PMID:28608808

  9. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia M. Chaudhry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% treated wastewater effluent were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0–100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10−4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10−4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR.

  10. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rabia M; Hamilton, Kerry A; Haas, Charles N; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-06-13

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium , and Salmonella . Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0-100% treated wastewater effluent) were assessed. Additionally, we assessed risks for different blending ratios (0-100% surface water blended into advanced-treated DPR water) when source surface water consisted of 50% wastewater effluent. De facto reuse risks exceeded the yearly 10 -4 infections risk benchmark while all modeled DPR risks were significantly lower. Contamination with 1% or more wastewater effluent in the source water, and blending 1% or more wastewater-impacted surface water into the advanced-treated DPR water drove the risk closer to the 10 -4 benchmark. We demonstrate that de facto reuse by itself, or as an input into DPR, drives microbial risks more so than the advanced-treated DPR water. When applied using location-specific inputs, this framework can contribute to project design and public awareness campaigns to build legitimacy for DPR.

  11. The use of smart technologies in enabling construction components reuse: A viable method or a problem creating solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Purnell, Phil; Lim, Ming K

    2018-06-15

    The exploitation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) for tracking and archiving the properties of structural construction components could be a potentially innovative disruption for the construction sector. This is because RFID can stimulate the reuse of construction components and reduce their wastage, hence addressing sustainability issues in the construction sector. To test the plausibility of that idea, this study explores the potential pre-conditions for RFID to facilitate construction components reuse, and develops a guidance for promoting their redistribution back to the supply chain. It also looks at how integrating RFID with Building Information Modelling (BIM) can possibly be a valuable extension of its capabilities, providing the opportunity for tracked components to be incorporated into new structures in an informed, sound way. A preliminary assessment of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the RFID technology is presented in order to depict its current and future potential in promoting construction components' sustainable lifecycle management, while emphasis has been laid on capturing their technical, environmental, economic and social value. Findings suggest that the collection of the right amount of information at the design-construction-deconstruction-reuse-disposal stage is crucial for RFID to become a successful innovation in the construction sector. Although a number of limitations related to the technical operability and recycling of RFID tags seem to currently hinder its uptake for structural components' lifecycle management, future technological innovations could provide solutions that would enable it to become a mainstream practice. Taken together these proposals advocate that the use of RFID and its integration with BIM can create the right environment for the development of new business models focused on sustainable resource management. These models may then unlock multiple values that are otherwise dissipated in

  12. Impact of Antenna Placement on Frequency Domain Adaptive Antenna Array in Hybrid FRF Cellular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Maldia Hari Asti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency domain adaptive antenna array (FDAAA is an effective method to suppress interference caused by frequency selective fading and multiple-access interference (MAI in single-carrier (SC transmission. However, the performance of FDAAA receiver will be affected by the antenna placement parameters such as antenna separation and spread of angle of arrival (AOA. On the other hand, hybrid frequency reuse can be adopted in cellular system to improve the cellular capacity. However, optimal frequency reuse factor (FRF depends on the channel propagation and transceiver scheme as well. In this paper, we analyze the impact of antenna separation and AOA spread on FDAAA receiver and optimize the cellular capacity by using hybrid FRF.

  13. Radiation Processing of Wastewater and Possibilities for Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, S.I.; Nakano, E.; Higa, M.; Pinheiro, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the CRP IPEN has worked on the irradiation and toxicity assessment for the improvement of dyes standard solutions and real complex effluents (textile) in order to achieve recommended quality for reuse of treated effluents during the process as well as for a suitable environmental discharge. Three different types of effluents were submitted to irradiation including standard solution of two reactive dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R – R3AR). It was also identified that different chemical formulas of these reactive dyes can contribute to a higher toxic charge during effluents discharges. In general the toxicity control was carried out on crustaceans and luminescent bacteria but a lot of experiments were performed with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata, this last biological assay was developed at “Instituto Butantan (USP, SP)”. Irradiations and measurements with UV spectrophotometer resulted always on less colored effluents and most often on less toxic liquid residues, after irradiation. Percentage of reductions for toxicity and color depended on the effluent source and the radiation doses applied varied from 1 to 10 kGy. The decoloration of remazol black B and orange 3R solutions was effective for 1kGy and 2.5 kGy which is a relatively low dose and may contribute to a suitable cost for irradiation technology. Since the possibility of different formula of dyes be present at environment exist, the toxicity was measured for all of them and it was noted that vinylsulphone form was the worst in terms of effects for V.fischeri ( Black B 133%) and D.similis (Orange 3R). Regarding biological effects of these remazol dyes after irradiation, this same dye solution resulted at 60% removal only for V.fischeri (not for daphnids) and when treated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation of real textile BVT effluents resulted in good colour removal but the acute toxicity reduction varied widely 97% (0.5kGy), 54% (2.5kGy) and 19% (1.0k

  14. Radiation Processing of Wastewater and Possibilities for Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrely, S. I.; Nakano, E.; Higa, M.; Pinheiro, A. S. [National Nuclear Energy Commission, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPENCNEN/ SP), São Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the CRP IPEN has worked on the irradiation and toxicity assessment for the improvement of dyes standard solutions and real complex effluents (textile) in order to achieve recommended quality for reuse of treated effluents during the process as well as for a suitable environmental discharge. Three different types of effluents were submitted to irradiation including standard solution of two reactive dyes (Remazol Black B - RPB and Remazol Orange 3R – R3AR). It was also identified that different chemical formulas of these reactive dyes can contribute to a higher toxic charge during effluents discharges. In general the toxicity control was carried out on crustaceans and luminescent bacteria but a lot of experiments were performed with the aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata, this last biological assay was developed at “Instituto Butantan (USP, SP)”. Irradiations and measurements with UV spectrophotometer resulted always on less colored effluents and most often on less toxic liquid residues, after irradiation. Percentage of reductions for toxicity and color depended on the effluent source and the radiation doses applied varied from 1 to 10 kGy. The decoloration of remazol black B and orange 3R solutions was effective for 1kGy and 2.5 kGy which is a relatively low dose and may contribute to a suitable cost for irradiation technology. Since the possibility of different formula of dyes be present at environment exist, the toxicity was measured for all of them and it was noted that vinylsulphone form was the worst in terms of effects for V.fischeri ( Black B 133%) and D.similis (Orange 3R). Regarding biological effects of these remazol dyes after irradiation, this same dye solution resulted at 60% removal only for V.fischeri (not for daphnids) and when treated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy. Irradiation of real textile BVT effluents resulted in good colour removal but the acute toxicity reduction varied widely 97% (0.5kGy), 54% (2.5kGy) and 19% (1.0k

  15. Reclamation and reuse of LEU silicide fuel from manufacturing scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Pace, B.W.; Evans, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide an understanding of the organization which is the sole supplier of United States plate type research and test reactor fuel and LEU core conversions, a brief description of the structure and history is presented. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is a part of McDermott International, Inc. which is a large diversified corporation employing over 20,000 people primarily in engineering and construction for the off-shore oil and power generation industries throughout the world. B and W provides many energy related products requiring precision machining and high quality systems. This is accomplished by using state-of-the-art equipment, technology and highly skilled people. The RTRFE group within B and W has the ability to produce various complexly shaped fuel elements with a wide variety of fuels and enrichments. B and W RTRFE has fabricated over 200,000 plates since 1981 and gained the diversified experience necessary to satisfy many customer requirements. This accomplishment was possible with the support of McDermott International and all of its resources. B and W has always had a commitment to high quality and integrity. This is apparent by the success and longevity (125 years) of the company. A lower cost to convert cores to LEU provides direct support to RERTR and demonstrates Babcock and Wilcox's commitment to the program. As a supporter of RERTR reactor conversion from HEU to LEU, B and W has contributed a significant amount of R and D money to improve the silicide fuel process which ultimately lowers the LEU core costs. In the most recent R and D project, B and W is constructing a LEU silicide reclamation facility to re-use the unirradiated fuel scrap generated from the production process. Remanufacturing use of this fuel completes the fuel cycle and provides a contribution to LEU cores by reducing scrap inventory and handling costs, lowering initial purchase of fuel due to increasing the process yields, and lowering the replacement costs. This

  16. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recchia, Lucia; Cini, Enrico; Corsi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  17. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate the energetic reuse of riparian vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recchia, Lucia; Cini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Agraria e Forestale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 15, 50144 Firenze (Italy); Corsi, Stefano [Consorzio di Bonifica per la difesa del suolo e la tutela dell' ambiente della Toscana Centrale, via Verdi 16, 50122 Firenze (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    The management of riparian vegetation which includes cutting operations of grass, reeds, bushes and trees, is very important to reduce hydrogeologic risk. In Tuscany, riparian biomass and residues are mainly left shredded along courses or disposed in landfills as special wastes: actually different laws prohibit that tree trunks are abandoned in areas naturally affected by flooding, because they can be moved contributing to increase the water level and to maximize the hydraulic risk of some other nearby areas. In some cases, it is also possible to store the logs in specified sites from where they can be taken and used as a fuel in fireplaces or domestic heating plants. This work studies the possibility of the reuse of riparian vegetation as biomass for energy production and evaluates benefits and drawbacks from the economical, environmental and managerial points of view. Particularly, a specific methodology has been developed for two hydrological districts of Tuscany, with different typologies and densities of vegetation. First, an estimation of biomass distribution on the land and an evaluation of annual wood availability have been carried out; then, different chains concerning harvesting operation, biomass transport, storage conditions and final utilisation, have been defined and compared by a specific multicriteria analysis (MCA); finally, for the most suitable bio-energy chains the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been implemented. Results of the LCA have also permitted to validate some environmental indicators used in the MCA, as mechanisation level of yards, energy efficiency of plants or transport distances. The decision making tool developed allows to compare costs and environmental benefits of the energy use of riparian vegetation, supporting local authorities involved in energy planning: in this way it is possible to confront different alternatives to match the energy demand and meet the energy saving and sustainability issues at the lowest cost for the

  18. Experimental mobile water reuse; Unidade movel experimental em reuso de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Maria de Fatima Rodrigues da; Santiago, Vania Maria Junqueira; Machado, Mara de Barros; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia Figueiras Pereira de; Florido, Priscilla Lopes; Iwane, Tsutomo; Coelho, Eloisia B.A.P.; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett de; Tomaz, Ailton Fonseca [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for environmental excellence in PETROBRAS and the need to minimize water use dictated by Law 9433/97 led to corporate guidelines to promote initiatives for the effective management of water resources, triggering a series of actions and projects. The Center for Research and Development - CENPES has as a priority research lines enable the reduction of water consumption in the oil industry through the reuse of effluent. The Mobile Unit for Experimental Water Reuse is a pioneer project in the world, in its format and purpose, was developed by CENPES in partnership with E and P - Process Engineering Ltda. and with e participation of the managements of Refine, SMES and Engineering. The main objective support initiatives aimed at reuse deployments Units of Operations (refineries and terminals, for example), by defining the best route technology for water treatment and wastewater. The Mobile Unit is composed of two trucks with pilot scale equipment that can test up to 90 technological solutions for water treatment and reuse. The station can test spot, the Company's refinery, processes to remove solids, organic load removal, and processes aimed at polishing and demineralization, simulating the operating conditions specific to the different characteristics of water and wastewater, with view to producing high quality water-compatible reuse in cooling towers or steam generation. From these tests CENPES may indicate the best alternative technically and economically for water reuse in design for industrial facilities, reducing time and cost of testing pilots. The field of knowledge in water reuse is an important asset to the sustainability of the Oil and Gas industry. Sustainable use of water resources is a goal of permanent PETROBRAS. (author)

  19. Water reuse in river basins with multiple users: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, G. W. H. (Gijs); Bastiaanssen, W. G. M. (Wim); Immerzeel, W. W. (Walter)

    2015-03-01

    Unraveling the interaction between water users in a river basin is essential for sound water resources management, particularly in a context of increasing water scarcity and the need to save water. While most attention from managers and decision makers goes to allocation and withdrawals of surface water resources, reuse of non-consumed water gets only marginal attention despite the potentially significant volumes. As a consequence, claims of water saving are often grossly exaggerated. It is the purpose of this paper to explore the processes associated with water reuse in a river basin among users of varying nature and review existing methods for directly or indirectly describing non-consumed water, recoverable flow and/or water reuse. First a conceptual representation of processes surrounding water withdrawals and associated definitions is discussed, followed by a section on connectivity between individual withdrawals and the complex dynamics arising from dependencies and tradeoffs within a river basin. The current state-of-the-art in categorizing basin hydrological flows is summarized and its applicability to a water system where reuse occurs is explored. The core of the paper focuses on a selection and demonstration of existing indicators developed for assessing water reuse and its impacts. It is concluded that although several methods for analyses of water reuse and recoverable flows have been developed, a number of essential aspects of water reuse are left out of existing indicators. Moreover, a proven methodology for obtaining crucial quantitative information on recoverable flows is currently lacking. Future studies should aim at spatiotemporal tracking of the recoverable portion of water withdrawals and showing the dependency of multiple water users on such flows to water policy makers.

  20. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  1. Case study: Evaluation of a scenario for the reuse of structures in the production area at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.; Folga, S.; Janke, R.J.; Kozlowski, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for the reuse of uncontaminated structures at federal facilities that are being remediated should be evaluated. Although various factors often limit the viability of such reuse, it may be economically attractive to reuse selected structures. Consideration of a hypothetical reuse scenario for the US Department of Energy's Fernald, Ohio facility shows that the reuse of selected buildings that were not significantly contaminated by production activities at the site may be considerably less expensive than the construction of new ones. The cost of removal of existing buildings is a major factor influencing the relative advantages of these two options. For Fernald, no need for the facility's buildings has been identified; however, the reuse of structures may be a viable option at other facilities

  2. A multilevel reuse system with source separation process for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Jin, Xin; Wang, Ziyuan; Gu, Wantao; Wei, Zhechao; Huang, Yuanjie; Qiu, Zhuang; Jin, Pengkang

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new system of multilevel reuse with source separation in printing and dyeing wastewater (PDWW) treatment in order to dramatically improve the water reuse rate to 35%. By analysing the characteristics of the sources and concentrations of pollutants produced in different printing and dyeing processes, special, highly, and less contaminated wastewaters (SCW, HCW, and LCW, respectively) were collected and treated separately. Specially, a large quantity of LCW was sequentially reused at multiple levels to meet the water quality requirements for different production processes. Based on this concept, a multilevel reuse system with a source separation process was established in a typical printing and dyeing enterprise. The water reuse rate increased dramatically to 62%, and the reclaimed water was reused in different printing and dyeing processes based on the water quality. This study provides promising leads in water management for wastewater reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Software Reuse Approach and Its Effect On Software Quality, An Empirical Study for The Software Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mateen, Ahmed; Kausar, Samina; Sattar, Ahsan Raza

    2017-01-01

    Software reusability has become much interesting because of increased quality and reduce cost. A good process of software reuse leads to enhance the reliability, productivity, quality and the reduction of time and cost. Current reuse techniques focuses on the reuse of software artifact which grounded on anticipated functionality whereas, the non-functional (quality) aspect are also important. So, Software reusability used here to expand quality and productivity of software. It improves overal...

  4. Granularity as a Cognitive Factor in the Effectiveness of Business Process Model Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschke, Oliver; Rake, Jannis; Levina, Olga

    Reusing design models is an attractive approach in business process modeling as modeling efficiency and quality of design outcomes may be significantly improved. However, reusing conceptual models is not a cost-free effort, but has to be carefully designed. While factors such as psychological anchoring and task-adequacy in reuse-based modeling tasks have been investigated, information granularity as a cognitive concept has not been at the center of empirical research yet. We hypothesize that business process granularity as a factor in design tasks under reuse has a significant impact on the effectiveness of resulting business process models. We test our hypothesis in a comparative study employing high and low granularities. The reusable processes provided were taken from widely accessible reference models for the telecommunication industry (enhanced Telecom Operations Map). First experimental results show that Recall in tasks involving coarser granularity is lower than in cases of finer granularity. These findings suggest that decision makers in business process management should be considerate with regard to the implementation of reuse mechanisms of different granularities. We realize that due to our small sample size results are not statistically significant, but this preliminary run shows that it is ready for running on a larger scale.

  5. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  6. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, Ghanshyam D; Omotola, Oluwabukola B; Heda, Rajiv P; Avery, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin's transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting.

  7. Recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metals within the department of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, V.; Murphie, W.; Gresalfi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) is pursuing recycle and reuse alternatives to burial of radioactive scrap metal. This approach is being implemented in a safe and environmentally sound manner, while significantly lowering dis-positioning cost and accelerating cleanup activities. This paper will define the NMR's success to date in promoting safe and cost effective recycle and reuse strategies for DOE's excess metals, through the use of case studies. The paper will also present actual volumes of metal moved by DOE into restricted and unrestricted uses since 1997. In addition, this paper will discuss the principle underlying the Three Building Decommissioning and Decontamination (D and D) Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy placed a moratorium on the unrestricted release of volumetrically contaminated metals from the DOE sites. Pursuant to that moratorium, the Secretary also established a ''Re-Use and Recycling Task Force'' to conduct a review of DOE policies regarding the management and release of all materials for recycle and reuse from DOE facilities. This task force was charged to develop a set of recommendations to ensure the protection of public health and the environment, openness and public trust, and fiscal responsibility. This paper will present an overview of the DOE's present range of recycle and reuse alternatives to disposal, as practiced by the NMR, and discuss the policy and issues associated with the task force mission. (authors)

  8. Beyond the throwaway society: A life cycle-based assessment of the environmental benefit of reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Valentina; Sala, Serenella; Mirabella, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In the context of a circular economy, sustainable consumption is often seen as the antithesis of current consumption patterns, which have led to the definition of the so-called throwaway society. Reuse may provide a preferred alternative to other waste management options, because it promotes resource efficiency and may significantly reduce environmental impacts. To appraise the environmental benefits related to reuse of goods, a methodology adopting life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed. A standardized procedure has been developed, identifying reference products within product category subject to reuse, and collecting reliable inventory data as a basis for calculating environmental impact through LCA. A case study on a second-hand shop is presented, and the avoided impacts are quantified. Inventory data were taken both from the literature and directly from sales and surveys submitted to customers. The results are presented, highlighting: 1) for each product category, the average avoided impacts for 1 unit of reused product considered; and 2) for the overall activities of the second-hand shop, the cumulative avoided impacts in 1 yr. In the case study, the higher contribution to avoided impacts comes from the apparel sector, due to the high amount of items sold, followed by the furniture sector, because of the high amount of environmental impacts avoided by the reuse of each single item. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  10. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  11. Energetic aspects and opportunities for reusing water on offshore platforms in Campos Basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Magalhães Duarte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the drilling and production of oil at sea, a large quantity of potable water used is most commonly transported to oil platforms using offshore supply vessels (OSVs. Sea water desalination is used as well, but only in a few oil platforms. To minimize energy consumption, water supply options were studied. The desalination of seawater and the reusing of streams of grey water and black water were evaluated and compared with the characteristics of the current supply via OSVs. In both desalination and OSV water supply options an electrolytic wastewater treatment plant is used. The objective of this study was to analyze the current situation regarding water supply on offshore platforms located in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to propose measures to take advantage of opportunities to reuse water and reduce energy expenditure. Two alternative scenarios were developed that involved the reuse of water that comes from the effluent of a biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Information on the logistics of supplying water to platforms was obtained through direct consultation with companies and sources in the literature. The results show that annual energy consumption (uptake, treatment, transportation, use and waste water treatment of water on offshore platforms is currently 1.89 GWh, and that a reduction of 1.8 GWh of the energy consumed can be achieved using advanced reuse treatments. Energy consumption in the water reuse treatment is more competitive than those of transport by OSVs or seawater desalination.

  12. Integrated wastewater management by reuse and recycling in a textile industry: a case study in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.R.; Trankler, J.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing stringent environmental legislation, scarcity of resources and development of treatment and management techniques for wastewater, have made recycling and reuse feasible and economical in many industrial processes. Wastewater management by integrating all available techniques was studied for reuse and recycling in a textile industry. Cotton and silk fabrics were main products of the selected industry. Approach was divided in to five parts, to achieve the objectives of reuse and recycling: in-house water consumption evaluation, segregation study, optimizing existing WWTP, treatability study and advanced treatment for final effluent to fulfill reuse criteria. Water consumption evaluation was done by in-house survey. Segregation study was performed by analyzing different wastewater streams. Efficiency of existing WWTP for COD and BOD removal was assessed and optimized. Treatability of dye wastewater by ozonation, chemical and nanofiltration was studied. Treatment study of final effluent for TDS and color removal by nanofiltration and chemical treatment was performed. Analyses show the possibilities to conserve and optimize water consumption up to 30% in the production processes by in-house improvement. Segregation study shows that up to 15% wastewater from less polluted streams can be recycled back. Adopting separate efficient treatment techniques could fulfill reuse criteria for remaining wastewater streams (50%). (author)

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of urban wastewater reuse with ozonation as tertiary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Rodriguez, Antonio; Rosal, Roberto; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment has been used to compare different scenarios involving wastewater reuse, with special focus on toxicity-related impact categories. The study is based on bench-scale experiments applying ozone and ozone in combination with hydrogen peroxide to a wastewater effluent from a Spanish sewage treatment plant. Two alternative characterisation models have been used to account for toxicity of chemical substances, namely USES-LCA and EDIP97. Four alternative scenarios have been assessed: wastewater discharge plus desalination supply, wastewater reuse without tertiary treatment, wastewater reuse after applying a tertiary treatment consisting on ozonation, and wastewater reuse after applying ozonation in combination with hydrogen peroxide. The results highlight the importance of including wastewater pollutants in LCA of wastewater systems assessing toxicity, since the contribution of wastewater pollutants to the overall toxicity scores in this case study can be above 90%. Key pollutants here are not only heavy metals and other priority pollutants, but also non-regulated pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Wastewater reuse after applying any of the tertiary treatments considered appears as the best choice from an ecotoxicity perspective. As for human toxicity, differences between scenarios are smaller, and taking into account the experimental and modelling uncertainty, the benefits of tertiary treatment are not so clear. From a global warming potential perspective, tertiary treatments involve a potential 85% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions when compared with desalination

  14. Evaluating the Interests of Different Stakeholders in Beijing Wastewater Reuse Systems for Sustainable Urban Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether water systems can be operated successfully and sustainably is influenced by the attitudes and willingness of stakeholders involved in the management of such systems. This study quantitatively evaluates the interests of different stakeholders in wastewater reuse systems in Beijing. Such interests comprise economic, environmental, and social effects induced by the wastewater reuse systems. The study considers four main stakeholders in Beijing, namely the Municipal Administration Committee (MAC, Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (MEPB, plant managers, and users. Cost benefit analysis is conducted to determine the aforementioned interests separately from the perspectives of the various stakeholders. The results reveal that not all stakeholders’ interests in the wastewater reuse systems in Beijing are satisfied. From the perspectives of both the MAC and MEPB, the evaluation results indicate that both decentralized and centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible. However, from the viewpoints of plant managers and users, the results reveal that only the centralized wastewater reuse systems are economically feasible, whereas the decentralized systems are not. The failure to satisfy the interests of plant managers and users may be a major reason for the interrupted operation of the decentralized systems in Beijing. The study demonstrates that successful and sustainable development of a new water project necessitates satisfying the interests of all stakeholders.

  15. Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Šteflová

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society faces. Urban water reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain, we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information, the level of knowledge, and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.

  16. Does the Circular Economy Grow the Pie? The Case of Rebound Effects From Smartphone Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Makov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits of the circular economy (CE are often taken for granted. There are, however, reasons to believe that rebound effects may counteract such benefits by increasing overall consumption or “growing the pie.” In this study, we focus on two main rebound mechanisms: (1 imperfect substitution between “re-circulated” (recycled, reused, etc. and new products and (2 re-spending due to economic savings. We use the case study of smartphone reuse in the US to quantify, for the first time, rebound effects from reuse. Using a combination of life cycle assessment, sales statistics, consumer surveying, consumer demand modeling, and environmentally-extended input-output analysis, we quantify the magnitude of this rebound effect for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. We find a rebound effect of 29% on average, with a range of 27–46% for specific smartphone models. Moreover, when exploring how rebound might play out in other regions and under different consumer behavior patterns, we find that rebound effects could be higher than 100% (backfire effect. In other words, we estimate that about one third, and potentially the entirety, of emission savings resulting from smartphone reuse could be lost due to the rebound effect. Our results thus suggest that there are grounds to challenge the premise that CE strategies, and reuse in particular, always reduce environmental burdens.

  17. Disposal and re-use of TENORM - legal limitations and obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.; Ettenhuber, E.

    2004-01-01

    While implementing EURATOM guideline 96/29 in the German legislation, in June of 2001 an essential pre-condition was created for re-use or disposal of TENORM. An essential progress has been achieved allowing to re-use TENORM or to dump it together with other residues and waste, if the specific activity does not exceed the limits defined in the radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV). Otherwise, if the specified limits in terms of concentration or radiation dose are exceeded, than these materials must remain under radiological protection. A practical application of the new German regulation turns out to be difficult especially for disposal together with other waste and for re-use as backfilling material in mines taking into account problems arising from adaptation of the respective legislation on radiation protection, soil protection, waste management and shipment of dangerous goods. The report tackles obstacles for re-use and disposal of TENORM together with garbage and toxic waste arising from the new legislation. Otherwise, proposals will be given how obstacles of selected options for re-use and disposal can be overcome. (orig.)

  18. UV and hydrogen peroxide treatment restores changes in innate immunity caused by exposure of fish to reuse water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Smith, Matthew K; Shu, Zengquan; Tierney, Keith B; Barreda, Daniel R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the innate immunity of goldfish exposed to reuse water, and UV/H2O2-treated reuse water, using a real-time flow-through exposure system. The reuse water generated by ultrafiltration of finished wastewater from the municipal wastewater treatment plant was analyzed for the presence of a panel of 20 herbicides/fungicides and 46 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP). There was a seasonal variation in the profile and concentrations of xenobiotics in reuse water with lowest levels occurring in the summer. The innate immunity parameters assessed were cytokine (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-10, TNFα2), and cytokine receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2) gene expression, and phagocytosis of kidney leukocyte subpopulations. Assessment of innate immunity parameters was done after acute (7 days) and sub chronic (30 and 60 days) exposure to reuse water, UV/H2O2-treated reuse water, and activated carbon-treated reuse water (ACT; control), during spring, summer and fall of 2012. Temporal (acute versus sub chronic) as well as seasonal differences in innate immunity of fish exposed to reuse water were observed. The acute exposure of fish to reuse water caused significant down-regulation in cytokine gene expression in different organs of fish (kidney, spleen, liver) and phagocytic ability of different kidney leukocyte subpopulations. The immune gene expression and phagocytosis of kidney leukocytes of fish returned to ACT control levels after sub chronic exposure suggesting that fish have habituated to the reuse water exposure. The changes in gene expression after acute exposure were related to variations in the profile of xenobiotics in reuse water during different seasons. The efficiency of xenobiotic removal using UV/H2O2 ranged between 1.6 and 100% indicating that treatment of reuse water using high dose UV/H2O2 was only partially effective in removing the xenobiotics, as assessed by both chemical analyses and measurement of innate immune

  19. Risk management, financial evaluation and funding for wastewater and stormwater reuse projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Casey; De Silva, Saman; Gan, Kein; Guthrie, Lachlan; Considine, Robert

    2017-04-15

    This paper has considered risk management, financial evaluation and funding in seven Australian wastewater and stormwater reuse projects. From the investigated case studies it can be seen that responsible parties have generally been well equipped to identify potential risks. In relation to financial evaluation methods some serious discrepancies, such as time periods for analysis, and how stormwater benefits are valued, have been identified. Most of the projects have required external, often National Government, funding to proceed. As National funding is likely to become less common in the future, future reuse projects may need to be funded internally by the water industry. In order to enable this the authors propose that the industry requires (1) a standard project evaluation process, and (2) an infrastructure funders' forum (or committee) with representation from both utilities and regulators, in order to compare and prioritise future reuse projects against each other. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current status of scrap metal recycling and reuse in USA and European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Recycling and reuse of natural resources has become a global issue to be pursued, but less effective without voluntary efforts from the every industries and of the individuals. In Japan, recycling and reuse of the scrap metal from dismantling of the nuclear facilities are currently noticed as a promising option and the responsible government organizations just started activities to develope the system for enabling and encouraging the nuclear facility owners to recycle their waste. Coincidently, there have been many reports published recently, which inform successful results of the method and the activities of the international organizations for the same intention. Taking this opportunity, current trends of scrap metal recycling and reuse in the experienced countries are reviewed and the proposals from IAEA, EC and OECD/NEA on the relating issues are summarized and compared in this paper. (author)

  1. The WaterHub at Emory University: Campus Resiliency through Decentralized Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Daniel; Lohan, Eric; Baldwin, Tim

    2018-02-01

      In the spring of 2015, Emory University in Atlanta, GA, commissioned an innovative campuswide water reclamation and reuse system known as the WaterHub®. Treating up to 400,000 gallons each day, the system can recycle the equivalent of two-thirds of the University's wastewater production and reduce the campus water footprint by up to 40 percent.One of the first district-scale water reuse systems in North America, the WaterHub mines wastewater from the campus sewer system and repurposes it for beneficial reuse on campus. In its first year of operation, the facility has treated more than 80 million gallons of campus wastewater and is expected to save millions of dollars in utility costs for the University over the next 20 years. The system represents a new age in commercial-scale water management in which onsite, urban water reclamation facilities may be a new norm.

  2. Resource recovery and reuse as an incentive for a more viable sanitation service chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recovering nutrients, water and energy from domestic waste streams, including wastewater and faecal sludge, is slowly gaining momentum in low-income countries. Resource recovery and reuse (RRR offers value beyond environmental benefits through cost recovery. An expected game changer in sanitation service provision is a business model where benefits accrued via RRR can support upstream sanitation services despite the multitude of private and public stakeholders involved from waste collection to treatment. This paper shows options of how resource recovery and reuse can be an incentive for the sustainable sanitation service chain, by recovering costs where revenue can feed back internally or using generated revenues from reuse to fill financial gaps across the service chain to complement other supporting mechanisms for making waste management more attractive.

  3. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  4. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  5. Textile sustainability: reuse of clean waste from the textile and apparel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broega, A. C.; Jordão, C.; Martins, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    Today societies are already experiencing changes in their production systems and even consumption in order to guarantee the survival and well-being of future generations. This fact emerges from the need to adopt a more sustainable posture in both people’s daily lives and productive systems. Within this context, textile sustainability emerges as the object of study of this work whose aim is to analyse which sustainability dimensions are being prioritized by the clean waste management systems of the textile and garment industries. This article aims to analyse solutions that are being proposed by sustainable creative business models in the reuse of discarded fabrics by the textile industry. Search also through a qualitative research by a case study (the Reuse Fabric Bank) understand the benefits generated by the re-use in environmental, economic, social and ways to add value.

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  7. Modeled de facto reuse and contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Westerhoff, Paul; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Batt, Angela L.; Mash, Heath E.; Schenck, Kathleen M.; Boone, J. Scott; Rice, Jacelyn; Glassmeyer, Susan T.

    2018-01-01

    De facto reuse is the percentage of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) intake potentially composed of effluent discharged from upstream wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results from grab samples and a De Facto Reuse in our Nation's Consumable Supply (DRINCS) geospatial watershed model were used to quantify contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) concentrations at DWTP intakes to qualitatively compare exposure risks obtained by the two approaches. Between nine and 71 CECs were detected in grab samples. The number of upstream WWTP discharges ranged from 0 to >1,000; comparative de facto reuse results from DRINCS ranged from 80% during lower streamflows. Correlation between chemicals detected and DRINCS modeling results were observed, particularly DWTPs withdrawing from midsize water bodies. This comparison advances the utility of DRINCS to identify locations of DWTPs for future CEC sampling and treatment technology testing.

  8. Wastewater reclamation using discarded reverse osmosis membranes for reuse in irrigation in Djibouti, an arid country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaleh, Mohamed Osman; Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Soubaneh, Youssouf Djibril; Hoch, Farhan Bouraleh; Bouh, Samatar Mohamed; Dirieh, Elias Said

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the feasibility of recovering discarded reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in order to reduce the salinity of domestic treated wastewater. This study shows that the reuse of RO membranes is of particular interest for arid countries having naturally high mineralized water such as Djibouti. The pilot desalination unit reduces the electrical conductivity, the turbidity and the total dissolved salt respectively at 75-85, 96.7 and 95.4%. The water produced with this desalination unit contains an average of 254 cfu/100 mL total coliforms and 87 cfu/100 mL fecal coliforms. This effluent meets the World Health Organization standards for treated wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes. The annual cost of the desalination unit was evaluated as US $/m(3) 0.82, indicating the relatively high cost of this process. Nevertheless, such processes are required to produce an effluent, with a high reuse potential.

  9. Industrial process water treatment and reuse: A framework for synthesis and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Pennati, Alessandra; Bogataj, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical optimization has shown the potential to contribute to industrial water management, through the development of the solution methods needed for optimization-based design of wastewater treatment and reuse networks (also called water networks). Nevertheless, the application of this appro......, allowing a reduced water footprint, and the treatment costs are identified.......Mathematical optimization has shown the potential to contribute to industrial water management, through the development of the solution methods needed for optimization-based design of wastewater treatment and reuse networks (also called water networks). Nevertheless, the application...... algorithms. To this end, we propose a computer-aided framework for the design of water treatment and reuse networks. In the framework, optimization methods, problem analysis tools and wastewater engineering knowledge are integrated in a computer-aided environment, in order to facilitate the formulation...

  10. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  11. Temporal characterization and statistical analysis of flowback and produced waters and their potential for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oetjen, Karl; Chan, Kevin E; Gulmark, Kristoffer

    2018-01-01

    organic and inorganic chemistry, and can pose a health risk if not handled correctly. Therefore, these waters must be treated or disposed of properly. However, the variability of these waters' chemical composition over time is poorly understood and likely limits the applicability of their reuse......), alkyl ethoxylates (AEOs), and polyethylene glycols (PEGs), as well as geogenic components present in flowback and produced waters, their overall temporal pattern, and variables affecting the reuse of these waters. Observations indicate that alkalinity and iron may limit the reuse of these waters in HF......Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has allowed for the utilization of previously unattainable shale oil and gas (O&G) resources. After HF is complete, the waters used to increase the facies' permeability return uphole as wastewaters. When these waters return to the surface, they are characterized by complex...

  12. Control criteria for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in determining the feasibility of developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, will be risk-based and will be developed through analysis of radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analyses will consider 42 key radionuclides that are generated during DOE operations and may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment

  13. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  14. Reuse of nuclear byproducts, NaF and HF in metal glass industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.W.; Lee, H.W. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S.H.; Moon, H.S.; Cho, N.C. [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the radiological safety and feasibility associated with reuse of NaF(Sodium Fluoride) and HF(Hydrofluoric Acid) which are generated as byproducts from the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The investigation of oversea`s experience reveals that the byproduct materials are most often used in the metal and glass industries. For the radiological safety evaluation, the uranium radioactivities in the byproduct materials were examined and shown to be less than radioactivities in natural materials. The radiation doses to plant personnel and the general public were assessed to be very small and could be ignored. The Korea nuclear regulatory body permits the reuse of NaF in the metal industry on the basis of associated radioactivity being {open_quote}below regulatory concern{close_quote}. HF is now under review for reuse acceptability in the steel and glass industries.

  15. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Highlights: • A model was developed to simulate heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads. • This model is based on artificial neural networks. • Land use fractions was used to model build-up loads on different particle sizes. • The maps of heavy metal spatial distribution and ecological risk were generated. • This model can be used for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Development of a robust modelling approach to mapping heavy metals build-up and their ecological risks for stormwater reuse safety.

  16. A molecular perspective on a complex polymorphic inversion system with cytological evidence of multiply reused breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo, D J; Puerma, E; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C; Aguadé, M

    2015-06-01

    Genome sequence comparison across the Drosophila genus revealed that some fixed inversion breakpoints had been multiply reused at this long timescale. Cytological studies of Drosophila inversion polymorphism had previously shown that, also at this shorter timescale, some breakpoints had been multiply reused. The paucity of molecularly characterized polymorphic inversion breakpoints has so far precluded contrasting whether cytologically shared breakpoints of these relatively young inversions are actually reused at the molecular level. The E chromosome of Drosophila subobscura stands out because it presents several inversion complexes. This is the case of the E1+2+9+3 arrangement that originated from the ancestral Est arrangement through the sequential accumulation of four inversions (E1, E2, E9 and E3) sharing some breakpoints. We recently identified the breakpoints of inversions E1 and E2, which allowed establishing reuse at the molecular level of the cytologically shared breakpoint of these inversions. Here, we identified and sequenced the breakpoints of inversions E9 and E3, because they share breakpoints at sections 58D and 64C with those of inversions E1 and E2. This has allowed establishing that E9 and E3 originated through the staggered-break mechanism. Most importantly, sequence comparison has revealed the multiple reuse at the molecular level of the proximal breakpoint (section 58D), which would have been used at least by inversions E2, E9 and E3. In contrast, the distal breakpoint (section 64C) might have been only reused once by inversions E1 and E2, because the distal E3 breakpoint is displaced >70 kb from the other breakpoint limits.

  17. Archetype-based data warehouse environment to enable the reuse of electronic health record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Moner, David; Maldonado, José A; Kolstrup, Nils; Bellika, Johan G

    2015-09-01

    The reuse of data captured during health care delivery is essential to satisfy the demands of clinical research and clinical decision support systems. A main barrier for the reuse is the existence of legacy formats of data and the high granularity of it when stored in an electronic health record (EHR) system. Thus, we need mechanisms to standardize, aggregate, and query data concealed in the EHRs, to allow their reuse whenever they are needed. To create a data warehouse infrastructure using archetype-based technologies, standards and query languages to enable the interoperability needed for data reuse. The work presented makes use of best of breed archetype-based data transformation and storage technologies to create a workflow for the modeling, extraction, transformation and load of EHR proprietary data into standardized data repositories. We converted legacy data and performed patient-centered aggregations via archetype-based transformations. Later, specific purpose aggregations were performed at a query level for particular use cases. Laboratory test results of a population of 230,000 patients belonging to Troms and Finnmark counties in Norway requested between January 2013 and November 2014 have been standardized. Test records normalization has been performed by defining transformation and aggregation functions between the laboratory records and an archetype. These mappings were used to automatically generate open EHR compliant data. These data were loaded into an archetype-based data warehouse. Once loaded, we defined indicators linked to the data in the warehouse to monitor test activity of Salmonella and Pertussis using the archetype query language. Archetype-based standards and technologies can be used to create a data warehouse environment that enables data from EHR systems to be reused in clinical research and decision support systems. With this approach, existing EHR data becomes available in a standardized and interoperable format, thus opening a world

  18. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2018-06-15

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an Integrated Wastewater Treatment System/water reuse/agriculture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C. H.; Schuler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Factors like increasing population, urbanization, and climate change have made the management of water resources a challenge for municipalities. By understanding wastewater recycling for agriculture in arid regions, we can expand the supply of water to agriculture and reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This can improve management decisions between WWTPs and water managers. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype integrated model of the wastewater treatment system and nearby agricultural areas linked by water and nutrients, using the Albuquerque Southeast Eastern Reclamation Facility (SWRF) and downstream agricultural system as a case study. Little work has been done to understand how such treatment technology decisions affect the potential for water ruse, nutrient recovery in agriculture, overall energy consumption and agriculture production and water quality. A holistic approach to understanding synergies and tradeoffs between treatment, reuse, and agriculture is needed. For example, critical wastewater treatment process decisions include options to nitrify (oxidize ammonia), which requires large amounts of energy, to operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations, which requires much less energy, whether to recover nitrogen and phosphorus, chemically in biosolids, or in reuse water for agriculture, whether to generate energy from anaerobic digestion, and whether to develop infrastructure for agricultural reuse. The research first includes quantifying existing and feasible agricultural sites suitable for irrigation by reuse wastewater as well as existing infrastructure such as irrigation canals and piping by using GIS databases. Second, a nutrient and water requirement for common New Mexico crop is being determined. Third, a wastewater treatment model will be utilized to quantify energy usage and nutrient removal under various scenarios. Different agricultural reuse sensors and treatment technologies will be explored. The

  20. The potential for the recovery and reuse of cooling water in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shu-Hai; Tseng, Dyi-Hwa; Guo, Gia-Luen; Yang, Jyh-Jian [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Chungli (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1999-04-01

    The cooling water is the major part of industrial water use in Taiwan, either from the view of demand priority or supply volume. In order to save water, the loading of supply system can be reduced if the cooling water can be recovered and reused. For this reason, exploration of the recent operation status of the cooling water system has become essential in Taiwan. This study was initially focused on the current applications and reuse trends of cooling water in oil refineries, chemical industry, steel mills, food industry, electronics works, textile plants and power stations. According to the statistical analysis, the portable water and groundwater are the primary sources of makeup water for cooling systems. The multiple-chemicals method and makeup treatment are increasingly accepted for the reclamation of cooling water. On the other hand, sidestream treatment and blowdown reuse are not popular in Taiwan. The recovery rate of blowdown is only 26.8%. The fact of higher cost is the major reason to depress the willingness of recovery. Some representative plants had been selected for case study. However, most cooling water systems are only operated by operator`s experience according to field investigation. In each case, the water quality indexes were used to evaluate the operational condition of cooling water systems. There was no case plant found to be operated at appropriate cycles of concentration. This paper also presented the bottlenecks of conservation technologies of cooling water in Taiwan. These bottlenecks include increasing the cycles of concentration, the reuse of wastewater, and the blowdown treatment for reuse. This paper also demonstrates that the recovery and reuse of cooling water has great potential and is feasible for the available technologies in present Taiwan, but the industries are still unwilling to upgrade because of initial cost. Finally, some approaches associated with technology, economics, environment and policy are proposed to be a

  1. Industrial reuse of regenerated of wastewater; Reutilizacion industrial de aguas residuales regeneradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans Torre, J.A.

    1998-12-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater is a realistic possibility not only for agricultural irrigation or in recreational uses (golf greens), but for other purposes which require a better quality. In the wastewater plant of Monclova the effluent must be of a high quality in order to reuse it in the processes of the existing steel-mill. To achieve this quality a biological process including nitrification and denitrification is followed by a tertiary treatment including a physico-chemical treatment with flotation, chemical precipitation of phosphorus, pressure filtration and chlorination. (Author)

  2. Achieving Both Creativity And Rationale: Reuse In Design With Images And Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scott McCrickard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although designers often try to create novel designs, many designs are based on previous work. In this paper we argue for the reuse of rationale, in the form of claims, as a central activity in design, and explore how this can be used to inspire creativity. We present a design activity in which images and claims are reused to create a storyboard and illustrate how creativity and rationale complement each other. Our work serves to demonstrate that an appropriate design activity can be used to leverage creativity with the use of rationale.

  3. Identified adjustability dimensions when generating a product specific requirements specification by requirements reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    . An extensive state of the art is included to introduce the presented methods related to each adjustability dimensions. The options for implementing each adjustability dimensions in a requirement reuse approach are illustrated along with a discussion regarding the benefits and issues resulting from each option....... This discussion should help practitioners to better understand the possible methods that can be implemented and to design a user friendly and sustainable approach. A case study, describing how the dimensions are incorporated in two requirements reuse approaches, for Danfoss Solar Inverters (SI) and Danfoss...

  4. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  5. CARDS: A blueprint and environment for domain-specific software reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnau, Kurt C.; Solderitsch, Anne Costa; Smotherman, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    CARDS (Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software) exploits advances in domain analysis and domain modeling to identify, specify, develop, archive, retrieve, understand, and reuse domain-specific software components. An important element of CARDS is to provide visibility into the domain model artifacts produced by, and services provided by, commercial computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technology. The use of commercial CASE technology is important to provide rich, robust support for the varied roles involved in a reuse process. We refer to this kind of use of knowledge representation systems as supporting 'knowledge-based integration.'

  6. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.; Hyde, J.

    1993-01-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D ampersand D of DOE's facilities. If successfully developed, these superior technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019. These technologies will also generate a reusable or recyclable product, while achieving D ampersand D in less time at lower cost with reduced health and safety risks to the workers, the public and the environment

  7. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  8. A General Algorithm for Reusing Krylov Subspace Information. I. Unsteady Navier-Stokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Vuik, C.; Lucas, Peter; vanGijzen, Martin; Bijl, Hester

    2010-01-01

    A general algorithm is developed that reuses available information to accelerate the iterative convergence of linear systems with multiple right-hand sides A x = b (sup i), which are commonly encountered in steady or unsteady simulations of nonlinear equations. The algorithm is based on the classical GMRES algorithm with eigenvector enrichment but also includes a Galerkin projection preprocessing step and several novel Krylov subspace reuse strategies. The new approach is applied to a set of test problems, including an unsteady turbulent airfoil, and is shown in some cases to provide significant improvement in computational efficiency relative to baseline approaches.

  9. Reclamation and reuse of MWI slags under the aspect of ground water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahl, U.; Struth, R.

    1993-01-01

    Some importants aspects of ground water protection are discussed, with regard to MWI-slag reclamation and reuse as construction material. The effects of a treatment process on residual organic compounds of slag material have to be regarded as very positive. Directed chemical influencing of the hydratation process directly after incineration offers new perspectives for generating slag with potentially little and constant elution behaviour. The authors welcome the new, sharpened demands on reuse of MWI-slag in Northrhine-Westfalia. This challenge can be met by the proposed treatment procedure without problems. (orig.) [de

  10. System for effluent treatment with particular reference to the reuse of the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolke, O.E.

    1979-01-01

    A system for effluent treatment with particular reference to the reuse of the water consisted of biological treatment, flocculation, filtration, activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange. Such a multistage system is needed to treat wastewaters from coal gasification and coke-oven plants since the effluents, derived from cooling water for scrubbers, waste heat boilers, and heat exchangers, contains high levels of phenols, fatty acids, ammonia, suspended tar oil, and coal particles. A pilot plant, which has been built based on the system, will produce water of sufficient quality for reuse as cooling water. It is hoped that cooling systems for coal gasification plants can be 90% closed circuit.

  11. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  12. The assessment of water use and reuse through reported data: A US case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Maria J.; Jafvert, Chad T.; Nies, Loring F., E-mail: nies@purdue.edu

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demands for freshwater make it necessary to find innovative ways to extend the life of our water resources, and to manage them in a sustainable way. Indirect water reuse plays a role in meeting freshwater demands but there is limited documentation of it. There is a need to analyze its current status for water resources planning and conservation, and for understanding how it potentially impacts human health. However, the fact that data are archived in discrete uncoordinated databases by different state and federal entities, limits the capacity to complete holistic analysis of critical resources at large watershed scales. Humans alter the water cycle for food production, manufacturing, energy production, provision of potable water and recreation. Ecosystems services are affected at watershed scales but there are also global scale impacts from greenhouse gas emissions enabled by access to cooling, processing and irrigation water. To better document these issues and to demonstrate the utility of such an analysis, we studied the Wabash River Watershed located in the U.S. Midwest. Data for water extraction, use, discharge, and river flow were collected, curated and reorganized in order to characterize the water use and reuse within the basin. Indirect water reuse was estimated by comparing treated wastewater discharges with stream flows at selected points within the watershed. Results show that during the low flow months of July–October, wastewater discharges into the Wabash River basin contributed 82 to 121% of the stream flow, demonstrating that the level of water use and unplanned reuse is significant. These results suggest that intentional water reuse for consumptive purposes such as landscape or agricultural irrigation could have substantial ecological impacts by diminishing stream flow during vulnerable low flow periods. - Highlights: • Indirect water reuse is ubiquitous with limited quantitative documentation of it. • Water data are uncoordinated

  13. Semantic search: finding KTBL's planning data and reusing them in IT systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effort to investigate relevant data for planning purposes and preparation of labour and investments in agricultural production as well as reworking and entering them for reuse in calculation tools and farm management information systems are major challenges for decisions based on data. The following paper presents a solution which on the one hand simplifies targeted finding of planning data within KTBL’s data sets using a semantic search engine and on the other hand enables simple reuse and processing of these data by providing them using Linked Open Data principles.

  14. Resource Recovery and Reuse: Recycled Magnetically Separable Iron-based Catalysts for Phosphate Recovery and Arsenic Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly processes that aid human and environmental health include recovering, recycling, and reusing limited natural resources and waste materials. In this study, we re-used Iron-rich solid waste materials from water treatment plants to synthesize magnetic iron-o...

  15. Conservation and reuse of water in Brazilian petroleum refineries; Conservacao e reuso de agua em refinarias de petroleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pombo, Felipe Ramalho; Magrini, Alessandra; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: frpombo@ppe.ufrj.br, ale@ppe.ufrj.br, szklo@ppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper views to present the main technologies for effluent treatment of petroleum refineries having as target the reuse. An analysis of international and Brazilian experiences of water reuse in petroleum refineries is performed viewing to support the proposition of recommendations for Brazilian refineries.

  16. Reusing salad from salad bars – simulating the effects on product loss, microbial safety and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Franz, E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to model the effects of reusing salad from salad bars to reduce product loss, while keeping microbial safety and product quality at acceptable levels. We, therefore, expand our previously developed simulation model by incorporating reuse strategies and a quality decay

  17. Research on the Phenomenon of Chinese Residents’ Spiritual Contagion for the Reuse of Recycled Water Based on SC-IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanliang Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycled water has been widely recognized in the world as an effective approach to relieve the issue of water shortage. Meanwhile, with several decades of development, the insufficiency of technology is no longer the primary factor that restricts the popularization of recycled water. What makes it difficult to promote the concept of reusing recycled water in China? To solve this issue, a special experiment on the public’s attitude towards the reuse of recycled water was designed based on a Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT, so as to avoid factors like social preference that can influence the survey results, and to gain the public’s negative implicit attitude towards reusing recycled water reuse, which is close to the public’s real attitude to it. From the perspective of implicit attitude, this research testifies the “spiritual contagion” phenomenon of the public, which refers to refusing recycled water reuse because recycled water is made from sewage treatment. By comparing the implicit attitude to recycled water reuse with the explicit attitude that is acquired from self-reporting questionnaires about reusing recycled water, this research finds that the implicit attitude is more positive than the explicit attitude, which accounts for the phenomenon of “best game no one played” in the promotion of the recycled water reuse, that is, the public though applauding the environment-friendly policy, will not actually use the recycled water.

  18. Trends in water reuse. The case of Tenerife; Tendencias en la reutilizacion de aguas. El caso de Tenerife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Diaz, S. N.

    2003-07-01

    In this work a bibliographic review on the general situation of water resources in the world is presented, emphasizing especially the problematic which appears in arid and semi-arid regions due to the scarcity of the liquid element. Water reuse, for different purposes, is an interesting alternative which enables to mitigate, al least partially, the lack of water resources. >From this point of view, in this work a summarized vision of the most frequent applications of reclaimed water reuse is given, as well as the trends observed. At the same time, information on the particular case of Tenerife is supplied, where a planed water reuse system exists, which reuses reclaimed domestic water for crop irrigation. In the paper the reuse scheme is described, and information on the system performance is given, collected through several research works which have been carried out during the last years. (Author) 24 refs.

  19. Frequency of use controls chemical leaching from drinking-water containers subject to disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P

    2011-12-15

    Microbial-, and chemical-based burden of disease associated with lack of access to safe water continues to primarily impact developing countries. Cost-effective health risk-mitigating measures, such as of solar disinfection applied to microbial-contaminated water stored in plastic bottles have been increasingly tested in developing countries adversely impacted by epidemic water-borne diseases. Public health concerns associated with chemical leaching from water packaging materials led us to investigate the magnitude and variability of antimony (Sb) and bromine (Br) leaching from reused plastic containers (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; and polycarbonate, PC) subject to UV and/or temperature-driven disinfection. The overall objective of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of temperature, UV exposure duration, and frequency of bottle reuse on the extent of leaching of Sb and Br from plastic bottles into water. Regardless of UV exposure duration, frequency of reuse (up to 27 times) was the major factor that linearly increased Sb leaching from PET bottles at all temperatures tested (13-47 °C). Leached Sb concentrations (∼360 ng L(-1)) from the highly reused (27 times) PET bottles (minimal Sb leaching from PC bottles, water at much lower concentrations. Additional research on potential leaching of organic chemicals from water packaging materials is deemed necessary under relevant environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 12 CFR 573.11 - Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 573.11 Limits on redisclosure and reuse... information from a nonaffiliated financial institution under an exception in § 573.14 or 573.15 of this part, your disclosure and use of that information is limited as follows: (i) You may disclose the information...

  1. Technical feasibility of reuse of effluent generated from reverse osmosis system in a pharmaceutical plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara de A. S. de Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reuse reduces the consumption of freshwater supplies and the negative environmental impact caused by the discharge of industrial effluents. Some industries have already adopted this practice; however, no studies were found in the literature regarding this subject in the pharmaceutical industry. This work investigated the potential reuse of effluent (concentrate generated from the Reverse Osmosis/Electro-deionization System (RO/EDI that is used for the production of purified water in a Brazilian pharmaceutical plant. This industrial complex consumed about 200,000 m3 of water per year between 2012 and 2013 to produce one million of doses of vaccines, i.e., 2 L of water per dose of vaccine produced. During this period, the RO/EDI produced 27,000 m3 of purified water annually and generated 24,000 m3 of effluent (concentrate. This amount of effluent could be used to supply the production of industry steam (boilers and/or cold water (cooling towers that annually consumed an average of 12,000 m3 and 40,000 m3, respectively. The reuse of this effluent would result in a gross financial savings of 96,000 USD per year, excluding the costs of installation and control. From what has been researched in the literature, this work showed for the first time the possibility of reuse of effluent from RO/EDI System in the pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Spatio-temporal impacts of dairy lagoon water reuse on soil: Heavy metals and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diminishing freshwater resources have brought attention to the reuse of degraded water as a water resource rather than a disposal problem. Dairy lagoon water is degraded water that is often in large supply on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), but the impact and sustainability of its r...

  3. Towards re-use of knowledge in the concept stage of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, K.; Halman, J.I.M.; Mal, van H.H.

    1996-01-01

    A framework for specifying the intended result of a product development project is introduced in the paper. This framework has been developed for the concept stage and facilitates the establishment and re-use of acquired knowledge. In this way, core capabilities naturally grow stronger with each

  4. Replacement or reuse? The choice between demolition and life cycle extension from a sustainable viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; van der Flier, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    What is better: renovation or new construction? Following the plenary debate on the ENHR 2007 conference in Rotterdam we continued our search for the answer to this question. The choice between reuse and replacement of existing buildings is a vital but very difficult one, involving a wide range of

  5. LO + EPSS = Just-in-Time Reuse of Content to Support Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Frank; Hanzel, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Those involved in training know that creating instructional materials can become a tedious, repetitive process. They also know that business conditions often require training interventions to be delivered in ways that are not ideally structured or timed. This article examines the notion that learning objects can be reused and adapted for…

  6. Fostering Intelligent Moderation in the Next Generation: Insights from Remida-Inspired Reuse Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Will; Downs, Christine; Cullen, Julianne

    2017-01-01

    Ecologically minded leaders and early childhood teacher educators offer a culturally significant shiny fish project in their community as a way to launch an environmental-material reuse project. Questioning if environmental collapse is imminent, their project investigation of developing a locally relevant Remida Reggio-inspired center serves as…

  7. Proposing nanofiltration as acceptable barrier for organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Maeng, Sungkyu; Fujioka, Takahiro; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Amy, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    . The use of RO in existing water reuse facilities is addressed and questioned, taking into consideration that tight NF can be a more cost-effective and efficient technology to target the problem of organic contaminants. It was concluded that tight NF

  8. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  9. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  10. Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)

  11. The effect of reuse of unhairing-liming residual floats through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Key words: Unhairing-liming process, reusing, leather industry, environment, bacterial and fungal numbers. INTRODUCTION .... 4.0 x101. -: No growth. Chemical analysis of samples. Chemical analyses of sodium sulphide and lime were done for the regeneration of ULP residual liquors. While preparing ...

  12. Reuse-centric Requirements Analysis with Task Models, Scenarios, and Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Montabert

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a requirements-analysis process that unites task models, scenarios, and critical parameters to exploit and generate reusable knowledge at the requirements phase. Through the deployment of a critical-parameter-based approach to task modeling, the process yields the establishment of an integrative and formalized model issued from scenarios that can be used for requirements characterization. Furthermore, not only can this entity serve as interface to a knowledge repository relying on a critical-parameter-based taxonomy to support reuse but its characterization in terms of critical parameters also allows the model to constitute a broader reuse solution. We discuss our vision for a user-centric and reuse-centric approach to requirements analysis, present previous efforts implicated with this line of work, and state the revisions brought to extend the reuse potential and effectiveness of a previous iteration of a requirements tool implementing such process. Finally, the paper describes the sequence and nature of the activities involved with the conduct of our proposed requirements-analysis technique, concluding by previewing ongoing work in the field that will explore the feasibility for designers to use our approach.

  13. INST7150 - Advanced Topics in Learning Object Design and Reuse, Fall 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Wiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This course is designed to help you understand and apply advanced topics in the design, creation, and reuse of learning objects. The course is structured around a practical, hands-on project using learning objects, intermingled with readings and discussion on a variety of topics.

  14. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant.

  15. Membrane Bioreactor/Ultra Low Energy Reverse Osmosis Membrane Process for Forward Operating Base Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Carsten Owerdieck, John Peichel, Henk Koops, Minggang Liu, Jerome Daly, Lee-Anne Bresolin, Jeff Cumin , and Jeff Peeters at GE Water for insightful...reuse applications, in that they do not involve substantial risk associated with human contact with the water. As water stress continues to grow, the

  16. 49 CFR 173.28 - Reuse, reconditioning and remanufacture of packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and limitations: (1) A non-bulk packaging which, upon inspection, shows evidence of a reduction in... than fiberboard), plastic film, or textile are not authorized for reuse; (4) Metal and plastic drums... metal packagings) or minimum (for plastic packagings) thickness of the packaging material, as required...

  17. Recovery, reuse and recycling by the United States wood packaging industry: 1993-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; E. Bradley Hager

    2007-01-01

    The packaging industry is an important market for wood materials, especially low grade hardwoods. Approximately one-third of U.S. hardwood lumber production is utilized in the production of pallets and containers. The industry recovers significant volumes of pallets and containers from the waste stream for re-use, repair, and recycling. Industry by-products (both wood...

  18. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  19. P3 DESIGN OF A NATIONAL ELECTRONICS PRODUCT REUSE AND RECYCLING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material and resource conservation are critical to sustainability; and, the ability to efficiently and effectively recover old products for reuse and recycle is an essential element in these conservation efforts. In California alone, it has been estimated that 10,000 computers a...

  20. Performance of ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in treating car wash wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem, Shamima; Wills, Jamie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-03-01

    Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems. This study evaluates the performance of granular and membrane filtration systems with coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in treating car wash wastewater for the purpose of reuse. Overall, 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of suspended solids and 96% of COD were removed from the car wash wastewater after treating by coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis and the treated water meets the standards required for class A recycled water in Australia and standards imposed in Belgium and China. The treated water can be reused. However, optimisation is required to reduce the sludge produced by this system.

  1. Learning Experiences Reuse Based on an Ontology Modeling to Improve Adaptation in E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj M'tir, Riadh; Rumpler, Béatrice; Jeribi, Lobna; Ben Ghezala, Henda

    2014-01-01

    Current trends in e-Learning focus mainly on personalizing and adapting the learning environment and learning process. Although their increasingly number, theses researches often ignore the concepts of capitalization and reuse of learner experiences which can be exploited later by other learners. Thus, the major challenge of distance learning is…

  2. Polymorphism and Module-Reuse Mechanisms for Algebraic Petri Nets in CoopnTools

    OpenAIRE

    Buffo, Mathieu; Buchs, Didier; Donatelli, S.; Kleijn, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces CoopnTools, a tool set allowing the support of object-oriented specifications written by means of the language CO-OPN/2, based on synchronised algebraic Petri nets. In particular, this paper shows how concrete mechanisms dealing with polymorphism and module-reuse are implemented in CoopnTools.

  3. Re-use of laundry rinsing water by low cost adsorption technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, N.

    2009-01-01

    Shortage of water is a growing global problem. One way of dealing with this problem is the development of technologies for wastewater clean-up and re-use. Laundry accounts often for more than half of the daily domestic water consumption in countries like India. The major part of laundry water is

  4. Facilitating Teachers' Reuse of Mobile Assisted Language Learning Resources Using Educational Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Panagiotis; Sampson, Demetrios G.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile assisted language learning (MALL) and open access repositories for language learning resources are both topics that have attracted the interest of researchers and practitioners in technology enhanced learning (TeL). Yet, there is limited experimental evidence about possible factors that can influence and potentially enhance reuse of MALL…

  5. User-Oriented Quality for OER: Understanding Teachers' Views on Re-Use, Quality, and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, K. I.; Pawlowski, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We analysed how teachers as users of open educational resources (OER) repositories act in the re-use process and how they perceive quality. Based on a quantitative empirical study, we also surveyed which quality requirements users have and how they would contribute to the quality process. Trust in resources, organizations, and technologies seem to…

  6. 12 CFR 40.11 - Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... own marketing purposes. (b)(1) Information a bank receives outside of an exception. If a bank receives... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information. 40.11 Section 40.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY...

  7. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : influence of reuse on intrinsic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the

  8. Recovery and reuse of cellulase catalyst in an enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J.

    1987-09-18

    A process for recovering cellulase from the hydrolysis of cellulose, and reusing it in subsequent hydrolyois procedures. The process utilizes a commercial adsorbent that efficiently removes cellulase from reaction products which can be easily removed by simple decantation. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Effect of Reused Litter and Chemical Amendment on Broiler Chicken Performance and Litter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chemical amendments and reused litter on broiler performances, immune response and skin quality. Five hundred and seventy six (576 day old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 3x2 factorial design experiment. Three amendments treatment included control (no chemical addition, alunminum sulfate and zeolite; two types of litter were new and reused one. There were 4 replicates and 24 broiler chickens in each pen. The feed and water were available ad libitum during 42 days of experiment. The type of bedding had no significant effect on broilers performances (weight gain, feed efficiency ratio and mortality. Chemical amendments improved broilers performances during 0-35 days of production period but by the end of experiment there was no differences between treatment groups. Neither bedding type nor chemical amendments influenced skin erosion criteria responses. The immune response of broilers was not affected by either type of bedding or chemical amendments. It could be concluded that although beddings to be reused, it should be treated so as to overcome any defect of reused bedding.

  10. Towards an Intelligent Workflow Designer based on the Reuse of Workflow Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iochpe, Cirano; Chiao, Carolina; Hess, Guillermo; Nascimento, Gleison; Thom, Lucinéia; Reichert, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform process-aware information systems we need sophisticated methods and concepts for designing and modeling processes. Recently, research on workflow patterns has emerged in order to increase the reuse of recurring workflow structures. However, current workflow modeling tools do not

  11. Advanced technology for the reuse of learning objects in a course-management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijker, A.; Collis, Betty

    2005-01-01

    The creation, labelling, use, and re-use of learning objects is an important area of development involving learning technology. In the higher education context, instructors typically use a course management system (CMS) to organize and manage their own learning objects. The needs and practices of

  12. Re-use and life span of gloves | van Palenstein Helderman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use and life span of gloves. WH van Palenstein Helderman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  13. Management experiences and trends for water reuse implementation in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Simon, Gregory L; Frisby, Tammy M; Luthy, Richard G

    2012-01-03

    In 2010, California fell nearly 300,000 acre-ft per year (AFY) short of its goal to recycle 1,000,000 AFY of municipal wastewater. Growth of recycled water in the 48 Northern California counties represented only 20% of the statewide increase in reuse between 2001 and 2009. To evaluate these trends and experiences, major drivers and challenges that influenced the implementation of recycled water programs in Northern California are presented based on a survey of 71 program managers conducted in 2010. Regulatory requirements limiting discharge, cited by 65% of respondents as a driver for program implementation, historically played an important role in motivating many water reuse programs in the region. More recently, pressures from limited water supplies and needs for system reliability are prevalent drivers. Almost half of respondents (49%) cited ecological protection or enhancement goals as drivers for implementation. However, water reuse for direct benefit of natural systems and wildlife habitat represents just 6-7% of total recycling in Northern California and few financial incentives exist for such projects. Economic challenges are the greatest barrier to successful project implementation. In particular, high costs of distribution systems (pipelines) are especially challenging, with $1 to 3 million/mile costs experienced. Negative perceptions of water reuse were cited by only 26% of respondents as major hindrances to implementation of surveyed programs.

  14. 17 CFR 248.11 - Limits on redisclosure and reuse of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Safeguarding Personal Information Limits on Disclosures § 248.11 Limits on redisclosure and reuse of... customer list from a nonaffiliated financial institution in order to provide account-processing services.... (2) Example. If you obtain a customer list from a nonaffiliated financial institution outside of the...

  15. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-12-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond User Acceptance : A Legitimacy Framework for Potable Water Reuse in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris-Lovett, S.R.; Binz, C.; Sedlak, D.L.; Kiparsky, M.; Truffer, B.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource managers often tout the potential of potable water reuse to provide a reliable, local source of drinking water in water-scarce regions. Despite data documenting the ability of advanced treatment technologies to treat municipal wastewater effluent to meet existing drinking water

  17. Financial and economic feasibility of decentralized wastewater reuse systems in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liang (Xiao); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany decentralized wastewater reuse systems have been constructed in Beijing. However their performance is not as good as expected. The total amount of reclaimed water used in Beijing is much less than the designed capacity. In order to understand the reasons causing such

  18. Finding New Water: Development of On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    By designing our buildings to collect and treat water generated on-site, can be and reused for flushing our toilets and irrigating our landscaping. Several water sources are generated with-in a building including: rainwater, stormwater, graywater, blackwater and foundation drain...

  19. Pathogen Treatment Guidance and Monitoring Approaches fro On-Site Non-Potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-site non-potable water reuse is increasingly used to augment water supplies, but traditional fecal indicator approaches for defining and monitoring exposure risks are limited when applied to these decentralized options. This session emphasizes risk-based modeling to define pat...

  20. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical