WorldWideScience

Sample records for satellite-derived burnt area

  1. Climate and the inter-annual variability of fire in southern Africa: a meta-analysis using long-term field data and satellite-derived burnt area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available -explicit meteorological data for Africa are di cult to ob- tain. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provides relatively high-resolution (0.25 degree) monthly rainfall data for the region, but temperature, relative humidity and wind data are best derived...-sensed burned area data to test whether it is possible to develop a general model. Location: Africa south of the equator Methods: Linear mixed e ects models were used to determine the e ect of rainfall, season- ality, and re weather in driving variation...

  2. Fractal properties of forest fires in Amazonia as a basis for modelling pan-tropical burnt area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, I. N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2014-03-01

    Current methods for modelling burnt area in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) involve complex fire spread calculations, which rely on many inputs, including fuel characteristics, wind speed and countless parameters. They are therefore susceptible to large uncertainties through error propagation, but undeniably useful for modelling specific, small-scale burns. Using observed fractal distributions of fire scars in Brazilian Amazonia in 2005, we propose an alternative burnt area model for tropical forests, with fire counts as sole input and few parameters. This model is intended for predicting large-scale burnt area rather than looking at individual fire events. A simple parameterization of a tapered fractal distribution is calibrated at multiple spatial resolutions using a satellite-derived burnt area map. The model is capable of accurately reproducing the total area burnt (16 387 km2) and its spatial distribution. When tested pan-tropically using the MODIS MCD14ML active fire product, the model accurately predicts temporal and spatial fire trends, but the magnitude of the differences between these estimates and the GFED3.1 burnt area products varies per continent.

  3. Identifying individual fires from satellite-derived burned area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for identifying individual fires from the Modis burned area data product is introduced for southern Africa. This algorithm gives the date of burning, size of fire, and location of the centroid for all fires identified over 8 years...

  4. Model-simulated and Satellite-derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Cooter, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric conditions yielding sub-optimal values, or complete non-returns. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Exposure Methods and Measurements and Computational Exposure Divisions are investigating the viability of supplemental modelled LAI inputs into satellite-derived data streams to support various regional and local scale air quality models for retrospective and future climate assessments. In this present study, one-year (2002) of plot level stand characteristics at four study sites located in Virginia and North Carolina (USA) are used to calibrate species-specific plant parameters in a semi-empirical biogeochemical model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was designed primarily for managed agricultural field crop ecosystems, but also includes managed woody species that span both xeric and mesic sites (e.g., mesquite, pine, oak, etc.). LAI was simulated using EPIC at a 4 km2 and 12 km2 grid coincident with the regional Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) grid. LAI comparisons were made between model-simulated and MODIS-derived LAI. Field/satellite-upscaled LAI was also compared to the corresponding MODIS LAI value. Preliminary results show field/satellite-upscaled LAI (1 km2) was 1.5 to 3 times smaller than that with the corresponding 1 km2 MODIS LAI for all four sites across all dates, with the largest discrepancies occurring at leaf-out and leaf senescence periods. Simulated LAI/MODIS LAI comparison results will be presented at the conference. Disclaimer: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although

  5. The Human and Physical Determinants of Wildfires and Burnt Areas in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Noam; Tessler, Naama; Smith, Andrew; McAlpine, Clive

    2016-09-01

    Wildfires are expected to increase in Mediterranean landscapes as a result of climate change and changes in land-use practices. In order to advance our understanding of human and physical factors shaping spatial patterns of wildfires in the region, we compared two independently generated datasets of wildfires for Israel that cover approximately the same study period. We generated a site-based dataset containing the location of 10,879 wildfires (1991-2011), and compared it to a dataset of burnt areas derived from MODIS imagery (2000-2011). We hypothesized that the physical and human factors explaining the spatial distribution of burnt areas derived from remote sensing (mostly large fires, >100 ha) will differ from those explaining site-based wildfires recorded by national agencies (mostly small fires, raising public awareness to fire risk are key considerations in reducing fire danger.

  6. Burnt area detection and hotspot analysis of wildfires in Margalla Hills National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Noora; Ullah, Saleem

    2016-07-01

    Wildfires have been a growing source for the forest degradation and reduction in carbon sequestration which cause climate change and global warming. Thus, severely affect the ecosystem when not checked. Studies have revealed that land managements that do not use fire reduce the fire incidents by as much as 69 percent. This study focuses on mapping the areas burnt by forest fires owing to both natural and anthropogenic causes and identifying the fire prone areas in biodiversity spot of Islamabad, Margalla Hills National Park. The methodology employed based on using remotely sensed data with the integration of GIS techniques to estimate the area in hectares turned to ashes which ensued from forest fires during summers of 2008, 2010 and 2011 by applying Normalized Burn Ratio. Moreover hotspot analysis has also been used to pin point the locations with frequent fire incidents in the past using Global Positioning System (GPS) acquired coordinates from the fire surveys and official burned area statistics. The results revealed that wildfires destroyed some common regions in three years towards west which comprise of dense woodland comprising mainly Acacia Modesta, Dalbergia sissoo and Pinus longifolia. The calculated burnt area was 516 hectares, 122 hectares and 45 hectares for 2008, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Although a decline in burnt area has been observed owing to responsible management of authorities and development of fire pickets, still measures need to be taken to eradicate the core causes in charge of these fires and to promote reforestation. This study will allow policy makers and regulatory authorities to identify risk prone areas which will assist them in formulating a strategy to suppress fire incidents.

  7. Amplification of wildfire area burnt by hydrological drought in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Muh; Torfs, Paul J. J. F.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Jones, Philip D.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Borneo's diverse ecosystems, which are typical humid tropical conditions, are deteriorating rapidly, as the area is experiencing recurrent large-scale wildfires, affecting atmospheric composition and influencing regional climate processes. Studies suggest that climate-driven drought regulates wildfires, but these overlook subsurface processes leading to hydrological drought, an important driver. Here, we show that models which include hydrological processes better predict area burnt than those solely based on climate data. We report that the Borneo landscape has experienced a substantial hydrological drying trend since the early twentieth century, leading to progressive tree mortality, more severe than in other tropical regions. This has caused massive wildfires in lowland Borneo during the past two decades, which we show are clustered in years with large areas of hydrological drought coinciding with strong El Niño events. Statistical modelling evidence shows amplifying wildfires and greater area burnt in response to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) strength, when hydrology is considered. These results highlight the importance of considering hydrological drought for wildfire prediction, and we recommend that hydrology should be considered in future studies of the impact of projected ENSO strength, including effects on tropical ecosystems, and biodiversity conservation.

  8. Export of solids and nutrients from burnt areas: effects of fire severity and forest type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Nelson; Morais, Inês; Silva, Vera; Malvar, Mauxa C.; Prats, Sérgio; Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few decades, the number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including Portugal. Besides a range of direct impacts, wildfires can significantly alter the geomorphological and hydrological processes during a period commonly referred to as the "window-of-disturbance". It is now increasingly recognized that these indirect wildfire effects depend strongly on fire severity, i.e. the heating-induced changes in vegetation and litter cover as well as in topsoil properties such as infiltration capacity, aggregate stability and soil water repellency. Nonetheless, the exact role of fire severity in post-fire hydrological and erosion processes is still poorly quantified in many parts of the world, including Portugal. Another important gap in fire-related research stills to be the impacts of wildfire on soil fertility losses, in particular through erosion by runoff. Both research gaps were addressed in this study, following a wildfire that took place in July 2013 in Talhadas (Sever do Vouga, Aveiro) and burnt circa 815 ha. In the burnt area and the surrounding unburnt areas, six study sites were selected and, immediately after the fire, instrumented with slope-scale runoff plots. Two of the sites were long-unburnt, two were burnt at low severity and the other two were burnt at high severity; for all of them one being covered by a Eucalyptus globulus plantation and the other by a Pinus pinaster plantation. Following the instrumentation of the sites, runoff was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals and, whenever possible, runoff samples were collected for subsequent analysis in the laboratory with respect to total suspended sediments content and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations. The results obtained in this study showed that the severity of the fire played a more important role in the loss of nutrients and solids than the type of vegetation. While the occurrence of fire markedly increased soil (fertility) losses, this effect

  9. Changes in satellite-derived impervious surface area at US historical climatology network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Kevin; Xian, George

    2016-10-01

    The difference between 30 m gridded impervious surface area (ISA) between 2001 and 2011 was evaluated within 100 and 1000 m radii of the locations of climate stations that comprise the US Historical Climatology Network. The amount of area associated with observed increases in ISA above specific thresholds was documented for the climate stations. Over 32% of the USHCN stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% between 2001 and 2011 for at least 1% of the grid cells within a 100 m radius of the station. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased from ⩾1% to ⩾10%, the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 113 (9% of stations). When the 1000 m radius associated with each station was examined, over 52% (over 600) of the stations exhibited an increase in ISA of ⩾20% within at least 1% of the grid cells within that radius. However, as the required area associated with ISA change was increased to ⩾10% the number of stations that were observed with a ⩾20% increase in ISA between 2001 and 2011 decreased to 35 (less than 3% of the stations). The gridded ISA data provides an opportunity to characterize the environment around climate stations with a consistently measured indicator of a surface feature. Periodic evaluations of changes in the ISA near the USHCN and other networks of stations are recommended to assure the local environment around the stations has not significantly changed such that observations at the stations may be impacted.

  10. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  11. The Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Burnt Area Mapping and Monitoring in the Congo Basin Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verhegghen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2 optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1 satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a very strong El Niño event, an unprecedented outbreak of fires was observed during the first months of 2016 in open forests formations in the north of the Republic of Congo. The anomalies of the recent fires and meteorological situation compared to historical data show the severity of the drought. Burnt areas mapped by the S1 SAR and S2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI sensors highlight that the fires occurred mainly in Marantaceae forests, characterized by open tree canopy cover and an extensive tall herbaceous layer. The maps show that the origin of the fires correlates with accessibility to the forest, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The combined use of the two independent and fundamentally different satellite systems of S2 and S1 captured an extent of 36,000 ha of burnt areas, with each sensor compensating for the weakness (cloud perturbations for S2, and sensitivity to ground moisture for S1 of the other.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of satellite derived land surface parameters and energy flux densities for LITFASS-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tittebrand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on satellite data in different temporal and spatial resolution, the current use of frequency distribution functions (PDF for surface parameters and energy fluxes is one of the most promising ways to describe subgrid heterogeneity of a landscape. Objective of this study is to find typical distribution patterns of parameters (albedo, NDVI for the determination of the actual latent heat flux (L.E determined from highly resolved satellite data within pixel on coarser scale.

    Landsat ETM+, Terra MODIS and NOAA-AVHRR surface temperature and spectral reflectance were used to infer further surface parameters and radiant- and energy flux densities for LITFASS-area, a 20×20 km2 heterogeneous area in Eastern Germany, mainly characterised by the land use types forest, crop, grass and water. Based on the Penman-Monteith-approach L.E, as key quantity of the hydrological cycle, is determined for each sensor in the accordant spatial resolution with an improved parametrisation. However, using three sensors, significant discrepancies between the inferred parameters can cause flux distinctions resultant from differences of the sensor filter response functions or atmospheric correction methods. The approximation of MODIS- and AVHRR- derived surface parameters to the reference parameters of ETM (via regression lines and histogram stretching, respectively, further the use of accurate land use classifications (CORINE and a new Landsat-classification, and a consistent parametrisation for the three sensors were realized to obtain a uniform base for investigations of the spatial variability.

    The analyses for 4 scenes in 2002 and 2003 showed that for forest clear distribution-patterns for NDVI and albedo are found. Grass and crop distributions show higher variability and differ significantly to each other in NDVI but only marginal in albedo. Regarding NDVI-distribution functions NDVI was found to be the key variable for L.E-determination.

  13. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, L. Ruby

    2014-12-01

    Estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock using models typically requires long term spin-up of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models, which has become a bottleneck for global modeling. We report a new numerical approach to estimate global SOC stock that can alleviate long spin-up. The approach uses satellite-based canopy leaf area index (LAI) and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module—Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module (NGBGC) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from spin-up by running NGBGC in the prognostic mode, and SOC from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the satellite LAI is close to that from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the global variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs). The correlation between the simulated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting the needs for improving the biogeochemical processes described in CLM4 and updating HWSD. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, which makes the tested approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare multiple aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.

  14. Land cover mapping with emphasis to burnt area delineation using co-orbital ALI and Landsat TM imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kontoes, Charalambos C.; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the potential of EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI) radiometer for land cover and especially burnt area mapping from a single image analysis is investigated. Co-orbital imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) was also utilised for comparison purposes. Both images were acquired shortly after the suppression of a fire occurred during the summer of 2009 North-East of Athens, the capital of Greece. The Maximum Likelihood (ML), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classifiers were parameterised and subsequently applied to the acquired satellite datasets. Evaluation of the land use/cover mapping accuracy was based on the error matrix statistics. Also, the McNemar test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between the approaches tested. Derived burnt area estimates were validated against the operationally deployed Services and Applications For Emergency Response (SAFER) Burnt Scar Mapping service. All classifiers applied to either ALI or TM imagery proved flexible enough to map land cover and also to extract the burnt area from other land surface types. The highest total classification accuracy and burnt area detection capability was returned from the application of SVMs to ALI data. This was due to the SVMs ability to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for best classes' separation that was able to better utilise ALI's advanced technological characteristics in comparison to those of TM sensor. This study is to our knowledge the first of its kind, effectively demonstrating the benefits of the combined application of SVMs to ALI data further implying that ALI technology may prove highly valuable in mapping burnt areas and land use/cover if it is incorporated into the development of Landsat 8 mission, planned to be launched in the coming years.

  15. Economic and energy efficiency of salvaging biomass from wildfire burnt areas for bioenergy production in northwestern Ontario: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shuva; Pulkki, Reino; Shahi, Chander; Leitch, Mathew [Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Wildfire burnt forest biomass can be salvaged as feedstock for bioenergy power generating stations. Despite availability of such forest biomass in northwestern Ontario, its procurement has generally been considered uneconomic and no studies have looked into the cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting the burnt material for bioenergy production. In order to meet the demand of biomass for proposed and existing power generating stations using renewable fuels, a standard costing model is used to determine the feasibility of procuring biomass from burnt areas using a full-tree to roadside, roadside grinder to mill system. The case-study was conducted at the Hogarth Plantations near Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The total cost incurred for processing and delivery of biomass from wildfire burnt area with a hauling distance of 7 km and total trip cycle time of 2.55 h was found to be $29.65 gt{sup -1}, with net energy content of 11.4 GJ gt{sup -1}. The total procurement cost depends on the hauling distance and a linear relationship between the two was established. The energy analysis found a net energy output to input ratio of 35:1 for the operation. (author)

  16. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Burnt Area in a Coal Mine in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region%新疆某矿火烧区水文地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏新; 司光明; 桂辉

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the hydrogeological characteristics of burnt area in a coal mine in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region. The previous drilling, geophysical, and isotope tests reveal that the burnt area locate southern and northern of the synclinal axis. The burnt rocks always have great water abundant and permeability. The groundwater inlfow in the burnt area is from the west to the east. The calculated data of the static groundwater in the burnt area is up to 10.74 million ton.%通过钻探、物探及同位素测试等勘查手段,发现区内火烧区呈带状分布于捷斯德里克向斜南北两翼,其含水带富水性强,地下水自西向东径流。通过估算,火烧区静储量约为1074万t。

  17. A comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network classifiers combined with Landsat TM imagery analysis for obtaining burnt area mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ≈ 1% for ANN and ≈ 6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

  18. A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Scholze

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878 the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795. Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ~1% for ANN and ~6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

  19. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  20. Satellite-derived estimates of forest leaf area index in southwest Western Australia are not tightly coupled to interannual variations in rainfall: implications for groundwater decline in a drying climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith R J; Waring, Richard H; Callow, John N; Wilson, Melissa; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing concern that widespread forest decline could occur in regions of the world where droughts are predicted to increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change. The average annual leaf area index (LAI) is an indicator of canopy cover and the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. In this study, we analyzed satellite-derived estimates of monthly LAI across forested coastal catchments of southwest Western Australia over a 12 year period (2000-2011) that included the driest year on record for the last 60 years. We observed that over the 12 year study period, the spatial pattern of average annual satellite-derived LAI values was linearly related to mean annual rainfall. However, interannual changes to LAI in response to changes in annual rainfall were far less than expected from the long-term LAI-rainfall trend. This buffered response was investigated using a physiological growth model and attributed to availability of deep soil moisture and/or groundwater storage. The maintenance of high LAIs may be linked to a long-term decline in areal average underground water storage and diminished summer flows, with an emerging trend toward more ephemeral flow regimes.

  1. Satellite-derived NDVI, LST, and climatic factors driving the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes in a former malarious area in northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantur Juri, María Julia; Estallo, Elizabet; Almirón, Walter; Santana, Mirta; Sartor, Paolo; Lamfri, Mario; Zaidenberg, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Distribution and abundance of disease vectors are directly related to climatic conditions and environmental changes. Remote sensing data have been used for monitoring environmental conditions influencing spatial patterns of vector-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and climatic factors (temperature, humidity, wind velocity, and accumulated rainfall) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles species in northwestern Argentina using Poisson regression analyses. Samples were collected from December, 2001 to December, 2005 at three localities, Aguas Blancas, El Oculto and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. We collected 11,206 adult Anopheles species, with the major abundance observed at El Oculto (59.11%), followed by Aguas Blancas (22.10%) and San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (18.79%). Anopheles pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species at El Oculto, Anopheles argyritarsis predominated in Aguas Blancas, and Anopheles strodei in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán. Samples were collected throughout the sampling period, with the highest peaks during the spring seasons. LST and mean temperature appear to be the most important variables determining the distribution patterns and major abundance of An. pseudopunctipennis and An. argyritarsis within malarious areas. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Burnt wife syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, S M; Tripathi, C B

    1984-01-01

    While the system of offering dowry to the groom by the parents of the bride at the time of the marriage is an age old one amongst the Hindus of India; during the recent past this evil custom has resulted in a large number of newly wed young housewives being either killed or tortured to end their own lives by their husbands and in-laws, for the unfulfilled demands or desire for dowry from the parents or guardians of the bride. Indeed in India today, torture of the young housewives by their husbands and in-laws for failure to bring insufficient dowry has become the order of the day all over the country. Some of them are burnt to death and others choose to die by fire; while still others are put to death by some means other than fire and disposed of by burning in order to hide the heinous offence. Hardly a day passes in the life of a forensic pathologist working in one of the states of Northern India, when he is not called upon to do an autopsy on the dead body of a burnt housewife who almost invariably is a married Hindu woman in the prime of her youth, between 15-30 years of age.

  3. Il catasto dei terreni percorsi dal fuoco / A land register for the burnt areas/ Le cadastre des terrains parcourus par le feu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Minghetti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Territorial Informative System (SIT of the Bologna City Council is an informative subsystem which collects and uses everything concerning the territory regarding analysis, planning, management, monitoring and getting information. The SIT aims to integrate the different informative sector systems, often disaggregated and not homogeneous, sorting them in according to common contents, in order to promote data exchange, comparison and evaluation thanks to the implementation of a similar approach. In this way, it looks like a second level informative system because it does not provide the survey and the manage the information itself but it uses this information making it useful to more and more people, thus improving communication thanks to structured informative streams. Starting from this informative model, it seems to be possible to create, at the Bologna City Council a land register for the burnt areas according to the expectations of the Prevision, Prevention and Fight Regional Plan against forest fires (see Act n. 353/2000, for the period concerning the years 2007-2011. Le Système d'Information Territorial (SIT de la Mairie de Bologne est un sous-système d'information qui collecte et rend disponible tout ce qui est du ressort du territoire en terme d'analyse, de planification, de gestion, de monitorage et d'information.Le rôle du SIT est d'intégrer les systèmes d'informations du secteur, souvent peu homogènes entre eux, en les mettant en relation grâce à des références communes. Le but est de permettre l'échange, la confrontation et l'évaluation des données par le biais d'une approche territoriale.Le SIT est donc un système d'information de second niveau car il ne collecte ni ne gère lui-même les informations; il les exploite et les met à la disposition de plusieurs usagers, optimisant la communication à travers des flux d'informations structurés.C'est exactement grâce à ce modèle d'information qu'à la Mairie de

  4. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatinajafabadi, Mitra; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, Albertus G; Kölzsch, Andrea; Nolet, Bart A; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Griffin, Larry; Stahl, Julia; Cabot, David

    2014-01-01

    Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI), has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7). Data were collected over three years (2008-2010). Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%), while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%). Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration), thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  5. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  6. Satellite-derived methane emissions from inundation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. N.; Bennartz, R.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The uncertainty in methane (CH4) source strength of rice fields and wetlands is particularly high in South Asia CH4 budgets. We used satellite observations of CH4 column mixing ratios from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) to estimate the contribution of Bangladesh emissions to atmospheric CH4 concentrations. Using satellite-derived inundation area as a proxy for source area, we developed a simple inverse advection model that estimates average annual CH4 surface fluxes to be 4, 9, and 19 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 in AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and GOSAT, respectively. Despite this variability, our flux estimates varied over a significantly narrower range than reported values for CH4 surface fluxes from a survey of 32 studies reporting ground-based observations between 0 and 260 mg CH4 m-2 h-1. Upscaling our satellite-derived surface flux estimates, we estimated total annual CH4 emissions for Bangladesh to be 1.3 ± 3.2, 1.8 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 1.6 Tg yr-1, depending on the satellite. Our estimates of total emissions are in line with the median of total emission values for Bangladesh reported in earlier studies.

  7. Application of Group Drilling Pumping Test in Burnt Rocks in Dananhu Mining Area Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region%群孔抽水试验在新疆哈密大南湖矿区烧变岩层中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆民; 鲁孟胜; 孙德全

    2014-01-01

    Portions of the Ⅲ burnt rocks in south part of the first mining area of northern open pit coal mine in Dananhu mine of Hami in Xinjiang should be exposed.It makes the burnt rock water become the main source of mine water filling.As showed by hydrogeological data in exploration stage,water bearing space in burnt rock area developed well with permeable capability and large storage capacity.Due to the limit of hydrogeological exploration engineering amount in exploration stage,hydrogeological condition has not been identified in detail.In order to find out water contact and the groundwater water quality changes of burnt rock,and to fully expose the hydrogeological conditions of the burnt rocks in Ⅲ burning area, group drilling pumping test has been designed.This test has identified hydrogeological conditions of burnt rocks,provided the basis for water prevention work under the condition of burnt rock.Through compre-hensive analysis,it is showed the burnt rocks in Ⅲ burning area are aquifer storage capacity type with poor supply conditions.%新疆哈密大南湖矿区北露天煤矿首采区东南部需要揭露Ⅲ火烧岩区一部分,这使得烧变岩水成为露天煤矿矿井充水的主要水源。资源勘探阶段的水文地质资料表明,烧变岩区赋水空间发育、透水能力强,储存量非常可观,但由于受资源勘探阶段水文地质勘探工程量制约,水文地质条件未能详细查明。因此为达到查明烧变岩地下水水力联系、水质变化情况,充分暴露Ⅲ火烧区烧变岩的水文地质条件的目的,设计了该次群孔抽水试验。该次试验查明了烧变岩含水层的水文地质条件,为烧变岩地质条件下防治水工作提供了依据。综合分析表明Ⅲ火烧区烧变岩为储存量型含水层,其补给条件差。

  8. Sediment availability on burnt hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Moody, John; Smith, Hugh; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    In general, erosion has been modeled as being proportional to some form of energy or force (such as shear stress or stream power) with the proportionality constant being erodibility, which is a characterization of sediment availability. It is unclear if erodibility is constant with depth on recently burnt hillslopes. This study used both field- and laboratory based experiments to quantify sediment availability as a depth-dependent parameter on burnt hillslopes. An explicit representation of fire-effect on sediment availability was achieved by assuming that fire-effects produce a non-cohesive soil layer of variable depth. This depth is characterized as a probability density function with a single parameter that changed during recovery (0-3 years) as the available soil was depleted. Measurements in southeastern Australia found that initially after a wildfire the hillslope had a layer (0.75-0.91 cm in depth) of non-cohesive soil, which represented 97-117 t/ha of transport limited sediment. The thickness of this layer decreased exponentially with time since the wildfire. Additional results showed that fine roots (soils for depths soil depth and root density accounted for ~60 % of variation in the erodibility at soil depths soil properties (% silt and clay in particular) became more important as predictors of erodibility. The results are organized into a conceptual framework for modeling fire-effects on sediment availability for systems with low and high pre-fire erodibility. The fire-effect produces an equal depth of non-cohesive soil for both systems but this represents a greater perturbation for systems with low pre-fire erodibility than for those systems with a high pre-fire erodibility.

  9. Initialization with diabatic heating from satellite-derived rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Leiming; Chan, Johnny; Davidson, Noel E.; Turk, Joe

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve initialization of a tropical cyclone (TC) prediction model using diabatic heating profiles estimated from a combination of both infrared satellite cloud imagery and satellite-derived rainfall. The method is termed Rainfall-defined Diabatic Heating, RDH. To examine the RDH performance, initialization and forecast experiments are made with the Australia Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) Tropical Cyclone — Limited Area Prediction System (TC-LAPS) for the case of TC Chris, which made landfall on the west coast of Australia during 3-6 Feb 2002. RDH is performed in three steps: 1) based on previous observational and numerical studies, reference diabatic heating profiles are firstly classified into three kinds: convective, stratiform or composite types; 2) NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) 3-hourly gridded satellite rainfall estimates are categorized as one of the three types according to the rain rate; 3) within a nudging phase of 24 h, the model-generated heating at each grid point during the integration is replaced by the reference heating profiles on the basis of the satellite-observed cloud top temperature and rainfall type. The results of sensitivity experiments show that RDH has a positive impact on the model initialization of TC Chris. The heating profiles generated by the model within the observed rainfall area show agreement with that of reference heating. That is, maximum heating is located in the lower troposphere for convective rainfall, and in the upper troposphere for stratiform rainfall. In response to the replaced heating and its impact on the TC structure, the model initial condition and forecasts of the track and intensity are improved.

  10. Fractal properties of forest fires in Amazonia as a basis for modelling pan-tropical burned area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, I. N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Lima, A.; Shimabukuro, Y.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2013-08-01

    Current methods for modelling burnt area in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models involve complex fire spread calculations, which rely on many inputs, including fuel characteristics, wind speed and countless parameters. They are therefore susceptible to large uncertainties through error propagation. Using observed fractal distributions of fire scars in Brazilian Amazonia, we propose an alternative burnt area model for tropical forests, with fire counts as sole input and few parameters. Several parameterizations of two possible distributions are calibrated at multiple spatial resolutions using a satellite-derived burned area map, and compared. The tapered Pareto model most accurately simulates the total area burnt (only 3.5 km2 larger than the recorded 16 387 km2) and its spatial distribution. When tested pan-tropically using MODIS MCD14ML fire counts, the model accurately predicts temporal and spatial fire trends, but produces generally higher estimates than the GFED3.1 burnt area product, suggesting higher pan-tropical carbon emissions from fires than previously estimated.

  11. Online Assessment of Satellite-Derived Global Precipitation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W.; Kempler, S.

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation is difficult to measure and predict. Each year droughts and floods cause severe property damages and human casualties around the world. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for mitigation and preparedness efforts. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite precipitation product development. In particular, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability have been improved by blended techniques. Their resulting products are widely used in various research and applications. However biases and uncertainties are common among precipitation products and an obstacle exists in quickly gaining knowledge of product quality, biases and behavior at a local or regional scale, namely user defined areas or points of interest. Current online inter-comparison and validation services have not addressed this issue adequately. To address this issue, we have developed a prototype to inter-compare satellite derived daily products in the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS). Despite its limited functionality and datasets, users can use this tool to generate customized plots within the United States for 2005. In addition, users can download customized data for further analysis, e.g. comparing their gauge data. To meet increasing demands, we plan to increase the temporal coverage and expanded the spatial coverage from the United States to the globe. More products have been added as well. In this poster, we present two new tools: Inter-comparison of 3B42RT and 3B42 Inter-comparison of V6 and V7 TRMM L-3 monthly products The future plans include integrating IPWG (International Precipitation Working Group) Validation Algorithms/statistics, allowing users to generate customized plots and data. In addition, we will expand the current daily products to monthly and their climatology products. Whenever the TRMM science team changes their product version number, users would like to know the differences by

  12. Application of satellite derived information for disaster risk reduction: vulnerability assessment for southwest coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Zeil, Peter

    2010-10-01

    The SW-coast of Pakistan is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis. Lack of spatially referenced information is a major hinder for proper disaster risk management programs in Pakistan, but satellite remote sensing being reliable, fast and spatially referenced information can be used as an important component in various natural disaster risk reduction activities. This study aimed to investigate vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and tsunamis based on satellite derived information. It is observed that SPOT-5 is relevant source on threatened features with respect to certain vulnerabilities like road, settlements, infrastructure and used in preparation of hazard zonation and vulnerability maps. Landsat ETM found very useful in demarcation of flood inundated areas. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM helps identify low lying areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by cyclone surges and tsunamis. The GIS integrated evaluation of SPOT, LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM data helps identify areas and infrastructure most vulnerable to cyclone surges and tsunami. Additionally, analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures (schools, hospitals) within hazard zones provides indicators for the degree of spatial exposure to disaster. Satellite derived information in conjunction with detailed surveys of hazard prone areas can provide comprehensive vulnerability and risk analysis.

  13. a Diagnostic Approach to Obtaining Planetary Boundary Layer Winds Using Satellite-Derived Thermal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Carol Lynn

    The feasibility of using satellite-derived thermal data to generate realistic synoptic-scale winds within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is examined. Diagnostic "modified Ekman" wind equations from the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) Boundary Layer Model are used to compute winds at seven levels within the PBL transition layer (50 m to 1600 m AGL). Satellite-derived winds based on 62 predawn (0921 GMT 19 April 1979) TIROS-N soundings are compared to similarly-derived wind fields based on 39 AVE-SESAME II rawinsonde (RAOB) soundings taken 2 h later. Actual wind fields are also used as a basis for comparison. Qualitative and statistical comparisons show that the Ekman winds from both sources are in very close agreement, with an average vector correlation coefficient of 0.815. Best results are obtained at 300 m AGL. Satellite winds tend to be slightly weaker than their RAOB counterparts and exhibit a greater degree of cross-isobaric flow. The modified Ekman winds show a significant improvement over geostrophic values at levels nearest the surface. Horizontal moisture divergence, moisture advection, velocity divergence and relative vorticity are computed at 300 m AGL using satellite-derived winds and moisture data. Results show excellent agreement with corresponding RAOB-derived values. Areas of horizontal moisture convergence, velocity convergence, and positive vorticity are nearly coincident and align in regions which later develop intense convection. Vertical motion at 1600 m AGL is computed using stepwise integration of the satellite winds through the PBL. Values and patterns are similar to those obtained using the RAOB-derived winds. Regions of maximum upward motion correspond with areas of greatest moisture convergence and the convection that later develops.

  14. When do children get burnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verey, Frances; Lyttle, Mark D; Lawson, Zoe; Greenwood, Rosemary; Young, Amber

    2014-11-01

    Burns are a cause of more than 5000 paediatric hospital admissions per year in England and Wales. Injury prevention and service provision may be better planned with knowledge of burn timing. Prospectively collected records from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011 were analysed. All episodes involving patients less than 16 years of age reviewed by the South West Children's Burns Centre were included. Data was collected from 1480 records to investigate seasonal, weekly, and daily variation. Day to day analysis showed significantly more burns occurred on Saturday and Sunday than Monday-Friday (pburns, 46% occurred within the time-period 08:00-15:59; however the mean hourly rate of burns was highest between 16:00 and 18:59. Of the larger burns (>10% body surface area), 38% occurred after 19:00. There was no statistically significant variation in the monthly (p=0.105) or seasonal (p=0.270) distribution of burns. Bank holidays did not cause a statistically significant increase in numbers. Injury prevention strategies are likely to have most volume impact by increasing awareness of the peak time for burns in children, enabling parents at home with young children to modify any risky behaviour and by targeting older children and their behaviour.

  15. Produção primária líquida em área queimada e não queimada de campo sujo de cerrado (Planaltina - DF Net primary production in burnt and unburnt area of campo sujo de cerrado (Planaltina - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Meirelles

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a produção primária liquida aérea de duas áreas de campo sujo de cerrado em Planaltina (DF, sendo uma preservada e outra queimada no inicio do experimento. A produção foi estimada através das diferenças entre o peso seco da fitomassa herbácea aérea coletada quinzenalmente. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 1980 a abril de 1981, que corresponde ao período das chuvas no DF. A produção primária líquida aérea do estrato herbáceo da área queimada (176 ± 33 g m-2 foi maior que a observada na área que não sofreu queima (108 ± 26 g m-2. A eficiência da conversão de energia solar para matéria seca foi de 0,19 ± 0,04% para a área queimada e 0,12 ± 0,03% na área preservada. A produção quinzenal apresentou correlação significativa com a precipitação e água no solo, demonstrando ser a água um fator limitante da produtividade do estrato herbáceo em área de campo sujo de cerrado.The above-ground net primary production was estimated for two areas of campo sujo of cerrado, one unburnt and the other initially burnt. Production was estimated by using diferences in the above-ground biomass which was sampled at quarterly intervals. The study was planned to coincide with the wet season, between october 1980 and april 1981. The above-ground net primary production of the herbaceous layer in the burnt area (176 ± 33 g m-2 was higher than in the unburnt area (108 ± 26 g m-2. The efficiency of the conversion of solar energy into dry matter was 0,12 ± 0,0,03% for the unburnt campo sujo and 0,19 ± 0,04% for the burnt campo sujo. The quartely production figures had significative correlation with precipitation and soil water, showing that the water is a limiting factor to the herbaceous layer primary production in campo sujo of cerrado.

  16. Estimating Ground-Level Particulate Matter (PM) Concentration using Satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seohui; Im, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are strongly associated with adverse human health effects. In particular, particulate matter less than 10 micrometers and 2.5 micrometers (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) can cause cardiovascular and lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Air quality including PM has typically been monitored using station-based in-situ measurements over the world. However, in situ measurements do not provide spatial continuity over large areas. An alternative approach is to use satellite remote sensing as it provides data over vast areas at high temporal resolution. The literature shows that PM concentrations are related with Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that is derived from satellite observations, but it is still difficult to identify PM concentrations directly from AOD. Some studies used statistical approaches for estimating PM concentrations from AOD while some others combined numerical models and satellite-derived AOD. In this study, satellite-derived products were used to estimate ground PM concentrations based on machine learning over South Korea. Satellite-derived products include AOD from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), soil moisture from AMSR-2, elevation from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and land cover, land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). PM concentrations data were collected from 318 stations. A statistical ordinary least squares (OLS) approach was also tested and compared with the machine learning approach (i.e., random forest). PM concentration was estimated during spring season (from March to May) in 2015 that typically shows high concentration of PM. The randomly selected 80% of data were used for model calibration and the remaining 20% were used for validation. The developed models were further tested for prediction of PM

  17. Comparison of Satellite-Derived and In-Situ Observations of Ice and Snow Surface Temperatures over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Hook, Simon J.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Steffen, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    The most practical way to get a spatially broad and continuous measurements of the surface temperature in the data-sparse cryosphere is by satellite remote sensing. The uncertainties in satellite-derived LSTs must be understood to develop internally-consistent decade-scale land-surface temperature (LST) records needed for climate studies. In this work we assess satellite-derived "clear-sky" LST products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and LSTs derived from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) over snow and ice on Greenland. When possible, we compare satellite-derived LSTs with in-situ air-temperature observations from Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) automatic-weather stations (AWS). We find that MODIS, ASTER and ETM+ provide reliable and consistent LSTs under clear-sky conditions and relatively-flat terrain over snow and ice targets over a range of temperatures from -40 to 0 C. The satellite-derived LSTs agree within a relative RMS uncertainty of approx.0.5 C. The good agreement among the LSTs derived from the various satellite instruments is especially notable since different spectral channels and different retrieval algorithms are used to calculate LST from the raw satellite data. The AWS record in-situ data at a "point" while the satellite instruments record data over an area varying in size from: 57 X 57 m (ETM+), 90 X 90 m (ASTER), or to 1 X 1 km (MODIS). Surface topography and other factors contribute to variability of LST within a pixel, thus the AWS measurements may not be representative of the LST of the pixel. Without more information on the local spatial patterns of LST, the AWS LST cannot be considered valid ground truth for the satellite measurements, with RMS uncertainty approx.2 C. Despite the relatively large AWS-derived uncertainty, we find LST data are characterized by high accuracy but have uncertain absolute precision.

  18. Temporal Trends in Satellite-Derived Erythemal UVB and Implications for Ambient Sun Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Langston

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UVR has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function. Linear regression models for local geographic areas were used to make inferences across the entire study area using a global field significance test. Temporal trends were investigated across all years and separately for each satellite type due to documented differences in UVB estimation. UVB increased from 1978 to 2014 in 48% of local tests. The largest UVB increase was found in Western Nevada (0.145 kJ/m2 per five-year increment, a total 30-year increase of 0.87 kJ/m2. This largest change only represented 17% of total ambient exposure for an average January and 2% of an average July in Western Nevada. The observed trends represent cumulative UVB changes of less than a month, which are not relevant when attempting to estimate human exposure. The observation of small trends should be interpreted with caution due to measurement of satellite parameter inputs (ozone and climatological factors that may impact derived satellite UVR nearly 20% compared to ground level sources. If the observed trends hold, satellite-derived UVB data may reasonably estimate ambient UVB exposures even for outcomes with long latency phases that predate the satellite record.

  19. Petrologic and REE Geochemical Characters of Burnt Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Lei; LIU Chiyang; YANG Lei; ZHAO Junfeng; FANG Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    The study of burnt rocks is beneficial to the discussion on the tectonic movement,paleoclimate and paleogeography that coal seams are subjected to after they were formed. In order to obtain the basic data on the features of the burnt rocks, a systematic study of petrology and REE geochemistry on burnt rocks in Shenmu, Northern Shaanxi Province has been done, using the methods of SEM, EDS, susceptibility measurements and ICP-MS. The burnt rocks are divided into two series in the section: the melted rocks and the baked rocks. SEM and EDS analyses reveal that all the minerals show burnt and melted traces, and there are no clay minerals except iliite found in the burnt rocks. Susceptibility measurements reveal that the burnt rocks have abnormally high susceptibility values,whereas a geochemical analysis shows that the REE distribution pattern of burnt rocks is similar to that of sedimentary rocks (initial rocks). In the longitudinal section, with increasing degree of burning (from baked rocks to melted rocks), the ΣREE gradually decreases, and the total REE of melted rocks is obviously lower than that of baked rocks. Besides, the melted rocks show apparent negative Ce anomalies, while the baked rocks show no anomaly of Ce, and sometimes even show positive anomalies.

  20. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  1. Surface radiation at sea validation of satellite-derived data with shipboard measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Dieter Behr

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality-controlled and validated radiation products are the basis for their ability to serve the climate and solar energy community. Satellite-derived radiation fluxes are well preferred for this task as they cover the whole research area in time and space. In order to monitor the accuracy of these data, validation with well maintained and calibrated ground based measurements is necessary. Over sea, however, long-term accurate reference data sets from calibrated instruments recording radiation are scarce. Therefore data from research vessels operating at sea are used to perform a reasonable validation. A prerequisite is that the instruments on board are maintained as well as land borne stations. This paper focuses on the comparison of radiation data recorded on board of the German Research Vessel "Meteor" during her 13 months cruise across the Mediterranean and the Black Sea with CM-SAF products using NOAA- and MSG-data (August 2006-August 2007: surface incoming short-wave radiation (SIS and surface downward long-wave radiation (SDL. Measuring radiation fluxes at sea causes inevitable errors, e.g.shadowing of fields of view of the radiometers by parts of the ship. These ship-inherent difficulties are discussed at first. A comparison of pairs of ship-recorded and satellite-derived mean fluxes for the complete measuring period delivers a good agreement: the mean bias deviation (MBD for SIS daily means is −7.6 W/m2 with a median bias of −4 W/m2 and consistently the MBD for monthly means is −7.3 W/m2, for SDL daily means the MBD is 8.1 and 6 W/m2 median bias respectively. The MBD for monthly means is 8.2 W/m2. The variances of the daily means (ship and satellite have the same annual courses for both fluxes. No significant dependence of the bias on the total cloud cover recorded according to WMO (1969 has been found. The results of the comparison between ship-based observations and satellite retrieved surface radiation reveal the good accuracy

  2. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J; Morley, David W; Atkinson, Peter M; Wardrop, Nicola A; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J

    2015-03-01

    Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Validation of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperatures for Waters around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to validate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR-derived sea surface temperatures (SST of the waters around Taiwan, we generated a match-up data set of 961 pairs, which included in situ SSTs and concurrent AVHRR measurements for the period of 1998 to 2002. Availability of cloud-free images, i.e., images with more than 85% of cloud-free area in their coverage, was about 2.23% of all AVHRR images during the study period. The range of in situ SSTs was from _ to _ The satellite derived-SSTs through MCSST and NLSST algorithms were linearly related to the in situ SSTs with correlation coefficients of 0.985 and 0.98, respectively. The MCSSTs and NLSSTs had small biases of 0.009 _ and 0.256 _ with root mean square deviations of 0.64 _ and 0.801 _ respectively, therefore the AVHRR-based MCSSTs and NLSSTs had high accuracy in the seas around Taiwan.

  4. Satellite derived precipitation and freshwater flux variability and its dependence on the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Axel; Bakan, Stephan; Graßl, Hartmut

    2010-08-01

    The variability of satellite retrieved precipitation and freshwater flux from the `Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data' (HOAPS) is assessed with special emphasis on the `North Atlantic Oscillation' (NAO). To cover also land areas, a novel combination of the satellite derived precipitation climatology with the rain gauge based `Full Data Reanalysis Product Version 4', of the `Global Precipitation Climatology Centre' (GPCC) is used. This yields unique high-resolution, quasi-global precipitation fields compiled from two independent data sources. Over the ocean, the response of the freshwater balance and the related parameters to the NAO is investigated for the first time by using a purely satellite based data set. A strong dependence of precipitation patterns to the state of the NAO is found. On synoptic scale this is in accordance with earlier findings by other satellite based and reanalysis products. Furthermore, the consistency of the combined HOAPS-3/GPCC data set allows also detailed regional analyses of precipitation patterns. The response of HOAPS-3 freshwater flux to the NAO is dominated by precipitation at mid and high latitudes, while for the subtropical regions the feedback of the evaporation is stronger.

  5. Spatial and Quantitative Comparison of Satellite-Derived Land Cover Products over China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hao; JIA Gen-Suo

    2012-01-01

    Because land cover plays an important role in global climate change studies, assessing the agreement among different land cover products is critical. Significant discrepancies have been reported among satellite-derived land cover products, especially at the regional scale. Dif- ferent classification schemes are a key obstacle to the comparison of products and are considered the main fac- tor behind the disagreement among the different products. Using a feature-based overlap metric, we investigated the degree of spatial agreement and quantified the overall and class-specific agreement among the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS), Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000), and the National Land Cover/Use Data- sets (NLCD) products, and the author assessed the prod- ucts by ground reference data at the regional scale over China. The areas with a low degree of agreement mostly occurred in heterogeneous terrain and transition zones, while the areas with a high degree of agreement occurred in major plains and areas with homogeneous vegetation. The overall agreement of the MODIS and GLC2000 products was 50.8% and 52.9%, and the overall accuracy was 50.3% and 41.9%, respectively. Class-specific agree- ment or accuracy varied significantly. The high-agreement classes are water, grassland, cropland, snow and ice, and bare areas, whereas classes with low agreement are shru- bland and wetland in both MODIS and GLC2000. These characteristics of spatial patterns and quantitative agree- ment could be partly explained by the complex landscapes, mixed vegetation, low separability of spectro-temporal- texture signals, and coarse pixels. The differences of class definition among different the classification schemes also affects the agreement. Each product had its advantages and limitations, but neither the overall accuracy nor the class-specific accuracy could meet the requirements of climate modeling.

  6. Using GIS data and satellite derived irradiance to optimize siting of PV installations in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Bartlett, Stuart; Sossan, Fabrizio; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For a successful distribution strategy of PV installations, it does not suffice to choose the locations with highest annual total irradiance. Attention needs to be given to spatial correlation patterns of insolation to avoid large system-wide variations, which can cause extended deficits in supply or might even damage the electrical network. One alternative goal instead is to seek configurations that provide the smoothest energy production, with the most reliable and predictable supply. Our work investigates several scenarios, each pursuing a different strategy for a future renewable Switzerland without nuclear power. Based on an estimate for necessary installed capacity for solar power [Bartlett, 2015] we first use heuristics to pre-select realistic placements for PV installations. Then we apply optimization methods to find a subset of locations that provides the best possible combined electricity production. For the first part of the selection process, we use a DEM to exclude high elevation zones which would be difficult to access and which are prone to natural hazards. Then we use land surface cover information to find all zones with potential roof area, deemed suitable for installation of solar panels. The optimization employs Principal Component Analysis of satellite derived irradiance data (Surface Incoming Shortwave Radiation (SIS), based on Meteosat Second Generation sensors) to incorporate a spatial aspect into the selection process that does not simply maximize annual total production but rather provides the most robust supply, by combining regions with anti-correlated cloud cover patterns. Depending on the initial assumptions and constraints, the resulting distribution schemes for PV installations vary with respect to required surface area, annual total and lowest short-term production, and illustrate how important it is to clearly define priorities and policies for a future renewable Switzerland.

  7. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  8. Oceanic Weather Decision Support for Unmanned Global Hawk Science Missions into Hurricanes with Tailored Satellite Derived Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Wayne; Griffin, Sarah; Velden, Christopher; Zipser, Ed; Cecil, Daniel; Braun, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to identify in-flight hazards to high-altitude aircraft, namely the Global Hawk. The Global Hawk was used during Septembers 2012-2016 as part of two NASA funded Hurricane Sentinel-3 field campaigns to over-fly hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. This talk identifies the cause of severe turbulence experienced over Hurricane Emily (2005) and how a combination of NOAA funded GOES-R algorithm derived cloud top heights/tropical overshooting tops using GOES-13/SEVIRI imager radiances, and lightning information are used to identify areas of potential turbulence for near real-time navigation decision support. Several examples will demonstrate how the Global Hawk pilots remotely received and used real-time satellite derived cloud and lightning detection information to keep the aircraft safely above clouds and avoid regions of potential turbulence.

  9. Burning Down the House: the Burnt Building V6 at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkermans, Peter M.M.G.; Brüning, Merel L.; Hammers, Neeke Mineke;

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the remains of a T-shaped burnt building found in trench V6 in Operation II at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. The burnt building closely resembles the so-called Burnt Village excavated earlier at Tell Sabi Abyad in Operation I, level 6, but is slightly older. Many...

  10. Statistical modeling of phenological phases in Poland based on coupling satellite derived products and gridded meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernecki, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Katarzyna; Nowosad, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate different statistical models for reconstructing and predicting selected phenological phases. This issue is of particular importance in Poland where national-wide phenological monitoring was abandoned in the middle of 1990s and the reactivated network was established in 2006. Authors decided to evaluate possibilities of using a wide-range of statistical modeling techniques to create synthetic archive dataset. Additionally, a robust tool for predicting the most distinguishable phenophases using only free of charge data as predictors was created. Study period covers the years 2007-2014 and contains only quality-controlled dataset of 10 species and 14 phenophases. Phenological data used in this study originates from the manual observations network run by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB). Three kind of data sources were used as predictors: (i) satellite derived products, (ii) preprocessed gridded meteorological data, and (iii) spatial properties (longitude, latitude, altitude) of the monitoring site. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) level-3 vegetation products were used for detecting onset dates of particular phenophases. Following indices were used: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR). Additionally, Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) products were chosen to detect occurrence of snow cover. Due to highly noisy data, authors decided to take into account pixel reliability information. Besides satellite derived products (NDVI, EVI, FPAR, LAI, Snow cover), a wide group of observational data and agrometeorological indices derived from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) were used as a potential predictors: cumulative growing degree days (GDD), cumulative growing precipitation days (GPD

  11. Linking Satellite-Derived Fire Counts to Satellite-Derived Weather Data in Fire Prediction Models to Forecast Extreme Fires in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Fire is the dominant disturbance that precipitates ecosystem change in boreal regions, and fire is largely under the control of weather and climate. Fire frequency, fire severity, area burned and fire season length are predicted to increase in boreal regions under climate change scenarios. Therefore to predict fire weather and ecosystem change, we must understand the factors that influence fire regimes and at what scale these are viable. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), developed by the Canadian Forestry Service, is used for this comparison, and it is calculated using local noon surface-level air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and daily (noon-noon) rainfall. The FWI assesses daily forest fire burning potential. Large-scale FWI are calculated at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) using NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) large-scale reanalysis and NASA Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data. The GEOS-4 reanalysis weather data are 3-hourly interpolated to 1-hourly data at a 1ox1o resolution and the GPCP precipitation data are also at 1ox1o resolution. In previous work focusing on the fire season in Siberia in 1999 and 2002, we have shown the combination of GEOS-4 weather data and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) precipitation data compares well to ground-based weather data when used as inputs for FWI calculation. The density and accuracy of Siberian surface station data can be limited, which leads to results that are not representative of the spatial reality. GEOS-4/GPCP-dervied FWI can serve to spatially enhance current and historic FWI, because these data are spatially and temporally consistency. The surface station and model reanalysis derived fire weather indices compared well spatially, temporally and quantitatively, and increased fire activity compares well with increasing FWI ratings. To continue our previous work, we statistically compare satellite-derived fire counts to FWI categories at

  12. Influence of satellite-derived photolysis rates and NOx emissions on Texas ozone modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertain photolysis rates and emission inventory impair the accuracy of state-level ozone (O3 regulatory modeling. Past studies have separately used satellite-observed clouds to correct the model-predicted photolysis rates, or satellite-constrained top-down NOx emissions to identify and reduce uncertainties in bottom-up NOx emissions. However, the joint application of multiple satellite-derived model inputs to improve O3 State Implementation Plan (SIP modeling has rarely been explored. In this study, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES observations of clouds are applied to derive the photolysis rates, replacing those used in Texas SIP modeling. This changes modeled O3 concentrations by up to 80 ppb and improves O3 simulations by reducing modeled normalized mean bias (NMB and normalized mean error (NME by up to 0.1. A sector-based discrete Kalman filter (DKF inversion approach is incorporated with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx-Decoupled Direct Method (DDM model to adjust Texas NOx emissions using a high resolution Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI NO2 product. The discrepancy between OMI and CAMx NO2 vertical column densities (VCD is further reduced by increasing modeled NOx lifetime and adding an artificial amount of NO2 in the upper troposphere. The sector-based DKF inversion tends to scale down area and non-road NOx emissions by 50%, leading to a 2–5 ppb decrease in ground 8 h O3 predictions. Model performance in simulating ground NO2 and O3 are improved using inverted NOx emissions, with 0.25 and 0.04 reductions in NMBs and 0.13 and 0.04 reductions in NMEs, respectively. Using both GOES-derived photolysis rates and OMI-constrained NOx emissions together reduces modeled NMB and NME by 0.05 and increases the model correlation with ground measurement in O3 simulations and makes O3 more sensitive to NOx emissions in the O3 non-attainment areas.

  13. Post-Fire Soil Respiration in Relation to the Burnt Wood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón Jiménez, Sara; Castro, J.; Kowalski, A.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Ruiz, B.; Sancez-Canete, Ep; Zamora, R.

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires are the main cause of forests and understory destruction in Mediterranean areas. One of the most dramatic consequences is the perturbation of carbon fluxes. A high percentage of the CO2 emitted by the ecosystem after a wildfire is due to soil respiration, which represents the most important uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. In this study we have quantified the soil respiration and its seasonal variability in reforested pine forests in the National and Natural Park of Sierra Nevada which were burned in September of 2005. Measurement campaigns were carried out along two years in two experimental plots at different altitudinal levels (1500 and 2200 m a.s.l.), in which three post-fire silvicultural treatments of burned wood were established: 1) "Non-Intervention" (NI), leaving all of the burnt trees standing. 2) "Cut plus Lopping" (CL), a treatment where most of the trees were cut and felled, with the main branches also lopped off, but leaving all the cut biomass in situ covering partially the ground surface 3) "Salvage Logging" (SL), all trees were cut and the trunks and branches were removed. Soil respiration was highly determined by the effects derived of the altitudinal level, with the highest values at the lowest altitude. The seasonal precipitation regime had also a key role. Soil respiration kept a basal level during the summer drought, during this period the response to the altitudinal level and post-fire treatments were reduced. On the other hand, soil respiration boosted after rain events, when the differences between treatments became more pronounced. In general, especially under these conditions of absence of water limitation, the post-fire burnt wood treatment with the highest CO2 fluxes was that in which all the burnt wood biomass remained covering partially the soil surface ("Cut plus Lopping") while the lowest values were registered in the treatment in which the soil was bared ("Salvage Logging"). Results of this study are especially

  14. Risk factors for multiple organic dysfunctions syndrome in burnt children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Maria Martinez Barreto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creation of intensive care units allows extending the life of patients with serious conditions, including multiple organic dysfunction syndromes. Objective: To determine the clinical variables and laboratory variables that are risk factors for multiple organic dysfunction syndromes in burnt children. Methods: Analytical, retrospective study of case series including burnt patients between 0 and 5 years hospitalized in the university Paediatric Hospital “Paquito González” in Cienfuegos and classified as: serious, very serious, critical, and extremely critical. This study was developed from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2005. The considered systems for dysfunction diagnosis were: respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, metabolic, central nervous system, hematologic, immunologic, and wounds healing. Data was processed by bivariate analysis of independent variables in relation with the dependent variable, to model a response variable of the syndrome occurrence (or not. The multivariate analysis of logistic regression was used. Results: 34 children developed the syndrome 44, 2 %. Significant variables linked to this syndrome were: seriousness of the injuries, serum potassium, blood creatinine, leukocyte counting, and cardiac rhythm. Conclusions: After five days of research development, a group of factors was identified proving risky for the development of multiple organic dysfunctions in burnt children.

  15. Comparison and evaluation of satellite derived precipitation products for hydrological modeling of the Zambezi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cohen Liechti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the African Dams ProjecT (ADAPT, an integrated water resource management study in the Zambezi Basin is currently under development. In view of the sparse gauging network for rainfall monitoring, the observations from spaceborne instrumentation currently produce the only available rainfall data for a large part of the basin.

    Three operational and acknowledged high resolution satellite derived estimates: the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission product 3B42 (TRMM 3B42, the Famine Early Warning System product 2.0 (FEWS RFE2.0 and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Prediction Centre (NOAA/CPC morphing technique (CMORPH are analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal repartition of the precipitations. They are compared to ground data for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2009 on a point to pixel basis at daily, 10-daily and monthly time steps and on a pixel to pixel basis for the wet seasons of the years 2003 to 2007 at monthly time steps.

    The general North-South gradient of precipitation is captured by all the analyzed products. Regarding the spatial heterogeneity, FEWS pixels are much more inter-correlated than TRMM and CMORPH pixels. For a rainfall homogeneity threshold criterion of 0.5 global mean correlation coefficient, the area of each subbasin should not exceed a circle of 2.5° latitude/longitude radius for FEWS and a circle of 0.75° latitude/longitude radius for TRMM and CMORPH considering rectangular mesh.

    In terms of reliability, the correspondence of all estimates with ground data increases with the time step chosen for the analysis. The volume ratio computation indicates that CMORPH is overestimating by nearly 1.5 times the rainfall. The statistics of TRMM and FEWS estimates show quite similar results.

    Due to the its lower inter-correlation and longer data set, the TRMM 3B42 product is chosen as input for the hydraulic-hydrologic model of the basin.

  16. Preparation and Metallurgical Analysis of High Activity Burnt Lime for Steelmaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-qiang HAO; Yu-zhu ZHANG; Su-ju HAO; Chao-fa ZHANG; Wu-feng JIANG; Peng-hui CUI

    2016-01-01

    Burnt lime is an important material in steelmaking and its activity degree is a key factor for liquid steel quality.The burnt lime was made by the calcination of limestone in a high pressure electric furnace.The burnt lime mineralogical phases and micro-morphologies were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD)and field emission scan-ning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).The burnt lime activity degree was determined by acid-base titration,the burnt lime pore distribution was measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP),and the thermal effect of a mixture of burnt lime and slag was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The results showed that the CaO grain size and pore size of burnt lime made under high pressure were larger than those of burnt lime made under atmos-pheric pressure.The CaO grain size and pore size increased and the laminate phenomenon also occurred clearly under high pressure.The activity degree of burnt lime made under high pressure was greater than that made under atmos-pheric pressure.The maximum activity degree was 437 mL for burnt lime made under a pressure of 0.4 MPa.For the same ratio of CaO to SiO2 ,the melting temperature,hemisphere temperature and fluidity temperature of slag decreased with increasing burnt lime activity degree.The higher the activity degree the burnt lime had,the better the slag forming occurred.It was advantageous for 2CaO.SiO2 and 3CaO.SiO2 forming at lower temperatures if the burnt lime activity degree was increased.

  17. Modeling of groundwater draft based on satellite-derived crop acreage estimation over an arid region of northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Bidyut Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Paliwal, Rakesh; Jeyaseelan, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater for agricultural crops puts stress on the sustainability of natural resources in the arid region of Rajasthan state, India. Hydrogeological study of groundwater levels of the study area during the pre-monsoon (May to June), post-monsoon (October to November) and post-irrigation (February to March) seasons of 2004-2005 to 2011-2012 shows a steady decline of groundwater levels at the rate of 1.28-1.68 m/year, mainly due to excessive groundwater draft for irrigation. Due to the low density of the groundwater observation-well network in the study area, assessment of groundwater draft, and thus groundwater resource management, becomes a difficult task. To overcome the situation, a linear groundwater draft model (LGDM) has been developed based on the empirical relationship between satellite-derived crop acreage and the observed groundwater draft for the year 2003-2004. The model has been validated for a decade, during three year-long intervals (2005-2006, 2008-2009 and 2011-2012) using groundwater draft, estimated through a discharge factor method. Further, the estimated draft was validated through observed pumping data from random sampled villages (2011-2012). The results suggest that the developed LGDM model provides a good alternative to the estimation of groundwater draft based on satellite-based crop area in the absence of groundwater observation wells in arid regions of northwest India.

  18. The hardening compositions from the burnt rocks for using in the mining conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Inst. of Industrial Construction and Building, Donetsk, (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V.; Saranchuk, V.I. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry NAS, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The complex investigation of burnt coal rocks as raw material for hardening alkaline cements reception have been carried out. The hardening composition on the base of pit heap burnt rocks for the grouting of worked-out space in mining conditions have been obtained. It has been shown that burnt rocks activation by blast granulated slag and water glass allowed to obtain the cements of needed strength. The influence of main technological factors on obtained hardening composition properties have been studied. (orig.)

  19. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brut

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003. A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the interannual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and two products are based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal or to uncertainties in model parameters. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for C3 crops and mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  20. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Brut

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001–2003. A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with two satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and the second is based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the two satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops and coniferous trees than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  1. Modelling LAI at a regional scale with ISBA-A-gs: comparison with satellite-derived LAI over southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brut, A.; Rüdiger, C.; Lafont, S.; Roujean, J.-L.; Calvet, J.-C.; Jarlan, L.; Gibelin, A.-L.; Albergel, C.; Le Moigne, P.; Soussana, J.-F.; Klumpp, K.

    2009-04-01

    A CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France) is used to simulate photosynthesis and Leaf Area Index (LAI) in southwestern France for a 3-year period (2001-2003). A domain of about 170 000 km2 is covered at a spatial resolution of 8 km. The capability of ISBA-A-gs to reproduce the seasonal and the inter-annual variability of LAI at a regional scale, is assessed with two satellite-derived LAI products. One originates from the CYCLOPES programme using SPOT/VEGETATION data, and the second is based on MODIS data. The comparison reveals discrepancies between the two satellite LAI estimates and between satellite and simulated LAI values, both in their intensity and in the timing of the leaf onset. The model simulates higher LAI values for the C3 crops and coniferous trees than the satellite observations, which may be due to a saturation effect within the satellite signal. The simulated leaf onset presents a significant delay for mountainous grasslands. In-situ observations at a mid-altitude grassland site show that the generic temperature response of photosynthesis used in the model is not appropriate for plants adapted to the cold climatic conditions of the mountainous areas. This study demonstrates the potential of LAI remote sensing products for identifying and locating models' shortcomings at a regional scale.

  2. Wildfire effects on soil lipid composition in burnt eucalypt stands, in north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Sílvia; De la Rosa, José Maria; Knicker, Heike; González-Pérez, José A.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires can induce profound changes in the quality and quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) pools. Early detection of fire impacts on SOM pools is relevant for taking decision and planning of post-fire restoration actions, since SOM plays a key role in post-fire erosion risk and the recovery of fire-affected ecosystems. This work focuses on wildfire effects on the composition of lipids in the topsoil of eucalypt plantations, one of the prevailing and, at the same time, most fire-prone forest types in north-central Portugal. To this end, two neighbouring eucalypt plantations were sampled at 5 occasions with roughly 6-monthly intervals, starting immediately after a wildfire in August 2010 till August 2012. One of the study sites was located within the 2010-bunrt area and the other just outside it. The air-dry soil samples were treated with a dichloromethane-methanol (3:1) mixture for Soxhlet extraction of the SOM's labile lipid fraction, as this fraction is particularly prone to undergo rapid and significant alterations by fire-induced heating. In turn, these alterations have elevated potential to be used as markers of direct fire effects on soil properties in general and, at the same time, as indicators of the recovery process during the so-called window-of-disturbance. The lipid compositions of the samples were determined by GC-MS. The preliminary results of this study indicated that the soil lipid fraction of the upper soil layer (0-2 cm depth) decreased sharply due to the wildfire, and that this effect lasted for more than 24 months. Its contents in the different sampling periods varied between 2.4 and 5.7 % at the long-unburnt site as compared to 0.9 - 1.1 % at the burnt site. The main differences between the burnt and unburnt samples were found in the distribution patterns of alkyl compounds. Without exception, an accumulation of low molecular weight homologues was observed in the burnt samples, suggesting that fire led to thermal breakdown and cracking of

  3. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30 years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and evaluate their applicability for agricultural drought evaluation when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in-situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite-based precipitation estimates. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite-based estimates. Nine statistics were used to evaluate the performance of satellite products to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to

  4. Evaluating satellite-derived long-term historical precipitation datasets for drought monitoring in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Francisco; Wardlow, Brian; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Lillo-Saavedra, Mario; Lagos, Octavio

    2017-04-01

    Precipitation is a key parameter for the study of climate change and variability and the detection and monitoring of natural disaster such as drought. Precipitation datasets that accurately capture the amount and spatial variability of rainfall is critical for drought monitoring and a wide range of other climate applications. This is challenging in many parts of the world, which often have a limited number of weather stations and/or historical data records. Satellite-derived precipitation products offer a viable alternative with several remotely sensed precipitation datasets now available with long historical data records (+30years), which include the Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) and Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR) datasets. This study presents a comparative analysis of three historical satellite-based precipitation datasets that include Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B43 version 7 (1998-2015), PERSIANN-CDR (1983-2015) and CHIRPS 2.0 (1981-2015) over Chile to assess their performance across the country and for the case of the two long-term products the applicability for agricultural drought were evaluated when used in the calculation of commonly used drought indicator as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In this analysis, 278 weather stations of in situ rainfall measurements across Chile were initially compared to the satellite data. The study area (Chile) was divided into five latitudinal zones: North, North-Central, Central, South-Central and South to determine if there were a regional difference among these satellite products, and nine statistics were used to evaluate their performance to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of historical rainfall across Chile. Hierarchical cluster analysis, k-means and singular value decomposition were used to analyze

  5. A Combined Satellite-Derived Drought Indicator to Support Humanitarian Aid Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Enenkel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Governments, aid organizations and researchers are struggling with the complexity of detecting and monitoring drought events, which leads to weaknesses regarding the translation of early warnings into action. Embedded in an advanced decision-support framework for Doctors without Borders (Médecins sans Frontières, this study focuses on identifying the added-value of combining different satellite-derived datasets for drought monitoring and forecasting in Ethiopia. The core of the study is the improvement of an existing drought index via methodical adaptations and the integration of various satellite-derived datasets. The resulting Enhanced Combined Drought Index (ECDI links four input datasets (rainfall, soil moisture, land surface temperature and vegetation status. The respective weight of each input dataset is calculated for every grid point at a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees (roughly 28 kilometers. In the case of data gaps in one input dataset, the weights are automatically redistributed to other available variables. Ranking the years 1992 to 2014 according to the ECDI-based warning levels allows for the identification of all large-scale drought events in Ethiopia. Our results also indicate a good match between the ECDI-based drought warning levels and reported drought impacts for both the start and the end of the season.

  6. Preliminary survey on site-adaptation techniques for satellite-derived and reanalysis solar radiation datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo, J.; Wilbert, S.; Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Meyer, R.; Gueymard, C.; Súri, M.; Martín, L.; Mieslinger, T.; Blanc, P.; Grant, I.; Boland, J.; Ineichen, P.; Remund, J.; Escobar, R.; Troccoli, A.; Sengupta, M.; Nielsen, K. P.; Renne, D.; Geuder, N.; Cebecauer, T.

    2016-07-01

    At any site, the bankability of a projected solar power plant largely depends on the accuracy and general quality of the solar radiation data generated during the solar resource assessment phase. The term 'site adaptation' has recently started to be used in the framework of solar energy projects to refer to the improvement that can be achieved in satellite-derived solar irradiance and model data when short-term local ground measurements are used to correct systematic errors and bias in the original dataset. This contribution presents a preliminary survey of different possible techniques that can improve long-term satellite-derived and model-derived solar radiation data through the use of short-term on-site ground measurements. The possible approaches that are reported here may be applied in different ways, depending on the origin and characteristics of the uncertainties in the modeled data. This work, which is the first step of a forthcoming in-depth assessment of methodologies for site adaptation, has been done within the framework of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 46 'Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting.'

  7. Validation of three satellite-derived databases of surface solar radiation using measurements performed at 42 stations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claire; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-06-01

    The SoDa website (www.soda-pro.com) is populated with numerous solar-related Web services. Among them, three satellite-derived irradiation databases can be manually or automatically accessed to retrieve radiation values within the geographical coverage of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite: the two most advanced versions of the HelioClim-3 database (versions 4 and 5, respectively HC3v4 and HC3v5), and the CAMS radiation service. So far, these databases have been validated against measurements of several stations in Europe and North Africa only. As the quality of such databases depends on the geographical regions and the climates, this paper extends this validation campaign and proposes an extensive comparison on Brazil and global irradiation received on a horizontal surface. Eleven stations from the Brazilian Institute of Space Research (INPE) network offer 1 min observations, and thirty-one stations from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET) network offer hourly observations. The satellite-derived estimates have been compared to the corresponding observations on hourly, daily and monthly basis. The bias relative to the mean of the measurements for HC3v5 is mostly comprised between 1 and 3 %, and that for HC3v4 between 2 and 5 %. These are very satisfactory results and they demonstrate that HC3v5, and to a lesser extent HC3v4, may be used in studies of long-term changes in SSI in Brazil. The situation is not so good with CAMS radiation service for which the relative bias is mostly comprised between 5 and 10 %. For hourly irradiation, the relative RMSE ranges from 15 to 33 %. The correlation coefficient is very large for all stations and the three databases, with an average of 0.96. The three databases reproduce well the hour from hour changes in SSI. The errors show a tendency to increase with the viewing angle of the MSG satellite. They are greater in tropical areas where the relative humidity in the atmosphere is important. It is concluded

  8. Modelling dengue fever risk in the State of Yucatan, Mexico using regional-scale satellite-derived sea surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Rosario, Abdiel E; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Muller-Karger, Frank E

    2017-08-01

    Accurately predicting vector-borne diseases, such as dengue fever, is essential for communities worldwide. Changes in environmental parameters such as precipitation, air temperature, and humidity are known to influence dengue fever dynamics. Furthermore, previous studies have shown how oceanographic variables, such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related sea surface temperature from the Pacific Ocean, influences dengue fever in the Americas. However, literature is lacking on the use of regional-scale satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) to assess its relationship with dengue fever in coastal areas. Data on confirmed dengue cases, demographics, precipitation, and air temperature were collected. Incidence of weekly dengue cases was examined. Stepwise multiple regression analyses (AIC model selection) were used to assess which environmental variables best explained increased dengue incidence rates. SST, minimum air temperature, precipitation, and humidity substantially explained 42% of the observed variation (r(2)=0.42). Infectious diseases are characterized by the influence of past cases on current cases and results show that previous dengue cases alone explained 89% of the variation. Ordinary least-squares analyses showed a positive trend of 0.20±0.03°C in SST from 2006 to 2015. An important element of this study is to help develop strategic recommendations for public health officials in Mexico by providing a simple early warning capability for dengue incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Satellite-derived sea surface height and sea surface wind data fusion for spilled oil tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2003-12-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the trajectory of the spilled oil from the sunken tanker Nakhodka occurred on January 2, 1997 in the Japan Sea by fusing two microwave sensor data, namely ERS-2 altimeter and ADEOS/NSCAT scatterometer data. In this study 'fusion' is defined as the method of more reliable prediction for the trajectory of spilled oil than before. Geostrophic current vectors are derived from ERS-2 altimeter and wind-induced drift vectors are derived from ADEOS/NSCAT scatterometer data These two different satellite-derived vectors are 'fused' together in the surface current model to estimate and evaluate the trajectory of spilled oil from the sunken tanker Nakhodka. The distribution of component of spill vector is mostly accounted for by the distribution of geostrophic velocity component during the study period with some discrepancies during March, 1997.

  10. Spatial Correlation of Satellite-Derived PM2.5 with Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ju Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases, particularly allergic rhinitis, are spatially and temporally correlated with the ground PM2.5 level. A study of the correlation between the two factors should therefore account for spatiotemporal variations. Satellite observation has the advantage of wide spatial coverage over pin-point style ground-based in situ monitoring stations. Therefore, the current study used both ground measurement and satellite data sets to investigate the spatial and temporal correlation of satellite-derived PM2.5 with respiratory diseases. This study used 4-year satellite data and PM2.5 levels of the period at eight stations in Taiwan to obtain the spatial and temporal relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD and PM2.5. The AOD-PM2.5 model was further examined using the cross-validation (CV technique and was found to have high reliability compared with similar models. The model was used to obtain satellite-derived PM2.5 levels and to analyze the hospital admissions for allergic rhinitis in 2008. The results suggest that adults (18–65 years and children (3–18 years are the most vulnerable groups to the effect of PM2.5 compared with infants and elderly people. This result may be because the two affected age groups spend longer time outdoors. This result may also be attributed to the long-range PM2.5 transport from upper stream locations and the atmospheric circulation patterns, which are significant in spring and fall. The results of the current study suggest that additional environmental factors that might be associated with respiratory diseases should be considered in future studies.

  11. Can satellite-derived water surface changes be used to calibrate a hydrodynamic model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Beck, Hylke; Salamon, Peter; Burek, Peter; de Roo, Ad; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of recent ground observational data is one of the main challenges for validation of hydrodynamic models. This is especially relevant for real-time global applications such as flood forecasting models. In this study, we aim to use remotely-sensed data from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) as a proxy of river discharge time series and test its value through calibration of the hydrological model LISFLOOD. This was carried out for the time period 1998-2010 at 40 sites in Africa, Europe, North America and South America by calibrating the parameters that control the flow routing and groundwater processes. We compared the performance of the calibrated simulated discharge time series that used satellite-derived data with the ground discharge time series. Furthermore, we compared it with the independent calibrated run that used ground data and also, to the non-calibrated simulated discharge time series. The non-calibrated set up used a set of parameters which values were predefined by expert-knowledge. This is currently being used by the LISFLOOD set up model embedded in the pre-operational Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The results of this study showed that the satellite surface water changes from the Global Flood Detection System can be used as a proxy of river discharge data, through the demonstration of its added value for model calibration and validation. Using satellite-derived data, the skill scores obtained by the calibrated simulated model discharge improved when comparing to non-calibrated simulated time series. Calibration, post-processing and data assimilation strategies of satellite data as a proxy for streamflow data within the global hydrological model are outlined and discussed.

  12. Assessment of Satellite-Derived Essential Climate Variables in the Terrestrial Domain: Overview and Status of the CEOS LPV Subgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The validation of satellite-derived terrestrial observations has perennially faced the challenge of finding a consistent set of in-situ measurements that can both cover a wide range of surface conditions and provide timely and traceable product accuracy and uncertainty information. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), the space arm of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), plays a key role in coordinating the land product validation process. The Land Product Validation (LPV) sub-group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) aims to address the challenges associated with the validation of global land products. This paper will provide a status of LPV subgroup focus area activities, which cover seven Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) terrestrial Essential Climate Variables (ECVs): (1) Snow Cover, (2) Surface Albedo, (3) Land Cover, (4) Leaf Area Index, (5) Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), (6) Active Fires, and (7) Soil Moisture; as well as two additional variables (Land Surface Phenology and Land Surface Temperature), which are deemed of high priority of the LPV community. A primary focus of LPV is the implementation of a global validation framework for product intercomparison and validation (fig. 1). This framework is based on a citable protocol, fiducial reference data, and automated subsetting. Ideally, each of these parts will be integrated into an online platform where quantitative tests are run, and standardized intercomparison and validation results reported for all products used in the validation exercise. The establishment of consensus guidelines for in situ measurements as well as inter-comparison of trends derived from independently-obtained reference data and derived products will enhance coordination of the scientific needs of the Earth system communities with global LPV activities (http://lpvs.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

  13. Satellite Derived Volcanic Ash Product Inter-Comparison in Support to SCOPE-Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddans, Richard; Thomas, Gareth; Pavolonis, Mike; Bojinski, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    In support of aeronautical meteorological services, WMO organized a satellite-based volcanic ash retrieval algorithm inter-comparison activity, to improve the consistency of quantitative volcanic ash products from satellites, under the Sustained, Coordinated Processing of Environmental Satellite Data for Nowcasting (SCOPEe Nowcasting) initiative (http:/ jwww.wmo.int/pagesjprogjsatjscopee nowcasting_en.php). The aims of the intercomparison were as follows: 1. Select cases (Sarychev Peak 2009, Eyjafyallajökull 2010, Grimsvötn 2011, Puyehue-Cordón Caulle 2011, Kirishimayama 2011, Kelut 2014), and quantify the differences between satellite-derived volcanic ash cloud properties derived from different techniques and sensors; 2. Establish a basic validation protocol for satellite-derived volcanic ash cloud properties; 3. Document the strengths and weaknesses of different remote sensing approaches as a function of satellite sensor; 4. Standardize the units and quality flags associated with volcanic cloud geophysical parameters; 5. Provide recommendations to Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and other users on how to best to utilize quantitative satellite products in operations; 6. Create a "road map" for future volcanic ash related scientific developments and inter-comparison/validation activities that can also be applied to SO2 clouds and emergent volcanic clouds. Volcanic ash satellite remote sensing experts from operational and research organizations were encouraged to participate in the inter-comparison activity, to establish the plans for the inter-comparison and to submit data sets. RAL was contracted by EUMETSAT to perform a systematic inter-comparison of all submitted datasets and results were reported at the WMO International Volcanic Ash Inter-comparison Meeting to held on 29 June - 2 July 2015 in Madison, WI, USA (http:/ /cimss.ssec.wisc.edujmeetings/vol_ash14). 26 different data sets were submitted, from a range of passive imagers and spectrometers and

  14. Varying applicability of four different satellite-derived soil moisture products to global gridded crop model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toru; Iizumi, Toshichika; Okada, Masashi; Nishimori, Motoki; Grünwald, Thomas; Prueger, John; Cescatti, Alessandro; Korres, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Marius; Carrara, Arnaud; Loubet, Benjamin; Ceschia, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Satellite-derived daily surface soil moisture products have been increasingly available, but their applicability to global gridded crop model (GGCM) evaluation is unclear. This study compares four different soil moisture products with the flux tower site observation at 18 cropland sites across the world where either of maize, soybean, rice and wheat is grown. These products include the first and second versions of Climate Change Initiative Soil Moisture (CCISM-1 and CCISM-2) datasets distributed by the European Space Agency and two different AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System)-derived soil moisture datasets, separately provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (AMSRE-J) and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (AMSRE-N). The comparison demonstrates varying reliability of these products in representing major characteristics of temporal pattern of cropland soil moisture by product and crop. Possible reasons for the varying reliability include the differences in sensors, algorithms, bands and criteria used when estimating soil moisture. Both the CCISM-1 and CCISM-2 products appear the most reliable for soybean- and wheat-growing area. However, the percentage of valid data of these products is always lower than other products due to relatively strict criteria when merging data derived from multiple sources, although the CCISM-2 product has much more data with valid retrievals than the CCISM-1 product. The reliability of the AMSRE-J product is the highest for maize- and rice-growing areas and comparable to or slightly lower than the CCISM products for soybean- and wheat-growing areas. The AMSRE-N is the least reliable in most location-crop combinations. The reliability of the products for rice-growing area is far lower than that of other upland crops likely due to the extensive use of irrigation and patch distribution of rice paddy in the area examined here. We conclude that the CCISM-1, CCISM-2 and AMSRE

  15. Relationships between different burn, vegetation and soil ratios with Landsat spectral reflectance values in fire affected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krina, Anastasia; Koutsias, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of unburned vegetation within a fire affected area can be regarded as a proxy measure of fire severity that can be estimated by means of remote sensing techniques. Yet, in order to obtain sound results, it is essential to improve our current knowledge regarding the spectral discrimination of areas that have been completely burnt from adjacent areas within a fire perimeter that still have patches of vegetation, or unburned proportion of vegetation on them. The aim of our research is to reveal the role of the vegetation or the small vegetation gaps in spectral characteristics of pixels with mixed land cover synthesis (burned, vegetation and soil) to achieve a better assessment of fire mapping and the impact of fire in the burned area. Three land cover types were identified, namely vegetation, bare land and burned area by applying pixel based classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm in high-resolution aerial photographs (1m). Moreover, multispectral satellite Landsat data that were acquired close to capture date of the aerial photos and were converted to TOC reflectance from USGS, were used to measure the association between land cover portions and satellite-derived VIs and spectral signatures. A grid of 30x30m was created to extract the ratio of the land cover categories corresponding to each selected pixel of the satellite image LANDSAT TM. Samples of different land cover ratios and of different types of substrate (e.g. rocks, light- or dark-colored soil) were delineated and their reflectance values at each spectral channel were extracted and used to calculate statistics in order to characterize the spectral properties. Finally, various vegetation indices were computed to investigate the role of the proportion of land cover and substrate in the variation of VIs. The results of our study reveal the spectral characteristics of burnt area at the pixel level and suggest the efficiency of certain spectral channels for the estimation of the

  16. Restoring a Burnt Heritage PTPN X Building in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Ratna Darmiwati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The archipelago of Indonesia has lots of historical buildings that were built during the Dutch colonization era, which lasted for approximately 350 years.  In 2011, there were 167 colonial architectural buildings in Surabaya city [1].  Due to their importance to the city as testimony of the history of Surabaya, and are a way to develop heritage tourism in Surabaya, the city government must preserve them.  A thorough research study has been done to support the city government in restoring a heritage building called PT Perkebunan Nusantara X (PTPN X.  It is a state-owned agricultural business office located at Jalan Jembatan Merah, Surabaya, and located among other historical sites. The PTPN X building was burnt down in 2005 with a damage level of about 60%.  In order to be able to build a new one with the original design of its past European architecture and details of its historical relics, the restoration acts require intensive consultations with many people such as the PTPN X employees, academic experts from Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember (ITS and the city’s cultural heritage experts who know all about it. In this paper, the approaches and final outcome of the building restoration will be described in greater detail. Keywords: colonial architectural building; heritage building restoration; tourism and education; PTPN X.

  17. High resolution satellite derived erodibility factors for WRF/Chem windblown dust simulations in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, Pablo Gabriel; Fernandez, Rafael Pedro; Allend, David; Mulena, Celeste; Puliafito, Salvador Enrique

    2017-04-01

    A proper representation of dust sources is critical to accurately predict atmospheric particle concentrations in regional windblown dust simulations. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) includes a topographic-based erodibility map originally conceived for global scale modeling, which fails to identify the geographical location of dust sources in many regions of Argentina. Therefore, this study aims at developing a method to obtain a high-resolution erodibility map suitable for regional or local scale modeling using WRF/Chem. We present two independent approaches based on global methods to estimate soil erodibility using satellite retrievals, i.e. topography from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and surface reflectance from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Simulation results of a severe Zonda wind episode in the arid central-west Argentina serve as bases for the analysis of these methods. Simulated dust concentration at surface level is compared with particulate matter measurements at one site in Mendoza city. In addition, we use satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals to investigate model performance in reproducing spatial distribution of dust emissions. The erodibility map based on surface reflectance from MODIS improves the representation of small scale features, and increases the overall dust aerosol loading with respect to the standard map included by default. Simulated concentrations are in good agreement with measurements as well as satellite derived dust spatial distribution.

  18. Comparative Study of Ground Measured, Satellite-Derived, and Estimated Global Solar Radiation Data in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluwaji M. Olomiyesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of three global solar radiation models and the accuracy of global solar radiation data derived from three sources were compared. Twenty-two years (1984–2005 of surface meteorological data consisting of monthly mean daily sunshine duration, minimum and maximum temperatures, and global solar radiation collected from the Nigerian Meteorological (NIMET Agency, Oshodi, Lagos, and the National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA for three locations in North-Western region of Nigeria were used. A new model incorporating Garcia model into Angstrom-Prescott model was proposed for estimating global radiation in Nigeria. The performances of the models used were determined by using mean bias error (MBE, mean percentage error (MPE, root mean square error (RMSE, and coefficient of determination (R2. Based on the statistical error indices, the proposed model was found to have the best accuracy with the least RMSE values (0.376 for Sokoto, 0.463 for Kaduna, and 0.449 for Kano and highest coefficient of determination, R2 values of 0.922, 0.938, and 0.961 for Sokoto, Kano, and Kaduna, respectively. Also, the comparative study result indicates that the estimated global radiation from the proposed model has a better error range and fits the ground measured data better than the satellite-derived data.

  19. Spatial disaggregation of satellite-derived irradiance using a high-resolution digital elevation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Arias, Jose A.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin [Department of Physics, University of Jaen (Spain); Cebecauer, Tomas [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); GeoModel s.r.o., Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Suri, Marcel [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); GeoModel s.r.o., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-09-15

    Downscaling of the Meteosat-derived solar radiation ({proportional_to}5 km grid resolution) is based on decomposing the global irradiance and correcting the systematic bias of its components using the elevation and horizon shadowing that are derived from the SRTM-3 digital elevation model (3 arc sec resolution). The procedure first applies the elevation correction based on the difference between coarse and high spatial resolution. Global irradiance is split into direct, diffuse circumsolar and diffuse isotropic components using statistical models, and then corrections due to terrain shading and sky-view fraction are applied. The effect of reflected irradiance is analysed only in the theoretical section. The method was applied in the eastern Andalusia, Spain, and the validation was carried out for 22 days on April, July and December 2006 comparing 15-min estimates of the satellite-derived solar irradiance and observations from nine ground stations. Overall, the corrections of the satellite estimates in the studied region strongly reduced the mean bias of the estimates for clear and cloudy days from roughly 2.3% to 0.4%. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a physically-based snow model with infrared and microwave satellite-derived estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.

    2013-05-01

    Snow (with high albedo, as well as low roughness and thermal conductivity) has significant influence on the land-atmosphere interactions in the cold climate and regions of high elevation. The spatial and temporal variability of the snow distribution on a basin scale greatly determines the timing and magnitude of spring snowmelt runoff. For improved water resources management, a physically-based distributed snow model has been developed and applied to the upper Yellow River Basin to provide the outputs of snow variables as well as streamflows from 2001 to 2005. Remotely-sensed infrared information from MODIS satellites has been used to evaluate the model's outputs of spatially-distributed snow cover extent (SCE) and land surface temperature (LST); while the simulated snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) have been compared with the microwave information from SSM/I and AMSR-E satellites. In general, the simulated streamflows (including spring snowmelt) agree fairly well with the gauge-based observations; while the modeled snow variables show acceptable accuracies through comparing to various satellite-derived estimates from infrared or microwave information.;

  1. Factors influencing the use of winter-burnt grassland by foraging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calvus, and the abundance of invertebrates in winter-burnt grassland were ... relative abundance of living and dead arthropods in relation to the time elapsed after ... tion, silviculture and non-agricultural fonns of land-use (Manry. 1982).

  2. Estimation of glacier mass balance: An approach based on satellite-derived transient snowlines and a temperature index driven by meteorological observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, S. A.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Bala, G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Himalaya, large area is comprised of glaciers and seasonal snow, mainly due to its high elevated mountain ranges. Long term and continuous assessment of glaciers in this region is important for climatological and hydrological applications. However, rugged terrains and severe weather conditions in the Himalaya lead to paucity in field observations. Therefore, in recent decades, glacier dynamics are extensively monitored using remote sensing in inaccessible terrain like Himalaya. Estimation of glacier mass balance using empirical relationship between mass balance and area accumulation ratio (AAR) requires an accurate estimate of equilibrium-line altitude (ELA). ELA is defined as the snowline at the end of the hydrological year. However, identification of ELA, using remote sensing is difficult because of temporal gaps, cloud cover and intermediate snowfall on glaciers. This leads to large uncertainty in glacier mass-balance estimates by the conventional AAR method that uses satellite-derived highest snowline in ablation season as an ELA. The present study suggests a new approach to improve estimates of ELA location. First, positions of modelled snowlines are optimized using satellite-derived snowlines in the early melt season. Secondly, ELA at the end of the glaciological year is estimated by the melt and accumulation models driven using in situ temperature and precipitation records. From the modelled ELA, mass balance is estimated using the empirical relationship between AAR and mass balance. The modelled mass balance is validated using field measurements on Chhota Shigri and Hamtah glaciers, Himachal Pradesh, India. The new approach shows a substantial improvement in glacier mass-balance estimation, reducing bias by 46% and 108% for Chhota Shigiri and Hamtah glaciers respectively. The cumulative mass loss reconstructed from our approach is 0.85 Gt for nine glaciers in the Chandra basin from 2001 to 2009. The result of the present study is in agreement with

  3. Evaluating a satellite-based seasonal evapotranspiration product and identifying its relationship with other satellite-derived products and crop yield: A case study for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Senay, Gabriel B.; Berhan, Getachew; Regassa, Teshome; Beyene, Shimelis

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-derived evapotranspiration anomalies and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are currently used for African agricultural drought monitoring and food security status assessment. In this study, a process to evaluate satellite-derived evapotranspiration (ETa) products with a geospatial statistical exploratory technique that uses NDVI, satellite-derived rainfall estimate (RFE), and crop yield data has been developed. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the ETa using the NDVI and RFE, and identify a relationship between the ETa and Ethiopia’s cereal crop (i.e., teff, sorghum, corn/maize, barley, and wheat) yields during the main rainy season. Since crop production is one of the main factors affecting food security, the evaluation of remote sensing-based seasonal ETa was done to identify the appropriateness of this tool as a proxy for monitoring vegetation condition in drought vulnerable and food insecure areas to support decision makers. The results of this study showed that the comparison between seasonal ETa and RFE produced strong correlation (R2 > 0.99) for all 41 crop growing zones in Ethiopia. The results of the spatial regression analyses of seasonal ETa and NDVI using Ordinary Least Squares and Geographically Weighted Regression showed relatively weak yearly spatial relationships (R2 cropping zones. However, for each individual crop zones, the correlation between NDVI and ETa ranged between 0.3 and 0.84 for about 44% of the cropping zones. Similarly, for each individual crop zones, the correlation (R2) between the seasonal ETa anomaly and de-trended cereal crop yield was between 0.4 and 0.82 for 76% (31 out of 41) of the crop growing zones. The preliminary results indicated that the ETa products have a good predictive potential for these 31 identified zones in Ethiopia. Decision makers may potentially use ETa products for monitoring cereal crop yields and

  4. Investigation of soils affected by burnt hospital wastes in Nigeria using PIXE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Improper management of hospital waste has been reported to be responsible for several acute outbreaks like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In spite of these challenges, hospital wastes are sometimes not properly handled in Nigeria. To date, there has not been an adequate study on the effect and fate of burnt hospital waste on agricultural soil. The effect of burnt hospital wastes on the agricultural soil was conducted on soils sampled around farm settlement near Obafemi Awolowo ...

  5. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiéry, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.thiery@mines-douai.fr [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Université de Lille (France); Bourdot, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.bourdot@gmail.com [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Bulteel, David, E-mail: david.bulteel@mines-douai.fr [Université de Lille (France)

    2015-08-15

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements.

  6. Engineering bacteria to solve the Burnt Pancake Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemond Sabriya

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the possibility of executing DNA-based computation in living cells by engineering Escherichia coli to address a classic mathematical puzzle called the Burnt Pancake Problem (BPP. The BPP is solved by sorting a stack of distinct objects (pancakes into proper order and orientation using the minimum number of manipulations. Each manipulation reverses the order and orientation of one or more adjacent objects in the stack. We have designed a system that uses site-specific DNA recombination to mediate inversions of genetic elements that represent pancakes within plasmid DNA. Results Inversions (or "flips" of the DNA fragment pancakes are driven by the Salmonella typhimurium Hin/hix DNA recombinase system that we reconstituted as a collection of modular genetic elements for use in E. coli. Our system sorts DNA segments by inversions to produce different permutations of a promoter and a tetracycline resistance coding region; E. coli cells become antibiotic resistant when the segments are properly sorted. Hin recombinase can mediate all possible inversion operations on adjacent flippable DNA fragments. Mathematical modeling predicts that the system reaches equilibrium after very few flips, where equal numbers of permutations are randomly sorted and unsorted. Semiquantitative PCR analysis of in vivo flipping suggests that inversion products accumulate on a time scale of hours or days rather than minutes. Conclusion The Hin/hix system is a proof-of-concept demonstration of in vivo computation with the potential to be scaled up to accommodate larger and more challenging problems. Hin/hix may provide a flexible new tool for manipulating transgenic DNA in vivo.

  7. Post-fire vegetation behaviour in large burnt scars from 2005 fire season in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have a wide diversity of impacts on landscape which, in turn, depend on the interaction of fire regimes (e.g. intensity, extent, frequency) and the response of vegetation to them in short and long-terms. The increase in erosion rates and the loss of nutrients by runoff in the first months following the fire are among the major impacts of wildfires. A minimum of 30% of vegetation cover is enough to protect soils against erosion but vegetation may require a long period to reach this threshold after severe fires. Since erosion risk is strongly linked to vegetation recovery rates, post-fire vegetation monitoring becomes crucial in land management. Fire regimes in the Mediterranean have been changing in the past decades due to modifications in both socio-economic and climate patterns. Although many vegetation species in Mediterranean ecosystems are adapted to wildfires, changes in fire regime characteristics affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. In Spain, fire is an important driver of changes in landscape composition, leading to dominance of shrubland following fire and to a major decrease of pine woodlands (Viedma et al., 2006). Remote sensing is a powerful tool in land management, allowing vegetation monitoring on large spatial scales for relatively long periods of time. In order to assess vegetation dynamics, monthly NDVI data from 1998-2009 from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the Iberian Peninsula were used. This work focuses on 2005 fire season in Spain, which registered the highest amount of burnt area since 1994, with more than 188000 ha burnt. Burnt scars in this fire season were identified by cluster analysis. Post-fire vegetation recovery was assessed based on the monoparametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) that was applied to four large scars located in different geographical settings with different land cover characteristics. While the two northern regions presented fast recovery, in the

  8. Potential of satellite-derived ecosystem functional attributes to anticipate species range shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Lomba, Angela; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Alves, Paulo; Georges, Damien; Vicente, Joana R.; Honrado, João P.

    2017-05-01

    In a world facing rapid environmental changes, anticipating their impacts on biodiversity is of utmost relevance. Remotely-sensed Ecosystem Functional Attributes (EFAs) are promising predictors for Species Distribution Models (SDMs) by offering an early and integrative response of vegetation performance to environmental drivers. Species of high conservation concern would benefit the most from a better ability to anticipate changes in habitat suitability. Here we illustrate how yearly projections from SDMs based on EFAs could reveal short-term changes in potential habitat suitability, anticipating mid-term shifts predicted by climate-change-scenario models. We fitted two sets of SDMs for 41 plant species of conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula: one calibrated with climate variables for baseline conditions and projected under two climate-change-scenarios (future conditions); and the other calibrated with EFAs for 2001 and projected annually from 2001 to 2013. Range shifts predicted by climate-based models for future conditions were compared to the 2001-2013 trends from EFAs-based models. Projections of EFAs-based models estimated changes (mostly contractions) in habitat suitability that anticipated, for the majority (up to 64%) of species, the mid-term shifts projected by traditional climate-change-scenario forecasting, and showed greater agreement with the business-as-usual scenario than with the sustainable-development one. This study shows how satellite-derived EFAs can be used as meaningful essential biodiversity variables in SDMs to provide early-warnings of range shifts and predictions of short-term fluctuations in suitable conditions for multiple species.

  9. Trends in a satellite-derived vegetation index and environmental variables in a restored brackish lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated relative influence of climatic variables on the plant productivity after lagoon restoration. Chilika Lagoon, the largest brackish lake ecosystem in East Asia, experienced severe problems such as excessive dominance of freshwater exotic plants and rapid debasement of biodiversity associated with decreased hydrologic connectivity between the lagoon and the ocean. To halt the degradation of the lagoon ecosystem, the Chilika Development Authority implemented a restoration project, creating a new channel to penetrate the barrier beach of the lagoon. Using a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI dataset, we compared the trend of vegetation changes after the lagoon restoration, from April 1998 to May 2014. The time series of NDVI data were decomposed into trend, seasonal, and random components using a local regression method. The results were visualized to understand the traits of spatial distribution in the lagoon. The NDVI trend, indicative of primary productivity, decreased rapidly during the restoration period, and gradually increased (slope coefficient: 2.1×10−4, p<0.05 after two years of restoration. Level of seawater exchange had more influences on plant productivity than local precipitation in the restored lagoon. Higher El Niño/Southern Oscillation increased sea level pressure, and caused intrusion of seawater into the lagoon, and the subsequently elevated salinity decreased the annual mean NDVI. Our findings suggest that lagoon restoration plans for enhancing interconnectivity with the ocean should consider oceanographic effects due to meteorological forcing, and long-term NDVI results can be used as a valuable index for adaptive management of the restoration site.

  10. Predicting bird phenology from space: satellite-derived vegetation green-up signal uncovers spatial variation in phenological synchrony between birds and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ella F; Long, Peter R; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Szulkin, Marta; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Population-level studies of how tit species (Parus spp.) track the changing phenology of their caterpillar food source have provided a model system allowing inference into how populations can adjust to changing climates, but are often limited because they implicitly assume all individuals experience similar environments. Ecologists are increasingly using satellite-derived data to quantify aspects of animals' environments, but so far studies examining phenology have generally done so at large spatial scales. Considering the scale at which individuals experience their environment is likely to be key if we are to understand the ecological and evolutionary processes acting on reproductive phenology within populations. Here, we use time series of satellite images, with a resolution of 240 m, to quantify spatial variation in vegetation green-up for a 385-ha mixed-deciduous woodland. Using data spanning 13 years, we demonstrate that annual population-level measures of the timing of peak abundance of winter moth larvae (Operophtera brumata) and the timing of egg laying in great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) is related to satellite-derived spring vegetation phenology. We go on to show that timing of local vegetation green-up significantly explained individual differences in tit reproductive phenology within the population, and that the degree of synchrony between bird and vegetation phenology showed marked spatial variation across the woodland. Areas of high oak tree (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) density showed the strongest match between remote-sensed vegetation phenology and reproductive phenology in both species. Marked within-population variation in the extent to which phenology of different trophic levels match suggests that more attention should be given to small-scale processes when exploring the causes and consequences of phenological matching. We discuss how use of remotely sensed data to study within-population variation

  11. Mineralogical composition and phase-to-phase relationships in natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement - raw materials and burnt products revealed by scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Přikryl, Richard; Racek, Martin; Přikrylová, Jiřina

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to modern process of production of cement clinker, traditional burning of natural hydraulic lime below sintering temperature relied on the formation of new phases from ion migration between neighbouring mineral grains composing raw material. The importance of the mineralogical composition and spatial distribution of rock-forming minerals in impure limestones used as a raw material for natural hydraulic lime presents not well explored issue in the scientific literature. To fill this gap, the recent study focuses in detailed analysis of experimentally burnt impure limestones (mostly from Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif). The phase changes were documented by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) coupled with x-ray elemental mapping. The latest allowed for visualization of distribution of elements within raw materials and burnt products. SEM/EDS study brought valuable data on the presence of transitional and/or minor phases, which were poorly detectable by other methods.

  12. Environmental Monitoring Supported by Aerial Photography – a Case Study of the Burnt Down Bugac Juniper Forest, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatmári József

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire poses a serious risk in several regions of the world threatening urban, agricultural areas and natural ecosystems as well. Nature conservation has important role to be prepared for the management of postfire environmental degradation and restoration for protected areas preserving valuable ecosystems. The improving temporal and spatial resolution of remote sensing and GIS methods significantly contributes to map the changes for accelerating management steps of restoration. In this study a severe wildfire and its impacts were assessed in case of a protected area of the Kiskunság National Park in Hungary, which was partly burnt down in 2012. The aim of this research was to efficiently and accurately assess the damages and to plan and execute the restoration works using remote sensing tools. Aerial data collection was performed one month, and one year after the fire. In 2014 the regenerated vegetation was surveyed and mapped in the field. Using the aerial photographs and the field data, the degree and extent of the fire damages, the types and the state of the vegetation and the presence and proportion of the invasive species were determined. Semi-automatic methods were used for the classification of completely, partially damaged and undamaged areas. Based on the results, the reforestation of the burnt area is suggested to prevent the overspreading of white poplar against common junipers and to clean the area from the most frequent invasive species. To monitor the regeneration of the vegetation and the spreading of the invasive species, further aerial photography and field campaigns are planned.

  13. Calibration of the Distributed Hydrological Model mHM using Satellite derived Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, M.; Samaniego, L. E.; Cuntz, M.

    2012-12-01

    A combined investigation of the water and energy balance in hydrologic models can lead to a more accurate estimation of hydrological fluxes and state variables, such as evapotranspiration and soil moisture. Hydrologic models are usually calibrated against discharge measurements, and thus are only trained on information of few points within a catchment. This procedure does not take into account any spatio-temporal variability of fluxes or state variables. Satellite data are a useful source of information to account for this spatial distributions. The objective of this study is to calibrate the distributed hydrological model mHM with satellite derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) fields provided by the Land Surface Analysis - Satellite Application Facility (LSA-SAF). LST is preferred to other satellite products such as soil moisture or evapotranspiration due to its higher precision. LST is obtained by solving the energy balance by assuming that the soil heat flux and the storage term are negligible on a daily time step. The evapotranspiration is determined by closing the water balance in mHM. The net radiation is calculated by using the incoming short- and longwave radiation, albedo and emissivity data provided by LSA-SAF. The Multiscale Parameter Regionalization technique (MPR, Samaniego et al. 2010) is used to determine the aerodynamic resistance among other parameters. The optimization is performed within the time period 2008-2010 using three objective functions that consider 1) only discharge, 2) only LST, and 3) a combination of both. The proposed method is applied to seven major German river basins: Danube, Ems, Main, Mulde, Neckar, Saale, and Weser. The annual coefficient of correlation between LSA-SAF incoming shortwave radiation and 28 meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service (DWD) is 0.94 (RMSE = 29 W m-2) in 2009. LSA-SAF incoming longwave radiation could be further evaluated at two eddy covariance stations with a very similar

  14. Perceptions on Barriers to the Use of Burnt Clay Bricks for Housing Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard K. Baiden

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burnt clay bricks can be readily manufactured in Ghana as all ten regions have significant clay deposits with the Ashanti region having the highest estimated deposit of 37.1 million metric tonnes. In recent times, burnt clay bricks have been regarded as old fashioned and replaced by other perceived modern walling units within Kumasi, the metropolitan capital of Ashanti Region, despite its availability, unique advantages (aesthetics, low maintenance cost, etc., and structural and nonstructural properties. This study involved a questionnaire survey of 85 respondents made up of architects, brick manufacturing firms, and brick house owners or occupants in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana and sought to examine their perceptions on barriers to the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction. The findings revealed that the key factors inhibiting the use of burnt clay bricks for housing construction are low material demand, excessive cost implications, inappropriate use in construction, noncompatibility of burnt clay bricks with other materials, unreliable production, and transportation problems. The findings however provide a platform for stakeholders to address the barriers to enable the extensive use of clay bricks in housing constructions.

  15. Different Stages of Heating Rates in Bulk-curing for Burnt-sweetness Type Flue-cured Tobacco from Southern Hunan Tobacco-growing Area of Rice%湘南浓香型稻作烟区密集烘烤不同阶段升温速度组合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 邓井青; 邓小华; 周向平; 李玉辉; 刘正日; 邓满成; 骆君华

    2013-01-01

    为提高密集烘烤烟叶品质,优化密集烘烤工艺,以湘南浓香型稻作烟区的云烟97品种烟叶为材料,研究密集烘烤不同阶段升温速度组合对烟叶化学成分、经济性状的影响及能耗成本。结果表明,上部和下部烟叶在35~38℃以3 h升温1℃,38.1~42℃以2 h升温1℃,42.1~45℃或47℃以3 h升温l℃,45.1℃或47.1~54℃以2 h升温1℃,54.1~68℃以2 h升温1℃的升温速度组合较好;中部叶在35~38℃以2 h升温1℃,38.1~42℃以1 h升温1℃,42.1~47℃以2 h升温l℃,47.1~54℃以1 h升温1℃,54.1~68℃以1 h升温1℃的升温速度组合较好。各升温速度组合有利于协调烤后烟叶化学成分,提高上等烟比例和均价,降低能耗成本。%In order to improve the quality of bulk curing tobacco leaves and optimize bulk curing technology,the effects of different heating rates on chemical components and economic character and energy costs of Yunyan 97 in burnt-sweetness type from southern-Hunan flue-cured tobacco leavy were studied.The results revealed that:heat up 1℃ every 3 hours during 35~38℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 38.1~42℃,heat up 1℃ every 3 hours during 42.1~45 or 47℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 45.1 or 47.1~54℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 54.1~68℃ had the best effect for the upper and low leavy;Heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 35~38℃,heat up 1℃ every 1 hours during 38.1~42℃,heat up 1℃ every 2 hours during 42.1~47℃,heat up 1℃ every 1 hours during 47.1~54℃,heat up 1℃ every one hour during 54.1~68℃had the best effect for the middle leavy.The above heat rates combination was helpful to improve superior to-bacco proportion and average price and coordinate chemical composition and lower energy costs.

  16. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  17. Study on performance of concrete with over-burnt bricks aggregates and micro-silica admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, K.; Sathyan, Dhanya; Mini, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Concrete is made by mixing cement, sand, aggregates and water in required proportion, where aggregates occupy the major volume. Addition of aggregates in concrete improves properties of concrete. With the natural resources depleting rapidly, limiting the use of natural resources and enhancing the use of waste materials is very important for sustainable development. Over-burnt bricks are a waste material which cannot be used in construction directly because of their irregular shape and dark colour. Use of over-burnt bricks helps to preserve natural aggregate source. The present study focuses on the effects of microsilica at various percentages as a partial cement replacement in concrete with over-burnt bricks as coarse aggregates. The mechanical properties of hardened concrete such as splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and compressive strength are studied and analyzed.

  18. A Satellite-Derived Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Transport Index for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gray J.; Lerner, Jeffrey A.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A new approach is presented to quantify upper-level moisture transport from geostationary satellite data. Daily time sequences of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GOES-7 water vapor imagery were used to produce estimates of winds and water vapor mixing ratio in the cloud-free region of the upper troposphere sensed by the 6.7- microns water vapor channel. The winds and mixing ratio values were gridded and then combined to produce a parameter called the water vapor transport index (WVTI), which represents the magnitude of the two-dimensional transport of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Daily grids of WVTI, meridional moisture transport, mixing ratio, pressure, and other associated parameters were averaged to produce monthly fields for June, July, and August (JJA) of 1987 and 1988 over the Americas and surrounding oceanic regions, The WVTI was used to compare upper-tropospheric moisture transport between the summers of 1987 and 1988, contrasting the latter part of the 1986/87 El Nino event and the La Nina period of 1988. A similar product derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 40-Year Reanalysis Project was used to help to validate the index. Although the goal of this research was to describe the formulation and utility of the WVTI, considerable insight was obtained into the interannual variability of upper-level water vapor transport. Both datasets showed large upper-level water vapor transport associated with synoptic features over the Americas and with outflow from tropical convective systems. Minimal transport occurred over tropical and subtropical high pressure regions where winds were light. Index values from NCEP-NCAR were 2-3 times larger than that determined from GOES. This difference resulted from large zonal wind differences and an apparent overestimate of upper-tropospheric moisture in the reanalysis model. A comparison of the satellite-derived monthly

  19. Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system over the Niger basin using in situ and satellite derived datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedinotti, V.; Boone, A.; Decharme, B.; Crétaux, J. F.; Mognard, N.; Panthou, G.; Papa, F.; Tanimoun, B. A.

    2012-06-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water for an ever-increasing local population in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distributed surface water and discharge measurements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system to represent key processes related to the hydrological cycle of the Niger basin. ISBA-TRIP is currently used within a coupled global climate model, so that the scheme must represent the first order processes which are critical for representing the water cycle while retaining a limited number of parameters and a simple representation of the physics. To this end, the scheme uses first-order approximations to account explicitly for the surface river routing, the floodplain dynamics, and the water storage using a deep aquifer reservoir. In the current study, simulations are done at a 0.5 by 0.5° spatial resolution over the 2002-2007 period (in order to take advantage of the recent satellite record and data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses project, AMMA). Four configurations of the model are compared to evaluate the separate impacts of the flooding scheme and the aquifer on the water cycle. Moreover, the model is forced by two different rainfall datasets to consider the sensitivity of the model to rainfall input uncertainties. The model is evaluated using in situ discharge measurements as well as satellite derived flood extent, total continental water storage changes and river height changes. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area, known as a significant flooded area, on the discharge, characterized by a strong reduction of the

  20. Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system over the Niger basin using in situ and satellite derived datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pedinotti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1970s and 1980s, West Africa has faced extreme climate variations with extended drought conditions. Of particular importance is the Niger basin, since it traverses a large part of the Sahel and is thus a critical source of water for an ever-increasing local population in this semi arid region. However, the understanding of the hydrological processes over this basin is currently limited by the lack of spatially distributed surface water and discharge measurements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ISBA-TRIP continental hydrologic system to represent key processes related to the hydrological cycle of the Niger basin. ISBA-TRIP is currently used within a coupled global climate model, so that the scheme must represent the first order processes which are critical for representing the water cycle while retaining a limited number of parameters and a simple representation of the physics. To this end, the scheme uses first-order approximations to account explicitly for the surface river routing, the floodplain dynamics, and the water storage using a deep aquifer reservoir. In the current study, simulations are done at a 0.5 by 0.5° spatial resolution over the 2002–2007 period (in order to take advantage of the recent satellite record and data from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses project, AMMA. Four configurations of the model are compared to evaluate the separate impacts of the flooding scheme and the aquifer on the water cycle. Moreover, the model is forced by two different rainfall datasets to consider the sensitivity of the model to rainfall input uncertainties. The model is evaluated using in situ discharge measurements as well as satellite derived flood extent, total continental water storage changes and river height changes. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area, known as a significant flooded area, on the discharge, characterized by a strong

  1. Stocking rate impact on soil water repellency and erodibility of burnt lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavi, Ilan; Zaady, Eli

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires and prescribed burnings are common, modifying the functioning of geo-ecosystems. Such fires have been extensively studied, and reported to considerably affect soil properties. Yet, understanding of the impact of livestock grazing, or more precisely, trampling, in fire-affected lands is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of livestock trampling (hoof action) on the functioning of burnt vs. non-burnt lands. This was studied by focusing on the effects on wettability and related properties of solid soil, as well as on the quantity of unconsolidated material (detached matter) lying on the solid ground surface. The study was implemented in the semi-arid northern Negev of Israel, in lands which experienced a one cycle of (unintended) low- to moderate-fire severity. The study was conducted by allowing livestock to access plots under high, medium, and low stocking rates. Also, livestock exclusion plots were assigned as a control treatment. Soil wettability was studied by water drop penetration time (WDPT) and critical surface tension (CST) tests. Results show that fire slightly decreased the soil wettability. However, WDPT was negatively related to the stocking rate, and CST was 13% smaller in the control plots than in the livestock-presence treatments. Also, the results show that following burning, the resistance of soil to shear decreased by 70%. Mass of unconsolidated material was similar in the control plots of the burnt and non-burnt plots. At the same time, it was three-, eight-, and nine- fold greater in the plots of the burnt × low, burnt × medium, and burnt × high stocking rates, respectively, than in the corresponding non-burnt ones. This study shows that livestock trampling in low- to moderate-intensity fire-affected lands increases the shearing of the ground surface layer. On the one hand, this increases soil wettability. On the other hand, this impact considerably increases risks of on-site soil erosion and land

  2. Analysis of Satellite-Derived Arctic Tropospheric BrO Columns in Conjunction with Aircraft Measurements During ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S.; Wang, Y.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Joiner, J.; Zeng, T.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Richter, A.; Huey, L. G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative transfer model and stratospheric column BrO from a photochemical simulation. We conduct a comprehensive comparison of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO column to aircraft in-situ observations ofBrO and related species. The aircraft profiles reveal that tropospheric BrO, when present during April 2008, was distributed over a broad range of altitudes rather than being confined to the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Perturbations to the total column resulting from tropospheric BrO are the same magnitude as perturbations due to longitudinal variations in the stratospheric component, so proper accounting of the stratospheric signal is essential for accurate determination of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO. We find reasonably good agreement between satellite-derived tropospheric BrO and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO profiles, particularly when satellite radiances were obtained over bright surfaces (albedo> 0.7), for solar zenith angle BrO due to surface processes (the bromine explosion) is apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low surface pressure, strong wind, and high PBL height are associated with an observed BrO activation event, supporting the notion of bromine activation by high winds over snow.

  3. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We derive tropospheric column BrO during the ARCTAS and ARCPAC field campaigns in spring 2008 using retrievals of total column BrO from the satellite UV nadir sensors OMI and GOME-2 using a radiative transfer model and stratospheric column BrO from a photochemical simulation. We conduct a comprehensive comparison of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO column to aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species. The aircraft profiles reveal that tropospheric BrO, when present during April 2008, was distributed over a broad range of altitudes rather than being confined to the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Perturbations to the total column resulting from tropospheric BrO are the same magnitude as perturbations due to longitudinal variations in the stratospheric component, so proper accounting of the stratospheric signal is essential for accurate determination of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO. We find reasonably good agreement between satellite-derived tropospheric BrO and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO profiles, particularly when satellite radiances were obtained over bright surfaces (albedo >0.7, for solar zenith angle <80° and clear sky conditions. The rapid activation of BrO due to surface processes (the bromine explosion is apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low surface pressure, strong wind, and high PBL height are associated with an observed BrO activation event, supporting the notion of bromine activation by high winds over snow.

  4. Valuing water quality in urban watersheds: A comparative analysis of Johnson Creek, Oregon, and Burnt Bridge Creek, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, Noelwah R.; Kincaid, Michael; Chang, Heejun

    2014-05-01

    This study uses the hedonic price method to investigate the effect of five water quality parameters on the sale price of single-family residential properties in two urbanized watersheds in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington metropolitan area. Water quality parameters include E. coli or fecal coliform, which can affect human health, decrease water clarity and generate foul odors; pH, dissolved oxygen, and stream temperature, which can impact fish and wildlife populations; and total suspended solids, which can affect water clarity, aquatic life, and aesthetics. Properties within ¼ mile, ½, mile, one mile, or more than one mile from Johnson Creek are estimated to experience an increase in sale price of 13.71%, 7.05%, 8.18%, and 3.12%, respectively, from a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season (May-October). Estimates for a 100 count per 100 mL increase in E. coli during the dry season are -2.81% for properties within ¼ mile of Johnson Creek, -0.86% (½ mile), -1.19% (one mile), and -0.71% (greater than one mile). Results for properties in Burnt Bridge Creek include a significantly positive effect for a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season for properties within ½ mile (4.49%), one mile (2.95%), or greater than one mile from the creek (3.17%). Results for other water quality parameters in Burnt Bridge Creek are generally consistent with a priori expectations. Restoration efforts underway in both study areas might be cost justified based on their estimated effect on property sale prices.

  5. Analysis of satellite-derived Arctic tropospheric BrO columns in conjunction with aircraft measurements during ARCTAS and ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We derive estimates of tropospheric BrO column amounts during two Arctic field campaigns in 2008 using information from the satellite UV nadir sensors Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 as well as estimates of stratospheric BrO columns from a model simulation. The sensitivity of the satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns to various parameters is investigated using a radiative transfer model. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of satellite-derived tropospheric BrO columns including a detailed comparison with aircraft in-situ observations of BrO and related species obtained during the field campaigns. In contrast to prior expectation, tropospheric BrO, when present, existed over a broad range of altitudes. Our results show reasonable agreement between tropospheric BrO columns derived from the satellite observations and columns found using aircraft in-situ BrO. After accounting for the stratospheric contribution to total BrO column, several events of rapid BrO activation due to surface processes in the Arctic are apparent in both the OMI and GOME-2 based tropospheric columns. The wide orbital swath of OMI allows examination of the evolution of tropospheric BrO on about hourly time intervals near the pole. Low pressure systems, strong surface winds, and high planetary boundary layer heights are associated with the observed tropospheric BrO activation events.

  6. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ayaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1 Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2 No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3 Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient.

  7. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient.

  8. Previous factors correlated to multiple organic dysfunction in adults severely burnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira María Martínez Barreto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: different systems of prognosis classification for the follow up classification for patients in critical stage in different clinical conditions have been created in intensive care unit. However any of them has been used in our country in burnt patients because there is a lack of element for its evaluation. Objective: identifying the variables that constitute previous factors correlated to the development of multiple organic syndrome dysfunction in adults severely burnt. Methods: correlational, descriptive study, that included 68 burnt critical patients admitted at Gurstavo Aldeleguía Lima hospital from 2005 to 2009. Patients classified as critical, very critical and extremely critical were included. Through a bi-varied analysis a series of dependent variables in terms of the presence of the syndrome were evaluated. In order to analyze their relation with the presence or not of the syndrome, multivariate analysis of logistic regression and interaction among variables were applied. Results: at the moment of admission variables largely correlated to the syndrome were: corporal burned-out surface, depth AB and B, heart and respiratory rate, arterial base deficit, relation PO2FIO2, sodium, potassium and white blood cell count. The interactions among variables belonging to bigger statistical significance were observed between the heart rate, white blood cell count and corporal burned-out surface. Conclusion: a group of clinical and laboratory factors was identified, associated to the development of the syndrome in the evolution of the patients severely burnt. These results will inform in a precocious way about the probability for burnt patients to present in any time of his evolution, dysfunctions that lead them to develop the syndrome.

  9. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Zhu

    Full Text Available Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands, using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  10. Estimating carbon flux phenology with satellite-derived land surface phenology and climate drivers for different biomes: a synthesis of AmeriFlux observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenquan; Chen, Guangsheng; Jiang, Nan; Liu, Jianhong; Mou, Minjie

    2013-01-01

    Carbon Flux Phenology (CFP) can affect the interannual variation in Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we proposed a methodology to estimate CFP metrics with satellite-derived Land Surface Phenology (LSP) metrics and climate drivers for 4 biomes (i.e., deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest, grasslands and croplands), using 159 site-years of NEE and climate data from 32 AmeriFlux sites and MODIS vegetation index time-series data. LSP metrics combined with optimal climate drivers can explain the variability in Start of Carbon Uptake (SCU) by more than 70% and End of Carbon Uptake (ECU) by more than 60%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the estimations was within 8.5 days for both SCU and ECU. The estimation performance for this methodology was primarily dependent on the optimal combination of the LSP retrieval methods, the explanatory climate drivers, the biome types, and the specific CFP metric. This methodology has a potential for allowing extrapolation of CFP metrics for biomes with a distinct and detectable seasonal cycle over large areas, based on synoptic multi-temporal optical satellite data and climate data.

  11. Utilization of satellite-derived estimates of meteorological and land surface characteristics in the Land Surface Model for vast agricultural region territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    data from named radiometers. All technologies have been adapted to the study area. Verification of the AVHRR- and MODIS-derived LST estimates has been performed through comparison with ground-measured temperatures and analogous estimates obtained from remaining sensors. The reliability of SEVIRI-derived LST estimates has been verified by comparison with similar synchronous SEVIRI-derived estimates produced in LSA SAF (Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility, Lisbon, Portugal). Correctness of LAI estimates has been confirmed by comparing time behavior of satellite- and ground-based LAI during vegetation season. Satellite-derived estimates of precipitation have been built using the Multi Threshold Method (MTM) developed for automatic pixel-by-pixel classification of AVHRR and SEVIRI data. The method is intended for the cloud detection and identification of its types, estimation of the maximum liquid water content and water content of the cloud layer, allocation of precipitation zones and determination of instantaneous maximum intensities of precipitation in the pixel range around the clock throughout the year independently of the land surface type. Measurement data from five AVHRR channels or from eleven SEVIRI channels as well as their differences have been used in the MTM as predictors. To validate the methodology, ground-based observation data on daily precipitation sums at agricultural meteorological stations of the study region have been used. The probability of correct precipitation zone detection from satellite data is at least 70% (80-85% in some cases) when compared with ground-based observations. In the frame of this approach the transition from the rainfall intensity estimation to the calculation of their daily values has been accomplished. In the study the AVHRR- and SEVIRI-derived daily, monthly and annual sums of precipitation for the region of interest have been calculated. The daily and monthly sums have been found to be in good agreement

  12. Handling of subpixel structures in the application of satellite derived irradiance data for solar energy system analysis - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hans Georg

    2016-04-01

    With the increasing availability of satellite derived irradiance information, this type of data set is more and more in use for the design and operation of solar energy systems, most notably PV- and CSP-systems. By this, the need for data measured on-site is reduced. However, due to basic limitations of the satellite-derived data, several requirements put by the intended application cannot be coped with this data type directly. Traw satellite information has to be enhanced in both space and time resolution by additional information to be fully applicable for all aspects of the modelling od solar energy systems. To cope with this problem, several individual and collaborative projects had been performed in the recent years or are ongoing. Approaches are on one hand based on pasting synthesized high-resolution data into the low-resolution original sets. Pre-requite is an appropriate model, validated against real world data. For the case of irradiance data, these models can be extracted either directly from ground measured data sets or from data referring to the cloud situation as gained from the images of sky cameras or from monte -carlo initialized physical models. The current models refer to the spatial structure of the cloud fields. Dynamics are imposed by moving the cloud structures according to a large scale cloud motion vector, either extracted from the dynamics interfered from consecutive satellite images or taken from a meso-scale meteorological model. Dynamic irradiance information is then derived from the cloud field structure and the cloud motion vector. This contribution, which is linked to subtask A - Solar Resource Applications for High Penetration of Solar Technologies - of IEA SHC task 46, will present the different approaches and discuss examples in view of validation, need for auxiliary information and respective general applicability.

  13. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  14. Subsidence hazard and risk assessments for Mexico City: An interdisciplinary analysis of satellite-derived subsidence map (PSInSAR) and census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Rojas, D. E.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Hernaández Espriú, A.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is the largest urban center in the American continent, with 20.4 millions of inhabitants, representing 17.8% of the total population of the country. Over the past several decades Mexico City has been experienced rapid subsidence, up to ~370 mm/yr, caused by groundwater extraction. The subsidence rate is inhomogeneous, as it controlled by the local geology. Unconsolidated sediments tend to compact and induce rapid subsidence, whereas subsurface volcanic rocks are less prone to subsidence. Intensive faulting in the city has been observed in areas of differential deformation; in these areas buildings and infrastructure are highly damaged. Quantification of subsidence-induce damage is needed for establishing the magnitude of the phenomenon. Our study uses three data sources: a satellite-derived subsidence map, census information of population distribution for 2010, and information on buildings and infrastructure. The subsidence map was calculated from 29 SAR scene acquired by the Envisat satellite during the years 2003-2010 using the Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) method with the SqueeSAR algorithm. The information of the census of population comes from the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI), which also provides the information about infrastructure. We intersected the information from the three maps using a geographic information system (GIS), which cover an area of 1, 640 km2. As subsidence-induced damage occurs mainly in areas of differential subsidence, we based the GIS analysis on the subsidence gradients, rather than subsidence rates. In order to evaluate subsidence-induced faulting risk, we generated a risk matrix that worked as the main parameter to create a risk map. We then reclassified the urban area into 5 zones according to the related risk, with R0 for the lowest risk and R4 for the highest. Our counting showed that 350 km2 of the city is located in an urban area of high to very high risk

  15. Post-fire runoff and soil (fertility) losses in long-unburnt vs. repeatedly-burnt Maritime Pine stands, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Buchspies, Ben; Maia, Paula; Martins, Martinho; Varandas, Daniela; Geissen, Violette; Coelho, Celeste; Ritsem, Coen; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Whilst wildfires are a natural phenomenon in Mediterranean climate regions and a key evolutionary and ecological factor in several of its ecosystems, there are widespread concerns about the resilience of even these fire-adapted ecosystems under present-day fire regimes. The role of repeated wildfires in land degradation, however, has not been extensively studied. The EU-funded CASCADE project addresses this research gap in the study case in Portugal, assessing whether repeated wildfires in Maritime Pine stands lead to land degradation through a gradual process or, instead, through tipping-points in plant-water-soil relationships. In the present study, focus is on the indirect effects of (repeated) wildfires, due to fire-enhanced overland flow generation and the associated losses of sediments, organic matter and nutrients (N and P). Following a large wildfire in early September 2013, affecting roughly 3000 ha in the municipality of Viseu, six Maritime Pine stands were selected within the burnt area. According to the available burnt-area maps, covering the period 1975-2011, three of these sites were unburnt for over 35 years, whereas the other three sites had burnt three more times before 2012. At each of these sites, two pairs of micro-plots of approximately 0.25 m2 were installed as soon as possible after the wildfire, albeit not before the first two post-fire rainfall events, whilst a third pair was installed several weeks later. The first two plot pairs were installed halfway the upper and lower halves of the slope, the third pair in between. The paired-plot design was chosen to compare the hydrological and erosion response for two adjacent patches with contrasting post-fire vegetation recovery processes, i.e. through re-sprouting (by the shrub Pterospartum tridentatum) and by germination. Since the installation of the plots, runoff has been measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall, and samples taken for laboratory analysis of sediment and

  16. Geomorphology of the Burnt River, eastern Oregon, USA: Topographic adjustments to tectonic and dynamic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Matthew Connor; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2017-02-01

    Eastern Oregon contains the deepest gorge in North America, where the Snake River cuts vertically down 2300 m. This deep gorge is known as Hells Canyon. A landscape containing such a topographic feature is likely undergoing relatively recent deformation. Study of the Burnt River, a tributary to the Snake River at the upstream end of Hells Canyon, yields data on active river incision in eastern Oregon, indicating that Quaternary faults are a first order control on regional landscape development. Through 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping, a 500,000-year record of fluvial incision along the Burnt River was constructed and is chronologically anchored by optically stimulated luminescence dating and tephrochronology analyses. A conceptual model of fluvial terrace formation was developed using these ages and likely applies to other non-glaciated catchments in eastern Oregon. Mapped terraces, inferred to have formed during glacial-interglacial cycles, provide constraints on rates of incision of the Burnt River. Incision through these terraces indicates that the Burnt River is down-cutting at 0.15 to 0.57 m kyr- 1. This incision appears to reflect a combination of local base-level adjustments tied to movement along the newly mapped Durkee fault and regional base-level control imposed by the downcutting of the Snake River. Deformation of terraces as young as 38.7 ± 5.1 ka indicates Quaternary activity along the Durkee fault, and when combined with topographic metrics (slope, relief, hypsometry, and stream-steepness), reveals a landscape in disequilibrium. Longer wavelength lithospheric dynamics (delamination and crustal foundering) that initiated in the Miocene may also be responsible for continued regional deformation of the Earth's surface.

  17. Intercomparison of satellite-derived cloud analyses for the Arctic Ocean in spring and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguffie, K.; Barry, R. G.; Schweiger, A.; Newell, J.; Robinson, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Several methods of deriving Arctic cloud information, primarily from satellite imagery, have been intercompared. The comparisons help in establishing what cloud information is most readily determined in polar regions from satellite data analysis. The analyses for spring-summer conditions show broad agreement, but subjective errors affecting some geographical areas and cloud types are apparent. The results suggest that visible and thermal infrared data may be insufficient for adequate cloud mapping over some Arctic surfaces.

  18. Influence of satellite-derived rainfall patterns on plague occurrence in northeast Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debien, Annekatrien; Neerinckx, Simon; Kimaro, Didas; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-12-13

    In the tropics, rainfall data are seldom accurately recorded, and are often discontinuous in time. In the scope of plague-research in northeast Tanzania, we adapted previous research to reconstruct rainfall patterns at a suitable resolution (1 km), based on time series of NDVI: more accurate satellite imagery was used, in the form of MODIS NDVI, and rainfall data were collected from the TRMM sensors instead of in situ data. First, we established a significant relationship between monthly rainfall and monthly composited MODIS NDVI. The established linear relationship was then used to reconstruct historic precipitation patterns over a mountainous area in northeastern Tanzania. We validated the resulting precipitation estimates with in situ rainfall time series of three meteorological stations located in the study area. Taking the region's topography into account, a correlation coefficient of 0.66 was obtained for two of the three meteorological stations. Our results suggest that the adapted strategy can be applied fruitfully to estimate rainfall variability and seasonality, despite the underestimation of overall rainfall rates. Based on this model, rainfall in previous years (1986) is modelled to obtain a dataset with which we can compare plague occurrence in the area. A positive correlation of 82% is obtained between high rainfall rates and plague incidence with a two month lag between rainfall and plague cases. We conclude that the obtained results are satisfactory in support of the human plague research in which this study is embedded, and that this approach can be applied in other studies with similar goals.

  19. A novel design approach for a neutron measurement station for burnt fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietler, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.dietler@axpo.ch [Axpo AG Kernenergie, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Hursin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.hursin@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Perret, Gregory, E-mail: gregory.perret@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Jordan, Kelly, E-mail: kjordan@mse.ufl.edu [University of Florida, 180 Rhines Hall, PO Box 116400, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Chawla, Rakesh, E-mail: rakesh.chawla@epfl.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-11-21

    The design and characterization of a passive neutron measurement station for highly burnt fuel has been undertaken at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The measurement station aims at the determination of the total neutron emission rate of full-length light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods, as also the corresponding axial distributions. It is intended that the measurement station be introduced into the hot cells available at PSI to allow measuring the neutron emission of spent fuel rods provided by the Swiss nuclear power plants. In addition, the neutron emission of a large set of burnt fuel samples that have been previously characterized by post-irradiation examination (PIE) will be measured, in order to relate neutron emission to the burnup and isotopic composition of different fuel types. The design of the measurement station is presented in this article. A post-processing algorithm is introduced to improve the spatial resolution of the 'measured' axial profile. In order to quantify the accuracy of the reconstructed neutron source distribution, a figure-of-merit (FOM) is defined and adapted to the detection procedure. With the optimized measurement station and procedure, it is estimated that the neutron emission distribution of a highly burnt, full-length fuel rod would be measurable with acceptable accuracy in about 20 min.

  20. A novel design approach for a neutron measurement station for burnt fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietler, Rodolfo; Hursin, Mathieu; Perret, Gregory; Jordan, Kelly; Chawla, Rakesh

    2012-11-01

    The design and characterization of a passive neutron measurement station for highly burnt fuel has been undertaken at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The measurement station aims at the determination of the total neutron emission rate of full-length light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods, as also the corresponding axial distributions. It is intended that the measurement station be introduced into the hot cells available at PSI to allow measuring the neutron emission of spent fuel rods provided by the Swiss nuclear power plants. In addition, the neutron emission of a large set of burnt fuel samples that have been previously characterized by post-irradiation examination (PIE) will be measured, in order to relate neutron emission to the burnup and isotopic composition of different fuel types. The design of the measurement station is presented in this article. A post-processing algorithm is introduced to improve the spatial resolution of the "measured" axial profile. In order to quantify the accuracy of the reconstructed neutron source distribution, a figure-of-merit (FOM) is defined and adapted to the detection procedure. With the optimized measurement station and procedure, it is estimated that the neutron emission distribution of a highly burnt, full-length fuel rod would be measurable with acceptable accuracy in about 20 min.

  1. Satellite-derived primary productivity and its spatial and temporal variability in the China seas%中国近海初级生产力的遥感研究及其时空演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀赛春; 石广玉

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of primary productivity in the China seas from 2003 to 2005 was estimated using a size-fractionated primary productivity model. Primary productivity estimated from satellite-derived data showed spatial and temporal variability. Annual averaged primary productivity levels were 564.39, 363.08, 536.47, 413.88, 195.77, and 100.09 gCm-2a-1 in the Bohai Sea, northern Yellow Sea (YS), southern YS, northern East China Sea (ECS), southern ECS, and South China Sea (SCS), respectively. Peaks of primary productivity appeared in spring (April-June) and fall (October and November) in the northern YS, southern YS, and southern ECS, while a single peak (June) appeared in the Bohai Sea and northern ECS. The SCS had two peaks in primary productivity, but these peaks occurred in winter (January) and summer (August), with the winter peak far higher than the summer peak. Monthly averaged primary productivity values from 2003 to 2005 in the Bohai Sea and southern YS were higher than those in the other four seas during most months, while those in the southern ECS and SCS were the lowest. Primary productivity in spring (March-June in the southern ECS and April-July in the other five areas) contributed approximately 41% on average to the annual primary productivity in all the study seas except the SCS. The largest interannual variability also occurred in spring (average standard deviation = 6.68), according to the satellite-derived estimates. The contribution during fall (October-January in the southern ECS and August-November in the other five areas) was approximately 33% on average; the primary productivity during this period also showed interannual variability. However, in the SCS, the winter (December-March) contribution was the highest (about 42%), while the spring (April-July) contribution was the lowest (28%). The SCS did share a feature with the other five areas: the larger the contribution, the larger the interannual variability. Spatial and

  2. Automated Manufacture of Fertilizing Agglomerates from Burnt Wood Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svantesson, Thomas

    2002-12-01

    In Sweden, extensive research is conducted to find alternative sources of energy that should partly replace the electric power production from nuclear power. With the ambition to create a sustainable system for producing energy, the use of renewable energy is expected to grow further and biofuels are expected to account for a significant part of this increase. However, when biofuels are burned or gasified, ash appears as a by-product. In order to overcome the problems related to deposition in land fills, the idea is to transform the ashes into a product - agglomerates - that easily could be recycled back to the forest grounds; as a fertilizer, or as a tool to reduce the acidification in the forest soil at the spreading area. This work considers the control of a transformation process, which transforms wood ash produced at a district heating plant into fertilizing agglomerates. A robust machine, built to comply with the industrial requirements for continuous operation, has been developed and is controlled by an industrial control system in order to enable an automated manufacture.

  3. Validation of satellite derived LHF using coare_3.0 scheme and time series data over north-east Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.; Sathe, P.V.

    -6538 versión on-line Gayana (Concepc.) v.68 n.2 supl.TIIProc Concepción 2004 Como citar este artículo Gayana 68(2): 420-426, 2004 VALIDATION OF SATELLITE DERIVED LHF USING COARE_3.0 SCHEME AND TIME SERIES DATA OVER NORTH-EAST INDIAN...

  4. The annual cycle of satellite-derived sea surface temperature in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Guillermo P.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    The annual cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean was estimated using four years (July 1984-July 1988) of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer observations. High resolution satellite observations at 1-km space and daily time resolution were grided at 100-km space and 5-day time intervals to develop an analysis dataset for determination of low frequency SST variability. The integral time scale, a measure of serial correlation, was found to vary from 40 to 60 days in the domain of interest. The existence of superannual trends in the SST data was investigated, but conclusive results could not be obtained. The annual cycle (and, in particular, the annual harmonic) explains a large proportion of the SST variability. The estimated amplitude of the cycle ranges between 5 deg and 13 deg C throughout the study area, with minima in August-September and maxima in February. The resultant climatology is compared with an arbitrary 5-day satellite SST field, and with the COADS/ICE SST climatology. It was found that the higher resolution satellite-based SST climatology resolves boundary current structure and has significantly better structural agreement with the observed field.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Satellite-Derived Cloud and Surface Characteristics During FIRE-ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, J. A.; Key, J.; Fowler, C. W.; Nguyen, T.; Wang, X.a

    2000-01-01

    Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) products calculated for the western Arctic for April-July 1998 are used to investigate spatial, temporal, and regional patterns and variability in energy budget parameters associated with ocean- ice-atmosphere interactions over the Arctic Ocean during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project and the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment - Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE-ACE). The AVHRR-derived parameters include cloud fraction, clear-sky and all-sky skin temperature and broadband albedo, upwelling and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, cloud top pressure and temperature, and cloud optical depth. The remotely sensed products generally agree well with field observations at the SHEBA site, which in turn is shown to be representative of a surrounding region comparable in size to a climate-model grid cell. Time series of products for other locations in the western Arctic illustrate the magnitude of spatial variability during the study period and provide spatial and temporal detail useful for studying regional processes. The data illustrate the progression of reduction in cloud cover, albedo decrease, and the considerable heating of the open ocean associated with the anomalous decrease in sea ice cover in the eastern Beaufort Sea that began in late spring. Above-freezing temperatures are also recorded within the ice pack, suggesting warming of the open water areas within the ice cover.

  6. The HOAPS-II climatology - Release II of the satellite-derived freshwater flux climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennig, K.; Klepp, C.; Bakan, S.; Schulz, J.; Graßl, H.

    2003-04-01

    HOAPS-II (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data) is the improved global climatology of sea surface parameters and surface energy and freshwater fluxes derived from satellite radiances for the time period July 1987 until the recent dates. Data from polar orbiting radiometers, all available Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) radiometers and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), have been used to get global fields of surface meteorological and oceanographic parameters but also latent heat flux, evaporation, precipitation and net freshwater flux as well as the wind speed, water vapor- and total water content over ice free ocean areas for various averaging periods and grid sizes including scan orientated data in the NetCDF data format. All retrieval methods have been validated with in situ data on a global scale with a focus on precipitation validation. The new release of the data base is freely available to the community. Additionally, applications of the HOAPS-II data base will demonstrate its ability to detect ground validated High Impact Weather over global oceans that the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) climatology and the ECMWF model is frequently missing. Nowcasting of model-unpredicted storms is a high potential application of this new data base.

  7. Developing a new global network of river reaches from merged satellite-derived datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, C.; Allen, G. H.; Beighley, E.; Pavelsky, T.

    2015-12-01

    In 2020, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite (SWOT), a joint mission of NASA/CNES/CSA/UK will be launched. One of its major products will be the measurements of continental water extent, including the width, height, and slope of rivers and the surface area and elevations of lakes. The mission will improve the monitoring of continental water and also our understanding of the interactions between different hydrologic reservoirs. For rivers, SWOT measurements of slope must be carried out over predefined river reaches. As such, an a priori dataset for rivers is needed in order to facilitate analysis of the raw SWOT data. The information required to produce this dataset includes measurements of river width, elevation, slope, planform, river network topology, and flow accumulation. To produce this product, we have linked two existing global datasets: the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database, which contains river centerline locations, widths, and a braiding index derived from Landsat imagery, and a modified version of the HydroSHEDS hydrologically corrected digital elevation product, which contains heights and flow accumulation measurements for streams at 3 arcsecond spatial resolution. Merging these two datasets requires considerable care. The difficulties, among others, lie in the difference of resolution: 30m versus 3 arseconds, and the age of the datasets: 2000 versus ~2010 (some rivers have moved, the braided sections are different). As such, we have developed custom software to merge the two datasets, taking into account the spatial proximity of river channels in the two datasets and ensuring that flow accumulation in the final dataset always increases downstream. Here, we present our preliminary results for a portion of South America and demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of the method.

  8. What limits fire? an examination of drivers of burnt area in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, SA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available of burning, deter- mine fuel moisture (Spessa et al., 2005; Russell-Smith et al., 2007). Variations in lightning frequencies and human population densities are likely to affect ignition frequencies (Keeley et al., 1999), and land management may affect... both the ignition and suppression of fires (Frost, 1999). Fuel continuity is impacted both by the landscape morphology – highly dissected, variable landscapes will prevent the spread of large fires (Dick- son et al., 2006; Russell-Smith et al., 2007...

  9. The role of vegetation patches and antecedent soil moisture conditions in runoff and erosion connectivity in a 4-times burnt pine stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regensburg, Taco; González-Pelayo, Oscar; Martins, Martinho; Hosseini, Mohammedreza; Keesstra, Saskia; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    As part of the EU-FP7 project CASCADE, which addresses tipping-points in land degradation of Mediterranean ecosystems, the degradation drivers of repeated wildfires and post-fire drought spell are being studied in maritime pine stands in north-central Portugal. Preliminary results indicated that overland flow and sediment losses were markedly higher at 4-times burnt sites than at one-time burnt sites and, at the same time, that they were markedly higher at recently burnt than long-unburnt sites. These results, however, concerned micro-plots where post-fire recovery was mainly due to seeders and, as a consequence, rather reduced during the study period of the first two years following the wildfire ("inter-patches"). In the framework of COST Action ES1306 (Connecting European Connectivity Research), the present follow-up study aimed at assessing how the overland flow and erosion generated at such inter-patches would be "handled" by downslope vegetation patches and, in particular, patches where the main shrub species in the study area, Pterospartum tridentatum, had re-sprouted. More specifically, this study wanted to assess: (i) how the sink function of these vegetation patches was influenced by potential flow length or the length of the upslope inter-patch; and (ii) how it varied through time and, in particular, with antecedent soil moisture content. The study site is a south-west facing slope in an area that had burnt, with moderate severity, in early September 2012 and three more times before that since 1975 (as of when burnt area maps are available). By the time of the 2012-fire, it was covered by a sparse maritime pine stand that was roughly 7-years old. During October 2014, the study site was instrumented with a total of 12 bounded runoff plots, equally divided over the three slope sections (upper, middle and lower). At each slope section, four types of plots were laid out using square plots of 50 cm x 50 cm as basic building blocks. They were: (i) single inter

  10. Burnt Rubber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driving away Chinese tires has not benefited the U.S. tire industry, but has harmed their trade ties Two years after imposing punitive tariffs on Chinese-manufactured passenger vehicle and truck tires, the United States may launch a new round against truck and bus tires imported from China, reported 21st Century Business Herald based in Guangzhou, capital of Guangdong Province.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility of vancomyin and nitrofurantoin in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from burnt patients in Sulaimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Othman, Nasih; Najmuldeen, Hastyar Hamarashid; Noori, Chia Kamil; Fatah, Choman Faraj; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Burns remain a significant public health problem in terms of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in low and middle-income countries. Burning raptures the skin barriers that normally prevent invasion by microorganisms and infection is a major complication in burn patients. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important nosocomial pathogen. This retrospective analysis was conducted in the burn unit of the Department of Microbiology in the Sulamaini Plastic Surgery and Burns Hospital. The analysis is based on data collected from the medical records of 2938 burn patients, hospitalized between May 2008 and December 2011. The clinical samples were taken from various body sources for microbiological tests. Patients with a high percentage of total body surface area burnt (P<0.001) and a longer hospital stay (P<0.001) were more likely to have infection compared to other patients. In addition, among all tested antibiotics, vancomycin and nitrofurantion seem to be the most effective antibiotics for MR- SA. Furthermore there was a significant association between age and antibiotic resistance for all antibiotics except for vancomycin and nitrofurantoin. Resistance to antibiotics increased with advancing age. The wide use of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections has probably led to the emergence and spread of resistant strains. Routine microbiological surveillance and careful in vitro testing prior to antibiotic use and strict adherence to hospital antibiotic policy may help in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic resistant pathogens in burn infections.

  12. [Predictive factors of mortality of the burnt persons: study on 221 adults hospitalized between 2004 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafssaoui, S; Hami, H; Mrabet, M; Bouaiti, E; Tourabi, K; Quyou, A; Soulaymani, A; Ihrai, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study is the evaluation of the predictive factors of mortality to a troop of Moroccan grown-up serious burnt persons. Variables analyzed in the study are: the age, the sex, the localization of the burn, the degree of burn, indicates Total Body Surface Area (TBSA), indicate Unit of Standard Burn (UBS) and the indication of leases, sepsis and the medical histories (tobacco, diabetes). Factors associated significantly to a mortality raised at the burned patients were the female genital organ, the localization of the burn at the level of the head, the sepsis, one TBSA greater or equal to 20%, an UBS greater or equal to 200 and an indication of leases greater or equal to 75. Other factors such as the age, the degree of burn and the histories did not show a significant difference. An evaluation and a good knowledge of factors associated to a high risk of death allow an adequate coverage of this category of patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A multi-staged approach to the reconstruction of a burnt Asian face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Joethy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the management of chemical burns to the Asian face with resultant full thickness loss to the right side of the face including the eyelid and nose. We detail the techniques used to reconstruct the face which include skin grafting according to the aesthetic units of the face, accurate placement of junction lines, use of a chondrocutaneous graft to reconstruct the alar grove and scalp strip grafting for eyebrow reconstruction. We obtained a successful result that minimised scar formation in the burnt Asian face.

  14. Dynamic behaviors of various volume rate steel-fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete after high temperature burnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Baojun; Wang, Liwen; Yang, Zhenqi; Chi, Runqiang

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic strain-stress curves of reactive powder concrete under high strain rate (10/s-100/s) were determined by improved split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. A plumbum pulse shaper was used to ensure the symmetrical stress in the specimens before fracture and avoid the fluctuation of test data due to input shaky stress pulse. A time modified method was induced for data processing in order to get accurate SHPB results. The results of experiment showed after high temperature burnt, different volume rate (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) steel-fiber reinforced reactive power concrete had the same changing tendency of residual mechanics behaviors, e.g. after 400 centigrade burnt, the residual compression strength was about 70% of material strength without burnt under 100/s. After 800 centigrade burnt, the compression strength is about 30% under 100/s while the deformation ability increased. At meanwhile, steel fiber had improved the mechanism of reinforcing effect and toughening effect of concrete material after burnt. With increasing of steel fiber volume rate, dynamic residual behavior of samples was improved. Microcosmic characteristics and energy absorption were induced for explaining the experiment results.

  15. Assessing Disagreement and Tolerance of Misclassification of Satellite-derived Land Cover Products Used in WRF Model Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hao; JIA Gensuo

    2013-01-01

    As more satellite-derived land cover products used in the study of global change,especially climate modeling,assessing their quality has become vitally important.In this study,we developed a distance metric based on the parameters used in weather research and forecasting (WRF) to characterize the degree of disagreement among land cover products and to identify the tolerance for misclassification within the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) classification scheme.We determined the spatial degree of disagreement and then created maps of misclassification of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS) products,and we calculated overall and class-specific accuracy and fuzzy agreement in a WRF model.Our results show a high level of agreement and high tolerance of misclassification in the WRF model between large-scale homogeneous landscapes,while a low level of agreement and tolerance of misclassification appeared in heterogeneous landscapes.The degree of disagreement varied significantly among seven regions of China.The class-specific accuracy and fuzzy agreement in MODIS Collection 4 and 5 products varied significantly.High accuracy and fuzzy agreement occurred in the following classes:water,grassland,cropland,and barren or sparsely vegetated.Misclassification mainly occurred among specific classes with similar plant functional types and low discriminative spectro-temporal signals.Some classes need to be improved further; the quality of MODIS land cover products across China still does not meet the common requirements of climate modeling.Our findings may have important implications for improving land surface parameterization for simulating climate and for better understanding the influence of the land cover change on climate.

  16. Prognostic land surface albedo from a dynamic global vegetation model clumped canopy radiative transfer scheme and satellite-derived geographic forest heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Yang, W.; Ni-Meister, W.; Aleinov, I. D.; Jonas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation cover was introduced into general circulations models (GCMs) in the 1980's to account for the effect of land surface albedo and water vapor conductance on the Earth's climate. Schemes assigning canopy albedoes by broad biome type have been superceded in 1990's by canopy radiative transfer schemes for homogeneous canopies obeying Beer's Law extinction as a function of leaf area index (LAI). Leaf albedo and often canopy height are prescribed by plant functional type (PFT). It is recognized that this approach does not effectively describe geographic variation in the radiative transfer of vegetated cover, particularly for mixed and sparse canopies. GCM-coupled dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have retained these simple canopy representations, with little further evaluation of their albedos. With the emergence lidar-derived canopy vertical structure data, DGVM modelers are now revisiting albedo simulation. We present preliminary prognostic global land surface albedo produced by the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (TBM), a DGVM coupled to the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM. The Ent TBM is a next generation DGVM designed to incorporate variation in canopy heights, and mixed and sparse canopies. For such dynamically varying canopy structure, it uses the Analytical Clumped Two-Stream (ACTS) canopy radiative transfer model, which is derived from gap probability theory for canopies of tree cohorts with ellipsoidal crowns, and accounts for soil, snow, and bare stems. We have developed a first-order global vegetation structure data set (GVSD), which gives a year of satellite-derived geographic variation in canopy height, maximum canopy leaf area, and seasonal LAI. Combined with Ent allometric relations, this data set provides population density and foliage clumping within crowns. We compare the Ent prognostic albedoes to those of the previous GISS GCM scheme, and to satellite estimates. The impact of albedo differences on surface

  17. Adjunctive role of dental restorations in personal identification of burnt victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrangi, Sameer Kumar; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Reshma, V; Sudhakara, M; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fire remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and identification of a body from the fatal fire remains a daunting task. Several forensic cases involve interpretation of burnt human bodies from airline and automobile accidents, bombings and unlawful cremation. Fire is also involved in homicides, suicides, accidental death, arson and in attempts to destroy forensic evidence in criminal cases. Soft tissue destruction from fire can be so extensive that conventional methods of identification may be impossible. However, teeth survive even high temperatures due to their resistant composition and so, obviously, the restorative material housed in the teeth are even more secure and can yield valuable information in personal identification. Aim: To assess the usefulness of most common restorations in personal identification in burnt cases. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 extracted teeth which were divided into four groups (Group 1 - Unrestored teeth, Group 2 - Amalgam restored, Group 3 - Glass ionomer restored and Group 4 - Composite resin restored teeth. The effect of incineration at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, 1000°C for 15 min at each target temperature followed by subsequent cooling was studied. Results: Amalgam restoration was resistant and intact even at 1000°C, whereas GIC and composite restoration are identifiable till 600°C, the residual cavity preparation leaves a clue for narrowing down the spectrum of identification. PMID:27194881

  18. Investigation of soils affected by burnt hospital wastes in Nigeria using PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim P, Inyang; Ita, Akpan; Eusebius I, Obiajunwa

    2013-12-01

    Improper management of hospital waste has been reported to be responsible for several acute outbreaks like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In spite of these challenges, hospital wastes are sometimes not properly handled in Nigeria. To date, there has not been an adequate study on the effect and fate of burnt hospital waste on agricultural soil. The effect of burnt hospital wastes on the agricultural soil was conducted on soils sampled around farm settlement near Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria. PIXE technique was employed with a 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem Pelletron accelerator available at Centre for Energy Research and Development O.A.U Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Eleven elements- Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zr and Pb were detected and their concentrations and enrichment factors determined. The presence of Pb and Cl at the elevated concentrations range of (77.8 ± 3.5 - 279.6 ± 97.6 and 102.2 ± 37.4 -167.2±17.43) ppm respectively in this study, is of serious health concern because of the agricultural practices in the neighborhoods of the study sites. There is a need for proper handling of hospital and other related hazardous wastes because of the possibility of such posing serious environmental pollution problems.

  19. Adjunctive role of dental restorations in personal identification of burnt victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Kumar Vandrangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fire remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and identification of a body from the fatal fire remains a daunting task. Several forensic cases involve interpretation of burnt human bodies from airline and automobile accidents, bombings and unlawful cremation. Fire is also involved in homicides, suicides, accidental death, arson and in attempts to destroy forensic evidence in criminal cases. Soft tissue destruction from fire can be so extensive that conventional methods of identification may be impossible. However, teeth survive even high temperatures due to their resistant composition and so, obviously, the restorative material housed in the teeth are even more secure and can yield valuable information in personal identification. Aim: To assess the usefulness of most common restorations in personal identification in burnt cases . Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 40 extracted teeth which were divided into four groups (Group 1 - Unrestored teeth, Group 2 - Amalgam restored, Group 3 - Glass ionomer restored and Group 4 - Composite resin restored teeth. The effect of incineration at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, 1000°C for 15 min at each target temperature followed by subsequent cooling was studied. Results: Amalgam restoration was resistant and intact even at 1000°C, whereas GIC and composite restoration are identifiable till 600°C, the residual cavity preparation leaves a clue for narrowing down the spectrum of identification.

  20. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    OpenAIRE

    Akihisa Motoki; Kenji Freire Motoki; Susanna Eleonora Sichel; Samuel da Silva; José Ribeiro Aires

    2015-01-01

    This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocal...

  1. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Lehrter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and used to calculate monthly and annual estuarine time-series of chlorophyll a (Chla, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and total suspended sediments (TSS. Monthly MERIS Chla varied from 2.0 mg m−3 in the lower region of the bay to 17.2 mg m−3 in the upper bay. MERIS CDOM and TSS exhibited similar patterns with ranges of 0.51–2.67 (m−1 and 0.11–8.9 (g m−3. Variations in the MERIS-derived monthly and annual Chla, CDOM, and TSS time-series were significantly related to monthly and annual river discharge and loads of nitrogen, organic carbon, and suspended sediments from the Escambia and Yellow rivers. Multiple regression models based on river loads (independent variables and MERIS Chla, CDOM, or TSS (dependent variables explained significant fractions of the variability (up to 62% at monthly and annual scales. The most significant independent variables in the regressions were river nitrogen loads, which were associated with increased MERIS Chla, CDOM, and TSS concentrations, and river suspended sediment loads, which were associated with decreased concentrations. In contrast, MERIS water quality variations were not significantly related to river total phosphorus loads. The spatially synoptic, nine-year satellite record expanded upon the spatial extent of past field studies to reveal previously unseen system-wide responses to river discharge and loading variation. The results indicated that variations in Pensacola Bay Chla

  2. Potential for a biogenic influence on cloud microphysics over the ocean: a correlation study with satellite-derived data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols have a large potential to influence climate through their effects on the microphysics and optical properties of clouds and, hence, on the Earth's radiation budget. Aerosol–cloud interactions have been intensively studied in polluted air, but the possibility that the marine biosphere plays an important role in regulating cloud brightness in the pristine oceanic atmosphere remains largely unexplored. We used 9 yr of global satellite data and ocean climatologies to derive parameterizations of the temporal variability of (a production fluxes of sulfur aerosols formed by the oxidation of the biogenic gas dimethylsulfide emitted from the sea surface; (b production fluxes of secondary organic aerosols from biogenic organic volatiles; (c emission fluxes of biogenic primary organic aerosols ejected by wind action on sea surface; and (d emission fluxes of sea salt also lifted by the wind upon bubble bursting. Series of global monthly estimates of these fluxes were correlated to series of potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN numbers derived from satellite (MODIS. More detailed comparisons among weekly series of estimated fluxes and satellite-derived cloud droplet effective radius (re data were conducted at locations spread among polluted and clean regions of the oceanic atmosphere. The outcome of the statistical analysis was that positive correlation to CCN numbers and negative correlation to re were common at mid and high latitude for sulfur and organic secondary aerosols, indicating both might be important in seeding cloud droplet activation. Conversely, primary aerosols (organic and sea salt showed widespread positive correlations to CCN only at low latitudes. Correlations to re were more variable, non-significant or positive, suggesting that, despite contributing to large shares of the marine aerosol mass, primary aerosols are not widespread major drivers of the variability of cloud

  3. Nutrición artificial en el paciente quemado Nutritional support in burnt patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grau Carmona

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La agresión térmica da lugar a una respuesta hipermetabólica cuya magnitud se encuentra entre las más elevadas que pueden presentar los pacientes críticos. El gasto energético debería ser medido por calorimetría indirecta en los pacientes quemados. En ausencia de ésta, las fórmulas publicadas para la estimación del gasto energético en estos pacientes son de utilidad. El tratamiento nutricional del paciente quemado debe iniciarse de forma precoz y por la vía enteral siempre que sea posible. El aporte calórico total es mayor que el recomendado para otros pacientes críticos, pero no debe superar el 200% del gasto energético basal. También se recomienda un aporte más hiperproteico que el sugerido en otras situaciones. Respecto al empleo de substratos nutrientes, existen datos para recomendar el empleo de farmaconutrientes, como arginina y glutamina, en los pacientes quemados. Con el fin de estimular la cicatrización, se recomienda también la administración de suplementos de vitamina A, vitamina C y zinc.Thermal injury leads to a hypermetabolic response which magnitude is among the highest that critically ill patients may present. The energetic waste should be measured by indirect calorimetry in burnt patients. When this test is lacking, published calculations to estimate the energetic waste are useful in these patients. Nutritional therapy in burnt patients should be started early and through the enteral route whenever possible. Total caloric intake is higher than that recommended for other critically ill patients, but should not be higher than 200% of basal energetic waste. Also recommended is a higher hyperproteic intake than that suggested for other situations. With regards to the use of nutrient substrates, there are data to recommend the use of pharmaco-nutrients, such as arginine and glutamine, in burnt patients. In order to stimulate wound healing, it is also recommended to administer vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc

  4. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by {sup 31}P NMR; Fosforo em cronossequencia de cana-de-acucar queimada no cerrado goiano: analise de acidos humicos por RMN de {sup 31}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Celeste Q.; Pereira, Marcos G.; Garcia, Andreas C., E-mail: mgervasiopereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Perin, Adriano; Gazolla, Paulo R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Gonzalez, Antonio P. [Universidade de Coruna, ES (Spain). Faculdad de Ciencias

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The {sup 31}P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  5. Usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions from engineering codes in Monte-Carlo code calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of VVER's cores by Monte-Carlo code is complex process and requires large computational costs. This fact makes Monte-Carlo codes usage complicated for project and operating calculations. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to use for the Monte-Carlo code (MCU) calculations of different states of VVER's core with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are proposed to calculate by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by engineering codes (TVS-M, PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FA and VVER with infinite height are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The MCU calculation data were compared with the data which were obtained by engineering codes.

  6. Simulating a burnt-bridges DNA motor with a coarse-grained DNA model

    CERN Document Server

    Šulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2012-01-01

    We apply a recently-developed coarse-grained model of DNA, designed to capture the basic physics of nanotechnological DNA systems, to the study of a `burnt-bridges' DNA motor consisting of a single-stranded cargo that steps processively along a track of single-stranded stators. We demonstrate that the model is able to simulate such a system, and investigate the sensitivity of the stepping process to the spatial separation of stators, finding that an increased distance can suppress successful steps due to the build up of unfavourable tension. The mechanism of suppression suggests that varying the distance between stators could be used as a method for improving signal-to-noise ratios for motors that are required to make a decision at a junction of stators.

  7. Optimum Chemical Regeneration of the Gases Burnt in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Volkova, Yu. V.; Plotnikov, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    A simplified method of calculating the concentrations of the components of a thermodynamically equilibrium mixture (a synthesis gas) supplied to the anode channel of a battery of solid oxide fuel cells and the change in these concentrations along the indicated channel is proposed and results of corresponding calculations are presented. The variants of reforming of a natural gas (methane) by air and steam as well as by a part of the exhaust combustion products for obtaining a synthesis gas are considered. The amount of the anode gases that should be returned for the complete chemical regeneration of the gases burnt in the fuel cells was determined. The dependence of the electromotive force of an ideal oxide fuel element (the electric circuit of which is open) on the degree of absorption of oxygen in a thermodynamically equilibrium fuel mixture was calculated.

  8. How robust are in situ observations for validating satellite-derived albedo over the dark zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Hubbard, A.; Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Doyle, S. H.; Cook, J. M.; Stibal, M.; Box, J. E.

    2017-06-01

    Calibration and validation of satellite-derived ice sheet albedo data require high-quality, in situ measurements commonly acquired by up and down facing pyranometers mounted on automated weather stations (AWS). However, direct comparison between ground and satellite-derived albedo can only be justified when the measured surface is homogeneous at the length-scale of both satellite pixel and in situ footprint. Here we use digital imagery acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle to evaluate point-to-pixel albedo comparisons across the western, ablating margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Our results reveal that in situ measurements overestimate albedo by up to 0.10 at the end of the melt season because the ground footprints of AWS-mounted pyranometers are insufficient to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the ice surface as it progressively ablates and darkens. Statistical analysis of 21 AWS across the entire Greenland Ice Sheet reveals that almost half suffer from this bias, including some AWS located within the wet snow zone.

  9. Design and construction of the lawnmower, an artificial burnt-bridges motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Suzana; Samii, Laleh; Curmi, Paul M G; Linke, Heiner; Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R

    2015-04-01

    Molecular motors of the cell are protein-based, nanoscale machines, which use a variety of strategies to transduce chemical energy into mechanical work in the presence of a large thermal background. The design and construction of artificial molecular motors is one approach to better understand their basic physical principles. Here, we propose the concept of a protein-based, burnt-bridges ratchet, inspired by biological examples. Our concept, the lawnmower, utilizes protease blades to cleave peptide substrates, and uses the asymmetric substrate-product interface arising from productive cleavage to bias subsequent diffusion on the track (lawn). Following experimental screening to select a protease to act as the motor's blades, we chemically couple trypsin to quantum dots and demonstrate activity of the resulting lawnmower construct in solution. Accompanying Brownian dynamics simulations illustrate the importance for processivity of correct protease density on the quantum dot and spacing of substrates on the track. These results lay the groundwork for future tests of the protein-based lawnmower's motor performance characteristics.

  10. Relevance of magnetic properties for the characterisation of burnt clays and archaeological tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrice, C.; Coïsson, M.; Ferrara, E.; Olivetti, E. S.

    The archaeomagnetism of pottery, bricks and tiles is typically employed for dating inferences, yet the magnetic properties of ancient ceramics can also be convenient for their characterisation, to evaluate the technological conditions applied for their production (temperature, atmosphere, and duration of firing), as well as to distinguish groups of sherds having different provenance. In this work, the measurement of hysteresis loops has been applied and combined with colour survey to characterise the magnetic properties of burnt clays and archaeological tiles. Four calcareous and non-calcareous clays, along with seventeen tile fragments excavated from the sites of the ancient Roman towns of Pompeii and Gravina di Puglia, in Southern Italy, are examined. The ferrimagnetic character of the clays, in general, enhances with increasing firing temperatures until vitrification processes occur (900-1000 °C) dissolving iron oxides and dispersing the colour and magnetic properties they provide. High values of saturation magnetization are observed in clays with relevant calcareous content after firing above 900 °C, which results in the formation of Ca-silicates able to delay the onset of the vitrification processes. Magnetic properties of the tiles have been evaluated in terms of the high coercivity (i.e. mainly ferrimagnetic) or low coercivity behaviour (i.e. including relevant paramagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions). Enhanced ferrimagnetic character, mostly depending on the growth in number and volume of iron oxide particles, is associated with the development of an intense reddish hue.

  11. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  12. Characteristic of paramagnetic centres in burnt clay and pottery by the EPR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobosz, B. [Medical Physics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: benia@hoth.amu.edu.pl; Krzyminiewski, R. [Medical Physics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-02-15

    The samples of natural clay and pottery have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. Because of young age (100-5000 years old) of these materials and the presence of iron compounds the big doses (1-200kGy) of irradiation have been used. The authors investigated whole material without quartz extracting from acid washing. In natural clay the EPR lines were observed which disappear after clay burning and they were also not present in EPR spectrum of pottery. After clay burning at temperatures similar to these at which pottery was burnt the spectra of clay became similar to pottery spectra. These EPR spectra have also similar hyperfine structure for which the g factors are equal g{sub 1}=2.0595, g{sub 2}=2.0079, and g{sub 3}=2.0018 for clay and g{sub 1}=2.0602, g{sub 2}=2.0079 and g{sub 3}=2.0019 for pottery. For these lines the [AlO{sub 4}]{sup 0} centre in quartz was ascribed.

  13. Remanence Preservation In Burnt Silos During Pre-christian Age Fire In A Galician Castro (nw Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, K.; Rey, D.; Méndez, G.; Evans, M. E.

    Archaeomagnetic studies are usually based on measurements made on pottery or buildings that have achieved high temperatures because the results obtained are com- monly of better quality. In this study three burnt grain silos from the recently disap- peared Castro de As Laias located in Ourense (NW Spain) have provided a successful date of a pre-Christian fire. AF and thermal demagnetization were carried out to iso- late the characteristic component of magnetization. Hysteresis and IRM acquisition experiments were carried out to characterise the magnetic minerals responsible of the remanence Additionally, XRD analyses and observations under the SEM were also performed to support the magnetic data. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) has shown that two of the three studied silos burnt at the same time. Radio- carbon dating on charcoal gives an age of 181+/-61. These results also contribute to a better definition of a Secular Variation Curve (SVC) for the early Christian Age in Iberia.

  14. Sensitive Evaluation on Early Cracking Tendency of Concrete with Inclusion of Light-burnt MgO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xia; YANG Huaquan; Zhou Shihua; LI Wenwei

    2011-01-01

    The advanced temperature and stress test machine was introduced to determine the early cracking tendency of concrete with inclusion of light-burnt MgO under full restraint by tracking the development of thermal,physical and deformation properties.Results showed that light-burnt MgO being incorporated ranging between 4 wt% and 6 wt% of cementitious materials was beneficial to increase the maximum compressive stress and cracking stress of concrete by 0.37 MPa and 0.2 MPa on average respectively.The second zero stress temperature was reduced by 11.4 ℃ and the maximum temperature was slightly reduced while cracking thermal impact was significantly enhanced from 59.8 ℃ to 66.2 ℃.Sensitive anti-cracking coefficient F was forwarded to assess the early cracking tendency of concrete and the inclusion of 4 wt% lightburnt MgO with activity of 109 s ranked the best in crack resistance.

  15. Evaluation of different methods for DNA extraction from human burnt bones and the generation of genetic profiles for identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzair, Anum; Rasool, Nouman; Wasim, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Bone exposure to heat in the presence of moisture breaks the phosphodiester bonds of the backbone, leaving sheared DNA in bone cells. This also limits the possibility of generating a complete profile of the victim. With the increasing incidence of fire outbreaks over the past few years, a paradigm shift to establish identity has been observed, from morphological identification of victims to STR profiling. For this study, 10 bone samples were taken from burnt human bodies that were recovered from different fire outbreak scenes. The DNA from these burnt human tissues was isolated using four different extraction methods: the organic extraction method, the total demineralisation method, the Qiagen kit method, and the Chelex extraction method. STR profiles of victims were generated on a genetic analyser using an AmpFlSTR Identifiler® Plus Kit and analysed on Gene Mapper ID-X. DNA isolated from bones using the total demineralisation extraction method and organic extraction method was of the highest quality due to the efficient removal of inhibitors. DNA obtained using these two methods successfully generated the STR profiles of the victims. The quality of isolated DNA obtained through the Qiagen kit was comparatively low, but STR profiles of the victims were successfully generated. The Chelex kit failed to extract good quality DNA of high quantity from the burnt bones, encountering inhibition in all samples at varying degrees. This study concludes that total demineralisation and the Qiagen kit are sophisticated and reliable methods to obtain a good yield of DNA from burnt human bones, which can be used for the identification of victims.

  16. TL age-estimates of burnt quartz pebbles from the Toca do Boqueirăo da Pedra Furada (Piaui, Northeastern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladas, H.; Mercier, N.; Michab, M.; Joron, J. L.; Reyss, J. L.; Guidon, N.

    2003-05-01

    The thermoluminescence technique was used to date 40 burnt quartz pebbles from the lowest layers (PF1 and PF2) of the Toca do Boqueirăo da Pedra Furada rock shelter (Piaui, Brazil) attributed to Upper Pleistocene period, whose radiocarbon ages exceed 35 ka. Our results suggest that the quartz specimens were burnt between 30 and more than 100 ka ago, but they provide no evidence that the heating was related to human activity.

  17. 烤烟烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度的关系%Relationship Between Physical-chemical Indexes and Burnt Sweet Taste of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛超群; 王建伟; 奚家勤; 杨立均; 姜均停

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Sixty flue-cured tobacco leaf samples were collected from Zhumadian, the relationships between physical-chemical indexes and level of burnt sweet taste were studied with correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that:l) per leaf area weight,nicotine,megastigmatrienone A,B,C and D significantly positively correlated to, leaf thickness, volatile base, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methyl furfural extremely significantly positively correlated to, while reducing sugar, linalool, farnesylacetone, geranyl acetone,β-ionone, 2-acetyl furan, dihydroactinidiolide extremely significantly negatively correlated to the level of burnt sweet taste; 2) there was an extremely significant regression relationship between furfural, 5-methyl furfural, 2-acetyl furan, geranyl acetone and the level of burnt sweet taste, they were the major factors affecting the level of burnt sweet taste of tobacco leaves and determined about 89.9% of the change of the later.%以河南省驻马店烟区的60个烤烟烟叶为材料,检测评价了烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度,并采用相关分析、逐步回归分析等方法研究了烟叶理化指标与焦甜感程度的关系.结果表明:①烟叶叶面密度、烟碱、巨豆三烯酮A,巨豆三烯酮B,巨豆三烯酮C,巨豆三烯酮D与焦甜感程度显著正相关,厚度、挥发 性碱、山奈酚糖苷、糠醛、糠醇、5-甲基糠醛与焦甜感程度极显著正相关,还原糖、芳樟醇、金合欢基丙酮、香叶基丙酮、β-紫罗兰酮、2-乙酰呋喃、二氢猕猴桃内酯与焦甜感程度极显著负相关;②糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮与烟叶焦甜感程度存在极显著回归关系.糠醛、5-甲基糠醛、2-乙酰呋喃、香叶基丙酮是影响烟叶焦甜感程度的主要指标.

  18. Growth Dynamics of Celosia cristata Grown in Cocopeat, Burnt Rice Hull and Kenaf Core Fiber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Awang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Understanding the growth dynamics of short-lived plant could be critical as it would complete its life cycle in a short time period. It does not normally has much time to adjust to hostile environmental condition. This study provides a detail account on growth dynamics of Celosia cristata grown in five growing media for the production of high quality flowers. Approach: Celosia cristata plants were grown on five growing media (v/v: 100% Cocopeat (CP; 70% CP: 30% Burnt Rice Hull (BRH; 70% CP: 30% perlite; 70% CP: 30% Kenaf Core Fiber (KCF and 40% CP: 60% KCF. To explore the dynamics of plant growth and development, data on plant height and canopy diameter were regressed against Days After Transplanting (DAT by using the equation y = A/(1+be-cx while its derivative [dy/dx = (Abce-cx/(1+be-cx2] was used to estimate the growth rate of the parameter. The variation in leaf number, flower length and flower diameter were modeled using an exponential function of y = Aebx and their rate of change was derived using dx/dy = Abebx. Results: The growth rates of plant height, canopy diameter and leaf number of plants grown in media containing 100% CP, 70% CP: 30% BRH, 70% CP: 30% perlite, 70% CP: 30% KCF were higher than those grown on media containing 40% CP: 60% KCF. The growth rates of stem and canopy of the plants grown in the later media tended to be higher at the end of the growth cycle. This, however would not be sufficient to compensate their early losses, since the rate of growth in leaf number did not increase concurrently. Negative effects of media containing KCF were also detected in flower size. Conclusion: Overall results showed that CP is an excellent growing media for the production of Celosia cristata. Replacing 30% of CP with BRH, perlite and KCF did not affect the growth and flowering of the plants.

  19. Mathematical modeling of bacterial track-altering motors: Track cleaving through burnt-bridge ratchets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtylla, Blerta; Keener, James P.

    2015-04-01

    The generation of directed movement of cellular components frequently requires the rectification of Brownian motion. Molecular motor enzymes that use ATP to walk on filamentous tracks are typically involved in cell transport, however, a track-altering motor can arise when an enzyme interacts with and alters its track. In Caulobacter crescentus and other bacteria, an active DNA partitioning (Par) apparatus is employed to segregate replicated chromosome regions to specific locations in dividing cells. The Par apparatus is composed of two proteins: ParA, an ATPase that can form polymeric structures on the nucleoid, and ParB, a protein that can bind and destabilize ParA structures. It has been proposed that the ParB-mediated alteration of ParA structures could be responsible for generating the directed movement of DNA during bacterial division. How precisely these actions are coordinated and translated into directed movement is not clear. In this paper we consider the C. crescentus segregation apparatus as an example of a track altering motor that operates using a so-called burnt-bridge mechanism. We develop and analyze mathematical models that examine how diffusion and ATP-hydrolysis-mediated monomer removal (or cleaving) can be combined to generate directed movement. Using a mean first passage approach, we analytically calculate the effective ParA track-cleaving velocities, effective diffusion coefficient, and other higher moments for the movement a ParB protein cluster that breaks monomers away at random locations on a single ParA track. Our model results indicate that cleaving velocities and effective diffusion constants are sensitive to ParB-induced ATP hydrolysis rates. Our analytical results are in excellent agreement with stochastic simulation results.

  20. SACRA – global data sets of satellite-derived crop calendars for agricultural simulations: an estimation of a high-resolution crop calendar using satellite-sensed NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kotsuki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, many studies have performed numerical estimations of food production and agricultural water demand to understand the present and future supply–demand relationship. A crop calendar (CC is an essential input datum to estimate food production and agricultural water demand accurately with the numerical estimations. CC defines the date or month when farmers plant and harvest in cropland. This study aims to develop a new global data set of a satellite-derived crop calendar for agricultural simulations (SACRA and reveal advantages and disadvantages of the satellite-derived CC compared to other global products. We estimate global CC at a spatial resolution of 5 min (≈10 km using the satellite-sensed NDVI data, which corresponds well to vegetation growth and death on the land surface. We first demonstrate that SACRA shows similar spatial pattern in planting date compared to a census-based product. Moreover, SACRA reflects a variety of CC in the same administrative unit, since it uses high-resolution satellite data. However, a disadvantage is that the mixture of several crops in a grid is not considered in SACRA. We also address that the cultivation period of SACRA clearly corresponds to the time series of NDVI. Therefore, accuracy of SACRA depends on the accuracy of NDVI used for the CC estimation. Although SACRA shows different CC from a census-based product in some regions, multiple usages of the two products are useful to take into consideration the uncertainty of the CC. An advantage of SACRA compared to the census-based products is that SACRA provides not only planting/harvesting dates but also a peak date from the time series of NDVI data.

  1. Satellite-derived changes in the permafrost landscape of central Yakutia, 2000-2011: wetting, drying, and fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boike, Julia; Grau, Thomas; Heim, Birgit; Günther, Frank; Langer, Moritz; Muster, Sina; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Lange, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The focus of this research has been on detecting changes in lake areas, vegetation, land surface temperatures, and the area covered by snow, using data from remote sensing. The study area covers the main (central) part of the Lena River catchment in the Yakutia region of Siberia (Russia), extending from east of Yakutsk to the central Siberian Plateau, and from the southern Lena River to north of the Vilyui River. Approximately 90% of the area is underlain by continuous permafrost. Remote sensing products were used to analyze changes in water bodies, land surface temperature (LST), and leaf area index (LAI), as well as the occurrence and extent of forest fires, and the area and duration of snow cover. The remote sensing analyses (for LST, snow cover, LAI, and fire) were based on MODIS-derived NASA products for 2000 to 2011. Changes in water bodies were calculated from two mosaics of (USGS) Landsat high resolution (30 m) satellite images from 2002 and 2009. Within the study area's 315,000 km² the total area covered by lakes increased by 17.5% between 2002 and 2009, but this increase varied in different parts of the study area, ranging between 11% and 42%. The land surface temperatures showed a consistent warming trend, with an average increase of about 0.12°C/year. The average rate of warming during the April-May transition period was 0.15°C/year and 0.19°C/year in the September-October period, but ranged up to 0.45°C/year in some areas during April-May. Regional differences in the rates of land surface temperature change, and possible reasons for the temperature changes, are discussed with respect to changes in the land cover. Our analysis of a broad spectrum of variables over the study area suggests that the spring warming trend is very likely to be due to changes in the area covered by snow. The warming trend observed in fall does not, however, appear to be directly related to any changes in the area of snow cover, or to the atmospheric conditions, or to the

  2. Dynamic Response of Satellite-Derived Vegetation Growth to Climate Change in the Three North Shelter Forest Region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s, the Chinese government has initiated ecological restoration programs in the Three North Shelter Forest System Project (TNSFSP area. Whether accelerated climate change will help or hinder these efforts is still poorly understood. Using the updated and extended AVHRR NDVI3g dataset from 1982 to 2011 and corresponding climatic data, we investigated vegetation variations in response to climate change. The results showed that the overall state of vegetation in the study region has improved over the past three decades. Vegetation cover significantly decreased in 23.1% and significantly increased in 21.8% of the study area. An increase in all three main vegetation types (forest, grassland, and cropland was observed, but the trend was only statistically significant in cropland. In addition, bare and sparsely vegetated areas, mainly located in the western part of the study area, have significantly expanded since the early 2000s. A moisture condition analysis indicated that the study area experienced significant climate variations, with warm-wet conditions in the western region and warm-dry conditions in the eastern region. Correlation analysis showed that variations in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were positively correlated with precipitation and negatively correlated with temperature. Ultimately, climate change influenced vegetation growth by controlling the availability of soil moisture. Further investigation suggested that the positive impacts of precipitation on NDVI have weakened in the study region, whereas the negative impacts from temperature have been enhanced in the eastern study area. However, over recent years, the negative temperature impacts have been converted to positive impacts in the western region. Considering the variations in the relationship between NDVI and climatic variables, the warm–dry climate in the eastern region is likely harmful to vegetation growth, whereas the warm

  3. Comparison of satellite-derived land surface temperature and air temperature from meteorological stations on the Pan-Arctic scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, M.; Eberle, J.; Hüttich, C.; Schmullius, C.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based temperature measurements are an important indicator for global climate change studies over large areas. Records from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and (Advanced) Along Track Scanning Radiometer ((A)ATSR) are pr

  4. Sampling errors for satellite-derived tropical rainfall - Monte Carlo study using a space-time stochastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Abdullah, A.; Martin, Russell L.; North, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of monthly average rainfall based on satellite observations from a low earth orbit will differ from the true monthly average because the satellite observes a given area only intermittently. This sampling error inherent in satellite monitoring of rainfall would occur even if the satellite instruments could measure rainfall perfectly. The size of this error is estimated for a satellite system being studied at NASA, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). First, the statistical description of rainfall on scales from 1 to 1000 km is examined in detail, based on rainfall data from the Global Atmospheric Research Project Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE). A TRMM-like satellite is flown over a two-dimensional time-evolving simulation of rainfall using a stochastic model with statistics tuned to agree with GATE statistics. The distribution of sampling errors found from many months of simulated observations is found to be nearly normal, even though the distribution of area-averaged rainfall is far from normal. For a range of orbits likely to be employed in TRMM, sampling error is found to be less than 10 percent of the mean for rainfall averaged over a 500 x 500 sq km area.

  5. Estimating the approximate firing temperature of burnt archaeological sediments through an unmixing algorithm applied to hysteresis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, N.; Platzman, E.

    2004-11-01

    Estimating the temperature to which burnt archaeological sediments and soils have been exposed in antiquity is of interest as it may well elucidate the interpretation of specific features. Certain semi-industrial activities, such as metal working or the production of pottery, are often associated with the controlled use of intense high-temperature processes (>500 °C). Exposure to such high-temperatures will, inevitably, lead to the thermal alteration of commonly found iron minerals within the soil. Magnetic measurements made on a series of soil samples subjected to controlled laboratory heating, confirms both the sensitivity of iron minerals to thermal alteration and also suggests a correlation between the maximum exposure temperature and the hysteresis properties. From this data a method for estimating the maximum exposure temperature of burnt archaeological samples, recovered from similar soil types is proposed, based on the application of a linear unmixing model. This model compares hysteresis data from the archaeological samples to an end-member data set created from the laboratory heated soil. The maximum exposure temperature for the archaeological samples is estimated from the relative proportion of known temperature end-members present within the final model describing the experimental hysteresis data. The validity of the model is demonstrated through application to samples recovered from a series of actualistic fire experiments and a range of burnt archaeological features recovered during excavation of a multi-period site at Yarnton, near the city of Oxford, UK. A further application of the method, to determine the fidelity of samples collected for archaeomagnetic dating, is presented from the excavation of a large hearth type features at Whitby, North Yorkshire, UK.

  6. Strong contribution of autumn phenology to changes in satellite-derived growing season length estimates across Europe (1982-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garonna, Irene; de Jong, Rogier; de Wit, Allard J W; Mücher, Caspar A; Schmid, Bernhard; Schaepman, Michael E

    2014-11-01

    Land Surface Phenology (LSP) is the most direct representation of intra-annual dynamics of vegetated land surfaces as observed from satellite imagery. LSP plays a key role in characterizing land-surface fluxes, and is central to accurately parameterizing terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere interactions, as well as climate models. In this article, we present an evaluation of Pan-European LSP and its changes over the past 30 years, using the longest continuous record of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) available to date in combination with a landscape-based aggregation scheme. We used indicators of Start-Of-Season, End-Of-Season and Growing Season Length (SOS, EOS and GSL, respectively) for the period 1982-2011 to test for temporal trends in activity of terrestrial vegetation and their spatial distribution. We aggregated pixels into ecologically representative spatial units using the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP) and assessed the relative contribution of spring and autumn phenology. GSL increased significantly by 18-24 days decade(-1) over 18-30% of the land area of Europe, depending on methodology. This trend varied extensively within and between climatic zones and landscape classes. The areas of greatest growing-season lengthening were the Continental and Boreal zones, with hotspots concentrated in southern Fennoscandia, Western Russia and pockets of continental Europe. For the Atlantic and Steppic zones, we found an average shortening of the growing season with hotspots in Western France, the Po valley, and around the Caspian Sea. In many zones, changes in the NDVI-derived end-of-season contributed more to the GSL trend than changes in spring green-up, resulting in asymmetric trends. This underlines the importance of investigating senescence and its underlying processes more closely as a driver of LSP and global change.

  7. Estimating ground-level PM_{2.5} concentrations over three megalopolises in China using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yixuan; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Geng, Guannan; He, Kebin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous previous studies have revealed that statistical models which combine satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM2.5 measurements acquired at scattered monitoring sites provide an effective method for deriving continuous spatial distributions of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. Using the national monitoring networks that have recently been established by central and local governments in China, we developed linear mixed-effects (LMEs) models that integrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD measurements, meteorological parameters, and satellite-derived tropospheric NO2 column density measurements as predictors to estimate PM2.5 concentrations over three major industrialized regions in China, namely, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta region (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta region (PRD). The models developed for these three regions exploited different predictors to account for their varying topographies and meteorological conditions. Considering the importance of unbiased PM2.5 predictions for epidemiological studies, the correction factors calculated from the surface PM2.5 measurements were applied to correct biases in the predicted annual average PM2.5 concentrations introduced by non-stochastic missing AOD measurements. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our models. Cross-validation of the daily predictions yielded R2 values of 0.77, 0.8 and 0.8 and normalized mean error (NME) values of 22.4%, 17.8% and 15.2% for BTH, YRD and PRD, respectively. For the annual average PM2.5 concentrations, the LOOCV R2 values were 0.85, 0.76 and 0.71 for the three regions, respectively, whereas the LOOCV NME values were 8.0%, 6.9% and 8.4%, respectively. We found that the incorporation of satellite-based NO2 column density into the LMEs model contribute to considerable improvements in annual prediction accuracy for both BTH and YRD. The satisfactory performance of our

  8. Comparisons between buoy-observed, satellite-derived, and modeled surface shortwave flux over the subtropical North Atlantic during the Subduction Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waliser, Duane E. [Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, State University of New York, Stony Brook (United States); Weller, Robert A. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (United States); Cess, Robert D. [Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres, State University of New York, Stony Brook (United States)

    1999-12-27

    satellite-derived climatologies. These comparisons showed much better and more consistent agreement, with relative bias errors ranging from about -1 to 6%. Comparisons to contemporaneous, daily-average satellite derived values show relatively good agreement as well, with relative biases of the order of 2% ({approx}3-9 W m-2) and root-mean-square differences of {approx}10% (25-30 W m-2). Aspects of the role aerosols play in the above results are discussed along with the implications of the above results on the integrity of open-ocean buoy measurements of surface shortwave flux and the possibility of using the techniques developed in this study to remotely monitor the operating condition of buoy-based shortwave radiometers. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  9. Production of satellite-derived aerosol climate data records: current status of the ESA Aerosol_cci project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Gerrit; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    cloud screening in the various algorithms. Other efforts will focus on surface treatment and possible improvement of aerosol models used in the retrieval. Furthermore, the validation results, showing differences between regions, will further be analyzed in an attempt to better understand the working of different algorithms. The results, if successful, will be implemented in the various algorithms. A yearly re-processing is planned to evaluate the effect of different changes and to monitor further improvement. Each re-processing will be done on the full 17-year global ATSR-2/AATSR data set. The work on stratospheric aerosols and on absorbing aerosols is continued and a new element in Phase 2 is the inclusion of dust aerosols retrieved from thermal infrared IASI observations over a limited area. After the launch of Sentinel-3, planned for the autumn of 2015, the aerosol retrieval using SLSTR and OLCI data are planned to be included in the Aerosol_cci project. PARASOL retrieved data over a limited area will be used as a 'standard' for comparison with other sensors. A new aspect of Phase 2 are the use cases where representatives of several relevant users communities, climate, stratospheric aerosol and aerosol-cloud interaction, will evaluate the use of Aerosol_cci products in their own work as regards the usefulness and added value. This will be done in close cooperation with the data providers to further improve the products and meet users' needs, both as regards data quality and presentation. The latter also requires data availability and easy accessibility through good data management which is another important aspect in Aerosol_cci. An overview will be presented of the current status of the various aspects of the Aerosol_cci project.

  10. Satellite-Derived Photic Depth on the Great Barrier Reef: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Water Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarla Weeks

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Detecting changes to the transparency of the water column is critical for understanding the responses of marine organisms, such as corals, to light availability. Long-term patterns in water transparency determine geographical and depth distributions, while acute reductions cause short-term stress, potentially mortality and may increase the organisms’ vulnerability to other environmental stressors. Here, we investigated the optimal, operational algorithm for light attenuation through the water column across the scale of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Australia. We implemented and tested a quasi-analytical algorithm to determine the photic depth in GBR waters and matched regional Secchi depth (ZSD data to MODIS-Aqua (2002–2010 and SeaWiFS (1997–2010 satellite data. The results of the in situ ZSD/satellite data matchup showed a simple bias offset between the in situ and satellite retrievals. Using a Type II linear regression of log-transformed satellite and in situ data, we estimated ZSD and implemented the validated ZSD algorithm to generate a decadal satellite time series (2002–2012 for the GBR. Water clarity varied significantly in space and time. Seasonal effects were distinct, with lower values during the austral summer, most likely due to river runoff and increased vertical mixing, and a decline in water clarity between 2008–2012, reflecting a prevailing La Niña weather pattern. The decline in water clarity was most pronounced in the inshore area, where a significant decrease in mean inner shelf ZSD of 2.1 m (from 8.3 m to 6.2 m occurred over the decade. Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis determined the dominance of Mode 1 (51.3%, with the greatest variation in water clarity along the mid-shelf, reflecting the strong influence of oceanic intrusions on the spatio-temporal patterns of water clarity. The newly developed photic depth product has many potential applications for the GBR from water quality monitoring to analyses of

  11. Ammonia emissions in tropical biomass burning regions: Comparison between satellite-derived emissions and bottom-up fire inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, S.; Van Damme, M.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Turquety, S.; Hurtmans, D.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-11-01

    Vegetation fires emit large amounts of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere, including ammonia (NH3). These emissions are still subject to large uncertainties. In this study, we analyze time series of monthly NH3 total columns (molec cm-2) from the IASI sounder on board MetOp-A satellite and their relation with MODIS fire radiative power (MW) measurements. We derive monthly NH3 emissions estimates for four regions accounting for a major part of the total area affected by fires (two in Africa, one in central South America and one in Southeast Asia), using a simplified box model, and we compare them to the emissions from both the GFEDv3.1 and GFASv1.0 biomass burning emission inventories. In order to strengthen the analysis, we perform a similar comparison for carbon monoxide (CO), also measured by IASI and for which the emission factors used in the inventories to convert biomass burned to trace gas emissions are thought to be more reliable. In general, a good correspondence between NH3 and CO columns and the FRP is found, especially for regions in central South America with correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.66, respectively. The comparison with the two biomass burning emission inventories GFASv1.0 and GFEDv3.1 shows good agreements, particularly in the time of the maximum of emissions for the central South America region and in the magnitude for the region of Africa south of the equator. We find evidence of significant non-pyrogenic emissions for the regions of Africa north of the equator (for NH3) and Southeast Asia (for NH3 and CO). On a yearly basis, total emissions calculated from IASI measurements for the four regions reproduce fairly well the interannual variability from the GFEDv3.1 and GFASv1.0 emissions inventories for NH3 but show values about 1.5-2 times higher than emissions given by the two biomass burning emission inventories, even when assuming a fairly long lifetime of 36 h for that species.

  12. Short-time phosphorus losses by overland flow in burnt pine and eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal: A study at micro-plot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R V; Serpa, D; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, wildfires have affected vast areas of Mediterranean ecosystems leading to a variety of negative on- and off-site environmental impacts. Research on fire-affected areas has given more attention to sediment losses by fire-enhanced overland flow than to nutrient exports, especially in the Mediterranean region. To address this knowledge gap for post-fire losses of phosphorus (P) by overland flow, a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal was selected and instrumented immediately after a wildfire. Three slopes were selected for their contrasting forest types (eucalypt vs. pine) and parent materials (granite vs. schist). The selected study sites were a eucalypt site on granite (BEG), a eucalypt site on schist (BES) and a maritime pine site on schist (BPS). Micro-plots were monitored over a period of six months, i.e. till the construction of terraces for reforestation obliged to the removal of the plots. During this 6-month period, overland flow samples were collected at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall. Total P and PO4-P losses differed markedly between the two types of forests on schist, being lower at the pine site than at the eucalypt site, probably due to the presence of a protective layer of pine needle cast. Parent material did not play an important role in PO4-P losses by overland flow but it did in TP losses, with significantly lower values at the eucalypt site on granite than that on schist. These differences in TP losses can be attributed to the coarser texture of granite soils, typically promoting infiltration and decreasing runoff. The present findings provided further insights into the spatial and temporal patterns of post-fire soil nutrient losses in fire-prone forest types during the initial stages of the window-of-disturbance, which can be useful for defining post-fire emergency measures to reduce the risk of soil fertility losses.

  13. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocallowest points, as valley bottoms. The difference between summit level and base level is called relief amount. Thesevirtualmapsareconstructed by theoriginalsoftwareBaz. Themacroconcavity index, MCI, is calculated from summit level and relief amount maps. The volume-normalised three-dimensional concavity index, TCI, is calculated from hypsometric diagram. The massifs with high erosive resistance tend to have convex general form and low MCI and TCI. Those with low resistance have concave form and high MCI and TCI. The diagram of TCI vs. MCI permits to distinguish erosive characteristics of massifs according to their constituent rocks. The base level map for ocean bottom detects the basement tectonic uplift which occurred before the formation of the volcanic seamounts.

  14. Towards Calibration of Sentinel 3 Data: Validation of Satellite-Derived SST Against In Situ Coastal Observations of the Portuguese Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ricardo; Esteves, Rita; Lamas, Luisa; Pinto, Jose Paulo; Almeida, Sara; de Azevedo, Eduardo; Correia, Cecilia; Reis, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Validation of future Sentinel-3 SLSTR data in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean was analysed here through a comparison of satellite-derived STT against in situ mooring buoys observations.SSTskin retrieved from IR satellite radiometers on- board ERS 1-2, Envisat, and Aqua, and concurrent SSTbulk measured with 14 buoy thermistors located at 1m depth were used to assess the statistical relationships between these datasets, with 20038 match- ups spanning from 1996 to 2015.As expected, results showed consistency between SSTskin and SSTbulk, exhibiting a correlation coefficient on the order of 98 %. Biases of both (A)ATSR and MODIS for day-time suggest a warmer satellite skin retrieval of + 0.15o and + 0.06o, respectively. For the night-time dataset, biases of - 0.25o and - 0.17o for (A)A TSR and MODIS, respectively, indicate cooler skin retrievals and reveal an inversion of the upper ocean thermic gradient. The RMSE ´s found were 0.53o for (A)ATSR and 0.41o for MODIS datasets.

  15. A photogrammetric DEM of Greenland based on 1978-1987 aerial photos: validation and integration with laser altimetry and satellite-derived DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjaer, K. H.; Nuth, C.; Khan, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present a DEM of Greenland covering all ice-free terrain and the margins of the GrIS and local glaciers and ice caps. The DEM is based on the 3534 photos used in the aero-triangulation which were recorded by the Danish Geodata Agency (then the Geodetic Institute) in survey campaigns spanning the period 1978-1987. The GrIS is covered tens of kilometers into the interior due to the large footprints of the photos (30 x 30 km) and control provided by the aero-triangulation. Thus, the data are ideal for providing information for analysis of ice marginal elevation change and also control for satellite-derived DEMs.The results of the validation, error assessments and predicted uncertainties are presented. We test the DEM using Airborne Topographic Mapper (IceBridge ATM) as reference data; evaluate the a posteriori covariance matrix from the aero-triangulation; and co-register DEM blocks of 50 x 50 km to ICESat laser altimetry in order to evaluate the coherency.We complement the aero-photogrammetric DEM with modern laser altimetry and DEMs derived from stereoscopic satellite imagery (AST14DMO) to examine the mass variability of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Our analysis suggests that dynamically-induced mass loss started around 2003 and continued throughout 2014.

  16. A simple normalized difference approach to burnt area mapping using multi-polarisation C-Band SAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available and intensity; and (3) fire size [6,7,9–11]. In terms of fire frequency, all non-sprouting plants should have a chance to produce sufficient seed before the next burn. Therefore, fires should not Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 764; doi:10.3390/rs9080764 www... information using a time-series of data can provide information on veld ages. Veld age maps can be used to identify vegetation stands that should be protected from fires, including immature plants that have not had the opportunity to produce seeds [9...

  17. Risk factors for multiple organic dysfunctions syndrome in burnt children. Factores de riesgo de síndrome de disfunción orgánica múltiple en niños quemados

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge González Mendoza; Elvira Maria Martinez Barreto

    2009-01-01

    Background: The creation of intensive care units allows extending the life of patients with serious conditions, including multiple organic dysfunction syndromes. Objective: To determine the clinical variables and laboratory variables that are risk factors for multiple organic dysfunction syndromes in burnt children. Methods: Analytical, retrospective study of case series including burnt patients between 0 a...

  18. Changes in satellite-derived spring vegetation green-up date and its linkage to climate in China from 1982 to 2010: a multimethod analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Nan; Wang, Tao; Nan, Huijuan; Ma, Yuecun; Wang, Xuhui; Myneni, Ranga B; Piao, Shilong

    2013-03-01

    The change in spring phenology is recognized to exert a major influence on carbon balance dynamics in temperate ecosystems. Over the past several decades, several studies focused on shifts in spring phenology; however, large uncertainties still exist, and one understudied source could be the method implemented in retrieving satellite-derived spring phenology. To account for this potential uncertainty, we conducted a multimethod investigation to quantify changes in vegetation green-up date from 1982 to 2010 over temperate China, and to characterize climatic controls on spring phenology. Over temperate China, the five methods estimated that the vegetation green-up onset date advanced, on average, at a rate of 1.3 ± 0.6 days per decade (ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 days per decade) over the last 29 years. Moreover, the sign of the trends in vegetation green-up date derived from the five methods were broadly consistent spatially and for different vegetation types, but with large differences in the magnitude of the trend. The large intermethod variance was notably observed in arid and semiarid vegetation types. Our results also showed that change in vegetation green-up date is more closely correlated with temperature than with precipitation. However, the temperature sensitivity of spring vegetation green-up date became higher as precipitation increased, implying that precipitation is an important regulator of the response of vegetation spring phenology to change in temperature. This intricate linkage between spring phenology and precipitation must be taken into account in current phenological models which are mostly driven by temperature. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Production of dioxins and furans for various solid fuels burnt in 25 kW automatic boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopan, František; Horák, Jiří; Krpec, Kamil; Kubesa, Petr; Dej, Milan; Laciok, Vendula

    2016-06-01

    There has been brown coal, black coal and maize straw in a pellet form burnt in an automatic boiler. Production of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes, recomputated through toxicity equivalents, expressed as the emission factor relative to the fuel unit, has differentiated in a range of ca. three orders (0.05 up to 78.9 ng/kg) in dependence on a sort of the used fuel. The measured values have been compared with emission factors used for the emission inventory in the Czech Republic and Poland and with the emission limit applicable for waste incineration plants. The study has proven the influence of chlorine content in fuel on production of dioxins and furanes.

  20. Preliminary results on the comparison between satellite derived ground temperature and in-situ measurement of soil CO2 flux and soil temperature at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Silvestri, Malvina; Chiodini, Giovanni; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria

    2014-05-01

    temperature (at 10 cm depth) are measured periodically in about 400 point randomly distributed in the Solfatara crater area and in its surroundings. The data measured in 3 surveys performed from 2003 to 2010, in periods roughly correspondent to the available ASTER data, have been elaborated with the geostatistical method of Sequential Gaussian Simulation in order to obtain maps with a spatial resolution of 90X90 m to be compared to the ASTER data. The first results show a quite good correlations between ASTER derived temperatures and both temperatures and CO2 fluxes derived from ground measurement, especially in the most anomalous areas characterized by higher soil CO2 fluxes and temperatures. These first results encourage the possibility to use the satellite derived temperature as proxy of the CO2 fluxes and to implement methods to use long time series of satellite TIR data in a monitoring prospective.

  1. Burnt bone assemblages from El Esquilleu cave (Cantabria, Northern Spain): deliberate use for fuel or systematic disposal of organic waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, J.; Uzquiano, P.

    2013-05-01

    Bones or fossil fuels associated with combustion structures have been widely discussed in several works related to Neanderthal lifestyles and subsistence patterns during the MIS 3. El Esquilleu cave (western Cantabria, Spain) can significantly contribute to this issue, particularly with the taphonomic study of layers 21 and 23, which are characterized by the presence of hearths containing abundant burnt and charred faunal remains of ibex. The fragmentation and burning rates as well as bone presence within hearths may suggest that they were used as a supplementary fuel resource. Following previous research on the suitability of bones as a supplement to firewood in hearth combustions, a series of experiments are here presented using goat bones, in consistency with the faunal record present at El Esquilleu. Our experiments proved that small-sized animal (Neanderthal groups at El Esquilleu or whether their combustion resulted from other behavioural practises. In this sense, we compare our results with different proxy data from this site as well as with the palaeoenvironmental information available for the MIS 3 chronological period in Western Europe.

  2. Monte-Carlo code calculation of 3D reactor core model with usage of burnt fuel isotopic compositions, obtained by engineering codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Gorodkov, Sergey S.; Shcherenko, Anna I. [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A burn-up calculation of large systems by Monte-Carlo code (MCU) is complex process and it requires large computational costs. Previously prepared isotopic compositions are proposed to be used for the Monte-Carlo code calculations of different system states with burnt fuel. Isotopic compositions are calculated by an approximation method. The approximation method is based on usage of a spectral functionality and reference isotopic compositions, that are calculated by the engineering codes (TVS-M, BIPR-7A and PERMAK-A). The multiplication factors and power distributions of FAs from a 3-D reactor core are calculated in this work by the Monte-Carlo code MCU using earlier prepared isotopic compositions. The separate conditions of the burnt core are observed. The results of MCU calculations were compared with those that were obtained by engineering codes.

  3. Reclamation of a burnt forest soil with municipal waste compost, effects on CO{sub 2} emission and soil carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrion, M. B.; Lafuente, F.; Lopez, O.; Mulas, R.; Ruiperez, C.; Heras, L.

    2009-07-01

    Soils play an important role in the study and prevention of the climatic change, because they can be source and sink of carbon. Forest fires that are becoming more frequent, affect physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soils. In recent years the necessity to protect burnt soils from degradation has allowed to find alternative practices to reclaim soil organic matter (SOM) content and functions. (Author)

  4. The Analysis and Intervention of MRSA Infection in Burnt Patient%烧伤患者耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌感染的分析及干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华; 苏文杰; 魏全珍; 张惠珍; 黄春红

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨烧伤病区医院感染耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的危险因素与传播途径,以便采取有效的干预措施,防止耐药菌株的扩散流行,进一步加强医院感染管理.方法 采用前瞻性调查方法,对2007年1月至2008年6月的烧伤病区感染病例进行目标性监测.对同期进行医疗服务的医务人员和陪护人员的手进行随机采样.结果 383例烧伤患者当中发生医院感染39例,感染率10.18%;MRSA感染23例占58.97%,其中3例为脓毒症;有过气管插管、气管切开等插入性操作的10例伤员当中有4例肺部MRSA感染.对同时期医务人员的手采样324例,检出MRSA21株;陪护人员手采样67例,检出MRSA5株.结论 MRSA感染与患者的烧伤程度、住院时间长、侵入性操作及医护人员的手污染呈正相关,必须加强医院感染的监控力度,严格执行消毒隔离制度和"手卫生",做好危重患者及特殊感染患者的护理,防止交叉感染,缩短患者住院时间,减少侵入性操作,缩短插入操作停留时间.%Objective To explore the dangerous factors and dissemination of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) hospital infection in burnt ward area in order to take effective intervention measures to prevent drug-resistant strains from spreading and to enhance the management of hospital infection. Methods Proactive investigation is applied to infected cases in burnt ward area during the period of January 2007 to June 2008. Random sampling is carried out from the hands of the medical staff and nursing team at the same time. Results Of all the 383 burnt cases, hospital infection accounts for 10.18 %, which is 39 cases. Among them, there are 23 MRSA infections, accounting for 58.97%. 3 of which are pyemia. Patients with invasive operation history of endotracheal intubation or tracheotomy, 4 out of 10 cases were found MRSA infected in the lung. At the same period of time, samples were taken from hands of medical

  5. EPIC-Simulated and MODIS-Derived Leaf Area Index (LAI) Comparisons Across mMltiple Spatial Scales RSAD Oral Poster based session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important parameter in assessing vegetation structure for characterizing forest canopies over large areas at broad spatial scales using satellite remote sensing data. However, satellite-derived LAI products can be limited by obstructed atmospheric cond...

  6. Fast identification of dead burnt magnesite in nonmetallic minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry%傅立叶变换红外光谱法快速鉴别非金属矿物中重烧镁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武素茹; 谷松海; 马德起; 李权斌; 王虹

    2013-01-01

    重烧镁外观与高岭土、白云石及硅灰石等矿物的外观极为相似,常被混入这些矿石中向境外走私.为了快速鉴别这些矿物中的重烧镁,实验采用傅里叶变换红外光谱技术分别研究了具有不同重烧镁含量的三种矿物其光谱特征,并与重烧镁及不合重烧镁的矿物谱图进行比对.结果表明,当这些矿物中混入一定量的重烧镁时,重烧镁的红外特征吸收峰依然明显存在.当只含有10%的重烧镁,根据谱图的特征变化,依然能够鉴别出这些矿物中混入的重烧镁,即鉴定这些矿物中重烧镁的检出限为10%.方法对实际样品进行了分析,分析结果与化学法相符.%The appearance of dead burnt magnesite was very similar to kaolin, dolomite and wollaston-ite ores, so it was usually mixed into these minerals for abroad smuggling. In order to fast identify the dead burnt magnesite in these minerals, the Fourier transform infrared spectrum technology was used to study the spectral signature of three minerals containing various contents of dead burnt magnesite. Then, the spectra were compared with those of dead burnt magnesite and minerals without dead burnt magnesite. The results showed that, when certain amount of dead burnt magnesite was mixed into these minerals, the infrared characteristic absorption peak of dead burnt magnesite still existed. When the content of dead burnt magnesite was 10% , it could be also identified based on the change of characteristic spectrum. In other words, the detection limit of dead burnt magnesite in these minerals was 10%. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of actual samples and the results were consistent with the chemical method.

  7. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  8. A Predictive Model for Satellite-Derived Phytoplankton Absorption Over the Louisiana Shelf Hypoxic Zone: Effects of Nutrients and Physical Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    by the spatial coastal areas, has been implemented in the most recent (5th) and temporal scales of variability that they can capture. global... temporal resolution, applied during our image processing) that further improves Imagery from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) satellite...retrievals of phytoplankton biomass in Case 2 waters ocean color satellite (1978-1985) provided the first clima - [Ransibrahmanakul and Stumpf, 2006]. Taken

  9. Comparison of Satellite-Derived TOA Shortwave Clear-Sky Fluxes to Estimates from GCM Simulations Constrained by Satellite Observations of Land Surface Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, Valentine G.; Nair, Udaysankar S.; Lawrence, Peter; Chase, Thomas N.; Christopher, Sundar; Jones, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Clear-sky, upwelling shortwave flux at the top of the atmosphere (S(sub TOA raised arrow)), simulated using the atmospheric and land model components of the Community Climate System Model 3 (CCSM3), is compared to corresponding observational estimates from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor. Improvements resulting from the use of land surface albedo derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to constrain the simulations are also examined. Compared to CERES observations, CCSM3 overestimates global, annual averaged S(sub TOA raised arrow) over both land and oceans. However, regionally, CCSM3 overestimates S(sub TOA raised arrow) over some land and ocean areas while underestimating it over other sites. CCSM3 underestimates S(sub TOA raised arrow) over the Saharan and Arabian Deserts and substantial differences exist between CERES observations and CCSM3 over agricultural areas. Over selected sites, after using groundbased observations to remove systematic biases that exist in CCSM computation of S(sub TOA raised arrow), it is found that use of MODIS albedo improves the simulation of S(sub TOA raised arrow). Inability of coarse resolution CCSM3 simulation to resolve spatial heterogeneity of snowfall over high altitude sites such as the Tibetan Plateau causes overestimation of S(sub TOA raised arrow) in these areas. Discrepancies also exist in the simulation of S(sub TOA raised arrow) over ocean areas as CCSM3 does not account for the effect of wind speed on ocean surface albedo. This study shows that the radiative energy budget at the TOA is improved through the use of MODIS albedo in Global Climate Models.

  10. 健康宣教在儿童烧伤护理中的应用%Application of health education in nursing of burnt children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华钏; 张育淑

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨健康宣教在儿童烧伤护理中的应用.方法:将216例烧伤患儿随机分为宣教组(90例)和对照组(126例),对宣教组患儿家长进行烧伤知识宣教,对对照组患儿家长进行常规入院宣教,比较两组患儿家长烧伤相关知识掌握情况及对护理质量的满意度.结果:宣教组患儿家长烧伤相关知识掌握评分及对护理质量的满意率均优于对照组(P<0.05).结论:健康宣教在儿童烧伤护理中的应用有利于提高患儿家长对烧伤相关知识的认识,提高患儿家长满意度,值得在临床中推广应用.%Objective:To discuss the use of bum propagation to nursing of burnt children. Methods: A total of 216 burnt children were divided into two groups randomly,90 cases in propagated group and 126 cases in the control group. The propagated group with bum propagation,and the control group with conventional propagation, two groups were scored by the self - made questionnaire, compared the clinical and nursing effect between the two groups. Results: Seneral aspects such as score, in hospital time, in course of disease and satisfactory rate to the nursing works have been contrasted, the propagated group was much better than the control group( P < 0.05 ) . Conclusions,: The use of burn propagation to nursing of burnt children is propitious to raise awareness of bum knowledge,shorten in patient time and in course of disease,and is worth wideiy promoting to clinical nuraing of pediatric bum.

  11. Satellite derived 30-year trends in terrestrial frozen and non-frozen seasons and associated impacts to vegetation and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kimball, J. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Glassy, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Approximately 66 million km2 (52.5 %) of the global vegetated land area experiences seasonally frozen temperatures as a major constraint to ecosystem processes. The freeze-thaw (F/T) status of the landscape as derived from satellite microwave remote sensing is closely linked to surface energy budget and hydrological activity, vegetation phenology, terrestrial carbon budgets and land-atmosphere trace gas exchange. We utilized a seasonal threshold algorithm based temporal change classification of 37GHz frequency, vertically polarized brightness temperatures (Tb) from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) pathfinder and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) to classify daily F/T status for all global land areas where seasonal frozen temperatures are a major constraint to ecosystem processes. A temporally consistent, long-term (30 year) daily F/T record was created by pixel-wise correction of the SMMR Tb record based on empirical analyses of overlapping SMMR and SSM/I measurements acquired during 1987. The resulting combined F/T record was validated against in situ temperature measurements from the global weather station network and applied to quantify regional patterns and trends in timing and length of frozen and non-frozen seasons. The F/T results were compared against other surrogate measures of biosphere activity including satellite AVHRR (GIMMS) based vegetation greenness (NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 concentrations over northern (>50N) land areas. The resulting F/T record showed mean annual classification accuracies of 91 (+/-1.0) and 84 (+/- 0.9) percent for PM and AM overpass retrievals relative to in situ weather station records. The F/T record showed significant (P=0.008) long-term trends in non-frozen period (0.207 days/yr) that were largely driven by earlier onset of spring thaw (-0.121 days/yr) and a small, delayed trend the arrival of the frozen period (0.107 days/yr). These results coincide with 0.025 C/yr warming trends in

  12. National Spatiotemporal Exposure Surface for NO2: Monthly Scaling of a Satellite-Derived Land-Use Regression, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechle, Matthew J; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2015-10-20

    Land-use regression (LUR) is widely used for estimating within-urban variability in air pollution. While LUR has recently been extended to national and continental scales, these models are typically for long-term averages. Here we present NO2 surfaces for the continental United States with excellent spatial resolution (∼100 m) and monthly average concentrations for one decade. We investigate multiple potential data sources (e.g., satellite column and surface estimates, high- and standard-resolution satellite data, and a mechanistic model [WRF-Chem]), approaches to model building (e.g., one model for the whole country versus having separate models for urban and rural areas, monthly LURs versus temporal scaling of a spatial LUR), and spatial interpolation methods for temporal scaling factors (e.g., kriging versus inverse distance weighted). Our core approach uses NO2 measurements from U.S. EPA monitors (2000-2010) to build a spatial LUR and to calculate spatially varying temporal scaling factors. The model captures 82% of the spatial and 76% of the temporal variability (population-weighted average) of monthly mean NO2 concentrations from U.S. EPA monitors with low average bias (21%) and error (2.4 ppb). Model performance in absolute terms is similar near versus far from monitors, and in urban, suburban, and rural locations (mean absolute error 2-3 ppb); since low-density locations generally experience lower concentrations, model performance in relative terms is better near monitors than far from monitors (mean bias 3% versus 40%) and is better for urban and suburban locations (1-6%) than for rural locations (78%, reflecting the relatively clean conditions in many rural areas). During 2000-2010, population-weighted mean NO2 exposure decreased 42% (1.0 ppb [∼5.2%] per year), from 23.2 ppb (year 2000) to 13.5 ppb (year 2010). We apply our approach to all U.S. Census blocks in the contiguous United States to provide 132 months of publicly available, high

  13. Corrosion behaviour of gas turbine alloys under high velocity burnt fuels; Korrosionsverhalten von Gasturbinenwerkstoffen unter stroemenden Heissgasbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubold, T.I.; Brill, U. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany); Abel, H.J. [Fachhochschule Dortmund (Germany). Fachbereich 5/Maschinenbau, Laborgruppe Werkstofftechnik; Klauke, P. [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie und Materialtechnik

    2001-04-01

    The aim of alloy development in the field of nickel based superalloys for flying and land based gas turbines is to enhance significantly the mechanical properties at high temperatures thus leading to a higher temperature capability. The higher temperature capability of the structural elements of gas turbines results in an increased efficiency, a lowered fuel consumption and less emissions. To achieve an increased high temperature capability, however, surface degradation of the material must be adjusted adequately, hence corrosion resistance has to be improved. Additional to the isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests which are performed in stagnant air the oxidation behaviour of alloy 2100 GT and alloy C-263 was investigated by means of burner-rig-experiments under high velocity burnt fuels. In the burner rig test facility the sample is exposed to a hot gas stream of burned natural gas with gas velocities in the range of 60 m/s to 150 m/s. The metal temperature of the sample can be adjusted in the range of 900 C to 1200 C. In the tests described in this paper the gas velocities were chosen to be 60 m/s, 100 m/s and 140 m/s. The test duration was 1 h and 10 h. The test temperature was kept constant at 1000 C. After 1 h of testing both alloys showed mass gain which was significantly higher for alloy C-263. After 10 h of testing the mass loss of alloy C-263 was enhanced with increasing gas velocity. Alloy 2100 GT showed only at the highest gas velocity a mass loss. The examinations by means of SEM and light-optical microscopy of the oxide scale and of the microstructure showed that alloy 2100 GT has a dense adherent alumina scale and suffers no internal oxidation even under burner-rig-test conditions. Alloy C-263 forms a mixed chromia and Cr-Ti-mixed oxide scale. The chromia is evaporated with increasing gas velocity, leaving (Cr-Ti)O{sub 2}-needles on the surface. In the isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests alloy 2100 GT shows an excellent oxidation behaviour up to

  14. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  15. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature and Air Temperature from Meteorological Stations on the Pan-Arctic Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Schmullius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based temperature measurements are an important indicator for global climate change studies over large areas. Records from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and (Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer ((AATSR are providing long-term time series information. Assessing the quality of remote sensing-based temperature measurements provides feedback to the climate modeling community and other users by identifying agreements and discrepancies when compared to temperature records from meteorological stations. This paper presents a comparison of state-of-the-art remote sensing-based land surface temperature data with air temperature measurements from meteorological stations on a pan-arctic scale (north of 60° latitude. Within this study, we compared land surface temperature products from (AATSR, MODIS and AVHRR with an in situ air temperature (Tair database provided by the National Climate Data Center (NCDC. Despite analyzing the whole acquisition time period of each land surface temperature product, we focused on the inter-annual variability comparing land surface temperature (LST and air temperature for the overlapping time period of the remote sensing data (2000–2005. In addition, land cover information was included in the evaluation approach by using GLC2000. MODIS has been identified as having the highest agreement in comparison to air temperature records. The time series of (AATSR is highly variable, whereas inconsistencies in land surface temperature data from AVHRR have been found.

  16. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sudhakar Reddy; V V L Padma Alekhya; K R L Saranya; K Athira; C S Jha; P G Diwakar; V K Dadhwal

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km², respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO₂ emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO₂ emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO₂ emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO₂ emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  17. Monitoring of fire incidences in vegetation types and Protected Areas of India: Implications on carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Padma Alekhya, V. V. L.; Saranya, K. R. L.; Athira, K.; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-02-01

    Carbon emissions released from forest fires have been identified as an environmental issue in the context of global warming. This study provides data on spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidences, burnt area and carbon emissions covering natural vegetation types (forest, scrub and grassland) and Protected Areas of India. The total area affected by fire in the forest, scrub and grasslands have been estimated as 48765.45, 6540.97 and 1821.33 km 2, respectively, in 2014 using Resourcesat-2 AWiFS data. The total CO 2 emissions from fires of these vegetation types in India were estimated to be 98.11 Tg during 2014. The highest emissions were caused by dry deciduous forests, followed by moist deciduous forests. The fire season typically occurs in February, March, April and May in different parts of India. Monthly CO 2 emissions from fires for different vegetation types have been calculated for February, March, April and May and estimated as 2.26, 33.53, 32.15 and 30.17 Tg, respectively. Protected Areas represent 11.46% of the total natural vegetation cover of India. Analysis of fire occurrences over a 10-year period with two types of sensor data, i.e., AWiFS and MODIS, have found fires in 281 (out of 614) Protected Areas of India. About 16.78 Tg of CO 2 emissions were estimated in Protected Areas in 2014. The natural vegetation types of Protected Areas have contributed for burnt area of 17.3% and CO 2 emissions of 17.1% as compared to total natural vegetation burnt area and emissions in India in 2014. 9.4% of the total vegetation in the Protected Areas was burnt in 2014. Our results suggest that Protected Areas have to be considered for strict fire management as an effective strategy for mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation.

  18. Comparing simple and complex approaches to simulate the impacts of soil water repellency on runoff and erosion in burnt Mediterranean forest slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Catarina Simões Vieira, Diana; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Fires impact soil hydrological properties, enhancing soil water repellency and therefore increasing the potential for surface runoff generation and soil erosion. In consequence, the successful application of hydrological models to post-fire conditions requires the appropriate simulation of the effects of soil water repellency on soil hydrology. This work compared three approaches to model soil water repellency impacts on soil hydrology in burnt eucalypt and pine forest slopes in central Portugal: 1) Daily approach, simulating repellency as a function of soil moisture, and influencing the maximum soil available water holding capacity. It is based on the Thornthwaite-Mather soil water modelling approach, and is parameterized with the soil's wilting point and field capacity, and a parameter relating soil water repellency with water holding capacity. It was tested with soil moisture data from burnt and unburnt hillslopes. This approach was able to simulate post-fire soil moisture patterns, which the model without repellency was unable to do. However, model parameters were different between the burnt and unburnt slopes, indicating that more research is needed to derive standardized parameters from commonly measured soil and vegetation properties. 2) Seasonal approach, pre-determining repellency at the seasonal scale (3 months) in four classes (from none to extreme). It is based on the Morgan-Morgan-Finney (MMF) runoff and erosion model, applied at the seasonal scale and is parameterized with a parameter relating repellency class with field capacity. It was tested with runoff and erosion data from several experimental plots, and led to important improvements on runoff prediction over an approach with constant field capacity for all seasons (calibrated for repellency effects), but only slight improvements in erosion predictions. In contrast with the daily approach, the parameters could be reproduced between different sites 3) Constant approach, specifying values for soil

  19. Using the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to explain ranging patterns in a lek-breeding antelope: the importance of scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Brown, Molly E; Pettorelli, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Lek-breeding species are characterized by a negative association between territorial resource availability and male mating success; however, the impact of resources on the overall distribution patterns of the two sexes in lek systems is not clear. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has recently emerged as a powerful proxy measure for primary productivity, allowing the links between the distributions of animals and resources to be explored. Using NDVI at four spatial resolutions, we here investigate how the distribution of the two sexes in a lek-breeding population of topi antelopes relates to resource abundance before and during the rut. We found that in the dry season preceding the rut, topi density correlated positively with NDVI at the large, but not the fine, scale. This suggests that before the rut, when resources were relatively scant, topi preferred pastures where green grass was widely abundant. The pattern was less pronounced in males, suggesting that the need for territorial attendance prevents males from tracking resources as freely as females do. During the rut, which occurs in the wet season, both male and female densities correlated negatively with NDVI at the fine scale. At this time, resources were generally plentiful and the results suggest that, rather than by resource maximization, distribution during the rut was determined by benefits of aggregating on relatively resource-poor leks for mating, and possibly antipredator, purposes. At the large scale, no correlation between density and NDVI was found during the rut in either sex, which can be explained by leks covering areas too small to be reflected at this resolution. The study illustrates that when investigating spatial organization, it is important: (1) to choose the appropriate analytic scale, and (2) to consider behavioural as well as strictly ecological factors.

  20. Classification of Satellite Derived Chlorophyll a Space-Time Series by Means of Quantile Regression: An Application to the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, P.; Pastres, R.; Gaetan, C.; Mangin, A.; Taji, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a classification of Adriatic waters, based on spatial time series of remotely sensed Chlorophyll type-a. The study was carried out using a clustering procedure combining quantile smoothing and an agglomerative clustering algorithms. The smoothing function includes a seasonal term, thus allowing one to classify areas according to “similar” seasonal evolution, as well as according to “similar” trends. This methodology, which is here applied for the first time to Ocean Colour data, is more robust with respect to other classical methods, as it does not require any assumption on the probability distribution of the data. This approach was applied to the classification of an eleven year long time series, from January 2002 to December 2012, of monthly values of Chlorophyll type-a concentrations covering the whole Adriatic Sea. The data set was made available by ACRI (http://hermes.acri.fr) in the framework of the Glob-Colour Project (http://www.globcolour.info). Data were obtained by calibrating Ocean Colour data provided by different satellite missions, such as MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS. The results clearly show the presence of North-South and West-East gradient in the level of Chlorophyll, which is consistent with literature findings. This analysis could provide a sound basis for the identification of “water bodies” and of Chlorophyll type-a thresholds which define their Good Ecological Status, in terms of trophic level, as required by the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The forthcoming availability of Sentinel-3 OLCI data, in continuity of the previous missions, and with perspective of more than a 15-year monitoring system, offers a real opportunity of expansion of our study as a strong support to the implementation of both the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the UNEP-MAP Ecosystem Approach in the Mediterranean.

  1. Exploration of Loggerhead Shrike Habitats in Grassland National Park of Canada Based on in Situ Measurements and Satellite-Derived Adjusted Transformed Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (ATSAVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus excubutirudes in Grassland National Park of Canada (GNPC has undergone a severe decline due to habitat loss and limitation. Shrike habitat availability is highly impacted by the biophysical characteristics of grassland landscapes. This study was conducted in the west block of GNPC. The overall purpose was to extract important biophysical and topographical variables from both SPOT satellite imagery and in situ measurements. Statistical analysis including Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, measuring Coefficient Variation (CV, and regression analysis were applied to these variables obtained from both imagery and in situ measurement. Vegetation spatial variation and heterogeneity among active, inactive and control nesting sites at 20 m × 20 m, 60 m × 60 m and 100 m × 100 m scales were investigated. Results indicated that shrikes prefer to nest in open areas with scattered shrubs, particularly thick or thorny species of smaller size, to discourage mammalian predators. The most important topographical characteristic is that active sites are located far away from roads at higher elevation. Vegetation index was identified as a good indicator of vegetation characteristics for shrike habitats due to its significant relation to most relevant biophysical factors. Spatial variation analysis showed that at all spatial scales, active sites have the lowest vegetation abundance and the highest heterogeneity among the three types of nesting sites. For all shrike habitat types, vegetation abundance decreases with increasing spatial scales while habitat heterogeneity increases with increasing spatial scales. This research also indicated that suitable shrike habitat for GNPC can be mapped using a logistical model with ATSAVI and dead material in shrub canopy as the independent variables.

  2. Manufacture of a New Type of Phosphogypsum Based Non-Burnt Brick%磷石膏基新型免烧砖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培新; 谭克锋

    2011-01-01

    By means of XRD, SEM analysis and strength measurements, the maximum phosphogypsum grain size suitable for making binder was explored. Simultaneously, the optimum mix design for the binder was obtained and as a consequence, the non-burnt brick was successfully manufactured by this binder and river sand. The test resuks show that the maximum phosphogypsum grain size suitable for making binder is 4.75 ram. The optimum mix design of the binder is phosphogypsum/quick lime/cement/flyash = 40/15/ 10/35. With binder to sand rotio of 1/2.7 , binder to water ratio of 0.45 and 900℃ steam curing of 10 h, MU20 non-burnt brick which meets the Chinese National Standard can be successfully manufactured.%通过XRD,SEM微观分析和宏观强度测试手段,探讨了适合做胶结料磷石膏颗粒的最大粒径,并对磷石膏一粉煤灰复合胶结料的最优配合比进行了优化,最后利用胶结料和砂子按不同水胶比和胶砂比浇筑成型制砖。研究结果表明,适合做胶结料的磷石膏颗粒最大粒径为4.75mm,磷石膏-粉煤灰复合胶结料的最优配合比为:磷石膏:生石灰:水泥:粉煤灰=40:15:10:35。用胶砂比为1:2.7,水胶比为0.45的胶结料浇筑成型,经90℃蒸汽养护10h可制成满足国标MU20级的免烧砖。

  3. Investigation of the vertical distribution and speciation of (137)Cs in soil profiles at burnt and unburnt forest sites in the Belarusian Exclusion Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, M; Bondar, Y; Skipperud, L; Zabrotski, V; Pettersen, M Nandrup; Selnæs, Ø G; Brown, J E

    2017-09-01

    The effects of fire events on contaminant radionuclides within soils of the Belarusian Exclusion Zone were investigated. A number of cores were taken from locations known to have been subject to fire events in the past as well as a series of cores from nearby unburnt locations. Both burnt and unburnt cores were analyzed for contaminant radionuclides as well as a range of relevant soil parameters. The distribution of (137)Cs between various fractions (reversibly bound, irreversibly bound and insoluble) was analyzed. Results indicate no evidence of enhancement or enrichment of radionuclides within the soil column although this does not negate the possibility that such effects were evident at some point in the past, the fire events at two of the sites having occurred almost ten years earlier. Evidence was present of a persistent effect on how (137)Cs was distributed between different fractions of the soil, primarily in relation to the proportions associated with oxides of Fe and Mn and organic matter. The results of the study appear to indicate that the long-term effects of a forest fire on contaminant (137)Cs within the soil column are expressed through changes in the physico-chemical forms of the nuclide to a larger extent than simple redistribution of the contaminant within the soil column. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparison and quality assessment of near-surface-sensitive satellite-derived CO2 and CH4 global data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases - atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. Two satellite instruments deliver the main input data for GHG-CCI: SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT. The first order priority goal of GHG-CCI is the further development of retrieval algorithms for near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4, to meet the demanding user requirements. GHG-CCI focusses on four core data products: XCO2 from SCIAMACHY and TANSO and XCH4 from the same two sensors. For each of the four core data products at least two candidate retrieval algorithms have been independently further developed and the corresponding data products have been quality assessed and inter-compared. This activity is referred to as "Round Robin" (RR) activity within the CCI. The main goal of the RR was to identify for each of the four core products which algorithm to be used to generate the Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which will essentially be the first version of the ECV GHG. This manuscript gives an overview about the GHG-CCI RR and related activities. This comprises the establishment of the user requirements, the improvement of the candidate retrieval algorithms and comparisons with ground-based observations and models. The manuscript summarizes the final RR algorithm selection decision and its justification. Comparison with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) data indicates that the "breakthrough" single measurement precision requirement has been met for

  5. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the GEOS-C altimeter calibration area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1974-01-01

    The GEOS-C spacecraft scheduled for launch in late 1974 will carry a radar altimeter for the purpose of measuring sea surface topography. In order to calibrate and evaluate the performance of the altimeter system, ground truth data are required. In this respect a detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed for the GEOS-C altimeter calibration area in the Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of the U.S. This geoid is based upon a combination of mean free air surface gravity anomalies and the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-6 satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients. Surface gravity anomalies have been used to provide information on the short wave length undulations of the geoid while the satellite-derived coefficients have provided information on the long wave length components. As part of these analyses, GSFC, SAO and OSU satellite-derived gravity models were used in the computations. Although geoid heights based upon the various satellite models differed by as much as 30 meters in the Southern Hemisphere, the differences in this Atlantic Ocean area were less than 4 meters.

  6. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (competitividad de España (MINECO) and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for financial support of the project (CGL2009-10557). The MINECO is also acknowledged for providing the Formación de Professional Investigator (FPI) grant (BES-2010-42581). REFERENCES Golchin, A., Oades, J., Skjemstad, J., Clarke, P., 1994. Soil structure and carbon cycling. Soil Research 32, 1043-1068. Sohi, S.P., Mahieu, N., Arah, J.R.M., Powlson, D.S., Madari, B., Gaunt, J.L., 2001. A procedure for isolating soil organic matter fractions suitable for modelling. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65, 1121.

  7. Daily Area of Snow Melt Onset on Arctic Sea Ice from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations 1979–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Angela C. Bliss; Anderson, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Variability in snow melt onset (MO) on Arctic sea ice since 1979 is examined by determining the area of sea ice experiencing the onset of melting during the melt season on a daily basis. The daily MO area of the snow and ice surface is determined from passive microwave satellite-derived MO dates for the Arctic Ocean and sub-regions. Annual accumulations of MO area are determined by summing the time series of daily MO area through the melt season. Daily areas and annual accumulations of MO are...

  8. 煅烧工艺制度对轻烧白云石活性度的影响%Effect of calcining process and system on reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcining processes on the reactivity three kinds of soft-burnt dolomites is studied through calcining test and observation of microstructure. It is concluded as follows : ( 1 ) soaking time is 90 minutes,, there is a trend in which the reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite is increased first with the calcining temperature uprising and then decreased. At 1 050℃ the reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite reaches the highest value; (2) for some calcining temperature, there is a period of calcining time to make soft-burnt lime have a highest reactivity value ; (3) the grain size of the dolomite tobe calcined has influence on the reactivity of the calcined product; (4) the microstructure of the raw dolomite has great influence on the reactivity of the calcined product, generally the raw dolomite with coarse and big crystals is easy to obtain the calcined product with higher reactivity.%通过煅烧实验和显微结构观察,研究了煅烧工艺对三种自云石轻烧后活性度的影响,得出如下结论:(1)保温时间为90min,随煅烧温度提高轻烧白云石的活性呈现先升高、后降低的趋势,在1050℃活性度达到最高点。(2)对应某煅烧温度存在一个煅烧时间使轻烧白云石活性最高。(3)白云石的煅烧颗粒尺寸影响煅烧产物活性度。(4)白云石原矿的显微结构对煅烧产物活性度有很大影响,一般晶粒粗大的原矿易得到活性较高的煅烧产物。

  9. Processo de cuidar da criança queimada: vivência de familiares Procedimiento para el cuidado de los niños quemados: experiencia en familia Burnt children care procedure: experience in family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Chianca Gomes Varela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever a vivência de familiares no cuidado da criança que sofreu queimadura. Foi realizado um estudo exploratório, em um hospital de emergência na cidade de João Pessoa - PB, com dez acompanhantes de crianças hospitalizadas, vítimas de queimadura. Os resultados mostraram que os agentes térmicos foram os maiores causadores das queimaduras nas crianças. O discurso dos participantes revela que a maioria dos acidentes ocorreu na presença do cuidador, menciona algumas condutas erradas após a ocorrência do acidente e alguns consideram a experiência de cuidar da criança queimada como negativa, o que evidencia a necessidade de orientação da população em geral e a participação no cuidar da criança queimada.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir la experiencia de la familia en el cuidado de los niños que han sufrido quemaduras. Un estudio exploratorio fue realizado en un hospital de emergencia en la ciudad de João Pessoa - PB, con diez compañeros de los niños hospitalizados por quemaduras. Los resultados enseñaron que los agentes térmicos fueron la principal causa de quemaduras en los niños. El discurso de los participantes indica que la mayoría de los accidentes se produjo en presencia del cuidador, menciona algunos procedimientos equivocados después del accidente, mientras que algunos consideran que la experiencia de cuidar de los niños quemados es negativa, destacando la necesidad de orientación para la población general y participación en el cuidado de los niños quemados.This study aimed to describe the family experience in the care of the child who got burnt. An exploratory study was conducted in a hospital emergency room in the city of João Pessoa - PB, with ten companions of hospitalized burnt children. The results showed that the thermal agents were the biggest cause of children's burns. The speech of the participants shows that most accidents occurred in the presence of the

  10. An intercomparison of Satellite Burned Area Maps derived from MODIS, MERIS, SPOT-VEGETATION, and ATSR images. An application to the August 2006 Galicia (Spain forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huesca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The following paper presents an inter-comparison of three global products: MCD45A1 (MODIS - MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Burned Area Product, L3JRC (Terrestrial Ecosystem Monitoring Global Burnt Area Product, and GLOBCARBON Burnt Area Estimate (BAE Product; and three local products, two of them based on MODIS data and the other one based on MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer data.Area of study: The study was applied to the Galician forest fires occurred in 2006.Materials and Methods: Materials used involved the three already mentioned global products together with two MODIS and one MERIS reflectance images, and MODIS thermal anomalies. The algorithm we used, which is based on the determination of thresholds values on infrared bands, allowed the identification of burned pixels. The determination of such threshold values was based on the maximum spatial correlation between MODIS thermal anomalies, and infrared reflectance values. This methodology was applied to MODIS and MERIS reflectance bands, and to the NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio. Burned area validation was evaluated using burned area polygons as derived from an AWiFS (Advanced Wide Field Sensor image of 60m pixel size.Main results: Best results were reached when using the MERIS infrared bands, followed by the MODIS infrared bands. Worst results were reached when using the MCD45A1 product, which clearly overestimated; and when using the L3JRC product, which clearly underestimated.Research highlights: Since the efficiency of the performance of the available burned area products is highly variable, much work is needed in terms of comparison among the available sensors, the burned area mapping algorithms and the resulting products.Keywords: forest fires; MODIS; MERIS; MCD45A1; L3JRC; GLOBCARBON-BAE; SPOT-VEGETATION; ATSR.Abbreviations used: ATSR: Along Scanning Radiometer; AVHRR: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer; AWiFS: Advanced Wide Field Sensor; EOS

  11. Appearance Quality Analysis of Burnt-sweet Tobacco Leaves Base on Association Rule Algorithm%基于关联规则的皖南焦甜香烟叶外观特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩军; 郭东锋; 杜丛中; 边文杰; 舒俊生; 姚忠达

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the key index of burnt-sweet tobacco appearance quality, apriori association rules algorithm was used to analyze the appearance quality of tobacco leaves from Wannan of Anhui province. The results indicated that burnt-sweet tobacco leaves existed strong association degree with maturity, oil, and chroma in a condition of minimum support degree of 0.3 and minimum confidence of 0.5. Meanwhile, the index of color, structure and thickness played important roles for burnt-sweet tobacco leaf, but less than those of the other three indices. Therefore, it is suggested that management system should be established by controlling maturity, oil and chroma during agricultural production and industrial management.%为了探索皖南焦甜香烟叶外观质量的关键指标,以皖南焦甜香烟叶为主体,运用 apriori 关联规则数据挖掘算法,对焦甜香烟叶的外观进行了分析。结果表明,焦甜香烟叶与烟叶的成熟度、油分和色度有较强的关联度,在设定阈值最小支持度为0.3,最小置信度为0.5的条件下,成熟度、油分、色度与焦甜香烟叶属于强关联规则,同时颜色、身份和组织结构与焦甜香烟叶也有较强的关联度。因此,在农业生产或者工业控制中可以考虑建立以成熟度、油分和色度为中心的生产管理体系。

  12. Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C L; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, I Colin; Pereira, José M C

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over area in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned area initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burned area, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning.

  13. El soporte nutrimental y su relación con algunos indicadores pronósticos del niño quemado Nutritional support and its relation to some prognostic indicators of burnt child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Torres Amaro

    2011-12-01

    between the nutritional support established during the firsts hours after resuscitation with some prognostic indicators in burnt children. Methods: an analytical and retrospective study was conducted including 252 children admitted in the burn service of the "Juan Manuel Márquez" Teaching Children Hospital of Marianao in La Habana with a stay higher of 7 days during the decade of 2000 to 2009. From the audit of medical records it was obtained the following prognostic indicators of burnt child: burnt body surface, stay time, weight loss percentage and mortality. Likewise it was possible to obtain information about the type of metabolic nutritional support used during treatment. Results: the above mentioned more used support was mixed where is combined the peripheral enteral and parenteral modality covering the 52 % of treated patients. The children with less percentage of weight loss (under 10 % received the exclusive enteral way (53,1 % of treated cases and in the 37,4 % the support was mixed, but using the peripheral modality of parenteral use. Conclusions: the nutritional strategy used in burnt child may to modify some prognostic indicators and must to be a therapeutical priority to prevent the clinical deterioration of these patients.

  14. Guide for the estimation of the {alpha} and {beta} coefficients in the Average enrichment equation as burnt function by fuel type; Guia para la estimacion de los coeficientes {alpha} y {beta} en la ecuacion de enriquecimiento promedio como funcion del quemado por tipo de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes T, J.L.; Cortes C, C.C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-08-15

    The objective of the report is to determine manually or by means of a calculation sheet, the coefficients {alpha} and {beta} of the average enrichment equation as function of the fuel burnt (B) using the Lineal Reactivity Pattern, with information generated by the RECORD code of the FMS package. (Author00.

  15. Assessment and Intercomparison of Satellite-derived Start-of-Season (SOS) Measures in Eurasia for 1982-2006%1982-2006年欧亚大陆植被生长季开始时间遥感监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲玲; 刘良云; 胡勇

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation phenology is one of the most direct and sensitive indicators of seasonal and interanual variations of environmental conditions.Phenological changes reflect quick change of terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate change.Satellite remote-sensing techniques capture canopy reflectance and can be used for studies of vegetation phenology.In this study,satellite-derived Start of Season(SOS) dates are obtained from the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI dataset by different methods such as Dynamic Threshold method,Delayed Moving Average methods,Double Logistic analysis and Savitzky-Golay method.The derived SOS data are compared and analyzed for the ecoregions from China to Russia,and the Dynamic Threshold method is decided to be most suitable for Eurasia scale.Based on the analysis of the changes of vegetation phenology and the response of phenology to climate change from 1982 to 2006,it is concluded that the Dynamic Threshold method has high retrieval rate for the SOS dates in Eurasia,and the data show a stable trend along the latitudinal gradient.The retrieved SOS dates for boreal forests and tundra ecosystems are most stable in the long term,while in the vegetation areas of low latitudes the dates show higher variability.It is found that from 1982 to 2006,there is a trend of SOS dates becoming earlier for the majority of vegetation types,and the forest coverage areas show even stronger trend of SOS dates becoming earlier,with a change rate of 11.45-15.61 days/25 years,due to global warming.With the exception of the closed to open(15%) shrubland(5 m),for most other types of vegetation,there is a negative correlation between vegetation phenology and the average temperature of the month.In other words,for each one degree increase,there is 1.32-3.47 days decrease to SOS date in spring,which is consistent with global warming in recent years.%植被物候是环境条件季节和年际变化最直观、最敏感的生物指示器,物候变化可以反映陆地生态系统对

  16. Risk factors for multiple organic dysfunctions syndrome in burnt children. Factores de riesgo de síndrome de disfunción orgánica múltiple en niños quemados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González Mendoza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creation of intensive care units allows extending the life of patients with serious conditions, including multiple organic dysfunction syndromes. Objective: To determine the clinical variables and laboratory variables that are risk factors for multiple organic dysfunction syndromes in burnt children. Methods: Analytical, retrospective study of case series including burnt patients between 0 and 5 years hospitalized in the university Paediatric Hospital “Paquito González” in Cienfuegos and classified as: serious, very serious, critical, and extremely critical. This study was developed from January 1st, 2000 to December 31st, 2005. The considered systems for dysfunction diagnosis were: respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, metabolic, central nervous system, hematologic, immunologic, and wounds healing. Data was processed by bivariate analysis of independent variables in relation with the dependent variable, to model a response variable of the syndrome occurrence (or not. The multivariate analysis of logistic regression was used. Results: 34 children developed the syndrome 44, 2 %. Significant variables linked to this syndrome were: seriousness of the injuries, serum potassium, blood creatinine, leukocyte counting, and cardiac rhythm. Conclusions: After five days of research development, a group of factors was identified proving risky for the development of multiple organic dysfunctions in burnt children.Fundamento: El surgimiento de los cuidados intensivos ha permitido que se prolongue la vida de pacientes antes considerados como insalvables y con ello que aparezca, en este tipo de enfermos, el síndrome de disfunción orgánica múltiple. Objetivo: Determinar las variables clínicas y de laboratorio que constituyan factores de riesgo de síndrome de disfunción orgánica múltiple en

  17. Integration of new geologic mapping and satellite-derived quartz mapping yields insights into the structure of the Roberts Mountains allochthon applicable to assessments for concealed Carlin-type gold deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Noble, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic mapping and remote sensing across north-central Nevada enable recognition of a thick sheet of Middle and Upper Ordovician Valmy Formation quartzite that structurally overlies folded and faulted Ordovician through Devonian stratigraphic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. In the northern Independence Mountains and nearby Double Mountain area, the Valmy Formation is in fault contact with Ordovician through Silurian, predominantly clastic, sedimentary rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon that were deformed prior to, or during, emplacement of the Valmy thrust sheet. Similar structural relations are recognized discontinuously for 200 kilometers along the strike of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in mapping guided by regional remote-sensing-based (ASTER) quartz maps. Overall thicknesses of deformed Roberts Mountains allochthon units between the base of the Valmy and the top of underlying carbonate rocks that host large Carlin-type gold deposits varies on the order of hundreds of meters but is not known to exceed 700 meters. The base of the Valmy thrust sheet is a complimentary datum in natural resource exploration and mineral resource assessment for concealed Carlin-type gold deposits.

  18. Research on Brewing Vinegar with Burnt Malt Distilling Residue%利用焦香麦芽蒸馏酒余液酿造食醋的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段元良; 董永胜; 王孔斌; 王君高

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of vinegar with unique taste can be brewed by acetic acid liquid fermentation, using burnt malt distilling residue and edible alcohol as main raw materials. The optimum technological conditions of three factors in the process of acetic acid fermentation are determined by the orthogonal experiment, and the final experimental results show that the initial alcohol concentration is 3%,the remained liquid concentration is 11% and the inoculum size is 10%.%利用实验室焦香麦芽蒸馏酒余液、食用酒精为原料,进行醋酸液态发酵,获得具有独特风味的食醋。通过正交实验确定了醋酸发酵过程中三个因素的最佳工艺条件,即初始酒精浓度为3%,蒸馏酒余液浓度为11%,接种量为10%。

  19. THE DETERMINATION THE POLLUTION EMISSIONS OF SO2, NOX, CO, CO2 AND O2 FROM THE CHANNELS OF BURNT GAS ON BOILER OF 420 T/H - STEAM, IN THE SIGHT APPLICATION PROCEEDING TO REDUCE OF THESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedeff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The work present the results obtained after dynamic analyze the pollution emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and O2 on evacuation channels of burnt gas on boiler of 420 t/h steam, having right the basic combustible the lignite, and auxiliary combustible the fuel oil and the natural gas. The values of pollution emission was analyze beside the admissible maxims values required by European legislation for Romania in the year 2005. The conclusion elaborated it adverted to: the values of oxides azoth, carry they frame in the limits provide in Environmental Authorization, under 60 mg/Nmc on 6% oxygen, the concentration values of SO2 which was bigger in report with one authorized comprised between 3500-3900 mg/Nmc confronted by 3400 mg/Nm. For integration in the foresee Government Decision 541/2003 aren't sufficient just proceeding of below reduce SO2, must take and another measures such as: get the fuel with quantity of sulphur 0.5% and with a content of ash below 35%.

  20. Detección y cuantifi cación de área quemada por incendios forestales utilizando geomática / Detection and quantifi cation of burnt area by forest fi res utilizing Geomatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gajardo Valenzuela

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF es la entidad a nivel nacional,encargada de proteger los ecosistemas forestales de los agentes y procesosdañinos como la desertifi cación, el fuego y otras formas de deterioro. En Chile la mayoría de los incendios forestales son producidos por el hombre, generando un daño promedio anual de 50.000 hectáreas. Aunquela mayoría de los incendios producidos no sobrepasa las 10 hectáreas, surge la necesidad de contar con estadísticas fi ables y cuantifi car deforma adecuada los grandes siniestros que se producen en zonas con poca o nula accesibilidad. En este contexto, el uso de datos provenientes de plataformas satelitales (NOAA-AVHRR, TERRA/AQUA-MODIS ha mostrado ya su utilidad en el estudio de estos fenómenos a escala regional. En este trabajo se ha estudiado la aplicación de imágenes de dos sensores ETM+ y ASTER para la evaluación de índices espectrales y algoritmos de crecimiento de regiones con el objetivo de discriminar y cartografi ar un incendio ocurrido en la cordillera de la Región del Maule,Chile. Los resultados indican que el uso de un algoritmo de crecimiento de regiones, mostró los mejores resultados (Fiabilidad = 97%, Kappa = 80.6% por sobre las segmentaciones de los índices NDVI, BAI y NBR. Aunque los resultados son auspiciosos, se presentaron algunos inconvenientes relacionados a la correcta delimitación e inclusión de la totalidad de la zona quemada, lo anterior puede ser mejorado trabajando con imágenes de mayor resolución espacial, cuya data sea más reciente a la fecha del incendio y eliminado algunas fuentes de confusión como el sombreado topográfico.

  1. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire – a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ash thickness is a key variable in the protection of soil against erosion agents after planned and unplanned fires. Ash thickness measurements were conducted along two transects (flat and sloping areas following a grided experimental design. In order to interpolate data with accuracy and identify the techniques with the least bias, several interpolation methods were tested in the grided plot. Overall, the fire had a low severity. However, the fire significantly reduced the ground cover, especially on sloping areas, owing to the higher fire severity and/or less biomass previous to the fire. Ash thickness depended on fire severity and was thin where fire severity was higher and thicker in lower fire severity sites. The ash thickness decreased with time after the fire. Between 4 and 16 days after the fire, ash was transported by wind. The greatest reduction took place between 16 and 34 days after the fire as a result of rainfall, and was more efficient where fire severity was higher. Between 34 and 45 days after the fire, no significant differences in ash thickness were identified among ash colours and only traces of the ash layer remained. The omni-directional experimental variograms showed that variable structure did not change significantly with time. The ash spatial variability increased with time, particularly on the slope, as a result of water erosion.

  2. Satellite-derived emissions inventories and detection of missing sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, C. A.; Fioletov, V.; Shephard, M.; Krotkov, N. A.; Li, C.; Joiner, J.

    2016-12-01

    Our understanding of the impacts of air pollution on health and the environment, and our ability to predict future levels, is limited by our knowledge of its sources. Here, a global inventory of SO2 emissions, derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite and independent of conventional emissions databases, is presented. Our OMI-based inventory is found to be generally consistent with these conventional inventories. However, since we are also able to detect emission sources (in addition to quantifying their emissions), many SO2 sources were identified that are evidently missing from bottom-up inventories, including nearly 40 large anthropogenic sources pointing to significant discrepancies in some regions such as the Middle-East. The methodology, inventory highlights, and applications to other pollutants (NO2 from OMI and NH3 from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder) will be discussed.

  3. NOAA/NESDIS Satellite Derived Surface Oil Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NESDIS Experimental Marine Pollution Surveillance Report (EMPSR) and the Daily Composite product are new products of the NOAA Satellite Analysis Branch and...

  4. Utilizing Satellite-derived Precipitation Products in Hydrometeorological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Ostrenga, D.; Teng, W. L.; Kempler, S. J.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Each year droughts and floods happen around the world and can cause severe property damages and human casualties. Accurate measurement and forecast are important for preparedness and mitigation efforts. Through multi-satellite blended techniques, significant progress has been made over the past decade in satellite-based precipitation product development, such as, products' spatial and temporal resolutions as well as timely availability. These new products are widely used in various research and applications. In particular, the TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products archived and distributed by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) provide 3-hourly, daily and monthly near-global (50° N - 50° S) precipitation datasets for research and applications. Two versions of TMPA products are available, research (3B42, 3B43, rain gauge adjusted) and near-real-time (3B42RT). At GES DISC, we have developed precipitation data services to support hydrometeorological applications in order to maximize the TRMM mission's societal benefits. In this presentation, we will present examples of utilizing TMPA precipitation products in hydrometeorological applications including: 1) monitoring global floods and droughts; 2) providing data services to support the USDA Crop Explorer; 3) support hurricane monitoring activities and research; and 4) retrospective analog year analyses to improve USDA's world agricultural supply and demand estimates. We will also present precipitation data services that can be used to support hydrometeorological applications including: 1) User friendly TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS; URL: http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/); 2) Mirador (http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/), a simplified interface for searching, browsing, and ordering Earth science data at GES DISC; 3) Simple Subset Wizard (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/SSW/ ) for data subsetting and format conversion; 4) Data via OPeNDAP (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services/opendap/) that can be used for remote access to individual variables within datasets in a form usable by many tools, such as IDV, McIDAS-V, Panoply, Ferret and GrADS; 4) GrADS-DODS Data Server or GDS (http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/dods/); 5) The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/services/wxs_ogc.shtml) that allows the use of data and enables clients to build customized maps with data coming from a different network; and 6) Providing NASA gridded hydrological data access through CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. - Hydrologic Information Systems).

  5. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariatinajafabadi, Mitra; Wang, Tiejun; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Nolet, Bart; Exo, K-M.; Griffin, L.

    2014-01-01

    Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, t

  6. Evaluation of satellite derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.

    wavelengths and are found to deviate from the measured values in the red band of 670nm. It compared well for lower values of K sub(d) in the blue green bands and overestimated at larger values of K sub(d). The comparison is good within 20% of error for bands...

  7. Adequacy of satellite derived rainfall data for stream flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, G.; Gadain, Hussein; Smith, Jody L.; Asante, Kwasi; Bandaragoda, C.J.; Verdin, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Floods are the most common and widespread climate-related hazard on Earth. Flood forecasting can reduce the death toll associated with floods. Satellites offer effective and economical means for calculating areal rainfall estimates in sparsely gauged regions. However, satellite-based rainfall estimates have had limited use in flood forecasting and hydrologic stream flow modeling because the rainfall estimates were considered to be unreliable. In this study we present the calibration and validation results from a spatially distributed hydrologic model driven by daily satellite-based estimates of rainfall for sub-basins of the Nile and Mekong Rivers. The results demonstrate the usefulness of remotely sensed precipitation data for hydrologic modeling when the hydrologic model is calibrated with such data. However, the remotely sensed rainfall estimates cannot be used confidently with hydrologic models that are calibrated with rain gauge measured rainfall, unless the model is recalibrated. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007.

  8. On the use of satellite-derived CH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, S.; Houweling, S.; Krol, M.; Aben, I.; Röckmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for assimilating total column CH4 : CO2 ratio measurements from satellites for inverse modeling of CH4 and CO2 fluxes using the variational approach. Unlike conventional approaches, in which retrieved CH4 : CO2

  9. Satellite-Derived Extinction at A Desert Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P. L.; Blomshield, F. S.

    2002-12-01

    We have been conducting research aimed at enabling determination of desert optical environments from meteorological and satellite observations. To this end we have been making Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements, collecting aerosol size distributions, visibility and meteorological data continuously for the past 2 years in the Indian Wells Valley of the Mojave Desert of California. These data present an opportunity to validate satellite retrieval of atmospheric optical depth. Specifically, MISR-derived optical depths are compared to those derived from Shadowband measurements. A crude measure of extinction can be made by dividing the optical depth by the height of the mixing layer. The validity of this procedure is determined by comparison with extinction directly measured by nephelometers and calculated from measured aerosol size distributions.

  10. Incorporating Uncertainties in Satellite-Derived Chlorophyll into Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    radiances in the seven visible MODIS channels used in the estimation of the bio-optical products, such as chlorophyll, absorption and backscattering...grazers, nitrate, silicate, ammonium, and two detritus pools. Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the biochemical model is driven by Photosynthetically

  11. A Review of Global Satellite-derived Snow Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Allan; Tedesco, Marco; Lee, Shihyan; Foster, James; Hall, Dorothy K.; Kelly, Richard; Robinson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Snow cover over the Northern Hemisphere plays a crucial role in the Earth's hydrology and surface energy balance, and modulates feedbacks that control variations of global climate. While many of these variations are associated with exchanges of energy and mass between the land surface and the atmosphere, other expected changes are likely to propagate downstream and affect oceanic processes in coastal zones. For example, a large component of the freshwater flux into the Arctic Ocean comes from snow melt. The timing and magnitude of this flux affects biological and thermodynamic processes in the Arctic Ocean, and potentially across the globe through their impact on North Atlantic Deep Water formation. Several recent global remotely sensed products provide information at unprecedented temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions. In this article we review the theoretical underpinnings and characteristics of three key products. We also demonstrate the seasonal and spatial patterns of agreement and disagreement amongst them, and discuss current and future directions in their application and development. Though there is general agreement amongst these products, there can be disagreement over certain geographic regions and under conditions of ephemeral, patchy and melting snow.

  12. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  13. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  14. Effects of Different Management Regimes for Cutover Areas on Soil Carbon Storage in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xi; Tian Dalun; Xiang Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    Based on data collected (through local observations) for several consecutive years,comparative analyses of Chinese fir plantations in Huitong,Hunan,were made.Results show that,before harvesting,carbon storage in forest soils in these 22-year-old plantations (0-60 cm)amounted to 160.38 t/hm2;1 year after a 100%clearcutting,loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 35.00%;2 years later,the rate was 44.65%;and,after 3 years,the rate was 43.93%compared with a control area of a standing forest.Three years after 50%thinning and 100%clear-cutting,the loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 16.14 and 45.15%,respectively.There existed an evident difference in carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas in four kinds of management regimes,which followed the order:closed Chinese fir forests (108.20 t/hm2)>fallow lands after farming (92.68 t/hm )>commercial forests (85.80 t/hm2)>naturally regenerated forestlands after harvesting.Carbon storage in unbumt soil(0-45 cm) reached 73.36 t/hm2,which was 15.20 t/hm2 higher than that in the soil of burnt areas.A total of 20.7%of carbon storage in the soil (0-45 cm) of burnt areas was lost 40 days after burning.Carbon storage in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher than in the lower soil layer,which amounted to 30.04%(0-60 cm) and 53.52%(0-30 cm) of total carbon storage in the soil.

  15. Post-processor for simulations of the ORIGEN program and calculation of the composition of the activity of a burnt fuel core by a BWR type reactor; Post-procesador para simulaciones del programa ORIGEN y calculo de la composicion de la actividad de un nucleo de combustible quemado por un reactor tipo BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [IIE, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: sandoval@iie.org.mx

    2006-07-01

    The composition calculation and the activity of nuclear materials subject to processes of burnt, irradiation and decay periods are of utility for diverse activities inside the nuclear industry, as they are it: the processes design and operations that manage radioactive material, the calculation of the inventory and activity of a core of burnt nuclear fuel, for studies of type Probabilistic Safety Analysis (APS), as well as for regulation processes and licensing of nuclear facilities. ORIGEN is a program for computer that calculates the composition and the activity of nuclear materials subject to periods of burnt, irradiation and decay. ORIGEN generates a great quantity of information whose processing and analysis are laborious, and it requires thoroughness to avoid errors. The automation of the extraction, conditioning and classification of that information is of great utility for the analyst. By means of the use of the post-processor presented in this work it is facilitated, it speeds up and wide the capacity of analysis of results, since diverse consultations with several classification options and filtrate of results can be made. As illustration of the utility of the post-processor, and as an analysis of interest for itself, it is also presented in this work the composition of the activity of a burned core in a BWR type reactor according to the following classification criteria: by type of radioisotope (fission products, activation products and actinides), by specie type (gassy, volatile, semi-volatile and not volatile), by element and by chemical group. The results show that the total activity of the studied core is dominated by the fission products and for the actinides, in proportion four to one, and that the gassy and volatile species conform a fifth part of the total activity of the core. (Author)

  16. Multi decadal glacier area fluctuations in Pan-Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The shrinking of land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC has been documented in high-latitude regions, even though repeat observations upon which to base such studies have been limited in space. Here, we present a new record of satellite-derived area changes for 321 land-terminating GIC throughout Pan-Arctic and for the W. Canada and W. US, with focus on the period from mid-1980s to late-2000s/2011 (the last ca. 25 yr. The mean shrinking rate was −0.06±0.01 km2 yr−1 during a period with climate warming. Most of the observed GIC shrank in area, more so than previously believed: while only 8% advanced. The analysis indicates that the observed GIC have lost an arithmetic average of one-fifth of their area since the mid-1980s (equal to a shrinking rate of ca. −1% yr−1, with the highest rate of loss of −40±4% (−1.7 % yr−1 in Alaska, and the lowest rate of loss of −12±3% (−0.5 % yr−1 in Arctic Russia.

  17. Archaeo-directional and -intensity data from burnt structures at the Thracian site of Halka Bunar (Bulgaria): The effect of magnetic mineralogy, temperature and atmosphere of heating in antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, A. I. R.; Kovacheva, M.; Kostadinova, M.; Shaw, J.

    2007-07-01

    Archaeomagnetic results are presented from a series of burnt structures at the Thracian site of Halka Bunar. Archaeointensity and archaeodirectional studies were undertaken on three kilns from a pottery production complex. This has been dated to the late 4th and early 3rd century B.C. (325-280 B.C.) based on coins found associated with the kilns [Tonkova, M., 2003. Newly discovered Thracian Centre of the Early Hellenistic Age at the Spring "Halka Bunar" in the Land of C. Gorno Belevo. Annuary of the Institute of Archaeology with Museum. Bulgarian Academy Sci. 2, 148-196 (in Bulgarian)]. This data provides a new point for the Bulgarian archaeomagnetic curve (Dec: 348.70 ± 5.79, Inc: 62.20 ± 2.70, and Fa: 77.23 ± 2.17 μT). The kilns are thought to have been used for producing different types of pottery in a range of heating atmospheres and at different temperatures. Therefore, special attention was paid to the magnetic mineralogy of the samples and its effect on the palaeodata. Kiln 3, orange clay samples were dominated by fine to ultra-fine grained single domain and superparamagnetic magnetite, with a small proportion of haematite. The samples were heated in a high temperature oxidising environment. Kiln 2 was probably used to make grey ware pottery. The samples are light grey and were dominated by stable single domain magnetite formed by high temperature heating in a more reducing environment. Kiln 4, mottled samples consisted of a variable mineralogy showing characteristics of both Kiln 2 and Kiln 3 samples. It was probably used to make traditional, mottled, Thracian ware pottery and was heated to lower temperatures in a mixed environment of heating. Samples heated in an oxidising environment gave more reliable Thellier results than samples heated in a reducing environment in antiquity, as the latter altered heavily on re-heating. A fourth kiln and a destruction feature from different trenches than the kiln complex were also investigated to establish their age

  18. Estado de la provisión de cuidados nutricionales al paciente quemado: Auditoría de procesos en un Servicio de Quemados de un hospital terciario Current status of nutritional care provision to burnt patients: Processes audit of a burnt patients department from a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miquet Romero

    2008-08-01

    de los procesos nutricionales, la observancia de los mismos puede influir favorablemente sobre los indicadores de efectividad del Servicio.Rationale: Response of the burned patient to surgical medical treatment might depend not only upon the damages brought about by thermal agression, namely, increased metabolic requirements, onset of the Systemic Inflamatory Response Syndrome, and microbial infections, but also the cultural practices embedded within nutritional care institutional processes. Goal: To assess how conduction of nutritional care processes of assessment and intervention may influence therapeutical effectiveness indicators of hospital Burn Services. Study serie: Forty-two patients with a Burn Body Surface Area (BBSA > 10% assisted at the Burn Service of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital (La Habana, Cuba, between January 2001-December 2003. Methods: Nutritional care of assessment and intervention conducted upon the burn patient were audited after reviewing clinical charts. The audited processes were declared as Completed (or not. Completeness of the process was related to complications and mortality rates, and length of hospital stay predicted from BBSA. Results: Nutritional care processes of assessment and intervention were completed in 49.4% and 22.6% of the audited charts, respectively. Prospective recording of patient's body weight was associated with lower mortality. Early nutritional assessment and sufficient energy supply to patients with BBSA > 20% were associated with lower complications rates and better compliance with BBSA-predicted length of stay. Conclusions: This work is the first enquiry into the behaviour of the institution's Burn Service, in anticipation of the design and implementation of a medical care Continuous Quality Improvement Program. In spite of the current state of nutritional care processes completeness, their observance might favorably influence the Service's effectiveness indicators.

  19. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  20. Fire spatial heterogeneity, fire seasonality and burned area mapping accuracy in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Campagnolo, Manuel L.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    Accurate burned area mapping from remotely sensed data should be able to identify spatial heterogeneity within a fire perimeter, for an improved representation of fire effects as experienced by plants and animals. In order to derive a very high spatial resolution characterization of fire patterns in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, we walked 38.2km of line transects, sampling the presence/absence of burning evidence at 1m intervals, in 35 different fires that occurred between 2009 and 2011. Transects were sampled in the early and in the late dry season, and in five dominant vegetation classes. We used lacunarity analysis and spatial autocorrelation to assess the dominant scale of burned area patches, which turns out to be approximately 200m. Lacunarity analysis also suggests that burnt areas exhibit a clustered pattern and that fire heterogeneity is more pronounced in the early dry season. This is consistent with our observation that patches in the late dry season tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. Finally, we used our high resolution data date to simulate remote sensing detection of burnt areas for a range of spatial resolutions. We quantify the omission error for each sensor and conclude that if resolution is lower than the dominant scale, then the error tends to be small. Our results also suggest that sensors with spatial resolution higher than the dominant scale have similar omission errors over a broad range of resolution values. The forthcoming Sentinel-2 satellites, which combine 5-day revisit, and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at 10-20 m spatial resolution, with a large number of spectral bands, ought to allow for very accurate and timely mapping of fire heterogeneity, for improved assessment of fire impacts on biodiversity and pyrogenic emissions.

  1. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  2. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  3. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  4. Visualization of Lake Mead Surface Area Changes from 1972 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Atkinson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For most of the last decade, the south-western portion of the United States has experienced a severe and enduring drought. This has caused serious concerns about water supply and management in the region. In this research, 30 orthorectified Landsat satellite images from the United States Geological Service (USGS Earth Explorer archive were analyzed for the 1972 to 2009 period. The images encompassed Lake Mead (a major reservoir in this region and were examined for changes in water surface area. Decadal lake area minimums/maximums were achieved in 1972/1979, 1981/1988, 1991/1998, and 2009/2000. The minimum lake area extent occurred in 2009 (356.4 km2, while the maximum occurred in 1998 (590.6 km2. Variable trends in water level and lake area were observed throughout the analysis period, however progressively lower values were observed since 2000. The Landsat derived lake areas show a very strong relationship with actual measured water levels at the Hoover Dam. Yearly water level variations at the dam vary minimally from the satellite derived estimates. A complete (yearly record of satellite images may have helped to reduce the slight deviations in the time series.

  5. Distributed, explicit modeling of technical snow production and ski area management with the hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzer, Florian; Marke, Thomas; Strasser, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a module for simulating technical snow production in ski areas coupled to the spatially distributed physically based hydroclimatological model AMUNDSEN is presented. The module explicitly considers individual snow guns and distributes the produced snow along the slopes. The amount of snow produced by each device is a function of its type, of wet-bulb temperature at the location, of ski area infrastructure (in terms of water supply and pumping capacity), and of snow demand. An empirical rule in the modeling for snow production, derived from common snowmaking practices, splits the winter season into a period of maximum snowmaking and a successive period of selective on-demand snowmaking. The model is exemplarily set up for a ski area in the Schladming region (Austrian Alps) using actual snowmaking infrastructure data. Integration of these data as model variables, as well as stakeholder-defined indicators and thresholds, have been implemented as defined interfaces in a coupled component model architecture. Comparison of the model results with recordings of snowmaking operation and satellite-derived snow cover maps indicate that the model is capable of accurately simulating the real-world snowmaking practice, and the combined natural and technical snow conditions on the slopes. The explicit consideration of individual snow guns and ski area infrastructure makes the model a valuable tool for scenario applications, e.g. to assess the effects of different ski area management strategies and changes in snowmaking infrastructure for climate change impact studies.

  6. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  7. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  8. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect per...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas.......This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...

  9. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Sinkhole Development and Identify Risk Areas in Dougherty County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, M. D.; Berry, K.; Amin, M.; Xu, W.; Hu, T.; Milewski, A.

    2015-12-01

    Located in southwest Georgia, Dougherty County has a growing populace in an agricultural region that relies heavily on groundwater resources. Partly due to escalated groundwater extraction, this area has experienced an increase in sinkhole development over the last decade. Sinkholes pose a threat to infrastructure development, groundwater pollution, and land use operations. The NASA DEVELOP Georgia Disasters and Water Resources team partnered with the City of Albany and Dougherty County Planning and Development Services (PDS) and the Southwest Georgia Water Resources Task Force (SGWRTF) to assess past sinkhole development and identify areas susceptible to future sinkhole formation. Sinkhole mapping was completed utilizing a time-series of elevation data (1999 - 2011) from NASA's SRTM and ASTER missions, as well as European Remote-Sensing (ERS-1 and 2) satellite-derived elevation data. The sinkhole inventory maps and spatial statistical techniques (i.e., geographically-weighted regression) were employed to quantify the factors most influential in sinkhole development. With those results, the susceptibility of every area within Dougherty County to future sinkhole formation was identified. The results of this applied science project will enable the PDS and SGWRTF to make informed decisions on current and future land use, safe infrastructure development, and sustainable water resource management.

  10. The use of compost in afforestation of Mediterranean areas: Effects on soil properties and young tree seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchevêque, Marie; Ballini, Christine; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Montès, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    In Mediterranean frequently burnt areas, fire and erosion result in the decrease of soil fertility, so afforestation is a major concern. We carried out an in situ experiment of compost amendment to improve survival and growth of planted tree seedlings. One-year-tree seedlings of native species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea) were planted on a frequently burnt calcareous site. Three rates of fresh co-composted sewage sludge and greenwastes (control without compost, 20 and 40 kg m(-2) of compost) were incorporated into the soil at each seedling stem. Changes of soil properties and tree development were studied during 3 years (2001-2003) and 2 years (2002-2003) respectively. The compost improved survival of Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea seedlings in severe drought conditions, but had no effect on Pinus halepensis. For all species seedling length and radial growth and NPK nutrition were increased for both rates of amendment. Amendment improved soil fertility, but available P concentration increased 13 fold in the neighbouring soil of seedlings amended at the maximal rate compared to control. However, amendment did not significantly increase concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils or tree seedlings. It increased Cu and Zn total and available concentrations in soils, while foliar Cu and Zn concentrations in the seedlings remained similar in all plots. Compost can efficiently help afforestation of dry soils with low organic matter content. However, sewage sludge concentrations in P, and to a lesser extent in Cu and Zn, limit rates of application that can be applied without environmental hazard.

  11. Generation of the ECP database (ECP01.DAT) of the cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde with burnt of 1377 MWD/MT; Generacion de la base ECP (ECP01.DAT) del ciclo 1 de la Unidad 1 de Laguna Verde con quemado de 1377 MWD/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia C, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1992-10-15

    In order to carrying out a comparison among the results provided by the Program of Estimate of the ECP Critical Position and the Shutdown/Startup produced in the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde, it was generated the base of the ECP program, following the outlines settled down in the Procedure 'Generation of ECP Database for Laguna Verde' (IT.SN/DFR-074). Next the data sheets filled when being generated the ECP01.DAT database with a burnt of 1377 MWD/MT are provided. In the report IT.SN/DFR-079 'Adjustment and Preliminary Evaluation of the Predictions of Criticity of the ECP Program with Reported Data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde', the results of the comparison among those estimates of the ECP program using the ECP01.DAT database with the real data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of Laguna Verde are presented. (Author)

  12. Discussing George Bernard Shaw’s influence on Eileen Chang by comparingThe First Incense Burnt andMrs. Warren’s Profession%《沉香屑·第一炉香》与《华伦夫人的职业》比较论--张爱玲接受萧伯纳影响之一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2015-01-01

    萧伯纳是张爱玲喜爱的作家之一,二者的创作具有一定的关联。文章主要采用以点带面的分析方法,对萧伯纳《华伦夫人的职业》与张爱玲《沉香屑·第一炉香》进行对读,探讨张爱玲在对梁太太等女性形象塑造上与萧伯纳的暗合之处,并分析张爱玲在对萧伯纳作品的吸收借鉴中如何融入自己的感悟思索,以敏慧的艺术感受进行创造性转化。%As one of Eileen Chang’s favorite writers, George Bernard Shaw undoubtedly exerts certain influence on her. The present essay, by adopting the comparative method and by focusing on Bernard Shaw’sMrs. Warren’s Profession and Eileen Chang’sThe First Incense Burnt, explores Eileen Chang’s coincidence with Bernard Shaw in women characterization such as Lady Liang. But instead of just cutting and pasting Bernard Shaw directly, Aileen Chang transforms them creatively by instilling her own experience and acute artistry.

  13. Effects of soil conservation measures in a partially vegetated area after forest fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Gi; Shin, Kwangil; Joo, Kwang Yeong; Lee, Kyu Song; Shin, Seung Sook; Choung, Yeonsook

    2008-07-25

    After forest fires on the east coast of Korea in 2000, some burnt areas were left untreated. Although 80% of the area was reasonably revegetated within 3 months, about 20% of the area was partially vegetated, mainly due to a low density of sprouters and poor growing conditions (eroded soil and steep slopes). Three years after the fires, the effect of soil conservation measures, such as mulching with wood chips, seeding with native plant species and log erosion barriers (LEBs), on runoff and soil erosion were examined using runoff plots. Wood chip mulching greatly reduced runoff and sediment yields and these effects were consistent regardless of the volume of rainfall. Neither seeding nor LEBs reduced runoff and sediment yields. No positive or negative effects of mulching, seeding or LEBs on ground vegetation cover were observed. The ineffectiveness of seeding and LEBs may have been due to the steep slope, the failure of germination and establishment of seeded plants, and the small diameter of logs. Treating hill slopes with mulch should be considered where post-fire regeneration is slow and there is an absence of organic material such as litter.

  14. Where can pixel counting area estimates meet user-defined accuracy requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, François; Defourny, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Pixel counting is probably the most popular way to estimate class areas from satellite-derived maps. It involves determining the number of pixels allocated to a specific thematic class and multiplying it by the pixel area. In the presence of asymmetric classification errors, the pixel counting estimator is biased. The overarching objective of this article is to define the applicability conditions of pixel counting so that the estimates are below a user-defined accuracy target. By reasoning in terms of landscape fragmentation and spatial resolution, the proposed framework decouples the resolution bias and the classifier bias from the overall classification bias. The consequence is that prior to any classification, part of the tolerated bias is already committed due to the choice of the spatial resolution of the imagery. How much classification bias is affordable depends on the joint interaction of spatial resolution and fragmentation. The method was implemented over South Africa for cropland mapping, demonstrating its operational applicability. Particular attention was paid to modeling a realistic sensor's spatial response by explicitly accounting for the effect of its point spread function. The diagnostic capabilities offered by this framework have multiple potential domains of application such as guiding users in their choice of imagery and providing guidelines for space agencies to elaborate the design specifications of future instruments.

  15. Comparison of optimised germanium gamma spectrometry and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of 134Cs, 137Cs and 154Eu single ratios in highly burnt UO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, S.; Günther-Leopold, I.; Murphy, M. F.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2008-05-01

    Non-destructive and destructive methods have been compared to validate their corresponding assessed accuracies in the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs and 154Eu/137Cs isotopic concentration ratios in four spent UO2 fuel samples with very high (52 and 71 GWd/t) and ultra-high (91 and 126 GWd/t) burnup values, and about 10 (in the first three samples) and 4 years (in the latter sample) cooling time. The non-destructive technique tested was high-resolution gamma spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and a special tomographic station for the handling of highly radioactive 400 mm spent fuel segments that included a tungsten collimator, lead filter (to enhance the signal to Compton background ratio and reduce the dead time) and paraffin wax (to reduce neutron damage). The non-destructive determination of these isotopic concentration ratios has been particularly challenging for these segments because of the need to properly derive non-Gaussian gamma-peak areas and subtract the background from perturbing capture gammas produced by the intrinsic high-intensity neutron emissions from the spent fuel. Additionally, the activity distribution within each pin was determined tomographically to correct appropriately for self-attenuation and geometrical effects. The ratios obtained non-destructively showed a 1σ statistical error in the range 1.9-2.9%. The destructive technique used was a high-performance liquid chromatographic separation system, combined online to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-MC-ICP-MS), for the analysis of dissolved fuel solutions. During the mass spectrometric analyses, special care was taken in the optimisation of the chromatographic separation for Eu and the interfering element Gd, as also in the mathematical correction of the 154Gd background from the 154Eu signal. The ratios obtained destructively are considerably more precise (1σ statistical error in the range 0.4-0.8% for most of the samples, but up to

  16. Validating and Linking the GIMMS Leaf Area Index (LAI3g with Environmental Controls in Tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS LAI3g product provides a 30-year global times-series of remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI, an essential variable in models of ecosystem process and productivity. In this study, we use a new dataset of field-based LAITrue to indirectly validate the GIMMS LAI3g product, LAIavhrr, in East Africa, comparing the distribution properties of LAIavhrr across biomes and environmental gradients with those properties derived for LAITrue. We show that the increase in LAI with vegetation height in natural biomes is captured by both LAIavhrr and LAITrue, but that LAIavhrr overestimates LAI for all biomes except shrubland and cropland. Non-linear responses of LAI to precipitation and moisture indices, whereby leaf area peaks at intermediate values and declines thereafter, are apparent in both LAITrue and LAIavhrr, although LAITrue reaches its maximum at lower values of the respective environmental driver. Socio-economic variables such as governance (protected areas and population affect both LAI responses, although cause and effect are not always obvious: a positive relationship with human population pressure was detected, but shown to be an artefact of both LAI and human settlement covarying with precipitation. Despite these complexities, targeted field measurements, stratified according to both environmental and socio-economic gradients, could provide crucial data for improving satellite-derived LAI estimates, especially in the human-modified landscapes of tropical Africa.

  17. Temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of microalgal biomass in recently reclaimed intertidal flats of the Saemangeum area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Yeonjung; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Son, SeungHyun; Lee, Shing Yip; Nam, Jungho; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-10-01

    Trophodynamics of intertidal mudflats are significantly driven by microphytobenthos (MPB) production but spatial and temporal dynamics of this production source is poorly known. To understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of intertidal MPB, benthic chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, and sediment properties were determined in Gyehwa (sandy) and Gwanghwal (muddy) tidal flats of Saemangeum area over a year at 97 stations. This study set out to: (i) characterize the spatial-temporal patterns in MPB biomass on a year-round basis, (ii) identify the abiotic and biotic factors associated with MPB distributions, (iii) investigate the use of satellite-derived chlorophyll a data and verify with in field measurements, and (iv) determine minimum required sample size for in situ biomass measurement. Concentrations of benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were greater in winter and spring with a high magnitude of variance than in summer and fall at both areas. Benthic chlorophyll a and phaeopigments tended to decrease approaching lower tidal zone, being associated with the corresponding decrease in shore level and/or exposure duration. Compared to available data on macrozoobenthos distribution, the spatial variation of microalgal biomass seems to be attributed to distribution of deposit-feeders. A significant positive correlation (p design for spatio-temporal mapping of MPB should consider the sampling season and/or abiotic and biotic features of study area. Overall, spatio-temporal dynamics of intertidal MPB seem to be influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors.

  18. A dynamic aerodynamic resistance approach to calculate high resolution sensible heat fluxes in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ben; Grimmond, Sue; Kent, Christoph; Gabey, Andrew; Ward, Helen; Sun, Ting; Morrison, William

    2017-04-01

    Remotely sensed data from satellites have potential to enable high-resolution, automated calculation of urban surface energy balance terms and inform decisions about urban adaptations to environmental change. However, aerodynamic resistance methods to estimate sensible heat flux (QH) in cities using satellite-derived observations of surface temperature are difficult in part due to spatial and temporal variability of the thermal aerodynamic resistance term (rah). In this work, we extend an empirical function to estimate rah using observational data from several cities with a broad range of surface vegetation land cover properties. We then use this function to calculate spatially and temporally variable rah in London based on high-resolution (100 m) land cover datasets and in situ meteorological observations. In order to calculate high-resolution QH based on satellite-observed land surface temperatures, we also develop and employ novel methods to i) apply source area-weighted averaging of surface and meteorological variables across the study spatial domain, ii) calculate spatially variable, high-resolution meteorological variables (wind speed, friction velocity, and Obukhov length), iii) incorporate spatially interpolated urban air temperatures from a distributed sensor network, and iv) apply a modified Monte Carlo approach to assess uncertainties with our results, methods, and input variables. Modeled QH using the aerodynamic resistance method is then compared to in situ observations in central London from a unique network of scintillometers and eddy-covariance measurements.

  19. Using SPOT data and leaf area index for rice yield estimation in Egyptian Nile delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aboelghar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current work is to generate statistical empirical rice yield estimation models under the local conditions of the Egyptian Nile delta. The methodology is based on regressing measured yield with satellite derived spectral information or leaf area index (LAI. LAI field measurements and spectral information from SPOT data collected during two crop seasons are examined against measured yield to generate the yield models. Near-infrared and red bands, six vegetation indices and LAI of 100 points are used as the main inputs for the modeling process while 20 points of the same are used for validation process. Nine models are generated and tested against the observed yield. Comparing the generated models show relatively higher superiority of (LAI-yield and (infrared-yield models over the rest of the models with (0.061 and (0.090 as a standard error of estimate and (0.945 and (0.883 as coefficient of determinations between modeled and observed yield. The models are applicable a month before harvest for similar regions with same conditions.

  20. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  1. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  2. Thermoelectricity - A Promising Complementarity with Efficient Stoves in Off-grid-areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Favarel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric modules produce electricity from heat flow. In areas without electricity, biomass is generally burnt in open fires or rudimentary stoves in order to generate heat, to cook and to produce domestic hot water. Combustion quality in these devices is very low and needs a large amount of wood extracted from surrounding forests. “Planète Bois” develops highly efficient clean multifunction stoves based on double chamber combustion.  As an exhaust fan is necessary to adjust the primary and secondary air flows for optimal combustion, these stoves cannot currently be used without electricity. Thermoelectric modules incorporated in a heat exchanger between the flue and the hot water tank can supply the exhaust fan and also produce some electricity for other basic purposes. Our paper presents tests that were done on one of these stoves to size the thermoelectric generator and thus the produced electricity. These preliminary tests are used to identify an outlook for the successful implementation of these stoves.

  3. An important erosion process on steep burnt hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Christoph; Nyman, Petter; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Steep forested hillslopes often display a high degree of armouring where diffusive erosion processes preferentially remove the fine fraction of the surface soil. High infiltration capacities, hydraulic resistance to overland flow and physical anchoring by cover plants and litter mean that even the most extreme rainfall events usually do not erode the armouring substantially. We argue that fire (wild or planned) is essential to the mobilization and transport of the armouring by increasing the rates of overland flow and decreasing trapping opportunities. We present evidence of the types of erosion that lead to the stripping of the surface armouring using post-event surveys and high-rate overland flow experiments. The type of erosion depends on the relative abundance of non-cohesive surface material to overland flow, but we found that a particular type of transport dominates that has no representation in current erosion models: On steep slopes overland flow can lead to incipient motion of individual stones that transfer their momentum to other stones leading to a rapid mobilization of the whole non-cohesive, armoured surface layer. Once in motion, the layer quickly separates out into a granular flow front and liquefied body, akin to debris flows in channels. Depending on the size of the event, these hillslope debris flows (HDF) either get trapped or enter into the channel, stripping the hillslope of most armouring on their way. They provide channels with the material and shear stress needed to erode into the channel bed, increasing the risk of channel debris flows. We present a simple physical model of HDF initiation, movement, and possible re-mobilization on hillslopes that was derived from debris flow theory. Understanding this process, its frequency, and magnitude are important for assessing the role of fire in landscape evolution and risk to humans through debris flow impacts.

  4. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of satellite derived aerosol optical thickness and ground measurements over East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Tongguang

    2016-04-01

    Two-year records of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Intermediate Product (IP) data on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 550 nm were evaluated by comparing them with sun-sky radiometer measurements from the Chinese sun hazemeter network (CSHNET) and the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The monthly and seasonal variations in the aerosol optical properties over eastern China were then investigated using collocated VIIRS IP data and CSHNET and AERONET measurements.Results show that the performances of the current VIIRS IP AOT retrievals at the provisional stage were consistent with ground measurements. Similar characteristics of seasonal and monthly variations were found among the measurements, though the observational methodologies were different, showing maxima in the summer and spring and minima in the winter and autumn.

  6. A Satellite-Derived Climatological Analysis of Urban Heat Island over Shanghai during 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijiao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island is generally conducted based on ground observations of air temperature and remotely sensing of land surface temperature (LST. Satellite remotely sensed LST has the advantages of global coverage and consistent periodicity, which overcomes the weakness of ground observations related to sparse distributions and costs. For human related studies and urban climatology, canopy layer urban heat island (CUHI based on air temperatures is extremely important. This study has employed remote sensing methodology to produce monthly CUHI climatology maps during the period 2000–2013, revealing the spatiotemporal characteristics of daytime and nighttime CUHI during this period of rapid urbanization in Shanghai. Using stepwise linear regression, daytime and nighttime air temperatures at the four overpass times of Terra/Aqua were estimated based on time series of Terra/Aqua-MODIS LST and other auxiliary variables including enhanced vegetation index, normalized difference water index, solar zenith angle and distance to coast. The validation results indicate that the models produced an accuracy of 1.6–2.6 °C RMSE for the four overpass times of Terra/Aqua. The models based on Terra LST showed higher accuracy than those based on Aqua LST, and nighttime air temperature estimation had higher accuracy than daytime. The seasonal analysis shows daytime CUHI is strongest in summer and weakest in winter, while nighttime CUHI is weakest in summer and strongest in autumn. The annual mean daytime CUHI during 2000–2013 is 1.0 and 2.2 °C for Terra and Aqua overpass, respectively. The annual mean nighttime CUHI is about 1.0 °C for both Terra and Aqua overpass. The resultant CUHI climatology maps provide a spatiotemporal quantification of CUHI with emphasis on temperature gradients. This study has provided information of relevance to urban planners and environmental managers for assessing and monitoring urban thermal environments which are constantly being altered by natural and anthropogenic influences.

  7. Satellite-Derived Tropical Cyclone Intensities and Structure Change (TCS-08 and ITOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Radar and Aircraft Instrumentation ( SAMURAI ) created by Michael Bell (2010) of the Naval Postgraduate School that places an emphasis on customization...and utility in TC analyses. While H*wind has been used for near real-time applications for multiple years, SAMURAI is in development stage as was...sample SAMURAI analysis of UCF QuikSCAT for Sinlaku. In addition to a variety of customizable methods of analysis, one benefit shown in the figure

  8. Aerus-GEO: newly available satellite-derived aerosol optical depth product over Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, D.; Roujean, J. L.; Ceamanos, X.; Six, B.; Suman, S.

    2015-12-01

    The major difficulty in detecting the aerosol signal from visible and near-infrared remote sensing observations is to reach the proper separation of the components related to the atmosphere and the surface. A method is proposed to circumvent this issue by exploiting the directional and temporal dimensions of the satellite signal through the use of a semi-empirical kernel-driven model for the surface/atmosphere coupled system. This algorithm was implemented by the ICARE Data Center (http://www.icare.univ-lille1.fr), which operationally disseminates a daily AOD product at 670 nm over the MSG disk since 2014. The proposed method referred to as AERUS-GEO (Aerosol and surface albEdo Retrieval Using a directional Splitting method - application to GEO data) is applied to three spectral bands (0.6 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1.6 mm) of MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) observations, which scan Europe, Africa, and the Eastern part of South America every 15 minutes. The daily AOD estimates at 0.63μm has been extensively validated. In contrast, the Angstrom coefficient is still going through validation and we will show the differences between the MSG derived Angstrom exponent with that of CAMS (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) near-real time aerosol product. The impact of aerosol type on the aerosol radiative forcing will be presented as a part of future development plan.

  9. Satellite-derived determination of PM10 concentration and of the associated risk on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis; Sifakis, Nicolaos I.; Soulakellis, Nikos; Tombrou, Maria; Schaefer, Klaus P.

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies worldwide have revealed the relation between urban air pollution, particularly fine aerosols, and human health. The current state of the art in air quality assessment, monitoring and management comprises analytical measurements and atmospheric transport modeling. Earth observation from satellites provides an additional information layer through the calculation of synoptic air pollution indicators, such as atmospheric turbidity. Fusion of these data sources with ancillary data, including classification of population vulnerability to the adverse health effects of fine particulate and, especially, PM10 pollution, in the ambient air, integrates them into an optimally managed environmental information processing tool. Several algorithms pertaining to urban air pollution assessment using HSR satellite imagery have been developed and applied to urban sites in Europe such as Athens, Greece, the Po valley in Northern Italy, and Munich, Germany. Implementing these computational procedures on moderate spatial resolution (MSR) satellite data and coupling the result with the output of HSR data processing provides comprehensive and dynamic information on the spatial distribution of PM10 concentration. The result of EO data processing is corrected to account for the relative importance of the signal due to anthropogenic fine particles, concentrated in the lower troposphere. Fusing the corrected maps of PM10 concentration with data on vulnerable population distribution and implementation of epidemiology-derived exposure-response relationships results in the calculation of indices of the public health risk from PM10 concentration in the ambient air. Results from the pilot application of this technique for integrated environmental and health assessment in the urban environment are given.

  10. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  11. Validation of Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature Products - Methods and Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Biard, J.; Ghent, D.

    2014-12-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable for surface water and energy budget calculations that can be obtained globally and operationally from satellite observations. LST is used for many applications, including weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction, extreme weather monitoring, and irrigation and water resource management. In order to maximize the usefulness of LST for research and studies it is necessary to know the uncertainty in the LST measurement. Multiple validation methods and activities are necessary to assess LST compliance with the quality specifications of operational users. This work presents four different validation methods that have been widely used to determine the uncertainties in LST products derived from satellite measurements. 1) The temperature based validation method involves comparisons with ground-based measurements of LST. The method is strongly limited by the number and quality of available field stations. 2) Scene-based comparisons involve comparing a new satellite LST product with a heritage LST product. This method is not an absolute validation and satellite LST inter-comparisons alone do not provide an independent validation measurement. 3) The radiance-based validation method does not require ground-based measurements and is usually used for large scale validation effort or for LST products with coarser spatial resolution (> 1km). 4) Time series comparisons are used to detect problems that can occur during the instrument's life, e.g. calibration drift, or unrealistic outliers due to cloud coverage. This study enumerates the sources of errors associated with each method. The four different approaches are complementary and provide different levels of information about the quality of the retrieved LST. The challenges in retrieving the LST from satellite measurements are discussed using results obtained for MODIS and VIIRS. This work contributes to the objective of the Land Product Validation (LPV) sub-group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) that aims to address the challenges associated with the validation of global land products. It is also part of the EarthTemp initiative which main goal is to develop more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's surface temperatures.

  12. Using satellite-derived optical thickness to assess the influence of clouds on terrestrial carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S. J.; Steiner, A. L.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Bohrer, G.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2016-07-01

    Clouds scatter direct solar radiation, generating diffuse radiation and altering the ratio of direct to diffuse light. If diffuse light increases plant canopy CO2 uptake, clouds may indirectly influence climate by altering the terrestrial carbon cycle. However, past research primarily uses proxies or qualitative categories of clouds to connect the effect of diffuse light on CO2 uptake to sky conditions. We mechanistically link and quantify effects of cloud optical thickness (τc) to surface light and plant canopy CO2 uptake by comparing satellite retrievals of τc to ground-based measurements of diffuse and total photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm) and gross primary production (GPP) in forests and croplands. Overall, total PAR decreased with τc, while diffuse PAR increased until an average τc of 6.8 and decreased with larger τc. When diffuse PAR increased with τc, 7-24% of variation in diffuse PAR was explained by τc. Light-use efficiency (LUE) in this range increased 0.001-0.002 per unit increase in τc. Although τc explained 10-20% of the variation in LUE, there was no significant relationship between τc and GPP (p > 0.05) when diffuse PAR increased. We conclude that diffuse PAR increases under a narrow range of optically thin clouds and the dominant effect of clouds is to reduce total plant-available PAR. This decrease in total PAR offsets the increase in LUE under increasing diffuse PAR, providing evidence that changes within this range of low cloud optical thickness are unlikely to alter the magnitude of terrestrial CO2 fluxes.

  13. How consistent is the satellite derived SST-LHF relationship in comparison with observed values ?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; Pankajakshan, T.

    derived products. It is quite natural that the relationship, in general, resembled one another in the left and right panels except that of SST and D q with LHF, where the mean trend appears to be opposite (figure 3 (a),(b),(e),(f)). The reason...C and 2ms 21 , respectively and underestimates the humidity gradient by 2 g kg 21 (figure 6(b),(d),(f)). The process of underestimation of SST below 28.5uC, therefore, induces high LHF by invoking the thumb rule proposed by Zhang and McPhaden (1995...

  14. Comparison of measured and satellite-derived spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients for the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.

    bands. The performance of the data-driven empirical methods was found to be consistent in all the bands, except at the red band of 670 nm, which is uncorrelated with the measured values and has large errors. The performances of the empirical methods...

  15. Detecting shifts in tropical moisture imbalances with satellite-derived isotope ratios in water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A.; Blossey, P. N.; Noone, D.; Nusbaumer, J.; Wood, R.

    2017-06-01

    As global temperatures rise, regional differences in evaporation (E) and precipitation (P) are likely to become more disparate, causing the drier E-dominated regions of the tropics to become drier and the wetter P-dominated regions to become wetter. Models suggest that such intensification of the water cycle should already be taking place; however, quantitatively verifying these changes is complicated by inherent difficulties in measuring E and P with sufficient spatial coverage and resolution. This paper presents a new metric for tracking changes in regional moisture imbalances (e.g., E-P) by defining δDq—the isotope ratio normalized to a reference water vapor concentration of 4 mmol mol-1—and evaluates its efficacy using both remote sensing retrievals and climate model simulations in the tropics. By normalizing the isotope ratio with respect to water vapor concentration, δDq isolates the portion of isotopic variability most closely associated with shifts between E- and P-dominated regimes. Composite differences in δDq between cold and warm phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) verify that δDq effectively tracks changes in the hydrological cycle when large-scale convective reorganization takes place. Simulated δDq also demonstrates sensitivity to shorter-term variability in E-P at most tropical locations. Since the isotopic signal of E-P in free tropospheric water vapor transfers to the isotope ratios of precipitation, multidecadal observations of both water vapor and precipitation isotope ratios should provide key evidence of changes in regional moisture imbalances now and in the future.

  16. Mapping the mass distribution of Earth's mantle using satellite-derived gravity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panet, Isabelle; Pajot-Métivier, Gwendoline; Greff-Lefftz, Marianne; Métivier, Laurent; Diament, Michel; Mandea, Mioara

    2014-02-01

    The dynamics of Earth's mantle are not well known. Deciphering mantle flow patterns requires an understanding of the global distribution of mantle density. Seismic tomography has been used to derive mantle density distributions, but converting seismic velocities into densities is not straightforward. Here we show that data from the GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) mission can be used to probe our planet's deep mass structure. We construct global anomaly maps of the Earth's gravitational gradients at satellite altitude and use a sensitivity analysis to show that these gravitational gradients image the geometry of mantle mass down to mid-mantle depths. Our maps highlight north-south-elongated gravity gradient anomalies over Asia and America that follow a belt of ancient subduction boundaries, as well as gravity gradient anomalies over the central Pacific Ocean and south of Africa that coincide with the locations of deep mantle plumes. We interpret these anomalies as sinking tectonic plates and convective instabilities between 1,000 and 2,500km depth, consistent with seismic tomography results. Along the former Tethyan Margin, our data also identify an east-west-oriented mass anomaly likely in the upper mantle. We suggest that by combining gravity gradients with seismic and geodynamic data, an integrated dynamic model for Earth can be achieved.

  17. Comparison between MODIS and AIRS/AMSU satellite-derived surface skin temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-R. Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface skin temperatures of the Version 5 Level 3 products of MODIS and AIRS/AMSU have been compared in terms of monthly anomaly trends and climatology over the globe during the period from September 2002 to August 2011. The MODIS temperatures in the 50° N–50° S region tend to systematically be ~1.7 K colder over land and ~0.5 K warmer over ocean than the AIRS/AMSU temperatures. Over high latitude ocean the MODIS values are ~5.5 K warmer than the AIRS/AMSU. The discrepancies between the annual averages of the two sensors are as much as ~12 K in the sea ice regions. Both MODIS and AIRS/AMSU show cooling trends from −0.05 ± 0.06 to −0.14 ± 0.07 K (9 yr−1 over the globe, but warming trends (0.02 ± 0.12–0.15 ± 0.19 K (9 yr−1 in the high latitude regions. The disagreement between the two sensors results mainly from the differences in ice/snow emissivity between MODIS infrared and AMSU microwave, and also in their observational local times.

  18. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Wind Measurements with Other Wind Measurement Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Michael; Herman, Leroy

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the good data from the Jimsphere launches with the data from the satellite system. By comparing the wind speeds from the Fixed Pedestal System 16 (FPS-16) Radar/Jimsphere Wind System and NASA's 50-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, the validation of winds from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 7 (GOES-7) is performed. This study provides an in situ data quality check for the GOES-7 satellite winds. Comparison was made of the flowfields in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere of case studies of pairs of Jimsphere balloon releases and Radar Wind Profiler winds during Space Shuttle launches. The mean and standard deviation of the zonal component statistics, the meridional component statistics, and the power spectral density curves show good agreement between the two wind sensors. The standard deviation of the u and v components for the STS-37 launch (consisting of five Jimsphere/Radar Wind Profiler data sets) was 1.92 and 1.67 m/s, respectively; for the STS-43 launch (there were six Jimsphere/Wind Profiler data sets) it was 1.39 and 1.44 m/s, respectively. The overall standard deviation was 1.66 m/s for the u component and 1.55 m/s tor the v component, and a standard deviation of 2.27 m/s tor the vector wind difference. The global comparison of satellite with Jimsphere balloon vector winds shows a standard deviation of 3.15 m/s for STS-43 and 4.37 m/s for STS-37. The overall standard deviation of the vector wind was 3.76 m/s, with a root-mean-square vector difference of 4.43 m/s. These data have demonstrated that this unique comparison of the Jimsphere and satellite winds provides excellent ground truth and a frame of reference during testing and validation of satellite data

  19. Data Filtering and Assimilation of Satellite Derived Aerosol Optical Depth Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite observations of the Earth often contain excessive noise and extensive data voids. Aerosol measurements, for instance, are obscured and contaminated by...

  20. Data Filtering and Assimilation of Satellite Derived Aerosol Optical Depth Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite observations of the Earth often contain excessive noise and extensive data voids. Aerosol measurements, for instance, are obscured and contaminated by...

  1. Exploration of satellite-derived data products for atmospheric turbulence studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffith, DJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available layer. This has included all satellite data products that are relevant to the surface energy balance such as surface reflectance, temperature and emissivity. It was also important to identify active archive data services that can provide preprocessed...

  2. Estimation of nitrate flux in a tidal front satellite-derived temperature data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Morin; Wafar, M.V.M.; Corre, P.L.

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Geophys_Res_C_98_4689.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Geophys_Res_C_98_4689.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Satellite derived integrated water vapor and rain intensity patterns - Indicators of rapid cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurdie, Lynn; Katsaros, Kristina

    1992-01-01

    We examine integrated water vapor fields and rain intensity patterns derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) for several rapidly deepening and non-rapidly deepening midlatitude cyclones in the North Atlantic. Our goal is to identify features in the satellite data unique to the rapidly deepening cases, and to explore how these data can potentially be used in the analysis and forecasting of these events.

  4. Satellite derived integrated water vapor and rain intensity patterns: Indicators of rapid cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurdie, Lynn; Katsaros, Kristina

    1992-01-01

    We examine integrated water vapor fields and rain intensity patterns derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) for several rapidly deepening and non-rapidly deepening midlatitude cyclones in the North Atlantic. Our goal is to identify features in the satellite data unique to the rapidly deepening cases, and to explore how these data can potentially be used in the analysis and forecasting of these events.

  5. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Barrios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  6. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data. PMID:27025192

  7. Trend shifts in satellite-derived vegetation growth in Central Eurasia, 1982-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Xin-Ping; Yang, Tai-Bao

    2017-02-01

    Central Eurasian vegetation is critical for the regional ecological security and the global carbon cycle. However, climatic impacts on vegetation growth in Central Eurasia are uncertain. The reason for this uncertainty lies in the fact that the response of vegetation to climate change showed nonlinearity, seasonality and differences among plant functional types. Based on remotely sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the years 1982-2013, in conjunction with the latest land cover type product, we analyzed how vegetation growth trend varied across different seasons and evaluated vegetation response to climate variables at regional, biome and pixel scales. We found a persistent increase in the growing season NDVI over Central Eurasia during 1982-1994, whereas this greening trend has stalled since the mid-1990s in response to increased water deficit. The stalled trend in the growing season NDVI was largely attributed by summer and autumn NDVI changes. Enhanced spring vegetation growth after 2002 was caused by rapid spring warming. The response of vegetation to climatic factors varied in different seasons. Precipitation was the main climate driver for the growing season and summer vegetation growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation during winter and spring controlled the spring vegetation growth. Autumn vegetation growth was mainly dependent on the vegetation growth in summer. We found diverse responses of different vegetation types to climate drivers in Central Eurasia. Forests were more responsive to temperature than to precipitation. Grassland and desert vegetation responded more strongly to precipitation than to temperature in summer but more strongly to temperature than to precipitation in spring. In addition, the growth of desert vegetation was more dependent on winter precipitation than that of grasslands. This study has important implications for improving the performance of terrestrial ecosystem models to predict future vegetation response to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-site assimilation of a terrestrial biosphere model (BETHY) using satellite derived soil moisture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mousong; Sholze, Marko

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the importance of soil moisture data on assimilation of a terrestrial biosphere model (BETHY) for a long time period from 2010 to 2015. Totally, 101 parameters related to carbon turnover, soil respiration, as well as soil texture were selected for optimization within a carbon cycle data assimilation system (CCDAS). Soil moisture data from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) product was derived for 10 sites representing different plant function types (PFTs) as well as different climate zones. Uncertainty of SMOS soil moisture data was also estimated using triple collocation analysis (TCA) method by comparing with ASCAT dataset and BETHY forward simulation results. Assimilation of soil moisture to the system improved soil moisture as well as net primary productivity(NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) when compared with soil moisture derived from in-situ measurements and fluxnet datasets. Parameter uncertainties were largely reduced relatively to prior values. Using SMOS soil moisture data for assimilation of a terrestrial biosphere model proved to be an efficient approach in reducing uncertainty in ecosystem fluxes simulation. It could be further used in regional an global assimilation work to constrain carbon dioxide concentration simulation by combining with other sources of measurements.

  9. Validation of Satellite Derived Primary Production Models in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, P. V.; Bashmachnikov, I. L.; Brotas, V.

    2016-08-01

    With all the variety of models used for calculation of primary production of phytoplankton (PP) from remote sensing data, a choice of the most realistic one for a particular ocean region remains a non-trivial issue. In this work, we estimate PP in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (200 - 510 N and 100 - 400 W) from 1998 to 2005 using three frequently used models: VGPM (Vertically Generalized Production Model), PSM (Platt and Sathyendranath Model) and Aph-PP model (Absorption Based Model). The modeled results are then compared with in situ observations of PP. The results show a close similarity in PP patterns obtained by different models, but the absolute modeled values differ substantially. In the Northeast Atlantic, PSM is found reproducing better the observed seasonal and spatial variability of PP as compared to the two other models. However, PSM slightly underestimates the PP values.

  10. The relationship between satellite-derived indices and species diversity across African savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapfumo, Ratidzo B.; Murwira, Amon; Masocha, Mhosisi; Andriani, R.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to use remotely sensed diversity is important for the management of ecosystems at large spatial extents. However, to achieve this, there is still need to develop robust methods and approaches that enable large-scale mapping of species diversity. In this study, we tested the relationship between species diversity measured in situ with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Coefficient of Variation in the NDVI (CVNDVI) derived from high and medium spatial resolution satellite data at dry, wet and coastal savanna woodlands. We further tested the effect of logging on NDVI along the transects and between transects as disturbance may be a mechanism driving the patterns observed. Overall, the results of this study suggest that high tree species diversity is associated with low and high NDVI and at intermediate levels is associated with low tree species diversity and NDVI. High tree species diversity is associated with high CVNDVI and vice versa and at intermediate levels is associated with high tree species diversity and CVNDVI.

  11. Application of Satellite-Derived Wind Profiles to Joint Precision Airdrop System (JPADS) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the Vertical Wind Profile ...............................................................59 Ekman Spiral Boundary Layer Wind Profile...61 37. Depiction of Ekman Spiral Wind Profile in the Boundary Layer .......................62 38. Thermal Winds with Ekman ...Menzel, et al., 1998) 23 In a paper detailing the application of GOES soundings to weather forecasting, W. Paul Menzel et al. describe the

  12. Comparison of advanced Arctic Ocean model sea ice fields to satellite derived measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriou, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Numerical models have proven integral to the study of climate dynamics. Sea ice models are critical to the improvement of general circulation models used to study the global climate. The object of this study is to evaluate a high resolution ice-ocean coupled model by comparing it to derived measurements from SMMR and SSM/I satellite observations. Utilized for this study was the NASA Goddard Space Flight (GSFC) Sea Ice Concentration Dat...

  13. Determining the Pixel-to-Pixel Uncertainty in Satellite-Derived SST Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary measure of the quality of sea surface temperature (SST fields obtained from satellite-borne infrared sensors has been the bias and variance of matchups with co-located in-situ values. Because such matchups tend to be widely separated, these bias and variance estimates are not necessarily a good measure of small scale (several pixels gradients in these fields because one of the primary contributors to the uncertainty in satellite retrievals is atmospheric contamination, which tends to have large spatial scales compared with the pixel separation of infrared sensors. Hence, there is not a good measure to use in selecting SST fields appropriate for the study of submesoscale processes and, in particular, of processes associated with near-surface fronts, both of which have recently seen a rapid increase in interest. In this study, two methods are examined to address this problem, one based on spectra of the SST data and the other on their variograms. To evaluate the methods, instrument noise was estimated in Level-2 Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR SST fields of the Sargasso Sea. The two methods provided very nearly identical results for AVHRR: along-scan values of approximately 0.18 K for both day and night and along-track values of 0.21 K for day and night. By contrast, the instrument noise estimated for VIIRS varied by method, scan geometry and day-night. Specifically, daytime, along-scan (along-track, spectral estimates were found to be approximately 0.05 K (0.08 K and the corresponding nighttime values of 0.02 K (0.03 K. Daytime estimates based on the variogram were found to be 0.08 K (0.10 K with the corresponding nighttime values of 0.04 K (0.06 K. Taken together, AVHRR instrument noise is significantly larger than VIIRS instrument noise, along-track noise is larger than along-scan noise and daytime levels are higher than nighttime levels. Given the similarity of results and the less stringent preprocessing requirements, the variogram is the preferred method, although there is a suggestion that this approach overestimates the noise for high quality data in dynamically quiet regions. Finally, simulations of the impact of noise on the determination of SST gradients show that on average the gradient magnitude for typical ocean gradients will be accurately estimated with VIIRS but substantially overestimated with AVHRR.

  14. Ecosystem evaluation (1989-2012) of Ramsar wetland Deepor Beel using satellite-derived indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Chitrini; Tripathi, N K; Tipdecho, Taravudh

    2014-11-01

    The unprecedented urban growth especially in developing countries has laid immense pressure on wetlands, finally threatening their existence altogether. A long-term monitoring of wetland ecosystems is the basis of planning conservation measures for a sustainable development. Deepor Beel, a Ramsar wetland and major storm water basin of the River Brahmaputra in the northeastern region of India, needs particular attention due to its constant degradation over the past decades. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed using Landsat (2011)-derived indices, namely Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalised Difference Water Index (MNDWI), Normalised Difference Pond Index (NDPI), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and field data as ancillary information. Field data, ALOS AVNIR and Google Earth images were used for accuracy assessment. A fuzzy accuracy assessment of the classified data sets showed an overall accuracy of 82 % for MAX criteria and 90 % for RIGHT criteria. The rules were used to classify major wetland cover types during low water season (January) in 1989, 2001 and 2012. The statistical analysis of the classified wetland showed heavy manifestation in aquatic vegetation and other features indicating severe eutrophication over the past 23 years. This degradation was closely related to major contributing anthropogenic factors, such as a railway line construction, growing croplands, waste disposal and illegal human settlements in the wetland catchment. In addition, the landscape development index (LDI) indicated a rapid increase in the impact of the surrounding land use on the wetland from 1989 to 2012. The techniques and results from this study may prove useful for top-down landscape analyses of this and other freshwater wetlands.

  15. Variations in satellite-derived carbon dioxide over different regions of China from 2003 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuyue; Ke, Changqing; Zhan, Wenfeng; Li, Haidong; Yao, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Variations of CO2 mole fraction (XCO2) on a global or country-wide scale have been widely examined, while the regional differences within China remain unclear because of the huge differences in the stage of economic development and climatic diversities. In this study, the variations of monthly and yearly XCO2 from 2003 to 2011 are analyzed for the entire China and its six geographical regions. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data, which are mainly sensitive in the mid-troposphere, were used. During 2003-2011, the mean annual XCO2 increased from 375.7 ± 3.3 to 392.5 ± 3.5 ppm, at a rate of +2.10 ppm/year, which is similar to the previous rate during 2003-2008 (+2.09 ppm/year). However, there are two new findings for different regions of China. First, the XCO2 growth rate and its seasonal amplitude were higher in Northern China than in Southern China. The growth rates of XCO2 over North-East, North, and North-West during 2003-2011 are 2.18, 2.17, and 2.13 ppm/year, respectively, while they are 2.03, 2.05, and 2.09 ppm/year over South-East, Central, and South-West, respectively. The seasonal CO2 fluctuations over the North-East and North are larger than other regions. Second, the highest monthly mean XCO2 of mid-troposphere occurs during April to May for different regions of China in 2003-2011, while the lowest XCO2 is September for southern China and January for northern China. These results offer valuable insights into the regional differences of XCO2 within China.

  16. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratheesh Ramakrishnan; A S Rajawat

    2012-10-01

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  17. The Orbits of Saturn's Small Satellites Derived from Combined Historic and Cassini Imaging Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, J. N.; Jacobson, R. A.; Porco, C. C.; Owen, W. M., Jr.

    2006-08-01

    We report on the orbits of the small, inner Saturnian satellites, either recovered or newly discovered in recent Cassini imaging observations. The orbits presented here reflect improvements over our previously published values in that the time base of Cassini observations has been extended, and numerical orbital integrations have been performed in those cases in which simple precessing elliptical, inclined orbit solutions were found to be inadequate. Using combined Cassini and Voyager observations, we obtain an eccentricity for Pan 7 times smaller than previously reported because of the predominance of higher quality Cassini data in the fit. The orbit of the small satellite (S/2005 S1 [Daphnis]) discovered by Cassini in the Keeler gap in the outer A ring appears to be circular and coplanar; no external perturbations are apparent. Refined orbits of Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, and Epimetheus are based on Cassini , Voyager, Hubble Space Telescope, and Earth-based data and a numerical integration perturbed by all the massive satellites and each other. Atlas is significantly perturbed by Prometheus, and to a lesser extent by Pandora, through high-wavenumber mean-motion resonances. Orbital integrations involving Atlas yield a mass of GMAtlas=(0.44+/-0.04)×10-3 km3 s -2, 3 times larger than reported previously (GM is the product of the Newtonian constant of gravitation G and the satellite mass M). Orbital integrations show that Methone is perturbed by Mimas, Pallene is perturbed by Enceladus, and Polydeuces librates around Dione's L5 point with a period of about 791 days. We report on the nature and orbits of bodies sighted in the F ring, two of which may have persisted for a year or more.

  18. Estimation efficiency of usage satellite derived and modelled biophysical products for yield forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotii, Andrii; Kussul, Nataliia; Skakun, Sergii; Shelestov, Andrii; Ostapenko, Vadim; Oliinyk, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Efficient and timely crop monitoring and yield forecasting are important tasks for ensuring of stability and sustainable economic development [1]. As winter crops pay prominent role in agriculture of Ukraine - the main focus of this study is concentrated on winter wheat. In our previous research [2, 3] it was shown that usage of biophysical parameters of crops such as FAPAR (derived from Geoland-2 portal as for SPOT Vegetation data) is far more efficient for crop yield forecasting to NDVI derived from MODIS data - for available data. In our current work efficiency of usage such biophysical parameters as LAI, FAPAR, FCOVER (derived from SPOT Vegetation and PROBA-V data at resolution of 1 km and simulated within WOFOST model) and NDVI product (derived from MODIS) for winter wheat monitoring and yield forecasting is estimated. As the part of crop monitoring workflow (vegetation anomaly detection, vegetation indexes and products analysis) and yield forecasting SPIRITS tool developed by JRC is used. Statistics extraction is done for landcover maps created in SRI within FP-7 SIGMA project. Efficiency of usage satellite based and modelled with WOFOST model biophysical products is estimated. [1] N. Kussul, S. Skakun, A. Shelestov, O. Kussul, "Sensor Web approach to Flood Monitoring and Risk Assessment", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 815-818. [2] F. Kogan, N. Kussul, T. Adamenko, S. Skakun, O. Kravchenko, O. Kryvobok, A. Shelestov, A. Kolotii, O. Kussul, and A. Lavrenyuk, "Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013. [3] Kussul O., Kussul N., Skakun S., Kravchenko O., Shelestov A., Kolotii A, "Assessment of relative efficiency of using MODIS data to winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine", in: IGARSS 2013, 21-26 July 2013, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 3235 - 3238.

  19. Improvements of Satellite-Derived Cyclonic Rainfall over the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Christian-Philipp; Bakan, Stephan; Graßl, Hartmut

    2003-02-01

    Case studies of rainfall, derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) satellite data during the passage of individual cyclones over the North Atlantic, are presented to enhance the knowledge of rainfall processes associated with frontal systems. A multisatellite method is applied for complete coverage of the North Atlantic twice a day. Different SSM/I precipitation algorithms have been tested for individual cyclones and compared to the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) datasets. An independent rainfall pattern and intensity validation method is presented using voluntary observing ship (VOS) datasets and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images.Intense cyclones occur frequently in the wintertime period, with cold fronts propagating far south over the North Atlantic. Following upstream, large cloud clusters are frequently embedded in the cellular structured cold air of the backside regions, which produce heavy convective rainfall events, especially in the region off Newfoundland around 50°N. These storms can be easily identified on AVHRR images. It transpired that only the SSM/I rainfall algorithm of Bauer and Schlüssel is sensitive enough to detect the rainfall patterns and intensities observed by VOS for those cyclone types over the North Atlantic. In contrast, the GPCP products do not recognize this backside rainfall, whereas the frontal rainfall conditions are well represented in all tested datasets. This is suggested from the results of an intensive intercomparison study with ship reports from the time period of the Fronts and Atlantic Storm Track Experiment (FASTEX) field campaign. For this purpose, a new technique has been developed to transfer ship report codes into rain-rate estimates. From the analysis of a complete life cycle of a cyclone, it follows that these mesoscale backside rainfall events contribute up to 25% to the total amount of rainfall in North Atlantic cyclones.

  20. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  1. Satellite-derived mineral mapping and monitoring of weathering, deposition and erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudahy, Thomas; Caccetta, Mike; Thomas, Matilda; Hewson, Robert; Abrams, Michael; Kato, Masatane; Kashimura, Osamu; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Collings, Simon; Laukamp, Carsten; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Rodger, Andrew; Chia, Joanne; Warren, Peter; Woodcock, Robert; Fraser, Ryan; Rankine, Terry; Vote, Josh; de Caritat, Patrice; English, Pauline; Meyer, Dave; Doescher, Chris; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Mitchell, Ross

    2016-03-30

    The Earth's surface comprises minerals diagnostic of weathering, deposition and erosion. The first continental-scale mineral maps generated from an imaging satellite with spectral bands designed to measure clays, quartz and other minerals were released in 2012 for Australia. Here we show how these satellite mineral maps improve our understanding of weathering, erosional and depositional processes in the context of changing weather, climate and tectonics. The clay composition map shows how kaolinite has developed over tectonically stable continental crust in response to deep weathering during northwardly migrating tropical conditions from 45 to 10 Ma. The same clay composition map, in combination with one sensitive to water content, enables the discrimination of illite from montmorillonite clays that typically develop in large depositional environments over thin (sinking) continental crust such as the Lake Eyre Basin. Cutting across these clay patterns are sandy deserts that developed <10 Ma and are well mapped using another satellite product sensitive to the particle size of silicate minerals. This product can also be used to measure temporal gains/losses of surface clay caused by periodic wind erosion (dust) and rainfall inundation (flood) events. The accuracy and information content of these satellite mineral maps are validated using published data.

  2. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  3. Automated Burned Area Delineation Using IRS AWiFS satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, J.; Kiranchand, T. R.; Rajashekar, G.; Jha, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    spectral data from the IRS AWiFS sensor. The method is intended to be used by non-specialist users for diagnostic rapid burnt area mapping.

  4. 浓香型产区烤烟香韵与香气质量及香型关系研究%Relationships among Note, Aroma Quality and Aroma type in Full-aroma-style Flue-cured Tobacco Production Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪丽; 赵铭钦; 任伟; 张俊; 刘鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    为明确浓香型烟叶风格特征与品质特征之间的联系,以8个浓香型产区2011-2012年的264份烟叶样品为材料,运用灰色关联度分析、偏相关分析和逐步回归分析等方法分析了感官评价中的香韵指标(焦甜香、焦香、正甜香、干草香、木香、坚果香、辛香)与烟叶香气质量及香型之间的关系。结果表明:(1)香韵对香气质影响以焦甜香、干草香为最大;香韵对香气量影响以干草香、焦甜香为最大;香韵对香型影响以焦甜香、正甜香为最大。(2)干草香与香气质呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香气质呈显著负相关;干草香与香气量呈显著正相关;正甜香与香型呈显著正相关,焦甜香与香型呈极显著正相关。(3)通过逐步回归模型,建立了香韵各指标与香气质量及香型的最优回归方程,可以利用回归方程来预测香气质量及香型。%Statistical analysis, including gray correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis, were conducted to identify the relationship between style and quality characteristics of aromatic flue-cured tobacco. Total of 264 tobacco samples from 8 provinces of production areas with aroma style tobacco were used to analysis the relationships of note indicators, aroma quality and aroma type. The results showed that the note which influenced the quality of aroma the most was burnt-sweetness aroma and hay incense. The note which influenced the quantity of aroma most was hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma. The note that influenced the type most was burnt-sweetness aroma and pure-sweetness aroma. Partial correlation analysis showed that the hay incense and burnt-sweetness aroma were significantly related with sweet temperament, hay incense was significantly related with aroma quantity, pure-sweetness aroma was significantly related with aroma type, burnt-sweetness aroma was extremely significantly

  5. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively.

  6. Detection of the Coupling between Vegetation Leaf Area and Climate in a Multifunctional Watershed, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection and quantification of vegetation dynamics and drivers of observed climatic and anthropogenic change in space and time is fundamental for our understanding of the atmosphere–biosphere interactions at local and global scales. This case study examined the coupled spatial patterns of vegetation dynamics and climatic variabilities during the past three decades in the Upper Heihe River Basin (UHRB, a complex multiple use watershed in arid northwestern China. We apply empirical orthogonal function (EOF and singular value decomposition (SVD analysis to isolate and identify the spatial patterns of satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI and their close relationship with the variability of an aridity index (AI = Precipitation/Potential Evapotranspiration. Results show that UHRB has become increasingly warm and wet during the past three decades. In general, the rise of air temperature and precipitation had a positive impact on mean LAI at the annual scale. At the monthly scale, LAI variations had a lagged response to climate. Two major coupled spatial change patterns explained 29% and 41% of the LAI dynamics during 1983–2000 and 2001–2010, respectively. The strongest connections between climate and LAI were found in the southwest part of the basin prior to 2000, but they shifted towards the north central area afterwards, suggesting that the sensitivity of LAI to climate varied over time, and that human disturbances might play an important role in altering LAI patterns. At the basin level, the positive effects of regional climate warming and precipitation increase as well as local ecological restoration efforts overwhelmed the negative effects of overgrazing. The study results offer insights about the coupled effects of climatic variability and grazing on ecosystem structure and functions at a watershed scale. Findings from this study are useful for land managers and policy makers to make better decisions in response to climate

  7. Worldwide Historical Estimates of Leaf Area Index, 1932-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, JMO

    2002-02-06

    Approximately 1000 published estimates of leaf area index (LAI) from nearly 400 unique field sites, covering the period 1932-2000, have been compiled into a single data set. LA1 is a key parameter for global and regional models of biosphere/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other materials. It also plays an integral role in determining the energy balance of the land surface. This data set provides a benchmark of typical values and ranges of LA1 for a variety of biomes and land cover types, in support of model development and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing estimates of LA1 and other vegetation parameters. The LA1 data are linked to a bibliography of over 300 original source references. These historic LA1 data are mostly from natural and seminatural (managed) ecosystems, although some agricultural estimates are also included. Although methodologies for determining LA1 have changed over the decades, it is useful to represent the inconsistencies (e.g., in maximum value reported for a particular biome) that are actually found in the scientific literature. Needleleaf (coniferous) forests are by far the most commonly measured biome/land cover types in this compilation, with 22% of the measurements from temperate evergreen needleleaf forests, and boreal evergreen needleleaf forests and crops the next most common (about 9% each). About 40% of the records in the data set were published in the past 10 years (1991-2000), with a further 20% collected between 1981 and 1990. Mean LAI ({+-} standard deviation), distributed between 15 biome/land cover classes, ranged from 1.31 {+-} 0.85 for deserts to 8.72 {+-} 4.32 for tree plantations, with evergreen forests (needleleaf and broadleaf) displaying the highest LA1 among the natural terrestrial vegetation classes. We have identified statistical outliers in this data set, both globally and according to the different biome/land cover classes, but despite some decreases in mean LA1 values reported

  8. Déficit de volume de líquidos: perfil de características definidoras no paciente portador de queimadura Déficit de volumen de líquidos: perfil de características que la definen en pacientes portadores de quemaduras Fluidvolume deficit: profile of defining charateristics in burnt patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Aparecida Rossi

    1998-07-01

    means of a tool, containing 29 possible defining characteristics of this diagnosis. Seven nurses, that worked at the Burnt Unit for at least five years ago, provided opinions about the degree to which each defining characteristic is indicative of this diagnosis. Nurses rated each defining characteristic of diagnosis being tested on a scale of zero to one. The results confirmed all, except one (increased body temperature defining characteristics presented by NANDA for this diagnosis and indicated 10 new defining characteristics.

  9. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns across the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Kempeneers, Pieter; Sedano, Fernando; San Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Camia, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is highly susceptible to wildfires. On average, about 60,000 fires take place in this region every year, burning on average half a million hectares of forests and natural vegetation. Wildfires cause environmental degradation and affect the lives of thousands of people in the region. In order to minimize the consequences of these catastrophic events, fire managers and national authorities need to have in their disposal accurate and updated spatial information concerning the size of the burned area as well as the burn severity patterns. Mapping burned areas and burn severity patterns is necessary to effectively support the decision-making process in what concerns strategic (long-term) planning with the definition of post-fire actions at European and national scales. Although a comprehensive archive of burnt areas exists at the European Forest Fire Information System, the analysis of the severity of the areas affected by forest fires in the region is not yet available. Fire severity is influenced by many variables, including fuel type, topography and meteorological conditions before and during the fire. The analysis of fire severity is essential to determine the socio-economic impact of forest fires, to assess fire impacts, and to determine the need of post-fire rehabilitation measures. Moreover, fire severity is linked to forest fire emissions and determines the rate of recovery of the vegetation after the fire. Satellite imagery can give important insights about the conditions of the live fuel moisture content and can be used to assess changes on vegetation structure and vitality after forest fires. Fire events occurred in Greece, Portugal and Spain during the fire season of 2009 were recorded and analyzed in a GIS environment. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) were calculated from 8-days composites MODIS/TERRA imagery from March to October 2009. In

  10. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  11. Indirect estimations and spatial variation in leaf area index of coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Two sites in Sweden are investigated for a potential deep repository of the nuclear waste, the Laxemar investigation area (57 deg 5 min N, 16 deg 7 min E) and the Forsmark investigation area (60 deg 4 min N, 18 deg 2 min E). In the characterisation of these sites, development of site descriptive models is an important part. Leaves are the main surface were an exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and the biosphere takes place, and leaf area index (LAI) of the vegetation cover is an important variable correlated to a number of ecophysiological parameters and hereby an important parameter in ecosystem models. In the investigation areas, LAI of boreal and temperate ecosystems were therefore estimated indirectly through optical measurements using the LAI-2000 (LI-COR, Cambridge UK) and TRAC (Tracing Radiation and Architecture of Canopies). On average, measured maximum LAI was 3.40 in Laxemar and 3.43 in Forsmark; minimum LAI was 1.65 in Laxemar and 1.97 in Forsmark. Forest inventory data showed that LAI is positively correlated with basal area, stand height, stand volume and breast height tree diameter. For the coniferous stands, there was also a linearly negative relationship with age. In the Laxemar investigation area, there were no significant relationships for LAI with a satellite derived kNN (kNearest Neighbor) data set with stand height, stand volume and stand age. The kNN data set can therefore not be used to extrapolate measured LAI over the Laxemar investigation area. There were significant relationships between LAI and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for coniferous, deciduous and mixed forest stands in the Laxemar investigation area. A NDVI image could be used to extrapolate LAI over the entire investigation area. For the Forsmark investigation area, effective LAI for all stands were correlated to NDVI and this relationship could then be used for extrapolation. The effective LAI image was afterwards corrected for average

  12. The ongoing development of a pragmatic and adaptive fire management policy in a large African savanna protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgen, Brian W; Govender, Navashni; Smit, Izak P J; MacFadyen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes recent changes to the fire management policy of the 1.9 million ha Kruger National Park in South Africa. It provides a real-life example of adaptive learning in an environment where understanding is incomplete, but where management nonetheless has to proceed. The previous policy called for the application of fire to meet burnt area targets that were set for administrative subdivisions, and that were assessed at the scale of the entire park. This was problematic because the park is large and heterogeneous, and because sound ecological motivations that could link burning prescriptions to ecological objectives were missing. The new policy divides the park into five fire management zones on the basis of differences in mean annual rainfall, historic fire return periods, and geology. In addition, it proposes fire management actions designed to achieve specified ecological objectives in each zone, and includes fire-regime related thresholds and associated ecological outcomes against which to assess the effectiveness of management. The new policy is an improvement over previous iterations, but several challenges remain. Most important among these would be to continually improve the understanding of the effects of fire, and to develop frameworks for assessing the impacts of fire together with other ecosystem drivers that interact strongly with fire to influence the attainment of ecological objectives.

  13. Identification of upwelling areas in the Oman Sea Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Satellite-derived sea-surface temperature, TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) sea-level anomalies (SLAs), modeled wind data, and hydrodynamic data from World Ocean Database were used to characterize the upwelling along the Oman Sea coasts during 2002 - 2012. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the satellite-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) shows the first mode affected by upwelling processes, which represents a biannual variability. In addition, the SST shows the upwelling front moving offshore with the development of Southwest (SW) Monsoon in early June. SST shows the persistence of cold upwelling waters for nearly a month after the end of the SW Monsoon within the bays along the Oman coast. TOPEX/POSEIDON SLAs indicate that with the onset of the SW Monsoon, a 30-cm drop in height is observed along the Oman coast associated the presence of the cool upwelled waters. This drop in height sets up a horizontal pressure gradient and results in a compensating along-shore, northeastward flowing, geostrophic current (East Arabian Current) during the SW Monsoon. Similarly, the altimeter data slow an offshore decrease in height during the Northeast (NE) Monsoon, indicating a seasonal reversal in direction of the East Oman Currents with flow to the southwest. The following upwelling characteristics are identified for the Oman upwelling zone: 1- Upwelling zones have seen along Oman and Pakistan coasts and in the western coasts, like Iran, persistent upwelling zones are not available. 2- Upwelling zones along Oman coasts are more persistent and developed than in Pakistan coastal area. 3- Upwelling in the Oman and East Pakistan coasts starts with SW-Monsoon and will developed in the mid-August, adjusted with summer cooling. 4- Along Oman Sea, upwelling zones were developed between Rasal-Haddad and the southern bay. Mean SST during SW-Monsoon is about 22 °C. 5-Waters with temperature about 23°C were upwelled from depth 50-75 m along Oman coasts, and about 50 m along Pakistan coasts. 6

  14. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  15. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  16. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  17. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  18. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  19. Infrastructure Area Simplification Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L.

    2011-01-01

    The infrastructure area simplification plan was presented at the 3rd EMI All Hands Meeting in Padova. This plan only affects the information and accounting systems as the other areas are new in EMI and hence do not require simplification.

  20. LeaseAreas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas (Lease Areas) are polygons which are maintained by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM),...

  1. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 § 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  2. The Ethiopean Language Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    This paper constitutes the fifth chapter of the forthcoming volume "Language in Ethiopia." In an effort to better define the particular linguistic area, the author analyzes phonological and grammatical features that languages in the area have in common. A number of features have been identified as characteristic of the area, and this…

  3. Selected areas in cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Oorschot, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.

  4. Ground and remote sensing-based measurements of leaf area index in a transitional forest and seasonal flooded forest in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; Machado, Nadja Gomes; Danelichen, Victor Hugo de Morais; Souza, Maísa Caldas; Vourlitis, George Louis; Nogueira, José de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity and evapotranspiration; however, it is a difficult and labor-intensive variable to measure, making its measurement impractical for large-scale and long-term studies of tropical forest structure and function. In contrast, satellite estimates of LAI have shown promise for large-scale and long-term studies, but their performance has been equivocal and the biases are not well known. We measured total, overstory, and understory LAI of an Amazon-savanna transitional forest (ASTF) over 3 years and a seasonal flooded forest (SFF) during 4 years using a light extinction method and two remote sensing methods (LAI MODIS product and the Landsat-METRIC method), with the objectives of (1) evaluating the performance of the remote sensing methods, and (2) understanding how total, overstory and understory LAI interact with micrometeorological variables. Total, overstory and understory LAI differed between both sites, with ASTF having higher LAI values than SFF, but neither site exhibited year-to-year variation in LAI despite large differences in meteorological variables. LAI values at the two sites have different patterns of correlation with micrometeorological variables. ASTF exhibited smaller seasonal variations in LAI than SFF. In contrast, SFF exhibited small changes in total LAI; however, dry season declines in overstory LAI were counteracted by understory increases in LAI. MODIS LAI correlated weakly to total LAI for SFF but not for ASTF, while METRIC LAI had no correlation to total LAI. However, MODIS LAI correlated strongly with overstory LAI for both sites, but had no correlation with understory LAI. Furthermore, LAI estimates based on canopy light extinction were correlated positively with seasonal variations in rainfall and soil water content and negatively with vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation; however, in some cases satellite-derived estimates of LAI exhibited no correlation with climate variables

  5. Evaluation of legumes and poultry manure for the early protection of burnt soils Evaluación de leguminosas y gallinaza para la protección temprana de suelos quemados Avaliaçao da utilizaçao de leguminosas e estrume de galináceos na protecção precoce de solos queimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín González Prieto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Organic amendments combined with the sowing of gramineous grasses are effective for the early protection of burnt soils (BS but cannot restore soil N status to pre-fire level; this has led to interest in combining their use with N2 fixer legumes. The effectiveness of applying poultry manure (PM; 2 Mg ha-1 and sowing legumes (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus and Trifolium repens for the early protection of BS was compared with that of applying PM + Lolium perenne and growing these four species without PM in a 3-month pot experiment, which also included a control consisting of an unburnt soil (US. In US, the shoot and root biomass increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus << Lolium < Lupinus. Compared with those grown in US, plants grown in BS were smaller and weaker in three species (Lupinus, Lolium and Trifolium. The reverse was true for the four species grown in BS+PM, which showed the benefits of PM addition. In all the treatments, plant N uptake, which prevents soil-N losses, increased as follows: Trifolium ~ Lotus < Lupinus < Lolium. The lack of nodules observed suggested that none of the legumes fixed atmospheric-N2.

    Las enmiendas orgánicas combinadas con la siembra de gramíneas son efectivas para la protección temprana de los suelos quemados (SQ, pero insuficientes para restaurar el estatus pre-incendio del N-edáfico, lo cual deriva en el interés de emplear dichas enmiendas en combinación con leguminosas fijadoras de N2. La utilidad de la gallinaza (G, 2 Mg ha-1 y la siembra de leguminosas (Lotus corniculatus, Lupinus polyphyllus y Trifolium repens para la protección temprana de SQ se comparó con la de G + Lolium perenne y esas cuatro especies sin G en una experiencia en invernadero durante tres meses que tambi

  6. CVP Service Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Federal Water Contract Service Area boundaries are incorporated boundaries of districts having contracts with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), within...

  7. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  8. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  9. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  10. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  11. Available area isotherm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, JC; Wesselingh, JA

    2004-01-01

    A new isotherm is presented for adsorption of proteins, the available area isotherm. This isotherm has a steric basis, unlike the (steric) mass action model. The shape of the available area isotherm is determined only by geometric exclusion. With the new isotherm, experimental results can be fitted

  12. Crop Yield and Area can be Reliably Estimated Using Farmer Supplied Yield Data, Remote Sensing and Crop Models in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawes, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Australian grain growing region is vast and occupies where some 25 million tonnes of wheat is produced from latitudes -27 to -42, where soils, crops and climates vary considerably. Predicting the area of individual crops is time consuming and currently conducted by survey, while yield estimates are derived from these areas and from information about grain receivables with little pre-harvest information available to industry. The existing approach fails to provide reliable, timely, small scale information about production. Similarly, previous attempts to predict yield using satellite derived information rely on information collected using the existing systems to calibrate models. We have developed a crop productivity and yield model - called C-Store Crop - that uses remotely sensed vegetation indices, along with site based rainfall, radiation and temperature information. Model calibration using 3000 points derived from farmer supplied yield maps for wheat, barley, canola and chickpea showed strong relationships (>70%) between modelled plant mass and observed crop yield at the paddock scale. C-Store Crop is being applied at 250m and 25m grid resolution. Farmer supplied yield data was also used to train a combination of Radar and Landsat images collected whilst the crop is growing to discriminate between crop types. Landsat information alone was unable to discriminate legume and cereal crops. Problems such as cloud prevented accessing appropriate scenes. Inclusion of Radar information reduced errors of commission and omission. By combining the C-Store Crop model with remote estimates of crop type, we anticipate predicting crop type and crop yield with uncertainty estimates across the Australian continent.

  13. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  14. Earth Observation for the Preservation of the Bacalar Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Raffaella; Iervolino, Pasquale; Freemantle, Terri; Spittle, Stephen; Minchella, Andrea; Marti, Paula; Napiorkowska, Milena; Howard, Gemma; Hernandez Arana, Hector; Cabrera Alvarado, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Near-Real-Time applications have been designed to monitor the impact of human activities in the Bacalar region in Mexico. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical images have been used for this purpose and satellite derived products have been created to study urban growth, change of mangrove cover over time, and land use. The Earth Observation (EO) derived products have been integrated into a web-based geospatial data platform developed under the project, with the aim of allowing ease of data visualisation and manipulation.

  15. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    , satellite-derived leaf area index and landscape cover. Ion exchange resin throughfall collectors and atmospheric simulation models have provided complementary data critical to better understanding of ecosystem responses to Nr in western North America. Such deposition data and maps have been used to set N deposition critical loads (CL) and to map areas of exceedance for a variety of ecosystem and biological effects. Empirical CL and exceedance areas have been established for many Western ecosystems including forest, desert, shrub, grassland, subalpine and aquatic habitats, thus providing an important management tool for protection of key ecosystems and the services they provide. An important finding is that biodiversity and community responses of sensitive elements of several Western aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems respond to relatively low levels of atmospheric N deposition (e.g., 3-6 kg N/ha/yr).

  16. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  17. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  18. Driftless Area NWR ROCSTAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Resources of Concern Selection Tool for Americas Refuges (ROCSTAR) was developed to assist national wildlife refuges, waterfowl production areas, wetland...

  19. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  20. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  1. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  2. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  4. Observation of sub-cell level of the effect of danshen on mitochondrial function of epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa of burnt rats%丹参改善烧伤大鼠肠黏膜上皮细胞线粒体功能的亚细胞水平观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱振中; 李锐

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucosa was damaged by ischemia and hypoxia during severe burn, and injury and infection of oxygen-derived free radicals during reperfusion.OBJECTIVE: To study on the basis of sub-cell level whether danshen can improve respiratory function of mitochondrion of epithelial cell in intestinal mucosa and decrease the production of oxygen-derived free radicals so as to protect intestinal mucosa of burnt rats.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study with single sample.SETTING: Department of Burn, the Third Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The experiment was conducted at the Surgery Institute of the Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from December 2001 to February 2002.Totally 96 SD rats of clean grade were randomly divided into normal control group (n=24), burning model group (n=36) and danshen treatment group (n=36). 1 mL danshen parenteral solution had 1.5 g raw materials.METHODS: ① Rats in the burning model group and danshen treatment group were used to establish grade Ⅲ burning models with 20% scald of total body surface. ② Rats in the normal control group were not injured.③ After modeling, 1 mL/kg danshen parenteral solution was slowing injected into rats in the danshen treatment group through femoral vein, but saline was injected slowly into rats in the normal control group and burning model group. ④ Twelve rats from each of the burning mgdel group and the danshen treatment group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 6 hours after modeling, and 8 rats in the normal control group were sacrificed at relevant time points respectively. ⑤ Samples of small intestine were collected to measure cytochrome aa3, cytochrome C, level of energy charge and activity of superoxide dismutase of mitochondrion of epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cytochrome aa3, cytochrome C, level of energy charge and activity of superoxide dismutase of mitochondrion of epithelial cells in intestinal mucosa 1, 2 and 6 hours after modeling

  5. 5 CFR 591.207 - Which areas are COLA areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are COLA areas? 591.207... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.207 Which areas are COLA areas? OPM has established the following COLA areas: (a) City...

  6. 5 CFR 591.205 - Which areas are nonforeign areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which areas are nonforeign areas? 591.205... ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.205 Which areas are nonforeign areas? (a) The nonforeign areas...

  7. 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRELL, R.D.

    2000-03-15

    The 200 Area Interim Storage Area Technical Safety Requirements define administrative controls and design features required to ensure safe operation during receipt and storage of canisters containing spent nuclear fuel. This document is based on the 200 Area Interim Storage Area, Annex D, Final Safety Analysis Report which contains information specific to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area.

  8. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  9. CHANCHELULLA ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Donald F.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey there seems to be little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Chanchelulla Roadless Area, California, except for a demonstrated resource of about 7200 tons containing 0. 084 oz gold/ton, 0. 84 oz silver/ton, and accessory copper at the Chanchelulla prospect. This prospect is located on a northwest-trending quartz vein. Limestone and small amounts of magnetite occur in the area but on the basis of available data no resources are identified. No potential for energy resources was identified.

  10. OLED area illumination source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Donald Franklin; Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Nealon, William Francis; Bortscheller, Jacob Charles

    2008-03-25

    The present invention relates to an area illumination light source comprising a plurality of individual OLED panels. The individual OLED panels are configured in a physically modular fashion. Each OLED panel comprising a plurality of OLED devices. Each OLED panel comprises a first electrode and a second electrode such that the power being supplied to each individual OLED panel may be varied independently. A power supply unit capable of delivering varying levels of voltage simultaneously to the first and second electrodes of each of the individual OLED panels is also provided. The area illumination light source also comprises a mount within which the OLED panels are arrayed.

  11. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  12. A study of the hourly variability of the urban heat island effect in the Greater Athens Area during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidis, K; Georgoulias, A K; Rapsomanikis, S; Amiridis, V; Keramitsoglou, I; Hooyberghs, H; Maiheu, B; Melas, D

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of air temperature and humidity in the urban canopy layer during July 2009 in 26 sites in Athens, Greece, allowed for the mapping of the hourly spatiotemporal evolution of the urban heat island (UHI) effect. City districts neighboring to the mountains to the east were the hottest during the afternoon, while being among the coolest during the early morning hours. While during the early morning some coastal sites were the hottest, the warm air plume slowly moved to the densely urbanized center of the city until 14:00-15:00, moving then further west, to the Elefsis industrial area in the afternoon. Results from the UrbClim model agree fairly well with the observations. Satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST) data from AATSR, ASTER, AVHRR and MODIS, for pixels corresponding to ground stations measuring Tair, showed that LST can be up to 5K lower than the respective Tair during nighttime, while it can be up to 15K higher during the rest of the day. Generally, LST during late afternoon as acquired from AATSR is very near to Tair for all stations and all days, i.e., the AATSR LST afternoon retrieval can be used as a very good approximation of Tair. The hourly evolution of the spatial Tair distribution was almost the same during days with NE Etesian flow as in days with sea breeze circulation, indicating that the mean wind flow was not the main factor controlling the diurnal UHI evolution, although it influenced the temperatures attained. No unambiguous observation of the urban moisture excess (UME) phenomenon could be made.

  13. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  14. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  15. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  16. Area Handbook for Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Allison Butler

    This publication is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Areas Studies (FAS) of The American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political and military institutions and practices of various countries. The present handbook…

  17. Areas of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, John

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the recommendations made by the Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum (the Rose Report in 2009) that the curriculum should be organised into areas of learning. The implications for teachers are considered. By drawing upon past experience some major weaknesses and strengths implicit in the approach are identified and…

  18. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  19. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  20. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  1. Large area mass analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)]. E-mail: mikhail.rachev@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Srama, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Srowig, Andre [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Gruen, Eberhard [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)

    2004-12-11

    A new time-of-flight spectrometer for the chemical analysis of cosmic dust particles in space has been simulated by Simion 7.0. The instrument is based upon impact ionization. This method is a reliable method for in situ dust detection and is well established. Instruments using the impact ionization flew on board of Helios and Galileo and are still in operation on board of the Ulysses and Cassini-Huygens missions. The new instrument has a large sensitive area of 0.1m2 in order to achieve a significant number of measurements. The mass resolution M/{delta}M>100 and the mass range covers the most relevant elements expected in cosmic dust. The instrument has a reflectron configuration which increases the mass resolution. Most of the ions released during the impact are focused to the detector. The ion detector consists of a large area ion-to-electron converter, an electron reflectron and a microchannel plate detector.

  2. Sacramento Metropolitan Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    resource of the river. Also, strips of riparian vegetation along the riverbank provide good areas for naturalists and birdwatching . Recreational resources...policies #1 and #2 when improvements are made costing at least 50 percent of the estimated current market value of the structure before improvements. o1 S 0...height and depth of flooding is provided in Table 1. Although depreciation values have been used in our analysis, market values also had to be considered

  3. Frostbites in circumpolar areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Maria Ikäheimo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Circumpolar areas are associated with prolonged cold exposure where wind, precipitation, and darkness further aggravate the environmental conditions and the associated risks. Despite the climate warming, cold climatic conditions will prevail in circumpolar areas and contribute to adverse health effects. Frostbite is a freezing injury where localized damage affects the skin and other tissues. It occurs during occupational or leisure-time activities and is common in the general population among men and women of various ages. Industries of the circumpolar areas where frostbite occurs frequently include transportation, mining, oil, and gas industry, construction, agriculture, and military operations. Cold injuries may also occur during leisure-time activities involving substantial cold exposure, such as mountaineering, skiing, and snowmobiling. Accidental situations (occupational, leisure time often contribute to adverse cooling and cold injuries. Several environmental (temperature, wind, wetness, cold objects, and altitude and individual (behavior, health, and physiology predisposing factors are connected with frostbite injuries. Vulnerable populations include those having a chronic disease (cardiovascular, diabetes, and depression, children and the elderly, or homeless people. Frostbite results in sequelae causing different types of discomfort and functional limitations that may persist for years. A frostbite injury is preventable, and hence, unacceptable from a public health perspective. Appropriate cold risk management includes awareness of the adverse effects of cold, individual adjustment of cold exposure and clothing, or in occupational context different organizational and technical measures. In addition, vulnerable population groups need customized information and care for proper prevention of frostbites.

  4. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  5. SUBURBAN AREAS. ZONAS SUBURBANAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Valencia Londoño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: The suburban areas represent a category of use and appropriation of the soil that is particularly problematic in the Latin American context. The conflicts that tend to occur in this type of areas are given by the uncontrolled expansion of cities in a competition with the rural areas which deprives these from various environmental conditions and positive housing conditions. This article is the product of the research project “Methodology for the Intervention of Suburban Soils, Northern Aburra: A Case Study” in Medellin, Colombia, in order to disseminate core concepts that guide the study and generate academic exchange in this regard. Resumen: Las zonas suburbanas representan una categoría de uso y apropiación del suelo que es particularmente problemática en el contexto latinoamericano. Los conflictos que suelen verificarse en este tipo de zonas se dan por la expansión incontrolada de las ciudades en una competencia con las áreas rurales que priva a éstas de varias de sus condiciones ambientales y de habitabilidad positivas. El artículo es producto del proyecto de investigación “Metodología para la intervención de suelos suburbanos, caso de estudio Aburrá Norte” en Medellín, Colombia, con el fin de divulgar los conceptos de base que orientan el estudio y generar intercambio académico al respecto.

  6. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  7. Determining Fire Dates and Locating Ignition Points With Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akli Benali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Each wildfire has its own “history”, burns under specific conditions and leads to unique environmental impacts. Information on where and when it has started and its duration is important to improve understanding on the dynamics of individual wildfires. This information is typically included in fire databases that are known to have: (i multiple error sources; (ii limited spatial coverage and/or time span, and; (iii often unknown accuracy and uncertainty. Satellite data have a large potential to reduce such limitations. We used active fire data from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to estimate fire start/end dates and ignition location(s for large wildfires that occurred in Alaska, Portugal, Greece, California and southeastern Australia. We assessed the agreement between satellite-derived estimates and data from fire databases, and determined the associated uncertainty. Fire dates and ignition location(s were estimated for circa 76% of the total burnt area extent for the five study regions. The ability to estimate fire dates and ignitions from satellite data increased with fire size. The agreement between reported and estimated fire dates was very good for start dates (Model efficiency index, MEF = 0.91 and reasonable for end dates (MEF = 0.73. The spatio-temporal agreement between reported and satellite-derived wildfire ignitions showed temporal lags and distances within 12 h and 2 km, respectively. Uncertainties associated with ignition estimates were generally larger than the disagreements with data reported in fire databases. Our results show how satellite data can contribute to improve information regarding dates and ignitions of large wildfires. This contribution can be particularly relevant in regions with scarce fire information, while in well-documented areas it can be used to complement, potentially detect, and correct inconsistencies in existing fire databases. Using data from other existing and/or upcoming

  8. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features

  9. Effects of land-cover change on soil loss in the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disperati, Leonardo; Righini, Gaia; Salvini, Riccardo; Ciali, Alessandro; Coscini, Nicola; Fantozzi, Pier L.; Carmignani, Luigi; Fiori, Alberto P.; Paranhos Filho, Antonio C.; Bocci, Michele

    1999-12-01

    In the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Brazil), since the '60s, zootechnics and farming activities have developed and arable lands and pastures replaced shrubs and forests. The 1966 to 1996 land-cover change was investigated through Remote Sensing and GIS methodologies. The effect on soil loss was evaluated through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). By integrating supervised classification and visual interpretation techniques, geo-coded land-cover data bases were built from aerial photographs and Landsat TM images (years 1966, 1985, 1996). Multi-temporal land-cover data bases were produced through 'post-classification comparison.' The application of the USLE in the ARC/INFO$CPY Grid environment enabled to perform the multi-temporal analysis of the potential soil loss. The R, K, C and P factors of such equation were assumed from the literature. The flowdirection and flowaccumulation Grid functions and the DEM allowed calculating the L and S factors. The results show that from 1966 to 1985 large extent of forest and shrubs were deforested. After 1985, deforestation rate decreased and part of burnt areas and pastures changed to secondary forest. The land-cover transformations induced a meaningful growth of the computed average soil loss per unit area (A) from 1966 to 1985 ((Delta) A approximately equals 3.7 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1). On the contrary, the reduction of A from 1985 to 1996 ((Delta) A approximately equals 0.8 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1) suggests that more recently the human impact became steady.

  10. Decision making based on global flood forecasts and satellite-derived inundation maps in data-sparse regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Hirpa, Feyera A.; Thielen-del Pozo, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Pappenberger, Florian; De Groeve, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response decisions. Global-scale flood forecasting and satellite-based flood detection systems are currently operating, however their reliability for decision making applications needs to be assessed. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of several operational global flood forecasting and flood detection systems, using major flood events recorded over 2012-2014. Specifically, we evaluated the spatial extent and temporal characteristics of flood detections from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Furthermore, we compared the GFDS flood maps with those from NASA's two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. Results reveal that: 1) general agreement was found between the GFDS and MODIS flood detection systems, 2) large differences exist in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the GFDS detections and GloFAS forecasts, and 3) the quantitative validation of global flood disasters in data-sparse regions is highly challenging. Overall, the satellite remote sensing provides useful near real-time flood information that can be useful for risk management. We highlight the known limitations of global flood detection and forecasting systems, and propose ways forward to improve the reliability of large scale flood monitoring tools.

  11. Combined Aircraft and Satellite-Derived Storm Electric Current and Lightning Rates Measurements and Implications for the Global Electric Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bateman, Monte G.

    2010-01-01

    Using rotating vane electric field mills and Gerdien capacitors, we measured the electric field profile and conductivity during 850 overflights of electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms spanning regions including the Southeastern United States, the Western Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Central America and adjacent oceans, Central Brazil, and the South Pacific. The overflights include storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive and negative fields above the storms. The measurements were made with the NASA ER-2 and the Altus-II high altitude aircrafts. Peak electric fields, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16 kV/m, with a mean value of 0.9 kV/m. The median peak field was 0.29 kV/m. Integrating our electric field and conductivity data, we determined total conduction currents and flash rates for each overpass. With knowledge of the storm location (land or ocean) and type (with or without lightning), we determine the mean currents by location and type. The mean current for ocean storms with lightning is 1.6 A while the mean current for land storms with lightning is 1.0 A. The mean current for oceanic storms without lightning (i.e., electrified shower clouds) is 0.39 A and the mean current for land storms without lightning is 0.13 A. Thus, on average, land storms with or without lightning have about half the mean current as their corresponding oceanic storm counterparts. Over three-quarters (78%) of the land storms had detectable lightning, while less than half (43%) of the oceanic storms had lightning. We did not find any significant regional or latitudinal based patterns in our total conduction currents. By combining the aircraft derived storm currents and flash rates with diurnal lightning statistics derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) low Earth orbiting satellites, we reproduce the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit (i.e., the Carnegie curve) to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. This excellent agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Given our data and assumptions, mean contributions to the global electric circuit are 0.7 kA (ocean) and 1.1 kA (land) from lightning-producing storms, and 0.22 kA (ocean) and 0.04 (land) from electrified shower clouds, resulting in a mean total conduction current estimate for the global electric circuit of 2.0 kA. Breaking the results down into mean storm counts reveals 1100 for land storms with lightning, 530 for ocean storms without lightning, 390 for ocean storms with lightning, and 330 for land storms without lightning.

  12. Comparison of surface energy fluxes with satellite-derived surface energy flux estimates from a shrub-steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Randy R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This thesis relates the components of the surface energy balance (i.e., net radiation, sensible and latent heat flux densities, soil heat flow) to remotely sensed data for native vegetation in a semi-arid environment. Thematic mapper data from Landsat 4 and 5 were used to estimate net radiation, sensible heat flux (H), and vegetation amount. Several sources of ground truth were employed. They included soil water balance using the neutron thermalization method and weighing lysimeters, and the measurement of energy fluxes with the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) technique. Sensible and latent heat flux were measured at four sites on the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site using a weighing lysimeter and/or BREB stations. The objective was to calibrate an aerodynamic transport equation that related H to radiant surface temperature. The transport equation was then used with Landsat thermal data to generate estimates of H and compare these estimates against H values obtained with BREB/lysimeters at the time of overflight. Landsat and surface meteorologic data were used to estimate the radiation budget terms at the surface. Landsat estimates of short-wave radiation reflected from the surface correlate well with reflected radiation measured using inverted Eppley pyranometers. Correlation of net radiation estimates determined from satellite data, pyranometer, air temperature, and vapor pressure compared to net radiometer values obtained at time of overflight were excellent for a single image, but decrease for multiple images. Soil heat flux, GT, is a major component of the energy balance in arid systems and G{sub T} generally decreases as vegetation cover increases. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values generated from Landsat thermatic mapper data were representative of field observations of the presence of green vegetation, but it was not possible to determine a single relationship between NDVI and GT for all sites.

  13. Satellite-derived surface and sub-surface water storage in the Ganges–Brahmaputra River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Papa

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights: Basin-scale monthly SWS variations for the period 2003–2007 show a mean annual amplitude of ∼410 km3, contributing to about 45% of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE-derived total water storage variations (TWS. During the drought-like conditions in 2006, we estimate that the SWS deficit over the entire GB basin in July–August–September was about 30% as compared to other years. The SWS variations are then used to decompose the GB GRACE-derived TWS and isolate the variations of SSWS whose mean annual amplitude is estimated to be ∼550 km3. This new dataset of water storage variations represent an unprecedented source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the ISC.

  14. Effective roughness calculated from satellite-derived land cover maps and hedge-information used in a weather forecasting model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Nielsen, N.,W.; Jensen, N.O.

    2003-01-01

    In numerical weather prediction, climate and hydrological modelling, the grid cell size is typically larger than the horizontal length scales of variations in aerodynamic roughness, surface temperature and surface humidity. These local land cover variations give rise to sub-grid scale surface flux...... to be well-described in any large-scale model. A method of aggregating the roughness step changes in arbitrary real terrain has been applied in flat terrain (Denmark) where sub-grid scale vegetation-driven roughness variations are a dominant characteristic of the landscape. The aggregation model...... is a physical two-dimensional atmospheric flow model in the horizontal domain based on a linearized version of the Navier Stoke equation. The equations are solved by the Fast Fourier Transformation technique, hence the code is very fast. The new effective roughness maps have been used in the HIgh Resolution...

  15. Real-time Data Assimilation of Satellite Derived Ice Concentration into the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    North America , Technology Solutions Group Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA M.W. Phelps Jacobs Engineering Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA...precipitation rates (i.e., snowfall ); a model of ice dynamics that predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the...the Data Assimilation and Model Evaluation Experiments North Atlantic data, the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean data, the

  16. Satellite derived phenology of southern Africa for 1985-2000 and functional classification of vegetation based on phenometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available analyzed vegetation phenometrics across South Africa (SA) in order to characterize phenological patterns and their inter-annual variability. A second objective is to distinguish biomes and sub-biome “bioregions” based on functional patterns. The long term...

  17. Variability of satellite derived chlorophyll-a in the southern Caspian Sea following an invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    The comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi invaded vastly the whole Caspian Sea in summer 2001. Sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data from 1998 to 2006 and bio-optical field measurements along six transects in the southern Caspian Sea from 2001 to 2006 were used to detect the relationships between M. leidyi abundances with satellite driven sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a. MODIS chlorophyll-a and SST monthly composite average value showed a positive linear correlation with M. leidyi abundance in the southern Caspian Sea. Spatiotemporal distribution of MODIS chlorophyll-a high-level patches (˜5 mg.m-3) were also confirmed with the highest recorded M. leidyi and the lowest zooplankton abundances. However, there are several other factors that affect the concentration of chlorophyll-a, and it is not clear how much of the chlorophyll-a variation is related to M. leidyi abundances.

  18. Investigating the usefulness of satellite derived fluorescence data in inferring gross primary productivity within the carbon cycle data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the utility of satellite measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs in constraining gross primary productivity (GPP. We ingest Fs measurements into the Carbon-Cycle Data Assimilation System (CCDAS which has been augmented by the fluorescence component of the Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes (SCOPE model. CCDAS simulates well the patterns of Fs suggesting the combined model is capable of ingesting these measurements. However simulated Fs is insensitive to the key parameter controlling GPP, the carboxylation capacity (Vcmax. Simulated Fs is sensitive to both the incoming absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (aPAR and leaf chlorophyll concentration both of which are treated as perfectly known in previous CCDAS versions. Proper use of Fs measurements therefore requires enhancement of CCDAS to include and expose these variables.

  19. Improvements of Satellite Derived Cyclonic Rainfall Over The North Atlantic and Implications Upon The Air-sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, C.; Bakan, S.; Grassl, H.

    Case studies of rainfall, derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) satellite data, during the passage of individual cyclones over the North Atlantic are presented to enhance the knowledge of rainfall processes asso ciated with frontal sys- tems. The Multi-Satellite-Technique (MST) is described to receive a complete cov- erage of the North Atlantic twice a day. Different SSM/I precipitation algorithms (Bauer and Schlüssel, Ferraro, Wentz) have been tested for individual cyclones and were compared to the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data sets and NWP model results (ECMWF, REMO). An independent rainfall pattern and -intensity vali dation method is presented using voluntary observing ship (VOS) data sets and AVHRR images. Intense storms occur very often in the wintertime period with cold fronts propagating far south over the North Atlantic. Large frontal conditions are mostly well represented in all tested data sets. Following upstream numerous showers are usually embedded in the cellular structures of the cold air on the backside of post frontal subsidences. Cold air clusters frequently occur in these backside regions which produce heavy convective rainfall events. Espe cially in the region off Newfoundland at 50o North, where very cold air within arctic cold air outbreaks is advected over the warm waters of the Gulfstream current, these heavily raining clusters often rapidly form into mesoscale storms. These small but intense cyclones up to 1500km in diame- ter are characterized by very heavy precipitation over the entire region and may occur every three days in wintertime. The storms can be easily identified on AVHRR im- ages. Only the SSM/I rainfall algorithm of Bauer and Schlüssel in combination with the presented MST is sensitive enough to detect the correct patterns and intensities of rainfall for those cyclone types over the North Atlantic, whereas the GPCP products fail in recognizing any rainfall at all. A SLP study figures out why the con vective cluster rainfall is systematically absent in the NWP models. These mesoscale storm clusters contribute up to 25% to the total amount of rainfall in North Atlantic cyclones. Systematically neglecting these rainfall equiva lents of 1 Sv of freshwater flux into the North Atlantic account for large errors in the water cycle. Further analysis of VOS and HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean and Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite 1 Data) data points out the climatological importance of the cyclones for the water- and energy cycle over the North Atlantic. 2

  20. Improvements of Satellite-derived High Impact Weather Rainfall over Global Oceans and Implications for NWP models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, C.; Bakan, S.; Graßl, H.

    2003-04-01

    High impact weather precipitation fields of cyclone case studies over global ocean precipitation centers are presented using the technology of the HOAPS-II (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite data) data base. All case studies are compared to the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data set and to ECMWF numerical weather prediction output. A detailed in situ rainfall validation is presented using voluntary observing ships (VOS). Results show that only the HOAPS data base recognizes the development of frequently occurring mesoscale cyclones and gales over the North Atlantic and North Pacific ocean as observed by VOS data. In case of landfall these events cause high socio-economic impact to the society. GPCP and the ECMWF model are frequently missing these mesoscale storms. For example, the gale Lothar known as the `Christmas Storm', could have been nowcasted using the HOAPS data base. HOAPS probably allows to give high impact weather warning in the near future on a near real time basis.

  1. Validation of satellite-derived tropical cyclone heat potential with in situ observations in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagamani, P.V.; Ali, M.M.; Goni, G.J.; Dinezio, P.N.; Pezzullo, J.C.; UdayaBhaskar, T.V.S.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Nisha, K.

    , there is a need for satellite-based estimations. One potential solution is to use sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs) from altimeter observations. However, any estimation derived from satellite measurements requires extensive regional validation...

  2. Influence of Desert Dust Intrusions on Ground-based and Satellite Derived Ultraviolet Irradiance in Southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Anton, Manuel; Valenzuela, Antonio; Roman, Roberto; Lyamani, Hassan; Arola, Antti; Olmo, Francisco J.; Alados-Arboledas

    2012-01-01

    The desert dust aerosols strongly affect propagation of solar radiation through the atmosphere, reducing surface irradiance available for photochemistry and photosynthesis. This paper evaluates effects of desert dust on surface UV erythemal irradiance (UVER), as measured by a ground-based broadband UV radiometer and retrieved from the satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) at Granada (southern Spain) from January 2006 to December 2010. The dust effects are characterized by the transmittance ra tio of the measured UVER to the corresponding modeled clear sky value. The transmittance has an exponential dependency on aerosol optical depth (AOD), with minimum values of approximately 0.6 (attenuation of approximately 40%). The OMI UVER algorithm does not account for UV aerosol absorption, which results in overestimation of the ground-based UVER especially during dust episodes with a mean relative difference up to 40%. The application of aerosol absorption post-correction method reduces OMI bias up to approximately 13%. The results highlight great effect of desert dust on the surface UV irradiance in regions like southern Spain, where dust intrusions from Sahara region are very frequent.

  3. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  4. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  5. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  6. Dementia in Taiwan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanhan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Taiwan has an increasing aging population like other developed areas. The aging population will lead to an increased prevalence of dementia. Methods:This article will reflect the status of dementia in Taiwan, including updated epidemiology, diagnosis, subtypes, and optimal treatment of dementia. Results:The article also describes and interprets the Taiwan Dementia Policy to establish a clear, large view of the current state of management of dementia in Taiwan and future policy implementation. Conclusion:A comprehensive policy to dementia, from the basic researches to clinical care and treatment, is necessary to the increased aged population in Taiwan.

  7. Zeolites and Usage Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Gülen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are formed via several reactions from the minerals that consist of aluminium and silica. Zeolites, which have a growing significance in recent days are one of important industrial raw materials. As well as being used as a catalyst, theirability to do ion exchange and adsorption make them even more valuable. Zeolites are used in several industries such as energy, agriculture and animal husbandry, mining and metallurgy, construction, detergent, paper, etc. In this study, the definiton, formation and usage areas of zeolites are explained.

  8. Cholera in Azov area

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Domashenko; T. A. Belomerya; N. V. Martynova; G. N. Daragan; Demkovich, O.O.; U. V. Malakhova; G. I. Zemlyanskaya; Popova, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child) and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children), which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the water...

  9. A Case Study in the Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): the Islands of Bonaire and Curacao, Dutch Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relles, Noelle J.

    in the absence of overall habitat loss at the landscape scale. The Bonaire National Marine Park could benefit by restricting visitors to its most frequented dive sites by increasing the cost of entry into a tiered pay system, thus generating more income for education and management of the park, as well as deterring some divers from these overused sites. Satellite remote sensing-derived maps are useful for rapid reef mapping and can be utilized for comparison to ancillary maps created by more traditional methods. Satellite-derived maps can only distinguish benthic habitats coarsely (3-4 habitat classes) and are only as reliable as their source data, they benefit greatly from fieldwork to determine depth, geographic location, and benthic habitat cover in real time.

  10. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  11. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  12. Phoenix Work Area Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation from Sol 1 shows a mosaic of the Phoenix digging area in the Martian terrain. Phoenix scientists are very pleased with this view as the terrain features few rocks an optimal place for digging. The mast of the camera looks disjointed because the photos that comprise this mosaic were taken at different times of day. This video also show some of the lander's instrumentation. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiropoulo, P

    1982-01-01

    Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.

  14. Global protected area impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N; Pfaff, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Protected areas (PAs) dominate conservation efforts. They will probably play a role in future climate policies too, as global payments may reward local reductions of loss of natural land cover. We estimate the impact of PAs on natural land cover within each of 147 countries by comparing outcomes inside PAs with outcomes outside. We use 'matching' (or 'apples to apples') for land characteristics to control for the fact that PAs very often are non-randomly distributed across their national landscapes. Protection tends towards land that, if unprotected, is less likely than average to be cleared. For 75 per cent of countries, we find protection does reduce conversion of natural land cover. However, for approximately 80 per cent of countries, our global results also confirm (following smaller-scale studies) that controlling for land characteristics reduces estimated impact by half or more. This shows the importance of controlling for at least a few key land characteristics. Further, we show that impacts vary considerably within a country (i.e. across a landscape): protection achieves less on lands far from roads, far from cities and on steeper slopes. Thus, while planners are, of course, constrained by other conservation priorities and costs, they could target higher impacts to earn more global payments for reduced deforestation.

  15. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  16. Content of arsenic, selenium, mercury in the coal, food, clay and drinking water on the Zhaotong fluorosis area, eastern Yunnan Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Kun-li; Li Hui-jie; Chen Tong-bin (and others) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research

    2008-03-15

    About 160 samples of coal, corn, capsicum and drinking water were collected from the endemic fluorosis area of Zhenxiong and Weixin County, Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province, to determine the arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) content by AAF-800. The study found that the As content in the main coal seam from the Late Permian coal mines in Zhaotong City is 8.84 mg/kg and some civil coal can reach 89.09 mg/kg. The Se and Hg in the coal samples of Late Permian is lower, but Se and Hg are more concentrated in the pyritic coal balls and the pyritic gangue of the coal seam. The As content in corn and capsicum dried by coal-burning is more than 0.7 mg/kg, the natural standard amount of arsenic content permitted in food by China. The Se and Hg content in corn dried by coal-burning is lower than the natural standard of Se and Hg content in food in China but the Se and Hg content of capsicum dried by coal-burning exceeds the amount permitted by the natural standard for food in China. Clay, used as an additive for the coal-burning process and as a binder in making briquettes, contains a high content of As, generally more than 16 mg/kg. However, the Se and Hg content of clay itself are low. The As, Se and Hg content of drinking water are lower than the natural standard of As, Se and Hg content in the drinking water. So, there is high-As content coal and high-As content dried corn and capsicum in the endemic fluorosis area of Zhaotong City of Yunnan Province. The high As content of the dried corn and capsicum might have originated from the high arsenic content of burnt coal and clay. 30 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Campo rupestre recém-queimado na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: plantas de rebrota e sementes, com espécies endêmicas na rocha Recently burnt 'campo rupestre' in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: resprouters and seeders, with endemic rock species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Paula Santos Neves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O fogo é um distúrbio recorrente em muitas áreas da Chapada Diamantina, geralmente originado por ação antrópica e que ocasiona rápidas mudanças nas comunidades. Este trabalho objetiva conhecer a composição e estrutura da vegetação de uma área de campo rupestre recém-queimada no Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil, situada entre 700 e 800 m acima do nível do mar, visando discussão das estratégias de regeneração das espécies mais conspícuas e das similaridades florísticas entre áreas com e sem distúrbio recente de fogo. Foi realizado um censo das espécies de plantas vasculares ocorrentes em 16 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo as coberturas estimadas em cinco subparcelas de 2x2 m de cada parcela. Foram encontradas 85 espécies de 34 famílias, sendo 11 de monocotiledôneas, 22 de eudicotiledôneas e uma de monilófita. A espécie mais abundante foi Panicum trinii Kunth (Poaceae e a mais frequente Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae. O índice de Shannon foi 3,4. A área estudada agrupou-se com a área de afloramento rochoso em altitude menos elevada (38% de similaridade. É possível que o fogo seja mais frequente nessas áreas menos isoladas, em relação às dos topos de morros. As espécies dominantes se restabeleceram principalmente a partir de gemas de sistemas subterrâneos e aéreos. Uma das espécies mais frequentes, Dactylaena microphylla Eichler, estabeceu-se de sementes. Espécies endêmicas sensíveis à ação do fogo sobrevivem em ilhas de vegetação nos afloramentos rochosos.Fire is a recurrent disturbance in many areas of Chapada Diamantina, generally set by human activity that drives rapid changes in communities. This study aims to investigate the composition and structure of 'campo rupestre' vegetation in a recently burned area, between 700 and 800 m above sea level, at Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia, Brazil, and to discuss the strategies of regeneration for the most

  18. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad, E-mail: krisvkp@yahoo.com [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Ellicott, Evan [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Badarinath, K.V.S. [National Remote Sensing Center, Atmospheric Science Section, Hyderabad (India); Vermote, Eric [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1{sigma}) and 0.32 (-1{sigma}). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: > MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. > The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. > MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. > AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  19. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  20. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  1. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  2. Rear Area Security In The Field Army Service Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    his ma.jor subordinate Commanders, the arm support brigade commander. Rear are? ecurity doctrine requires the area coriander to coordin- ate unit...field army service area. Response The army support brigade coriander conducts phase I rear area security operations within the limits of current

  3. Cholera in Azov area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  4. Catch-In-Areas Main

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Catch-In-Areas database integrates catch data from the Catch Accounting System (which has the spatial resolution of a NMFS Reporting Area) into a database that...

  5. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  6. World Area Forecast System (WAFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Area Forecast System (WAFS) is a worldwide system by which world area forecast centers provide aeronautical meteorological en-route forecasts in uniform...

  7. Catchment areas for public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2008-01-01

    In the planning of public transport catchment areas of stops are often included to estimate potential number of travellers. There are different approaches to GIS-based catchment area analyses depending on the desired level of detail. The Circular Buffer approach is the fundamental, but also...... between the Circular Buffer approach and the Service Area approach are illustrated and a comparison between the sizes of the catchment areas is made. The strength of the Service Area approach and the impact on the catchment area when adding additional time resistance to crossing of stairways...... is illustrated by a case example. Furthermore, a case example illustrates how the additional time resistance in stairways affects the catchment area of an underground station compared to a ground-level station. It is also illustrated how catchment area analyses can serve in the planning of stops on a new line...

  8. Laguna Atascosa Wilderness study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on a wilderness study area located in the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. It discusses the history of the study area, its...

  9. Special Protection Area Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Special Protection Area (SPA) is a geographic area designated by the County Council which has high quality or unusually sensitive water resources and environmental...

  10. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  11. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  12. VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...

  13. High NDVI and Potential Canopy Photosynthesis of South American Subtropical Forests despite Seasonal Changes in Leaf Area Index and Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad M. Cristiano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The canopy photosynthesis and carbon balance of the subtropical forests are not well studied compared to temperate and tropical forest ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to assess the seasonal dynamics of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and potential canopy photosynthesis in relation to seasonal changes in leaf area index (LAI, chlorophyll concentration, and air temperatures of NE Argentina subtropical forests throughout the year. We included in the analysis several tree plantations (Pinus, Eucalyptus and Araucaria species that are known to have high productivity. Field studies in native forests and tree plantations were conducted; stem growth rates, LAI and leaf chlorophyll concentration were measured. MODIS satellite-derived LAI (1 km SIN Grid and NDVI (250m SIN Grid from February 2000 to 2012 were used as a proxy of seasonal dynamics of potential photosynthetic activity at the stand level. The remote sensing LAI of the subtropical forests decreased every year from 6 to 5 during the cold season, similar to field LAI measurements, when temperatures were 10 °C lower than during the summer. The yearly maximum NDVI values were observed during a few months in autumn and spring (March through May and November, respectively because high and low air temperatures may have a small detrimental effect on photosynthetic activity during both the warm and the cold seasons. Leaf chlorophyll concentration was higher during the cold season than the warm season which may have a compensatory effect on the seasonal variation of the NDVI values. The NDVI of the subtropical forest stands remained high and fairly constant throughout the year (the intra-annual coefficient of variation was 1.9%, and were comparable to the values of high-yield tree plantations. These results suggest that the humid subtropical forests in NE Argentina potentially could maintain high canopy photosynthetic activity throughout the year and thus this ecosystem may

  14. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    which forms of ‘urban life’ are suitable for the suburbs and discusses which urban life activities are resilient in the suburbs. What do the residents of respectively single-family housing areas and social housing areas want? Does the idea of vibrant urban qualities in suburban areas, that today...

  15. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  16. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  17. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  18. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  19. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  20. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  1. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  2. Chinese semantic processing cerebral areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Baoci; ZHANG Wutian; MA Lin; LI Dejun; CAO Bingli; TANG Yiyuan; WU Yigen; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    This study has identified the active cerebral areas of normal Chinese that are associated with Chinese semantic processing using functional brain imaging. According to the traditional cognitive theory, semantic processing is not particularly associated with or affected by input modality. The functional brain imaging experiments were conducted to identify the common active areas of two modalities when subjects perform Chinese semantic tasks through reading and listening respectively. The result has shown that the common active areas include left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (BA37); the joint area of inferior parietal lobules (BA40) and superior temporal gyrus, the ventral occipital areas and cerebella of both hemispheres. It gives important clue to further discerning the roles of different cerebral areas in Chinese semantic processing.

  3. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  4. FOUR NOTCH ROADLESS AREA, TEXAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, B.B.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Four Notch Roadless Area, Texas, was conducted. The area has a probable resource potential for oil and gas. There is, however, little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources or other energy resources. Acquisition of seismic data and detailed comparisons with logs from wells from the vicinity of the Four Notch Roadless Area is necessary to better determine if the subsurface stratigraphy and structures are favorable for the accumulation of oil or gas.

  5. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    .g. the spatial policy discussed and recommended in the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) emphasises the compact city concept, rural-urban linkages and conservation of nature and cultural heritage. This paper compares planning practice for rurban areas in three cases: Roskilde municipality (Denmark......), Staffanstorp municipality (Sweden) and Werv-area (the Netherlands). All three areas belong to the rurban zone and are selected to exemplify pro-active planning. The analysis focuses on how the concept of compact city is perceived and implemented, how rurban areas are managed in order to avoid further urban...

  6. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  7. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  8. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for the Quantitative Analysis of Land Cover of Lower Areas of Sindh to Assess the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Due to the present land use practices and climate variability, drastic shifts in regional climate and land covers are easily seen and their future reduction and gain are too well predicted. Therefore, there is an increasing need for data on land-cover changes at narrow and broad spatial scales. In this study, a remote sensing-based technique for land-cover-change analysis is applied to the lower Sindh areas for the last decade. Landsat satellite products were analyzed on an alternate yearly basis, from 1990 to 2016. Then Land-cover-change magnitudes were measured and mapped for alternate years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. However, LST was computed by using Landsat thermal bands via brightness temperature and a vegetation index. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was interpreted and maps were achieved. LST reflected NDVI patterns with complexity of vegetation patterns. Along with this, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was done for classifying 5 major classes of water, vegetation, urban, marshy lands and barren lands with significant map layouts. Pakistan Meteorological Department provided the climate data in which rainfall, temperature and air temperature are included. Once the LST and OBIA are performed, overlay analysis was done to correlate the results of LST with OBIA and LST with meteorological data to ascertain the changes in land covers due to increasing centigrade of LST. However, satellite derived LST was also correlated with climate data for environmental analysis and to estimate Land Surface Temperature for assessing the inverse impacts of climate variability. This study's results demonstrate the land-cover changes in Lower Areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta mostly involve variations in land-cover conditions due to inter-annual climatic variability and temporary shifts in seasonality. However it is too concluded

  9. Diaper Area Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic signs of infectious diseases may occur as primary infection of skin, accompanying of skin to systemic infections and noninfectious skin eruption of systemic infectious disease. In this review, skin infections of diaper area and diaper area manifestations of infections causing generalized skin lesions will be discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 31-9

  10. Tech Area II: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, R. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  11. WEAVER BALLY ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M.C.; Peters, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Weaver Bally Roadless Area includes approximately 22 sq mi in the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Trinity County, California. A mineral survey indicates that an area of less than 1 sq mi in the northern part of the Weaver Bally Roadless Area has a substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold and silver; a much larger area has a probable mineral-resource potential for the same elements. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of additional metallic, energy, or nonmetallic resources in the roadless area. Detailed studies, including further geochemical sampling and drilling could be done in the region of the Globe mines. In addition, the outcrops of dacite porphyry dikes and sills and associated hydrothermal alteration should be mapped in detail.

  12. USE OF THE PICNIC AREA

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    On the Prévessin site CERN has provided a picnic area which is available for use by persons working on its site subject to prior reservation. The person in charge of this picnic area is Mr Yves CHEVRET ST/TFM. Following a fresh outbreak of incidents (damage to CERN equipment and to trees and plants, privately owned sheep killed or maimed by dogs belonging to users of the picnic area, etc.),   The following measures have been taken: a report on the state of the picnic area will be drawn up before and after use, the cost of any damage noted will be borne by the person making the reservation, dogs and other domestic animals are strictly forbidden in the picnic area.

  13. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  14. BREAD LOAF ROADLESS AREA, VERMONT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource survey the Bread Loaf Roadless Area, Vermont, is considered to have probable resource potential for the occurrence of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of copper, zinc, and lead, particularly in the north and northeastern section of the roadless area. Nonmetallic commodities include minor deposits of sand and gravel, and abundant rock suitable for crushing. However, large amounts of these materials in more accessible locations are available outside the roadless area. A possibility exists that oil or natural gas resources may be present at great depth.

  15. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  16. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  17. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  18. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  19. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  20. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  1. Marais Des Cygnes Wildlife Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brochure is for the Marais des Cygnes Wildlife Area, managed by Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism, and located in the floodplain of the Marais...

  2. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description...

  3. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  4. Revitalization Areas By Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Single Family Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by...

  5. VT - Vermont Hospital Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Hospital service areas (HSAs) are organized by towns and are based on inpatient discharges where the diagnosis indicated the need for immediate care. Plurality...

  6. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  7. Protected Areas - Protected Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Federal Lands data consists of land areas that are run and maintained by U.S. Governmental authorities and are considered protected.The Department of Natural...

  8. Allegheny County Land Use Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Allegheny County land use as ascribed to areas of land. The Land Use Feature Dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled information concerning vegetation and...

  9. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  10. Designated Health Professional Shortage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSAs) Data Download makes data and information concerning Designated HPSAs readily available to our users in a one-stop...

  11. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  12. Allegheny County Environmental Justice Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Environmental Justice areas in this guide have been defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. The Department defines an environmental...

  13. Areas on a Square Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Brian

    1974-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual method of counting squares to find the area of a plane shape, a method of counting lattice points (determined by vertices of a unit square) is proposed. Activities using this method are suggested. (DT)

  14. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  15. Microarthropods inventory in Cranendonck area

    OpenAIRE

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Dimmers, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    April 2006, microarthropod fauna inventory on former agricultural grasslands on sandy soil in Cranendonck area (and two reference sites) using a split-tube sampler. Subject of interest is organic matter

  16. Suisun Marsh Primary Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Suisun Marsh or the 'Marsh' means tidal marsh, water-covered areas, diked-off wetlands, seasonal marshes, lowland grasslands, upland grasslands, and cultivated...

  17. Fire in a contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, G.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-08

    This document supports the development and presentation of the following accident scenario in the TWRS Final Safety Analysis Report: Fire in Contaminated Area. The calculations needed to quantify the risk associated with this accident scenario are included within.

  18. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  19. Redhead production areas : Northwestern Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey of redhead production areas in northwestern Nevada. Breeding pair summaries are also provided for a number waterfowl species.

  20. Suisun Marsh Secondary Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Suisun Marsh or the 'Marsh' means tidal marsh, water-covered areas, diked-off wetlands, seasonal marshes, lowland grasslands, upland grasslands, and cultivated lands...

  1. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  2. Allegheny County Wooded Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates stands of trees (coniferous and deciduous) too numerous to plot as individual trees. The area is delineated following a generalized line...

  3. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  4. Geothermal resource area 3: Elko County. Area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 3 includes all of the land in Elko County, Nevada. There are in excess of 50 known thermal anomalies in this area. Several of the more major resources have been selected for detailed description and evaluation in this Area Development Plan. The other resources are considered too small, too low in temperature, or too remote to be considered for development in the near future. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the studied resource sites in Elko County were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics; the land ownership and land use patterns; existing population and projected growth rates; transportation facilities and energy requirements. These factors were then compared with resource site specific data to determine the most likely uses of the resource. The uses considered in this evaluation were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories several subdivisions were considered separately. It was determined that several of the geothermal resources evaluated in the Area Development Plan could be commercially developed. The potential for development for the seven sites considered in this study is summarized.

  5. Microwave Saturation of Complex EPR Spectra and Free Radicals of Burnt Skin Treated with Apitherapeutic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of microwave power on the complex electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the burn matrix after the therapy with propolis was examined. The spectra were measured with microwaves in the range of 2.2–79 mW. Three groups of free radicals were found in the damaged skin samples. Their spectral lines evolve differently with the microwave power. In order to detect these free radical groups, the lineshape of the spectra was numerically analysed. The spectra were a superposition of three component lines. The best fit was obtained for the deconvolution of the experimental spectra into one Gauss and two Lorentz lines. The microwave power changes also the lineshape of the spectra of thermally injured skin treated with the conventional agent—silver sulphadiazine. The spectral changes were different for propolis and for silver sulphadiazine. The number of individual groups of free radicals in the wound bed after implementation of these two substances is not equal. It may be explained by a higher activity of propolis than of silver sulphadiazine as therapeutic agents.

  6. Manejo médico inicial del paciente quemado Management of the burnt patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Durango Gutiérrez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las quemaduras son una causa importante de lesión traumática que induce inflamación tanto local como sistémica. La resucitación inicial y el manejo temprano de los problemas hemodinámicos y de la falla respiratoria son probablemente los responsables más importantes del aumento en la supervivencia. Sin embargo, terapias complementarias, tales como control de la infección, los cuidados profilácticos, el manejo adecuado de las quemaduras, la nutrición, la analgesia y el bienestar del paciente, son esenciales para mejorar los resultados. Burns are a major cause of traumatic injury that induces both local and systemic inflammation. Initial resuscitation, early management of haemodynamic problems and respiratory failure are probably the most important intervention to increase the survival; however, complementary therapy, such as infection control, prophylactic care, wound management, nutrition, analgesia and patient comfort, are essential in improving outcome.

  7. Distributions of rare-earth elements in two Chinese coals and their burnt products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Duo-xi; ZHI Xia-chen

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of two fresh Chinese coals (lignitie and fatty coal ) from different geological origin and the corresponding fly and bottom ashes were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The ranges and means of concentrations of these elemennts were given. Based on the combustion simulating experiment in the one-dismensional boiler, the contents of REE (rare-earth element) of 18samples in lignite, fatty coal and their fly and bottom ashes in different combustion condition were determined, and geochemical feature of REE were analyzed.

  8. Thermal shock effect on aluminum leaching in a forest burnt soil: a laboratory simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelo-González, Javier; Prieto, Diego M.; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco; Barral, María Teresa

    2014-05-01

    The main of this study is to analyze the influence of fire severity on soil aluminum (Al) leaching. For this purpose, unaltered blocks of forest soils were subjected to thermal shock and subsequently to rain simulations. The thermal shock was performed in topsoil (1cm) by the action of infrared lamps, which allowed to reproduce similar temperatures to those reached in moderate and high severity fires (220 and 430°C, respectively). The rain simulations were carried out in two different stages with duration of two hours and intensity of 150 mm/h. This high rain intensity was employed to obtain the maximum leaching. The results showed that the Al leaching was increased with increasing fire severity. Visual Minteq analysis (Gustafsson, 2000) let to determine that Al was primarily mobilized bound to dissolved organic matter, so in complexed form as joined by weak electrostatic bonds. The most intensive thermal shock, in which the highest alkaline conditions occurred, exhibited an appreciable Al mobilization in inorganic form.

  9. Dispersal of Calluna vulgaris (L. Hull. seeds on severely burnt upland moorland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Gilbert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available From natural and manipulated experiments at 460 m a.s.l., traps were used to record the dispersal range of Calluna vulgaris seeds on an unvegetated post-wildfire site. Seeds were trapped to 50 m from source, although most (73% were deposited within one metre of the parent plant. C. vulgaris seeds were not dispersed as far in these experiments as recorded in previous workers’ experiments on lowland grassland.

  10. A structural approach in the study of bones: fossil and burnt bones at nanosize scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piga, Giampaolo; Baró, Maria Dolors; Escobal, Irati Golvano; Gonçalves, David; Makhoul, Calil; Amarante, Ana; Malgosa, Assumpció; Enzo, Stefano; Garroni, Sebastiano

    2016-12-01

    We review the different factors affecting significantly mineral structure and composition of bones. Particularly, it is assessed that micro-nanostructural and chemical properties of skeleton bones change drastically during burning; the micro- and nanostructural changes attending those phases manifest themselves, amongst others, in observable alterations to the bones colour, morphology, microstructure, mechanical strength and crystallinity. Intense changes involving the structure and chemical composition of bones also occur during the fossilization process. Bioapatite material is contaminated by an heavy fluorination process which, on a long-time scale reduces sensibly the volume of the original unit cell, mainly the a-axis of the hexagonal P63/m space group. Moreover, the bioapatite suffers to a varying degree of extent by phase contamination from the nearby environment, to the point that rarely a fluorapatite single phase may be found in fossil bones here examined. TEM images supply precise and localized information, on apatite crystal shape and dimension, and on different processes that occur during thermal processes or fossilization of ancient bone, complementary to that given by X-ray diffraction and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared spectroscopy. We are presenting a synthesis of XRD, ATR-IR and TEM results on the nanostructure of various modern, burned and palaeontological bones.

  11. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon-i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning persisted through a 6 month incubation suggesting that fire severity had first order control on BCA and lignin composition. Using original and published BCA data from soils, sediments, char, and interfering compounds we found that BTC:Lig and BTC2:BTC were able to distinguish Py-OC from compounds such as humic materials, tannins, etc. The BCAs released by the CuO oxidation procedure increase the functionality of this method in order to examine the relative contribution of Py-OC in geochemical samples.

  12. Protected area gap analysis of important bird areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sritharan, Shakthi; Burgess, Neil David

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of gaps in protected area (PA) coverage of species distributions have been carried out extensively for the past two decades, aiming to better locate new PAs and conserve species. In this study, progress to close gaps in the protection of the Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Tanzania......% wetland and 12% agricultural land. This analysis provides a simple template for defining where further action to protect remaining IBA sites in Tanzania would lead to enhanced conservation of avian biodiversity in that country and provides a methodology for analysis leading to conservation action...

  13. PLANNING DECISIONS IN LANDSLIDE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Katarzyna Hełdak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the topic of planning decisions taken for the purposes of studies prepared on the municipality level and related to the development of landslide areas in Poland. The aim of the research is to demonstrate the scale of the issue consisting in designating areas at risk of subsidence of soil masses for investment purposes. The research emphasises the essential role of planning documentation in the prevention of investment in such areas. Other vital factors also include the SOPO (Landslide Counteracting System database as well as the staroste, who, in the course of preparation of planning documentation and issuing decisions on development conditions, issues opinions or agrees (depending on the type of document or decision on the planned investment in areas at risk of landslides. The study shows the complexity of the spatial planning and development system in Poland and the significant influence of bodies and institutions on the planned development of areas prone to the subsidence of soil masses.

  14.   Transformation of the industrial harbor areas to housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehder, Meike

    2009-01-01

    Research question: How to read the universal (understood as the common and the social) and the individual (understood as the specific, private and intimate) in the meeting between urban and housing space? Questions in the project: How do the exterior spaces in these new harbour areas come to being...

  15. 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeen, D.S.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Weiss, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document reports the results of the field terrestrial ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during fiscal years 1991 and 1992 at operable units 100-FR-3, 100-HR-3, 100-NR-2, 100-KR-4, and 100-BC-5. The tasks reported here are part of the Remedial Investigations conducted in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 studies for the 100 Areas. These ecological investigations provide (1) a description of the flora and fauna associated with the 100 Areas operable units, emphasizing potential pathways for contaminants and species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws, and (2) an evaluation of existing concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in biota associated with the 100 Areas operable units.

  16. Suburban areas and urban life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgaard, Bente

    Danish suburbs are facing major challenges trying to coping with demographic changes, with structural changes in retail businesses and especially with sustainability-related challenges that have to do with cutting back on energy consumption for heating and transportation. Also climate changes...... and counteracting the segregation of the suburbs into sharply socially-separated residential areas are major challenges. Therefore, in these years the post-war era’s suburban areas are being revitalized and the suburb urban life and urban qualities are concepts, which are often brought up in this context....... In this paper I will explore the concepts “suburb” and “urban life”. More than half of the Danish population live in suburban areas, and the majority of suburbs were built in a short and hectic period in the years from 1960 to 1975 and in conformity with the functionalist ideals that gave rise to a number...

  17. The Visual What For Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    An area in the left fusiform gyrus labelled the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) is claimed to be especially, or even selectively, responsive to words. We explored how stimulus type and task demands affect activity in this area by conducting a PET experiment where words and pictures were presented...... in two conditions that differed in demands on shape processing: colour decision and categorization. The subjects also performed an object decision task with pictures only. The imaging data revealed a main effect of stimulus type: rCBF was higher during word compared with picture processing. When compared...... indicate that the putative VWFA is activated more by written words than pictures, but only under certain circumstances. As demands on shape processing increase, the difference in activation between words and pictures decreases and can even be abolished. We suggest that activation in the VWFA could reflect...

  18. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  19. AGUA TIBIA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Agua Tibia Primitive Area in southwestern California is underlain by igneous and metamorphic rocks that are siilar to those widely exposed throughout much of the Peninsular Ranges. To detect the presence of any concealed mineral deposits, samples of stream sediments were collected along the various creeks that head in the mountain. As an additional aid in evaluating the mineral potential, an aeromagnetic survey was made and interpreted. A search for records of past or existing mining claims within the primitive area was made but none was found. Evidence of deposits of metallic or nonmetallic minerals was not seen during the study.

  20. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  1. Semenic Mountains’ alpine skiing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BANIAȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents, after a short history of alpine skiing which describes apparition, necessity, utility and universality of skiing during time, a comparative study referring to the alpine skiing domain in the Semenic Mountains area. In the paper are also presented general notions about alpine skiing methodology together with an ample description of the plateau area form Semenic Mountains, describing localization and touristic potential. Based on the SWOT analysis made for each slope, was realized a complex analysis of the entire skiing domain, an analysis which includes technical, financial, climatic and environmental aspects, along with an analysis of the marketing policy applied for the specific zone.

  2. Bicycle traffic in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is a term describing the use of bicycles, but also any mean of transport driven solely by human power. Development of bicycle traffic in urban areas involves construction of cycling infrastructure, adapting streets and other traffic infrastructure to a form suitable for cycling and other means of transport (individual motorized traffic, public transport, walking, ensuring the adequate budget and systematic planning and development of sustainable transport in cities. The paper presents basic settings and conditions as input elements to plan bicycle traffic in urban areas, as well as program- design conditions which lead the activities of planners and designers of urban roads in connection with cyclists.

  3. Emollients on the genital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of current and projected wildfires is essential for predicting crucial aspects of vegetation patterns, biogeochemical cycling as well as pyrogenic emissions across the African continent. This study uses a data-driven approach to parameterize two burned area models applicable to dynamic vegetation models (DVMs and Earth system models (ESMs. We restricted our analysis to variables for which either projections based on climate scenarios are available, or that are calculated by DVMs, and we consider a spatial scale of one degree as the scale typical for DVMs and ESMs. By using the African continent here as an example, an analogue approach could in principle be adopted for other regions, for global scale dynamic burned area modelling.

    We used 9 years of data (2000–2008 for the variables: precipitation over the last dry season, the last wet season and averaged over the last 2 years, a fire-danger index (the Nesterov index, population density, and annual proportion of area burned derived from the MODIS MCD45A1 product. Two further variables, tree and herb cover were only available for 2001 as a remote sensing product. Since the effect of fires on vegetation depends strongly on burning conditions, the timing of wildfires is of high interest too, and we were able to relate the seasonal occurrence of wildfires to the daily Nesterov index.

    We parameterized two generalized linear models (GLMs, one with the full variable set (model VC and one considering only climate variables (model C. All introduced variables resulted in an increase in model performance. Model VC correctly predicts the spatial distribution and extent of fire prone areas though the total variability is underrepresented. Model VC has a much lower performance in both aspects (correlation coefficient of predicted and observed ratio of burned area: 0.71 for model VC and 0.58 for model C. We expect the remaining variability to be attributed to additional

  5. H-Area Seepage Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stejskal, G.

    1990-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium.

  6. Determination of retinal surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagra, Manbir; Gilmartin, Bernard; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Logan, Nicola S

    2017-09-01

    Previous attempts at determining retinal surface area and surface area of the whole eye have been based upon mathematical calculations derived from retinal photographs, schematic eyes and retinal biopsies of donor eyes. 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a more direct measurement, it can be used to image the eye in vivo, and there is no risk of tissue shrinkage. The primary purpose of this study is to compare, using T2-weighted 3D MRI, retinal surface areas for superior-temporal (ST), inferior-temporal (IT), superior-nasal (SN) and inferior-nasal (IN) retinal quadrants. An ancillary aim is to examine whether inter-quadrant variations in area are concordant with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD). Seventy-three adult participants presenting without retinal pathology (mean age 26.25 ± 6.06 years) were scanned using a Siemens 3-Tesla MRI scanner to provide T2-weighted MR images that demarcate fluid-filled internal structures for the whole eye and provide high-contrast delineation of the vitreous-retina interface. Integrated MRI software generated total internal ocular surface area (TSA). The second nodal point was used to demarcate the origin of the peripheral retina in order to calculate total retinal surface area (RSA) and quadrant retinal surface areas (QRSA) for ST, IT, SN, and IN quadrants. Mean spherical error (MSE) was -2.50 ± 4.03D and mean axial length (AL) 24.51 ± 1.57 mm. Mean TSA and RSA for the RE were 2058 ± 189 and 1363 ± 160 mm(2) , respectively. Repeated measures anova for QRSA data indicated a significant difference within-quadrants (P area/mm increase in AL. Although the differences between QRSAs are relatively small, there was evidence of concordance with reported inter-quadrant patterns of susceptibility to retinal breaks associated with PVD. The data allow AL to be converted to QRSAs, which will assist further

  7. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  8. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  9. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  10. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  11. Area Handbook for Sierra Leone,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    During its fifteen years of independence since 1961, Sierra Leone has had some difficulty in maintaining political stability and in generating...performance has been comparatively weak. By the mid-1970s, however, there were indications that it might improve. The Area Handbook for Sierra Leone

  12. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  13. Study area description: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mary M.; Leu, Matthias; Hanser, Steven E.; Leu, Matthias; Knick, Steven T.; Aldridge, Cameron L.

    2011-01-01

    The boundary for the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA) was largely determined by the co-occurrence of some of the largest tracts of intact sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) remaining in the western United States with areas of increasing resource extraction. The WBEA area includes two ecoregions in their entirety, Wyoming Basins and Utah-Wyoming Rocky Mountains, and portions of two others (Southern Rocky Mountains and Middle Rockies-Blue Mountains). Over half the study area is in Wyoming; the remainder includes parts of Colorado, Utah, Idaho, and Montana. Private landowners manage most (33.1%) of the land base in the WBEA, followed by the U.S. Forest Service (27.3%) and U.S. Bureau of Land Management (25.6%). Sagebrush is the dominant land cover type in the study area, totaling >130,000 km2 ; nearly half the sagebrush in the WBEA is managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Sagebrush in the WBEA faces many potential threats that also influence the broader sagebrush ecosystem. Climate change, drought, land-use practices (e.g., livestock grazing, oil and gas development), and human development have eliminated and fragmented the sagebrush ecosystem, altered fire regimes, and accelerated the invasion of exotic plants such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Less than 2% of sagebrush in the WBEA is permanently protected from land cover conversion.

  14. LELATEMA AREA, N ORTHEASTERN TANZANIA.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U, Sr, Zn and heavy REE elements were deposited in the hydrothermal zone. Emplacement of gemstones (tanzanite and green grossular) in the area is structurally controlled along the. Lelatema fault system. .... hydrothermal processes as the temperature and pressure of ... transverse cracks and one pronounced rather.

  15. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    .g. the spatial policy discussed and recommended in the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) emphasises the compact city concept, rural-urban linkages and conservation of nature and cultural heritage. This paper compares planning practice for rurban areas in three cases: Roskilde municipality (Denmark...

  16. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  17. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  18. Pigeon homing from unfamiliar areas

    OpenAIRE

    Wallraff, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion that pigeons and other birds can find their way home from unfamiliar areas by means of olfactory signals is well based on a variety of experiments and supporting investigations of the chemical atmosphere. Here I argue that alternative concepts proposing other sources of geopositional information are disproved by experimental findings or, at least, are not experimentally supported and hardly realistic.

  19. [Emotion and Brodmann's areas: special reference on area 12].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2010-11-01

    Brodmann's brain maps, assembled in 1909, are still in use, but understanding of their animal-human homology is uncertain. Furthermore, in 1909, Brodmann did not identify human Area 12 (BA12); a location now important to understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and emotional function. We found Brodmann did identify human BA12 in later maps (1910 and 1914), not in the 1909 monograph. Because of its current link with FTLD, BA 12's translation from animal (1909) to human (1910 and 1914) is not only an historical puzzle. It impacts how Brodmann's areas, based on comparative animal-human cyto-architecture, are widely used in current research as functional loci in human brain. If Brodmann's maps are of current value, then an accurate rather than a generic Brodmann number is in order.

  20. Army (MANTECH) Thrust Area Concept: Optics Thrust Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Stanley P.

    1992-01-01

    With the shrinking of the U.S. Army's material needs and the compression of defense requirements, the Army Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program has the opportunity to advance the manufacturing state-of-the-art and solve near term production problems of the U.S. industrial base. To exploit this opportunity, the Army restructured its MANTECH efforts in FY 90 based on a thrust area concept. Each of the ten current thrusts, directed by a thrust area manager, has a broad technical objective selected to improve specific manufacturing processes. The manager is charged with setting objectives, selecting tasks, monitoring execution, leveraging external resources, and establishing microfactories to promote technology transfer. The Optics Manufacturing Thrust is an example of the concept. It is currently directed at revitalizing the domestic precision optics manufacturing base, now characterized by high labor costs and 1940's technology, through introduction of revolutionary machines, new processes, and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) principles. Leveraging of MANTECH dollars with those of industry, academia, and state governments led to the establishment of the center for Optics Manufacturing and plans for regional centers. Recognition of the U.S. as a world leader in precision optics manufacturing and a dramatic reduction of both manufacturing time and cost should accrue from thrust area efforts.